Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.3A. Commercial Code — Negotiable Instruments
Subtitle .
Part 2. Negotiation, Transfer, and Endorsement.
12/3/2022

Part 2. Negotiation, Transfer, and Endorsement..

§ 8.3A-201. Negotiation.

(a) "Negotiation" means a transfer of possession, whether voluntary or involuntary, of an instrument by a person other than the issuer to a person who thereby becomes its holder.

(b) Except for negotiation by a remitter, if an instrument is payable to an identified person, negotiation requires transfer of possession of the instrument and its endorsement by the holder. If an instrument is payable to bearer, it may be negotiated by transfer of possession alone.

Code 1950, §§ 6-382 through 6-384; 1964, c. 219, § 8.3-202; 1992, c. 693.

§ 8.3A-202. Negotiation subject to rescission.

(a) Negotiation is effective even if obtained (i) from an infant, a corporation exceeding its powers, or a person without capacity, (ii) by fraud, duress, or mistake, or (iii) in breach of duty or as part of an illegal transaction.

(b) To the extent permitted by other law, negotiation may be rescinded or may be subject to other remedies, but those remedies may not be asserted against a subsequent holder in due course or a person paying the instrument in good faith and without knowledge of facts that are a basis for rescission or other remedy.

Code 1950, § 6-374; 1964, c. 219, § 8.3-207; 1992, c. 693.

§ 8.3A-203. Transfer of instrument; rights acquired by transfer.

(a) An instrument is transferred when it is delivered by a person other than its issuer for the purpose of giving to the person receiving delivery the right to enforce the instrument.

(b) Transfer of an instrument, whether or not the transfer is a negotiation, vests in the transferee any right of the transferor to enforce the instrument, including any right as a holder in due course, but the transferee cannot acquire rights of a holder in due course by a transfer, directly or indirectly, from a holder in due course if the transferee engaged in fraud or illegality affecting the instrument.

(c) Unless otherwise agreed, if an instrument is transferred for value and the transferee does not become a holder because of lack of endorsement by the transferor, the transferee has a specifically enforceable right to the unqualified endorsement of the transferor, but negotiation of the instrument does not occur until the endorsement is made.

(d) If a transferor purports to transfer less than the entire instrument, negotiation of the instrument does not occur. The transferee obtains no rights under this title and has only the rights of a partial assignee.

Code 1950, §§ 6-379, 6-382 through 6-384, 6-401, 6-410; 1964, c. 219, §§ 8.3-201, 8.3-202; 1992, c. 693.

§ 8.3A-204. Endorsement.

(a) "Endorsement" means a signature, other than that of a signer as maker, drawer, or acceptor, that alone or accompanied by other words is made on an instrument for the purpose of (i) negotiating the instrument, (ii) restricting payment of the instrument, or (iii) incurring endorser's liability on the instrument, but regardless of the intent of the signer, a signature and its accompanying words is an endorsement unless the accompanying words, terms of the instrument, place of the signature, or other circumstances unambiguously indicate that the signature was made for a purpose other than endorsement. For the purpose of determining whether a signature is made on an instrument, a paper affixed to the instrument is a part of the instrument.

(b) "Endorser" means a person who makes an endorsement.

(c) For the purpose of determining whether the transferee of an instrument is a holder, an endorsement that transfers a security interest in the instrument is effective as an unqualified endorsement of the instrument.

(d) If an instrument is payable to a holder under a name that is not the name of the holder, endorsement may be made by the holder in the name stated in the instrument or in the holder's name or both, but signature in both names may be required by a person paying or taking the instrument for value or collection.

Code 1950, §§ 6-369, 6-379, 6-382 through 6-384, 6-395, 6-401, 6-410, 6-415; 1964, c. 219, §§ 8.3-201, 8.3-202, 8.3-203, 8.3-402; 1992, c. 693.

§ 8.3A-205. Special endorsement; blank endorsement; anomalous endorsement.

(a) If an endorsement is made by the holder of an instrument, whether payable to an identified person or payable to bearer, and the endorsement identifies a person to whom it makes the instrument payable, it is a "special endorsement." When specially endorsed, an instrument becomes payable to the identified person and may be negotiated only by the endorsement of that person. The principles stated in § 8.3A-110 apply to special endorsements.

(b) If an endorsement is made by the holder of an instrument and it is not a special endorsement, it is a "blank endorsement." When endorsed in blank, an instrument becomes payable to bearer and may be negotiated by transfer of possession alone until specially endorsed.

(c) The holder may convert a blank endorsement that consists only of a signature into a special endorsement by writing, above the signature of the endorser, words identifying the person to whom the instrument is made payable.

(d) "Anomalous endorsement" means an endorsement made by a person who is not the holder of the instrument. An anomalous endorsement does not affect the manner in which the instrument may be negotiated.

Code 1950, §§ 6-361, 6-385 through 6-388, 6-392; 1956, c. 149; 1964, c. 219, §§ 8.3-111, 8.3-204; 1992, c. 693.

§ 8.3A-206. Restrictive endorsement.

(a) An endorsement limiting payment to a particular person or otherwise prohibiting further transfer or negotiation of the instrument is not effective to prevent further transfer or negotiation of the instrument.

(b) An endorsement stating a condition to the right of the endorsee to receive payment does not affect the right of the endorsee to enforce the instrument. A person paying the instrument or taking it for value or collection may disregard the condition, and the rights and liabilities of that person are not affected by whether the condition has been fulfilled.

(c) If an instrument bears an endorsement (i) described in § 8.4-201 (b), or (ii) in blank or to a particular bank using the words "for deposit," "for collection," or other words indicating a purpose of having the instrument collected by a bank for the endorser or for a particular account, the following rules apply:

(1) A person, other than a bank, who purchases the instrument when so endorsed converts the instrument unless the amount paid for the instrument is received by the endorser or applied consistently with the endorsement.

(2) A depositary bank that purchases the instrument or takes it for collection when so endorsed converts the instrument unless the amount paid by the bank with respect to the instrument is received by the endorser or applied consistently with the endorsement.

(3) A payor bank that is also the depositary bank or that takes the instrument for immediate payment over the counter from a person other than a collecting bank converts the instrument unless the proceeds of the instrument are received by the endorser or applied consistently with the endorsement.

(4) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3), a payor bank or intermediary bank may disregard the endorsement and is not liable if the proceeds of the instrument are not received by the endorser or applied consistently with the endorsement.

(d) Except for an endorsement covered by subsection (c), if an instrument bears an endorsement using words to the effect that payment is to be made to the endorsee as agent, trustee, or other fiduciary for the benefit of the endorser or another person, the following rules apply:

(1) Unless there is notice of breach of fiduciary duty as provided in § 8.3A-307, a person who purchases the instrument from the endorsee or takes the instrument from the endorsee for collection or payment may pay the proceeds of payment or the value given for the instrument to the endorsee without regard to whether the endorsee violates a fiduciary duty to the endorser.

(2) A subsequent transferee of the instrument or person who pays the instrument is neither given notice nor otherwise affected by the restriction in the endorsement unless the transferee or payor knows that the fiduciary dealt with the instrument or its proceeds in breach of fiduciary duty.

(e) The presence on an instrument of an endorsement to which this section applies does not prevent a purchaser of the instrument from becoming a holder in due course of the instrument unless the purchaser is a converter under subsection (c) or has notice or knowledge of breach of fiduciary duty as stated in subsection (d).

(f) In an action to enforce the obligation of a party to pay the instrument, the obligor has a defense if payment would violate an endorsement to which this section applies and the payment is not permitted by this section.

Code 1950, §§ 6-388, 6-389, 6-391, 6-399, 6-490; 1964, c. 219, §§ 8.3-205, 8.3-206, 8.3-419; 1992, c. 693.

§ 8.3A-207. Reacquisition.

Reacquisition of an instrument occurs if it is transferred to a former holder, by negotiation or otherwise. A former holder who reacquires the instrument may cancel endorsements made after the reacquirer first became a holder of the instrument. If the cancellation causes the instrument to be payable to the reacquirer or to bearer, the reacquirer may negotiate the instrument. An endorser whose endorsement is canceled is discharged, and the discharge is effective against any subsequent holder.

Code 1950, §§ 6-400, 6-402, 6-474; 1964, c. 219, § 8.3-208; 1992, c. 693.