Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 20. Attachments and Bail in Civil Cases
11/28/2021

Article 3. Subsequent Proceedings Generally.

§ 8.01-560. How interest and profits of property applied in certain cases.

When any attachment is sued out, although the property or estate attached be not seized, the interest and profits thereof pending the attachment and before judgment may be paid to the defendant, if the court deem it proper.

Code 1950, § 8-548; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-561. How property to be kept; how sold, when expensive to keep or perishable.

Any property seized under any attachment and not sold before judgment shall be kept in the same manner as similar property taken under execution. But such as is expensive to keep or perishable may be sold by order of the court upon such terms as the court may direct. If the court directs that the sale may be made on credit, the court may order the sheriff to take a bond with sufficient surety, payable to the sheriff, for the benefit of the party entitled. Such bond shall be returned forthwith by the officer to the court.

Code 1950, § 8-549; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-562. Examination on oath of codefendant; order and bond.

A defendant who at the time of service of the attachment was alleged to be indebted to a principal defendant, or had in his possession personal property belonging to such principal defendant, shall appear in person and submit to an examination on oath touching such debt or personal property, or he may, with the consent of the court, after reasonable notice to the plaintiff, file an answer in writing under oath, stating whether or not he was so indebted, and if so, the amount thereof and the time of maturity, or whether he had in his possession any personal property belonging to such principal defendant and, if so, the nature and value thereof. If it appear on such examination or by his answer that at the time of the service of the attachment, he was indebted to the principal defendant, or had in his possession or control any goods, chattels, money, securities or other effects belonging to such defendant, the court may order him to pay the amount so owing by him, or to deliver such effects to the sheriff, or other person designated by the court to receive the same; or such defendant may, with the leave of the court, give bond with sufficient security, payable to such person and in such penalty as the court shall prescribe, with condition to pay the amount owing by him, and have such effects forthcoming, at such time and place as the court may thereafter require. An answer under oath under this section shall be deemed prima facie to be true.

Code 1950, § 8-550; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-563. Principal defendant may claim exemption.

The principal defendant, if a householder or head of a family, may claim that the amount so found owing from his codefendant, or the personal property in his possession, shall be exempt from liability for the plaintiff's claim; and if it shall appear that the principal defendant is entitled to such exemption, then the court shall render a judgment against the defendant only for the excess, if any, beyond the exemption to which the principal defendant is entitled.

Code 1950, § 8-551; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-564. Procedure when codefendant fails to appear.

If the attachment be served on a defendant who the petition alleges is indebted to, or has in his possession effects of, the principal defendant, and he fail to appear, the court may either compel him to appear, or hear proof of any debt owing by him, or of effects in his hands belonging to a principal defendant in such attachment, and make such orders in relation thereto as if what is so proved had appeared on his examination.

Code 1950, § 8-552; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-565. Suggestion that codefendant has not made full disclosure.

When it is suggested by the plaintiff in any attachment that a codefendant has not fully disclosed the debts owing by him, or effects in his hands belonging to the principal defendant in such attachment, the court, without any formal pleading, shall inquire as to such debts and effects, or, if either party demand, it shall cause a jury to be impaneled for that purpose, and proceed in respect to any such debts or effects found by the court or the jury in the same manner as if they had been confessed by such codefendant. If the judgment of the court or verdict of the jury be in favor of such codefendant, he shall have judgment for his costs against the plaintiff.

Code 1950, § 8-553; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-566. Who may make defense to attachment.

Any of the defendants in any such attachment, or any party to any forthcoming bond given as aforesaid, or the officer who may be liable to the plaintiff by reason of such bond being adjudged bad, or any person authorized by § 8.01-573 to file a petition, may make defense to such attachment, but the attachment shall not thereby be discharged, or the property levied on released.

Code 1950, § 8-554; 1973, c. 545; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-567. What defense may be made to attachments.

Any party in interest may show that the court is without jurisdiction to hear and determine the controversy.

The principal defendant, if not served with process, may appear specially and show that the attachment was issued on false suggestion or without sufficient cause, in which event the attachment shall be quashed.

Any person claiming title to, an interest in, or a lien upon the property attached, or any part thereof, after being admitted as a party defendant, if not already a defendant, and the principal defendant, may contest the liability of the principal defendant for the plaintiff's claim, in whole or in part, by proof of any manner which would constitute a good defense by the principal defendant to an action at law on such claim, and may also show that the attachment was not issued on any of the grounds set forth in § 8.01-534, or that the plaintiff is not likely to succeed on the merits of his underlying claim. The principal defendant may also file counterclaims or defenses available under § 8.01-422 as in an action at law.

Other defendants shall be limited to defenses personal to themselves, or which may prevent a liability upon them or their property.

Code 1950, § 8-555; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-568. Quashing attachment or rendering judgment for defendant.

The court in which an attachment is pending shall, on motion of the principal defendant, or any defendant claiming title to, an interest in, or a lien upon the property attached, or any part thereof, after reasonable notice to the plaintiff, hear testimony and quash the attachment, if of opinion that (i) the attachment is invalid on its face, (ii) none of the grounds for attachment in § 8.01-534 exist, or (iii) the plaintiff is not likely to succeed on the merits of his underlying claim. The hearing shall be held not later than ten business days following the defendant's motion. When the attachment is properly sued out, and the case is heard upon its merits, if the court is of opinion that the claim of the plaintiff is not established, final judgment shall be given for the defendant. In either case, he shall recover his costs, and damages for loss of the use of his property, and there shall be an order for the restoration of the attached effects. The plaintiff shall have the burden of proof in proceedings pursuant to this section.

Code 1950, § 8-556; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 646.

§ 8.01-569. When petition dismissed; when retained and cause tried.

If the principal defendant has not appeared generally, nor been served with process, and the sole ground of jurisdiction of the court is the right to sue out the attachment, and this right be decided against the plaintiff, the petition shall be dismissed at the cost of the plaintiff; but if the plaintiff's claim be due at the hearing, and the court would otherwise have jurisdiction of an action against such defendant for the cause set forth in the petition, and such defendant has appeared generally, or been served with process, it shall retain the cause and proceed to final judgment as in other actions at law.

Code 1950, § 8-557; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-570. Judgment, etc., of court when claim of plaintiff established.

If the claim of the plaintiff be established, judgment shall be rendered for him, and the court shall dispose of the specific property levied on, as may be right, and order the sale of any other effects or real estate which shall not have been previously released or sold under this chapter, and direct the proceeds of sale, and whatever else is subject to the attachment, including what is embraced by such forthcoming bond, to be applied in satisfaction of the judgment.

Code 1950, § 8-558; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-571. When defendant not served fails to appear plaintiff required to give bond.

If the principal defendant has not appeared or been served with a copy of the attachment ten days before the judgment therein mentioned, the plaintiff shall not have the benefit of § 8.01-570 unless and until he shall have given bond with sufficient surety in such penalty as the court shall approve, with condition to perform such future order as may be made upon the appearance of such defendant and his making defense. If the plaintiff fail to give such bond in a reasonable time, the court shall dispose of the estate attached, or the proceeds thereof, as to it shall seem just.

Code 1950, § 8-542; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-572. Sale of real estate attached.

No real estate shall be sold until all other property and money subject to the attachment have been exhausted, and then only so much thereof as is necessary to pay the judgment. Upon a sale of real estate, under an attachment the court shall have the same powers and jurisdiction, and like proceedings thereon may be had, as if it were a sale of real estate by a court of equity exercising general equity powers.

Code 1950, § 8-559; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-573. How and when claims of other persons to property tried.

Any person may file his petition at any time before the property attached as the estate of a defendant is sold or the proceeds of sale paid to the plaintiff under the judgment, disputing the validity of the plaintiff's attachment thereon, or stating a claim thereto, or an interest in or lien on the same, under any other attachment or otherwise, and its nature, and upon giving security for cost, the court, without any other pleading, shall inquire into such claim, or, if either party demand it, impanel a jury for that purpose. If it be found that the petitioner has title to, or a lien on, or any interest in, such property, or its proceeds, the court shall make such order as may be necessary to protect his rights. The costs of such inquiry shall be paid by either party, at the discretion of the court.

Code 1950, § 8-560; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-574. Attachments in connection with pending suits or actions.

If an attachment be desired in connection with a pending suit or action, a petition for an attachment may be filed in the same court in which such suit or action is pending, and the procedure thereon shall be the same as if no suit or action were pending; but the attachment may be heard along with any suit in equity relating to the same subject so far as may be necessary for the convenient administration of justice. The suing out of an attachment in connection with a pending suit or action shall not be deemed the prosecution of a second action for the same cause.

Code 1950, § 8-561; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-575. Rehearing permitted when judgment rendered on publication.

If a defendant, against whom, on publication, judgment is rendered under any attachment, or his personal representative, shall return to or appear openly in this Commonwealth, he may, within one year after a copy of such judgment shall be served on him at the instance of the plaintiff, or within two years from the date of the judgment, if he be not so served, petition to have the proceedings reheard. On giving security for costs he shall be admitted to make defense against such judgment, as if he had appeared in the case before the same was rendered, except that the title of any bona fide purchaser to any property, real or personal, sold under such attachment, shall not be brought in question or impeached. But this section shall not apply to any case in which the petitioner, or his decedent, was served with a copy of the attachment more than ten days before the date of the judgment, or to any case in which he appeared and made defense.

Code 1950, § 8-562; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-576. Order of court on rehearing or new trial; restitution to defendant.

On any rehearing or new trial had under § 8.01-575, the court may order the plaintiff in the original attachment to restore any money paid to him under such judgment to such defendant if living, or if dead to the heir or personal representative of such defendant, as the same may be, the proceeds of real or personal estate, and enter a judgment therefor against him; or it may confirm the former judgment. In either case it shall adjudge the costs of the prevailing party.

Code 1950, § 8-563; 1977, c. 617.