Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 18. Executions and Other Means of Recovery
11/26/2020

Article 5. Lien on Property Not Capable of Being Levied on.

§ 8.01-501. Lien of fieri facias on estate of debtor not capable of being levied on.

Every writ of fieri facias shall, in addition to the lien it has under §§ 8.01-478 and 8.01-479 on what is capable of being levied on under those sections, be a lien from the time it is delivered to a sheriff or other officer, or any person authorized to serve process pursuant to § 8.01-293, to be executed, on all the personal estate of or to which the judgment debtor is, or may afterwards and on or before the return day of such writ or before the return day of any wage garnishment to enforce the same, become, possessed or entitled, in which, from its nature is not capable of being levied on under such sections, except such as is exempt under the provisions of Title 34, and except that, as against an assignee of any such estate for valuable consideration, the lien by virtue of this section shall not affect him unless he had notice thereof at the time of the assignment.

Code 1950, § 8-431; 1977, c. 617; 1996, c. 1002; 2006, c. 575.

§ 8.01-502. Person paying debtor not affected by lien unless notice given.

As against a person making a payment to the judgment debtor, the lien referred to in § 8.01-501 shall not affect him, unless and until he be given written notice thereof setting forth (i) the name of the person against whom obtained, (ii) by whom obtained, (iii) the amount and costs of the judgment, (iv) the date recovered, (v) the date of the issuance or renewal of execution thereon, (vi) the return day of execution, and (vii) the date of placing of the execution in the hands of the officer or other person authorized to serve process pursuant to § 8.01-293, and unless such notice shall be personally signed by the plaintiff or his attorney and shall have been duly served upon the person making payment and the judgment debtor by an officer authorized to serve civil process.

Code 1950, § 8-432; 1954, c. 615; 1977, c. 617; 1996, c. 1002.

§ 8.01-502.1. Serving notice of lien on financial institution.

A. No judgment creditor or attorney for a judgment creditor shall have a notice of lien served on a financial institution under § 8.01-502 unless such judgment creditor or attorney has a reasonable basis for believing that the judgment debtor is entitled to a payment from such institution. The fact that a financial institution is doing business in a geographic area where the judgment debtor resides, works or has a place of business is not, by itself, a reasonable basis for believing that the judgment debtor is entitled to a payment from a financial institution. Any person violating this section shall be liable to a financial institution for the sum of $100 for each notice of lien wrongfully served on such institution. In any action at law to recover an amount due hereunder, the judgment creditor or attorney for the judgment creditor causing the notice of lien to be served on the financial institution shall have the burden of showing a reasonable basis for believing that the judgment debtor was entitled to a payment from such institution.

B. Any judgment creditor serving a notice of lien on a financial institution shall, within five business days of such service, mail to the judgment debtor at his last known address a copy of the notice of lien along with a notice of exemptions and claim for exemption form in accordance with § 8.01-512.4. The judgment creditor or attorney for the judgment creditor shall file a certification with the court affirming that he has mailed the judgment debtor these notices. In the event that the judgment creditor fails to comply with the requirements of this subsection, he shall be liable to the judgment debtor for no more than $100 in damages, unless he proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the failure was not willful.

C. A financial institution served with a valid notice of lien shall provide a written response to the judgment creditor or attorney for the judgment creditor within twenty-one days after being served with such notice of lien indicating the amount of money held by the financial institution pursuant to the notice of lien.

1997, c. 750; 1999, c. 48; 2010, c. 673.

§ 8.01-503. Withholding of wages or salary not required by preceding sections unless garnishment process served.

Nothing contained in §§ 8.01-501 and 8.01-502 shall have the effect of requiring any employer paying wages or salary to an employee to withhold any part of such wages or salary unless and until such employer is duly served with process in garnishment.

Code 1950, § 8-432.1; 1954, c. 379; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-504. Penalty for service of notice of lien when no judgment exists.

Whoever causes to be served a notice of lien of a writ of fieri facias without there being a judgment against the defendant named therein, shall pay to him the sum of $350, and whoever serves a notice of lien of a writ of fieri facias before the issuance of a writ of fieri facias, or after the return day thereof, or serves or in any way gives a notice of a lien of fieri facias by means other than by service by an officer authorized to serve civil process, shall pay to the named defendant the sum of $350, to be recoverable as damages in an action at law, in addition to whatever damages may be alleged and proven.

Code 1950, § 8-433; 1977, c. 617; 2010, c. 343.

§ 8.01-505. When lien acquired on intangibles under § 8.01-501 ceases.

The lien acquired under § 8.01-501 on intangibles shall cease whenever the right of the judgment creditor to enforce the judgment by execution or by action, or to extend the right by motion, ceases or is suspended by a forthcoming bond being given and forfeited or by other legal process. Furthermore, as to all such intangibles the lien shall cease upon the expiration of the following periods whichever is the longer: (i) one year from the return day of the execution pursuant to which the lien arose, or (ii) if the intangible is a debt due from, or a claim upon, a third person in favor of the judgment debtor or the estate of such third person, one year from the final determination of the amount owed to the judgment debtor.

Code 1950, § 8-434; 1977, c. 617.