Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
12/14/2019

Chapter 26.2. Appeals Generally.

Article 1. Appeal Bond.

§ 8.01-676. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1984, c. 703.

§ 8.01-676.1. Security for appeal.

A. Security for costs of appeal of right to Court of Appeals. A party filing a notice of an appeal of right to the Court of Appeals shall simultaneously file an appeal bond or irrevocable letter of credit in the penalty of $500, or such sum as the trial court may require, subject to subsection E, conditioned upon paying all costs and fees incurred in the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court if it takes cognizance of the claim. If the appellant wishes suspension of execution, the security shall also be conditioned and shall be in such sum as the trial court may require as provided in subsection C.

B. Security for costs on petition for appeal to Court of Appeals or Supreme Court. An appellant whose petition for appeal is granted by the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court shall (if he has not done so) within 15 days from the date of the Certificate of Appeal file an appeal bond or irrevocable letter of credit in the same penalty as provided in subsection A, conditioned on the payment of all damages, costs, and fees incurred in the Court of Appeals and in the Supreme Court.

C. Security for suspension of execution. An appellant who wishes execution of the judgment or award from which an appeal is sought to be suspended during the appeal shall, subject to the provisions of subsection J, file a suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit conditioned upon the performance or satisfaction of the judgment and payment of all damages incurred in consequence of such suspension, and except as provided in subsection D, execution shall be suspended upon the filing of such security and the timely prosecution of such appeal. Such security shall be continuing and additional security shall not be necessary except as to any additional amount which may be added or to any additional requirement which may be imposed by the courts.

D. Suspension of execution in decrees for support and custody; injunctions. The court from which an appeal is sought may refuse to suspend the execution of decrees for support and custody, and may also refuse suspension when a judgment refuses, grants, modifies, or dissolves an injunction.

E. Increase or decrease in penalty or other modification of security. 1. The trial court or commission may, upon the motion of any party (i) for good cause shown, modify the terms of the security for the appeal or of the security for the suspension of execution of a judgment and (ii) resolve any objection to the form or issuer of a bond or letter of credit at any time until the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court acts upon any similar motion. Any party aggrieved by the decision of the trial court or commission may request a review of such decision by the appellate court before which the case is pending.

2. The Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court may order that the penalty or any other terms or requirements of the security for the appeal or of the security for the suspension of execution of a judgment be modified for good cause shown (i) upon the motion of any party or (ii) if such request is made in the brief of any party filed in the Court of Appeals, or in the Petition for Appeal or the appellee's Brief in Opposition filed in the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals.

3. Affidavits and counter-affidavits may be filed by the parties containing facts pertinent to such request. Any increase or decrease in the amount of or other modification of the security so ordered shall be effected in the clerk's office of the trial court within 15 days of the order of the trial court, the Court of Appeals, or the Supreme Court.

4. If an increase so ordered is not effected within 15 days, the appeal shall be dismissed, in the case of the security required under subsection A or B, or the suspension of execution of a judgment shall be discontinued, in the case of the security required under subsection C.

F. By whom executed. Each bond filed shall be executed by a party or another on his behalf, and by surety approved by the clerk of the court from which appeal is sought, or by the clerk of the Supreme Court or the clerk of the Court of Appeals if the bond is ordered by such Court. Any letter of credit posted as security for an appeal shall be in a form acceptable to the clerk of the court from which appeal is sought, or by the clerk of the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals if the security is ordered by such court. The letter of credit shall be from a bank incorporated or authorized to conduct banking business under the laws of this Commonwealth or authorized to do business in this Commonwealth under the banking laws of the United States, or a federally insured savings institution located in this Commonwealth.

G. Appeal from State Corporation Commission; security for costs. When an appeal of right is entered from the State Corporation Commission to the Supreme Court, and no suspension of the order, judgment, or decree appealed from is requested, such appeal bond or letter of credit shall be filed when and in the amount required by the clerk of the Supreme Court, whose action shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court.

H. Appeal from State Corporation Commission; suspension. Any judgment, order, or decree of the State Corporation Commission subject to appeal to the Supreme Court may be suspended by the Commission or by the Supreme Court pending decision of the appeal if the Commission or the Supreme Court deems such suspension necessary for the proper administration of justice but only upon the written application of an appellant after reasonable notice to all other parties in interest and the filing of a suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit with such conditions, in such penalty, and with such surety thereon as the Commission or the Supreme Court may deem sufficient. But no surety shall be required if the appellant is any county, city or town of this Commonwealth, or the Commonwealth.

I. Forms of bonds; letters of credit; where filed. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall prescribe separate forms for bonds, one for costs alone, one for suspension of execution, and one for both and a form for irrevocable letters of credit, to which the bond or bonds or irrevocable letters of credit given shall substantially conform. The forms for each bond and the letter of credit shall be published in the Rules of Court. It shall be sufficient if the bond or letter of credit, when executed as required, is filed with the trial court, clerk of the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, or the clerk of the State Corporation Commission, whichever is applicable, and no personal appearance in the trial court, Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, or State Corporation Commission by the principal, the surety on the bond or the bank issuing the letter of credit shall be required as a condition precedent to its filing.

J. In any civil litigation under any legal theory, the amount of the suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit to be furnished during the pendency of all appeals or discretionary reviews of any judgment granting legal, equitable, or any other form of relief in order to stay the execution thereon during the entire course of appellate review by any courts shall be set in accordance with applicable laws or court rules, and the amount of the suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit shall include an amount equivalent to one year's interest calculated from the date of the notice of appeal in accordance with § 8.01-682. However, the total suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit that is required of an appellant and all of its affiliates shall not exceed $25 million, regardless of the value of the judgment.

K. Dissipation of assets. If the appellee proves by a preponderance of the evidence that a party bringing an appeal, for whom the suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit requirement has been limited or waived, is purposefully dissipating its assets or diverting assets outside the jurisdiction of the United States courts for the purpose of evading the judgment, the limitation or waiver shall be rescinded and a court may require the appellant to post a suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit in an amount up to the full amount of the judgment. Dissipation of assets shall not include those ongoing expenditures made from assets of the kind that the appellant made in the regular course of business prior to the judgment being appealed, such as the payment of stock dividends and other financial incentives to the shareholders of publicly owned companies, continued participation in charitable and civic activities, and other expenditures consistent with the exercise of good business judgment.

L. For good cause shown, a court may otherwise waive the filing of a suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit as to the damages in excess of, or other than, the compensatory damages. Subject to the provisions of subsection K, the parties may agree to waive the requirement of a suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit or agree to a suspending bond or irrevocable letter of credit in an amount less than the compensatory damages.

M. Exemption. When an appeal is proper to protect the estate of a decedent or person under disability, or to protect the interest of the Commonwealth or any county, city, or town of this Commonwealth, no security for appeal shall be required.

N. Indigents. No person who is an indigent shall be required to post security for an appeal bond.

O. Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission. No claimant who files an appeal from a final decision of the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission with the Court of Appeals shall be required to post security for costs as provided in subsection A or B if such claimant has not returned to his employment or by reason of his disability is unemployed. Such claimant shall file an affidavit describing his disability and employment status with the Court of Appeals together with a motion to waive the filing of the security under subsection A or B.

P. Time for filing security for appeal. The appeal bond or letter of credit prescribed in subsections A and B is not jurisdictional and the time for filing such security in cases before the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court may be extended by a judge or justice of the court before which the case is pending on motion for good cause shown and to attain the ends of justice. The effect of failing to perfect an appeal bond shall be governed by the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia.

Q. Consideration of appeal bond, suspending bond, or letter of credit by Court of Appeals or Supreme Court. A determination on an issue affecting an appeal bond, suspending bond, or letter of credit in a case before the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court may be considered by an individual judge of such court rather than by a panel of judges.

R. This section applies to injunction bonds required pursuant to § 8.01-631.

S. In accordance with § 1-205, if the party required to post an appeal or suspending bond tenders such bond together with cash in the full amount required by this section to the clerk specified in this section, no surety shall be required.

1984, c. 703; 1986, c. 89; 1987, cc. 460, 684; 1988, c. 883; 1996, c. 77; 2000, c. 100; 2004, cc. 328, 356; 2010, c. 494; 2012, cc. 8, 77; 2016, c. 178.

Article 2. Errors Insufficient in the Appellate Court.

§ 8.01-677. Errors corrected on motion instead of writ of error coram vobis.

For any clerical error or error in fact for which a judgment may be reversed or corrected on writ of error coram vobis, the same may be reversed or corrected on motion, after reasonable notice, by the court.

Code 1950, § 8-485; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-677.1. Appeals filed in inappropriate appellate court.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Code, no appeal which was otherwise properly and timely filed shall be dismissed for want of jurisdiction solely because it was filed in either the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals and the appellate court in which it was filed thereafter rules that it should have been filed in the other court. In such event, the appellate court so ruling shall transfer the appeal to the appellate court having appropriate jurisdiction for further proceedings in accordance with the rules of the latter court. The parties shall be allowed a reasonable time to file such additional or amended pleadings as may be appropriate to proceed with the appeal in the appellate court to which the appeal is transferred.

1988, c. 382.

§ 8.01-678. For what a judgment not to be reversed.

When it plainly appears from the record and the evidence given at the trial that the parties have had a fair trial on the merits and substantial justice has been reached, no judgment shall be arrested or reversed:

1. For the appearance of either party, being under the age of eighteen years, by attorney, if the verdict, where there is one, or the judgment be for him and not to his prejudice; or

2. For any other defect, imperfection, or omission in the record, or for any error committed on the trial.

Code 1950, § 8-487; 1954, c. 333; 1977, c. 617.

Article 3. Limitations; Hearing and Decision.

§ 8.01-679. Failure of trial court clerk to deliver record to appellate court.

Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, no appeal shall be refused or dismissed for failure to deliver the record within the required time if it shall appear from evidence satisfactory to the appellate court that the clerk of the court below failed to deliver to the clerk of the appellate court the record on appeal within the required time.

Code 1950, § 8-489; 1964, c. 7; 1976, c. 615; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 703.

§ 8.01-679.1. Arguments made on brief not waived by oral argument.

It shall not be necessary for any party to expressly reserve in oral argument any argument made on brief before an appellate court and failure to raise any such argument on oral argument shall not constitute a waiver.

1986, c. 268.

§ 8.01-680. When judgment of trial court not to be set aside unless plainly wrong, etc.

When a case, civil or criminal, is tried by a jury and a party objects to the judgment or action of the court in granting or refusing to grant a new trial on a motion to set aside the verdict of a jury on the ground that it is contrary to the evidence, or when a case is decided by a court without the intervention of a jury and a party objects to the decision on the ground that it is contrary to the evidence, the judgment of the trial court shall not be set aside unless it appears from the evidence that such judgment is plainly wrong or without evidence to support it.

Code 1950, § 8-491; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-681. Decision of appellate court.

The appellate court shall affirm the judgment if there is no error therein, and reverse the same, in whole or in part, if erroneous, and enter such judgment as to the court shall seem right and proper and shall render final judgment upon the merits whenever, in the opinion of the court, the facts before it are such as to enable the court to attain the ends of justice. A civil case shall not be remanded for a trial de novo except when the ends of justice require it, but the appellate court shall, in the order remanding the case, if it be remanded, designate upon what questions or points a new trial is to be had.

Code 1950, § 8-493; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 703.

§ 8.01-682. What damages awarded appellee.

When any judgment is affirmed, whether in whole or in part, damages shall be awarded to the appellee on the portion of the judgment affirmed. When the judgment is for the payment of money, the damages shall be the interest to which the party is legally entitled, as provided in § 6.2-302 or any other provision of law, from the date of filing the notice of appeal until the date the appellate court issues its mandate. Such interest shall be computed upon the whole amount of the recovery affirmed, including interest and costs, and such damages shall be in satisfaction of all interest during such period of time. When the judgment is not for the payment of any money, except costs, the damages shall be such specific sum as the appellate court may deem reasonable, not being more than $2,500 nor less than $150.

Code 1950, § 8-495; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 703; 2010, c. 343; 2012, c. 58; 2016, c. 178; 2019, c. 134.

§ 8.01-683. When Clerk of Supreme Court to transmit its decisions.

When any term of the Supreme Court is ended, or sooner if the court so direct, the Clerk thereof shall certify and transmit its decision to the clerk of the court or tribunal below, as the case may be, except that it shall not be his duty to certify or transmit a copy of a judgment of affirmance unless the appellee shall have paid all fees due from him in the case, or shall endorse on such copy so much of the judgment, for the benefit of the clerk, as the unpaid fees shall amount to. If any clerk fail to comply with this section for twenty days, except as aforesaid, he shall forfeit fifty dollars to any person aggrieved thereby.

Code 1950, § 8-496; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-684. Copies of Court's opinions to be furnished to counsel.

When a case is decided by an appellate court the clerk shall furnish a copy of the opinion rendered by the court thereon to each counsel of record without making any charge therefor.

Code 1950, § 8-497.1; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 703.

§ 8.01-685. Entry of decision in lower court; issue of execution thereon.

The court or other tribunal from which any case may have come to an appellate court shall enter the decision of the appellate court as its own, and execution or other appropriate process may issue thereon accordingly. When that decision is received by the clerk or secretary of the court or tribunal below, he shall enter it of record in his order book, and thereupon such execution may issue and such proceedings be had in the case as would have been proper if the decision had been entered in court or by such tribunal.

If the judgment of the lower court or tribunal is affirmed, in whole or in part, by the decision of an appellate court, execution or other appropriate process may issue thereon against the principal and surety on any appeal bond which may have been given, for the amount of such judgment, including the interest and cost and the damages awarded by the appellate court, not exceeding, however, the penalty of such bond.

Code 1950, § 8-498; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 703.

§ 8.01-686. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1984, c. 703.

Article 4. Miscellaneous Provisions.

§ 8.01-688. Order books, etc., of former district courts in custody of Clerk of Supreme Court, etc.

The order books, dockets and other office books formerly belonging to the several former district courts shall remain in the custody of the Clerk of the Supreme Court. Said Clerk shall furnish transcripts of the records and proceedings of such district courts when required, and perform all other duties in respect to records and proceedings of such district courts as might have been performed by the clerks of such district courts if such courts had continued to exist. All printed and manuscript orders, and other papers pertaining to cases decided in such district courts, shall remain in the custody of the clerks of the circuit courts at the several places where such district courts held their sessions, who shall be charged with the same duties in respect to such records and papers as might have been performed by the clerks of such district courts respectively, if such courts had continued to exist, and who shall receive for any such service fees similar to those charged by the clerks of district courts for such services.

Code 1950, § 8-502; 1977, c. 617.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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