Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Subtitle .
Chapter 11. Juries

Chapter 11. Juries.

Article 1. When Jury Trial May Be Had.

§ 8.01-336. Jury trial of right; waiver of jury trial; court-ordered jury trial; trial by jury of plea in equity; equitable claim.

A. The right of trial by jury as declared in Article I, Section 11 of the Constitution of Virginia and by statutes thereof shall be preserved inviolate to the parties. Unless waived, any demand for a trial by jury in a civil case made in compliance with the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia shall be sufficient, with no further notice, hearing, or order, to proceed thereon.

B. Waiver of jury trial. -- In any action at law in which the recovery sought is greater than $20, exclusive of interest, unless one of the parties demands that the case or any issue thereof be tried by a jury, or in a criminal action in which trial by jury is dispensed with as provided by law, the whole matter of law and fact may be heard and judgment given by the court.

C. Court-ordered jury trial. -- Notwithstanding any provision in this Code to the contrary, in any action asserting a claim at law in which there has been no demand for trial by jury by any party, a circuit court may on its own motion direct one or more issues, including an issue of damages, to be tried by a jury.

D. Trial by jury of plea in equity. -- In any action in which a plea has been filed to an equitable claim, and the allegations of such plea are denied by the plaintiff, either party may have the issue tried by jury.

E. Suit on equitable claim. -- In any suit on an equitable claim, the court may, of its own motion or upon motion of any party, supported by such party's affidavit that the case will be rendered doubtful by conflicting evidence of another party, direct an issue to be tried before an advisory jury.

Code 1950, §§ 8-208.21, 8-211, 8-212, 8-213, 8-214; 1954, c. 333; 1973, c. 439; 1974, c. 611; 1975, c. 578; 1977, c. 617; 2005, c. 681; 2014, c. 172.

Article 2. Jurors.

§ 8.01-337. Who liable to serve as jurors.

All citizens over 18 years of age who have been residents of the Commonwealth one year, and of the county, city, or town in which they reside six months next preceding their being summoned to serve as such, and competent in other respects, except as hereinafter provided, shall be liable to serve as jurors. No person shall be deemed incompetent to serve on any jury because of blindness or partial blindness. Military personnel of the United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or Navy shall not be considered residents of this Commonwealth by reason of their being stationed herein.

Code 1950, § 8-208.2; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1987, c. 189; 2014, c. 595.

§ 8.01-338. Who disqualified.

The following persons shall be disqualified from serving as jurors:

1. Persons adjudicated incapacitated;

2. Persons convicted of treason or a felony; or

3. Any other person under a disability as defined in § 8.01-2 and not included in subdivisions 1 or 2 above.

Code 1950, § 8-208.3; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1997, c. 801.

§ 8.01-339. No person eligible for whom request is made.

No person shall be eligible to serve on any jury when he, or any person for him, solicits or requests a jury commissioner to place his name in a jury box or in any way designate such person as a juror.

Code 1950, § 8-208.4; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-340. No person to serve who has case at that term.

No person shall be admitted to serve as a juror at a term of a court during which he has any matter of controversy which has been or is expected to be tried by a jury during the same term.

Code 1950, § 8-208.5; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-341. Who are exempt from jury service.

The following shall be exempt from serving on juries in civil and criminal cases:

1. The President and Vice President of the United States,

2. The Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General of the Commonwealth,

3. The members of both houses of Congress,

4. The members of the General Assembly, while in session or during a period when the member would be entitled to a legislative continuance as a matter of right under § 30-5,

5. Licensed practicing attorneys,

6. The judge of any court, members of the State Corporation Commission, members of the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, and magistrates,

7. Sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, state police, and police in counties, cities and towns,

8. The superintendent of the penitentiary and his assistants and the persons composing the guard,

9. Superintendents and jail officers, as defined in § 53.1-1, of regional jails.

Code 1950, § 8-208.6; 1973, c. 439; 1977, cc. 458, 617; 1978, cc. 176, 340; 1980, c. 535; 1982, c. 315; 1987, c. 256; 1990, c. 758; 1993, c. 572; 1998, c. 83.

§ 8.01-341.1. Exemptions from jury service upon request.

Any of the following persons may serve on juries in civil and criminal cases but shall be exempt from jury service upon his request:

1. through 3. [Repealed.]

4. A mariner actually employed in maritime service;

5. through 7. [Repealed.]

8. A person who has legal custody of and is necessarily and personally responsible for a child or children 16 years of age or younger requiring continuous care by him during normal court hours, or any mother who is breast-feeding a child;

9. A person who is necessarily and personally responsible for a person having a physical or mental impairment requiring continuous care by him during normal court hours;

10. Any person over 70 years of age;

11. Any person whose spouse is summoned to serve on the same jury panel;

12. Any person who is the only person performing services for a business, commercial or agricultural enterprise and whose services are so essential to the operations of the business, commercial or agricultural enterprise that such enterprise must close or cease to function if such person is required to perform jury duty;

13. Any person who is the only person performing services for a political subdivision as a firefighter, as defined in § 65.2-102, and whose services are so essential to the operations of the political subdivision that such political subdivision will suffer an undue hardship in carrying out such services if such person is required to perform jury duty;

14. Any person employed by the Office of the Clerk of the House of Delegates, the Office of the Clerk of the Senate, the Division of Legislative Services, and the Division of Legislative Automated Systems; however, this exemption shall apply only to jury service starting (i) during the period beginning 60 days prior to the day any regular session commences and ending 30 days after the day of adjournment of such session and (ii) during the period beginning seven days prior to the day any reconvened or special session commences and ending seven days after the day of adjournment of such session;

15. Any general registrar, member of a local electoral board, or person appointed or employed by either the general registrar or the local electoral board, except officers of election appointed pursuant to Article 5 (§ 24.2-115 et seq.) of Chapter 1 of Title 24.2; however, this exemption shall apply only to jury service starting (i) during the period beginning 90 days prior to any election and continuing through election day, (ii) during the period to ascertain the results of the election and continuing for 10 days after the local electoral board certifies the results of the election under § 24.2-671 or the State Board of Elections certifies the results of the election under § 24.2-679, or (iii) during the period of an election recount or contested election pursuant to Chapter 8 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.) of Title 24.2. Any officer of election shall be exempt from jury service only on election day and during the periods set forth in clauses (ii) and (iii); and

16. Any member of the armed services of the United States or the diplomatic service of the United States appointed under the Foreign Service Act (22 U.S.C. § 3901 et seq.) who will be serving outside of the United States at the time of such jury service.

Code 1970, § 8-208.6:1; 1977, c. 458; 1987, c. 256; 1997, c. 693; 1999, c. 153; 2004, c. 106; 2005, c. 195; 2011, cc. 389, 708; 2012, c. 98.

§ 8.01-341.2. Deferral or limitation of jury service for particular occupational inconvenience or for persons who have legal custody and are responsible for a child.

The court, at the request of a person selected for jury service or on its own motion, may exempt any person from jury service for a particular term of court, or limit that person's service to particular dates of that term, if serving on a jury during that term or certain dates of that term of court would cause such person a particular occupational inconvenience. Any such person who is selected for jury service, and who is exempted under the provisions of this section, shall not be discharged from his obligation to serve on a jury, but such obligation shall only be deferred until the term of court next after such particular occupational inconvenience ends. For purposes of this section, "occupational inconvenience" includes inconvenience to a person (i) who, during the term of court for which such person is selected for jury service, is enrolled as a full-time student at an accredited public or private institution of higher education and who is attending classes at such institution during such term and (ii) who has legal custody of and is necessarily and personally responsible for a child or children 16 years of age or younger requiring continuous care by him during normal court hours. The provisions of this section shall not interfere with the exemption available under subdivision 8 of § 8.01-341.1.

1981, c. 108; 1987, c. 155; 2018, c. 259; 2019, c. 518.

§ 8.01-342. Restrictions on amount of jury service permitted.

A. The jury commissioners shall not include on the jury list provided for in § 8.01-345 the name of any person who has been called and reported to any state court for jury duty at any time during the period of three years next preceding the date of completion of such jury list.

B. If such person has been called and reported for jury duty in the trial of any case, either civil or criminal, at any one term of a court, he shall not be permitted to serve as a juror in any civil or criminal case, at any other term of that court during the three-year period set forth in subsection A of this section, unless all the persons whose names are in the jury box have been drawn to serve during such three-year period; however, such person shall be permitted to serve on any special jury ordered pursuant to § 8.01-362 and on any grand jury.

Code 1950, §§ 8-208.7, 8-208.10; 1973, c. 439; 1974, c. 369; 1977, cc. 451, 617; 1984, c. 165; 1992, c. 312; 1994, c. 27.

Article 3. Selection of Jurors.

§ 8.01-343. Appointment of jury commissioners.

The judge of each circuit court in which juries are impaneled shall, prior to the first day of July in each year, appoint for the next ensuing year ending on the following first day of July not less than two nor more than 15 persons as jury commissioners, who shall be competent to serve as jurors under the provisions of this chapter, and shall be citizens of intelligence, morality, and integrity. The judge of the circuit court of a county having the urban county executive form of government may appoint jury commissioners at any time prior to the first day of November in each year. Any one judge of the judicial circuit may make such appointment under this section. No practicing attorney-at-law, however, shall be appointed as a jury commissioner. Such appointment shall be certified by the judge to the clerk of the court for which the appointment is made, who shall enter the same on the civil order book of such court. A jury commissioner shall be eligible for reappointment. For the purpose of this section, the two divisions of the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond shall be deemed to be separate courts.

Code 1950, § 8-208.8; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1979, c. 269; 1996, c. 332; 1999, c. 221; 2000, c. 251; 2006, c. 306; 2009, c. 790; 2016, c. 177.

§ 8.01-344. Notification of jury commissioners; their oath.

Such commissioners shall be immediately notified of their appointment by the clerk, and before entering upon the discharge of their duties shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation before the clerk of such court in the following form: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will honestly, without favor or prejudice, perform the duties of jury commissioner during the year; that in selecting persons to be drawn as jurors, I will not select any person I believe to be disqualified or exempt from serving as a juror; that I will select none whom I have been requested to select; and that in all my selections I will endeavor to promote only the impartial administration of justice."

Code 1950, § 8-208.9; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-345. Lists of qualified persons to be prepared by jury commissioners; random selection process.

The commissioners shall, not later than December 1 following their appointment, submit a list showing the names, addresses, freeholder status and, if available, the occupations of such of the inhabitants of their respective counties or cities as are well qualified under § 8.01-337 to serve as jurors and are not excluded or exempt by §§ 8.01-338 to 8.01-341 and 8.01-342. Such master jury list shall be used in selecting jurors for a twelve-month period beginning on the first day of the first term of court in the calendar year next succeeding December 1. The number of persons selected for each court shall be as specified in the order appointing the commissioners.

The jury commissioners shall utilize random selection techniques, either manual, mechanical or electronic, using a current voter registration list and, where feasible, a list of persons issued a driver's license as defined in § 46.2-100 from the Department of Motor Vehicles, city or county directories, telephone books, personal property tax rolls, and other such lists as may be designated and approved by the chief judge of the circuit, to select the jurors representative of the broad community interests, to be placed on the master jury list. The commissioners shall make reasonable effort to exclude the names of deceased persons and unqualified persons from the master jury list. After such random selection, the commissioners shall apply such statutory exceptions and exemptions as may be applicable to the names so selected. The chief judge shall promulgate such procedural rules as are necessary to ensure the integrity of the random selection process and to ensure compliance with other provisions of law with respect to jury selection and service.

Where a city and county adjoin, in whole or in part, the names of the inhabitants of a city shall not be placed upon the county list, nor those of a county upon the city list except in those cases in which the circuit court of the county and the circuit court of the city have concurrent jurisdiction of both civil and criminal cases arising within the territorial limits of such county or city. However, in the case of the City of Franklin and the County of Southampton, the number of jurors selected from Southampton County shall be proportionate to the number of jurors selected from the City of Franklin based upon the respective populations of the county and city.

Code 1950, § 8-208.10; 1973, c. 439; 1974, c. 369; 1977, cc. 451, 617; 1978, c. 209; 1979, c. 665; 1983, c. 107; 1984, c. 50; 1989, cc. 616, 632; 1990, c. 758; 2000, c. 828; 2007, cc. 450, 720.

§ 8.01-346. Lists to be delivered to clerk and safely kept by him; addition and removal of names.

The list so prepared shall be delivered to the clerk of the court to be safely kept by him. The list shall include a notation indicating those persons who are freeholders. The judge may from time to time order the commissioners to add to the list such additional number of jurors as the court shall direct and to strike therefrom any who have become disqualified or exempt.

Code 1950, § 8-208.11; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 2007, cc. 450, 720.

§ 8.01-347. How names put in jury box.

When such list is made out, the commissioners shall cause all the names thereon to be fairly written, each on a separate paper or ballot, and shall so fold or roll up the ballots that they will resemble each other as nearly as may be and the names written thereon will not be visible on the outside, and shall deposit the ballots with the list in a secure box prepared for that purpose. Such box shall be locked and safely kept by the clerk of such court and opened only by the direction of the judge thereof.

Code 1950, § 8-208.12; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-348. How names of jurors drawn from box.

Prior to or during any term of court at which a jury may be necessary, the clerk or deputy clerk, in the presence of the judge or, in his absence, a commissioner in chancery appointed for the purpose by the judge, shall, after thoroughly mixing the ballots in the box, openly draw therefrom such number of ballots as are necessary for the trial of all cases during the term or as the judge shall direct. However, a commissioner shall not be eligible to witness the drawing of a jury to be used in the trial of any case in which he will be interested as attorney or otherwise.

Code 1950, § 8-208.13; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1983, c. 425.

§ 8.01-349. Notations on ballots drawn; return to box; when such ballots may be drawn again.

If any ballot drawn from the box shall bear the name of a person known by the clerk or other person attending the drawing to be deceased, exempt or disqualified by law, not a resident of the county or city, or physically or mentally incapacitated for jury service, an appropriate notation on the ballot, as well as opposite the name of such person on the jury list, shall be made and the ballot shall be placed by the clerk in an envelope kept for that purpose. The other ballots, marked "drawn," shall be placed in a separate envelope and a notation of the date of the drawing shall be made on the jury list opposite the name of each juror drawn. The envelope shall be kept in the box. After all ballots have been drawn from the box, the ballots marked "drawn" may be again drawn subject to the provisions hereof applying to the original drawing.

Code 1950, § 8-208.14; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-350. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1977, c. 451.

§ 8.01-350.1. Selection of jurors by mechanical or electronic techniques for the term of court.

Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 8.01-347 through 8.01-349, the chief judge may order that selection of the list of jurors necessary for the trial of all cases during any term of court for that year be made by the use of random selection techniques, either mechanically or electronically, from the list submitted pursuant to § 8.01-345.

1978, c. 400.

§ 8.01-351. Preparation and disposition of list of jurors drawn.

The clerk shall make and sign a list of the names on the ballots in alphabetical order showing the name, age, address, occupation and employer of each juror, and shall deliver an attested copy of the list to the sheriff. The list shall be signed also by the judge or the commissioner in chancery appointed by the judge. The list shall be available in the clerk's office for inspection by counsel in any case to be tried by a jury during the term.

Code 1950, § 8-208.15; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 818.

§ 8.01-352. Objections to irregularities in jury lists or for legal disability; effect thereof.

A. Prior to the jury being sworn, the following objections may be made without leave of court: (i) an objection specifically pointing out the irregularity in any list or lists of jurors made by the clerk from names drawn from the jury box, or in the drawing, summoning, returning or impaneling of jurors or in copying or signing or failing to sign the list, and (ii) an objection to any juror on account of any legal disability; after the jury is sworn such objection shall be made only with leave of court.

B. Unless objection to such irregularity or disability is made pursuant to subsection A herein and unless it appears that the irregularity was intentional or that the irregularity or disability be such as to probably cause injustice in a criminal case to the Commonwealth or to the accused and in a civil case to the party making the objection, then such irregularity or disability shall not be cause for summoning a new panel or juror or for setting aside a verdict or granting a new trial.

Code 1950, §§ 8-208.7, 8-208.27, 8-208.29; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

Article 4. Jury Service.

§ 8.01-353. Notice to jurors; making copy of jury panel available to counsel; objection to notice.

A. The sheriff shall notify the jurors on the list, or such number of them as the judge may direct to appear in court on such day as the court may direct. Such notice shall be given a juror as provided by § 8.01-298. Verbal direction given by the judge, or at his direction, to a juror who has been given notice as hereinbefore provided that he appear at a later specified date, shall be a sufficient notice. Any notice given as provided herein shall have the effect of an order of court. No particular time in advance of the required appearance date shall be necessary for verbal notice hereunder, but the court may, in its discretion, excuse from service a juror who claims lack of sufficient notice. Upon request, the clerk or sheriff or other officer responsible for notifying jurors to appear in court for the trial of a case shall make available to all counsel of record in that case, a copy of the jury panel to be used for the trial of the case at least three full business days before the trial. Such copy of the jury panel shall show the name, age, address, occupation and employer of each person on the panel. Any error in the information shown on such copy of the jury panel shall not be grounds for a mistrial or assignable as error on appeal, and the parties in the case shall be responsible for verifying the accuracy of such information.

B. No judgment shall be arrested or reversed for the failure of the record to show that there was service upon a juror of notice to appear in court unless made a ground of exception in the trial before the jury is sworn.

Code 1950, § 8-208.16; 1973, c. 439; 1974, c. 243; 1976, c. 261; 1977, c. 617; 1980, c. 452; 1981, c. 150; 1988, c. 350; 2010, c. 799.

§ 8.01-353.1. Jurors to provide identification.

At the time of assembly for the purpose of juror selection, the identity of each member of the jury venire shall be verified as provided in this section. Prior to being selected from the jury venire, a potential juror shall verify his identity by presenting to the person taking jury attendance any of the following forms of identification: his Commonwealth of Virginia voter registration card; his social security card; his valid Virginia driver's license or any other identification card issued by a government agency of the Commonwealth, one of its political subdivisions, or the United States; or any valid employee identification card containing a photograph of the juror and issued by an employer of the juror in the ordinary course of the employer's business. If the juror is unable to present one of these forms of identification, he shall sign a statement affirming, under penalty of perjury, that he is the named juror.

2010, c. 765; 2011, c. 470.

§ 8.01-354. "Writ of venire facias" defined.

The term "writ of venire facias" for the purpose of this chapter shall be construed as referring to the list or lists of jurors made by the clerk from names drawn from the jury box and notice to appear in court served or mailed as provided herein shall be equivalent to summoning such juror in execution of a writ of venire facias.

Code 1950, § 8-208.24; 1973, c. 439; 1976, c. 617.

§ 8.01-355. Jurors on list to be used for trial of cases during term; discharge or dispensing with attendance of jurors; drawing additional jurors.

Jurors whose names appear in the list provided for under §§ 8.01-348 and 8.01-351 shall be used for the trial of cases, civil and criminal, to be tried during the term. The judge shall direct the selection of as many jurors as may be necessary to appear for the trial of any case. Any court shall have power to discharge persons summoned as jurors therein, or to dispense with their attendance on any day of its sitting. When by reason of challenge or otherwise a sufficient number of jurors summoned cannot be obtained for the trial of any case, the judge may select from the names on the jury list provided for by § 8.01-345 the names of as many persons as he deems necessary and cause them to be summoned to appear forthwith for the trial.

Code 1950, § 8-208.17; 1973, c. 439; 1975, c. 359; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-356. Failure of juror to appear.

If any juror who has been given due notice to appear in court shall fail to do so without sufficient excuse, he shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $200.

Code 1950, § 8-208.18; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 2004, c. 116.

§ 8.01-357. Selection of jury panel.

On the day on which jurors have been notified to appear, jurors not excused by the court shall be called in such manner as the judge may direct to be sworn on their voir dire until a panel free from exceptions shall be obtained. The jurors shall be selected randomly. The remaining jurors may be discharged or excused subject to such orders as the court shall make.

Code 1950, § 8-208.19; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1999, c. 3.

§ 8.01-358. Voir dire examination of persons called as jurors.

The court and counsel for either party shall have the right to examine under oath any person who is called as a juror therein and shall have the right to ask such person or juror directly any relevant question to ascertain whether he is related to either party, or has any interest in the cause, or has expressed or formed any opinion, or is sensible of any bias or prejudice therein; and the party objecting to any juror may introduce any competent evidence in support of the objection; and if it shall appear to the court that the juror does not stand indifferent in the cause, another shall be drawn or called and placed in his stead for the trial of that case.

A juror, knowing anything relative to a fact in issue, shall disclose the same in open court.

Code 1950, §§ 8-208.28, 8-215; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1981, c. 280.

§ 8.01-359. Trial; numbers of jurors in civil cases; how jurors selected from panel.

A. Five persons from a panel of not less than 11 shall constitute a jury in a civil case when the amount involved exclusive of interest and costs does not exceed the maximum jurisdictional limits as provided in § 16.1-77 (1). Seven persons from a panel of not less than 13 shall constitute a jury in all other civil cases except that when a special jury is allowed, 12 persons from a panel of not less than 20 shall constitute the jury.

B. The parties or their counsel, beginning with the plaintiff, shall alternately strike off one name from the panel until the number remaining shall be reduced to the number required for a jury. Where there are more than two parties, all plaintiffs shall share three strikes between them and all defendants and third-party defendants shall share three strikes between them.

C. In any case in which there are two or more parties on the same side, if counsel or the parties are unable to agree on the full number to be stricken, or, if for any other reason a party or his counsel fails or refuses to strike off the full number of jurors allowed such party, the clerk shall place in a box ballots bearing the names of the jurors whose names have not been stricken and shall cause to be drawn from the box such number of ballots as may be necessary to complete the number of strikes allowed the party or parties failing or refusing to strike. Thereafter, if the opposing side is entitled to further strikes, they shall be made in the usual manner.

D. In any civil case in which the consent of the plaintiff and defendant shall be entered of record, it shall be lawful for the plaintiff to select one person who is eligible as a juror and for the defendant to select another, and for the two so selected to select a third of like qualifications, and the three so selected shall constitute a jury in the case. They shall take the oath required of jurors, and hear and determine the issue, and any two concurring shall render a verdict in like manner and with like effect as a jury of seven.

Code 1950, § 8-208.21; 1973, c. 439; 1974, c. 611; 1975, c. 578; 1977, c. 617; 1985, c. 188; 2005, c. 356.

§ 8.01-360. Additional jurors when trial likely to be protracted.

Whenever in the opinion of the court the trial of any criminal or civil case is likely to be a protracted one, the court may direct the selection of additional jurors who shall be drawn from the same source, in the same manner and at the same time as the regular jurors. These additional jurors shall have the same qualifications, and be considered and treated in every respect as regular jurors and be subject to examination and challenge as such jurors. When one additional juror is desired, there shall be drawn three veniremen, and the plaintiff and defendant in a civil case or the Commonwealth and accused in a criminal case shall each be allowed one peremptory challenge. When two or more additional jurors are desired there shall be drawn twice as many venireman as the number of additional jurors desired. The plaintiff and defendant in a civil case or the Commonwealth and accused in a criminal case shall each be allowed one additional peremptory challenge for every two additional jurors. The court shall select, by lot, those jurors to be designated additional jurors. The plaintiff and defendant in a civil case or the Commonwealth and accused in a criminal case shall be advised by the court which jurors are additional jurors at the time the jury is impaneled; however, in no event, shall any juror be made aware of his status as a regular or additional juror until he is excused as a juror. Before final submission of the case, the court shall excuse any additional jurors in order to reduce the number of jurors to that required by §§ 8.01-359 and 19.2-262.

Code 1950, § 8-208.22; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617; 1992, c. 536; 1998, c. 279.

§ 8.01-361. New juror may be sworn in place of one disabled; when court may discharge jury.

If a juror, after he is sworn, be unable from any cause to perform his duty, the court may, in its discretion, cause another qualified juror to be sworn in his place, and in any case, the court may discharge the jury when it appears that they cannot agree on a verdict or that there is a manifest necessity for such discharge.

Code 1950, § 8-208.23; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-362. Special juries.

Any court in a civil case in which a jury is required may allow a special jury, in which event the court shall order such jurors to be summoned as it shall designate, and from those summoned, a jury shall be made in accordance with the provisions of § 8.01-359 A. The court may, in its discretion, cause the entire cost of such jury to be taxed as a part of the cost in such action, and to be paid by the plaintiff or defendant as the court shall direct.

Code 1950, § 8-208.25; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-363. When impartial jury cannot be obtained locally.

In any case in which qualified jurors who are not exempt from serving and who the judge is satisfied can render a fair and impartial trial cannot be conveniently found in the county or city in which the trial is to be, the court may cause so many jurors as may be necessary to be summoned from any other county or city by the sheriff thereof, or by its own officer, from a list prepared pursuant to Article 3 (§ 8.01-343 et seq.) of this chapter and furnished by the circuit court of the county or city from which the jurors are to be summoned.

Code 1950, § 8-208.26; 1973, c. 439; 1977, c. 617.