Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 64.2. Wills, Trusts, and Fiduciaries
Chapter 5. Personal Representatives and Administration of Estates
12/1/2022

Article 7. Apportionment of Estate Taxes.

§ 64.2-539. Definitions.

For the purposes of this article:

"Gross estate" includes any property or interest that is required to be included in the gross estate of the decedent under the estate tax law of the United States, increased by any "adjusted taxable gifts" as defined in § 2001(b) of the Internal Revenue Code.

"Persons interested in the estate" includes all persons, firms, and corporations who may be entitled to receive or who have received any property or interest that is required to be included in the gross estate of the decedent or any benefit whatsoever with respect to any such property or interest, whether under a will, by intestacy, or by reason of any transfer, trust, estate, interest, right, power, or relinquishment of power taxable under any estate tax law of the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States heretofore or hereafter enacted.

Code 1950, § 64-150; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-160; 1979, c. 559; 1981, c. 98; 1994, c. 917; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-540. Apportionment required.

A. Except as provided in subsection B, whenever it appears upon any settlement of accounts or in any other appropriate action or proceeding that an executor, administrator, curator, trustee, or other person acting in a fiduciary capacity has paid an estate tax levied or assessed under the provisions of any estate tax law of the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States, upon or with respect to any property required to be included in the gross estate of a decedent under the provisions of any such law, the amount of the tax so paid, together with any interest and penalty required by the taxing authority to be paid, shall be prorated among the persons interested in the estate to whom such property is or may be transferred or to whom any benefit accrues. Such apportionment shall be made in the proportion that the value of the property, interest, or benefit of each such person bears to the total value of the property, interests, and benefits received by all such persons interested in the estate. However, in making such proration each person shall have the benefit of any exemptions, deductions, and exclusions allowed by law in respect of the person or the property passing to him, and where a trust is created or other provision is made giving a person an interest in income, an estate for years, an estate for life, or any other temporary interest or estate in any property or fund, the tax on such temporary interest or estate shall be charged against and paid out of the corpus of such property or fund without apportionment between the temporary interests or estates and any remainder interests, and any interest and penalty required by the taxing authority to be paid may be charged against either the temporary interest, estate, or corpus, or partially against the temporary interest, estate, or corpus, as determined by the fiduciary paying the tax, provided that the determination is made so as to fairly balance all interests in the property or fund.

B. The amount of tax paid upon or with respect to property included in the decedent's gross estate under § 2044 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or any successor provision relating to certain property for which the marital deduction was previously allowed, shall be the excess of (i) the total estate tax levied or assessed under the provisions of the estate tax laws of the Commonwealth, any other state, and the United States over (ii) the estate tax that would have been levied or assessed under those provisions if the § 2044 property had not been included in the gross estate. The tax paid upon or with respect to the § 2044 property shall be prorated according to subsection A as if no other estate tax were payable under the laws of the Commonwealth, any other state, and the United States, and as if the § 2044 property constituted the entire gross estate; but it shall be prorated only among the persons interested in the estate to whom such property is or may be transferred or to whom any benefit of such property accrues. The tax determined under clause (ii) shall be prorated according to subsection A as if no other estate tax were payable under the laws of the Commonwealth, any other state, and the United States, and as if the § 2044 property were not included in the gross estate. This subsection shall apply only to estates of persons dying on or after July 1, 1986.

C. The personal representative of an estate which for tax purposes includes § 2044 property owes a duty of good faith and fair dealing to all persons interested in the estate to whom or for whom the § 2044 property may be transferred or held. The duty of good faith includes a duty to keep such persons or their designated representative reasonably informed as to the contents of the returns to be filed and as to all administrative and judicial proceedings that concern the taxes to be paid with respect to the § 2044 property, and to provide copies of the relevant portions of all returns to be filed with respect to such taxes. The designated representative of such persons shall be invited to attend any administrative conference or proceeding where valuation issues may be discussed that would have a bearing on the taxes to be paid with respect to the § 2044 property. This subsection shall apply only to estates of persons for which a federal estate tax return is required to be filed on or after July 1, 1994.

Code 1950, § 64-151; 1952, c. 294; 1954, c. 664; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-161; 1979, c. 559; 1986, c. 399; 1994, c. 917; 1997, c. 254; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-541. Recovery by executor when part of estate not in his possession.

If any property required to be included in the gross estate is not in the possession of the executor, administrator, or other fiduciary, he shall recover from the person who is in possession of such property, or from the persons interested in the estate, the amount of tax payable by the persons interested in the estate that is chargeable to such persons under the provisions of this article.

Code 1950, § 64-152; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-162; 1986, c. 399; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-542. Transfers not required until tax ascertained or security given.

An executor, administrator, or other fiduciary is not required to transfer, pay over, or distribute any fund or property subject to an estate tax imposed by the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States until the devisee, legatee, distributee, or other person to whom such property is transferred pays such fiduciary the amount of such tax due, or, if the apportionment of tax has not been determined, furnishes adequate security for such payment.

Code 1950, § 64-153; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-163; 1994, c. 917; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-543. Contrary provisions of will or other instrument to govern.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Includable beneficial interest" means any property, interest, or benefit included in a person's estate for estate tax purposes that passes pursuant to an instrument other than such person's will.

B. The provisions of this article shall not impair the right or power of any person by will or by written instrument executed inter vivos to make direction for the payment of estate taxes and to designate the fund or property out of which such payment shall be made. Such designated funds or property may, in addition to any property passing by testate or intestate succession, include any includable beneficial interest. Unless a larger amount is charged to a specific includable beneficial interest by the instrument creating the interest, the maximum amount of tax that each such includable beneficial interest may be charged shall be limited to its share, as determined pursuant to § 64.2-540 for the apportionment of taxes.

Code 1950, § 64-155; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-165; 1994, c. 917; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-544. Construction of direction to pay all taxes imposed on account of testator's death.

A. A general direction in a will, trust instrument, or other document to pay all taxes imposed on account of a testator's or settlor's death or similar language shall not be construed to include the following taxes unless the testator or settlor expressly manifests an intention that such taxes be paid out of his estate, trust, or other property by reference to the particular chapter, title, or section of the Internal Revenue Code providing for such taxes:

1. Additional tax imposed upon disposition or cessation of qualified use by the qualified heir with respect to qualified use property under § 2032A;

2. Taxes on general power of appointment property includable in the estate of the testator or settlor under § 2041;

3. Taxes on qualified terminable interest property includable in the estate of the testator or settlor under § 2044;

4. Taxes payable under § 2056A, upon a taxable event with respect to a qualified domestic trust as defined in that section;

5. Any generation-skipping transfer tax under Chapter 13 except direct skips occurring at death for estates of decedents dying on or after July 1, 1994; and

6. Taxes payable under § 4980A, on excess retirement accumulation.

B. Unless a contrary intention is manifest, such taxes shall be apportioned and charged to each item of funds or property generating them in the manner provided in this article.

C. The reference in subsection A to any section or chapter is to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and shall be deemed to refer to any corresponding successor sections, chapters, or Code.

1994, c. 917, § 64.1-165.1; 2012, c. 614.