Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances [Effective October 1, 2019]
9/15/2019

Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances [Effective October 1, 2019] (2019 Updates)

  • Subtitle I. Property Conveyances
  • Chapter 1. Creation and Limitation of Estates
    • Article 1. Creation and Transfer of Estates
    • § 55.1-100
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Aliens may acquire, hold, and transmit real estate; when reciprocity required
      § 55.1-101
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When deed or will necessary to convey estate; no parol partition or gift valid
      § 55.1-102
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When gift of personal property invalid
      § 55.1-103
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Suicide or attainder of felony
      § 55.1-104
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Estates to lie in grant as well as in livery
      § 55.1-105
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Same estates may be created by deed as by will
      § 55.1-106
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Power of disposal in life tenant not to defeat remainder unless exercised; power of disposal held by fiduciary
      § 55.1-107
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Default or surrender of tenant for life not to prejudice remainderman
      § 55.1-108
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conveyance of estate or interest in property by grantor to himself and another
      § 55.1-109
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deed valid for grantor's right; operation of warranty
      § 55.1-110
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conveyance, devise, or grant without words of limitation
      § 55.1-111
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fee tail converted into fee simple
      § 55.1-112
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Estate of freehold to one with remainder to heirs, etc.; rule in Shelley's Case abolished
      § 55.1-113
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Doctrine of worthier title abolished
      § 55.1-114
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When contingent remainder not to fail
      § 55.1-115
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When remainders not defeated
      § 55.1-116
      (Effective October 1, 2019) in what conveyances possession transferred to the use
      § 55.1-117
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Land trusts not to fail because no beneficiaries are specified by name and no duties laid on trustee; when interest of beneficiaries deemed personal property; liens
      § 55.1-118
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deed of release effectual
      § 55.1-119
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When person not a party, etc., may take or sue under instrument
      § 55.1-120
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Informalities in deeds made by attorneys-in-fact
      § 55.1-121
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time for objections to irregularities in advertising sales made by trustees
      § 55.1-122
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recovery at death of life tenant of taxes paid on life estate
      § 55.1-123
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Removal of a cloud on title; nature of plaintiff's title
    • Article 2. Rule Against Perpetuities
    • § 55.1-124
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities
      § 55.1-125
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When nonvested property interest or power of appointment created
      § 55.1-126
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Reformation
      § 55.1-127
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exclusions from statutory rule against perpetuities
      § 55.1-128
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Prospective application
      § 55.1-129
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniformity of application and construction
      § 55.1-130
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain limitations construed
      § 55.1-131
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Employee trusts
      § 55.1-132
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Determination of "lives in being" for purpose of rule against perpetuities
      § 55.1-133
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application of the rule against perpetuities to nondonative transfers
    • Article 3. Joint Ownership of Real or Personal Property
    • § 55.1-134
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Survivorship between joint tenants abolished
      § 55.1-135
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Joint ownership in real and personal property
      § 55.1-136
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenants by the entirety in real and personal property; certain trusts
    • Article 4. Virginia Solar Easements Act
    • § 55.1-137
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Creation of solar easements
      § 55.1-138
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of solar easement agreements
  • Chapter 2. Property Rights of Married Persons
    • § 55.1-200
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How married persons may acquire and dispose of property
      § 55.1-201
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contracts of, and actions by and against, married persons
      § 55.1-202
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Spouse not responsible for other spouse's contracts, etc.; mutual liability for necessaries; responsibility of personal representative
      § 55.1-203
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Spouse's right of entry into land not barred by certain judgments; when a spouse may defend his right in lands that are his inheritance
      § 55.1-204
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rights of spouse not affected by other spouse's acts only
      § 55.1-205
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conveyance from married persons; effect on right of either spouse
      § 55.1-206
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How infant spouse may release interests in spouse's property
      § 55.1-207
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Appointment of attorney-in-fact by married person; effect of writing executed by such attorney
      § 55.1-208
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How estate of a married person to pass at death
      § 55.1-209
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Equitable separate estates abolished
      § 55.1-210
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tangible personal property
  • Chapter 3. Form and Effect of Deeds and Covenants; Liens
    • Article 1. Form and Effect of Deeds; Easements
    • § 55.1-300
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form of a deed
      § 55.1-301
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How construed
      § 55.1-302
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction of generic terms
      § 55.1-303
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Appurtenances, etc., included in deed of land
      § 55.1-304
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Relocation of easement
      § 55.1-305
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Enjoyment of easement
      § 55.1-306
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Utility easements
      § 55.1-307
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public road easements; maintenance and improvements
      § 55.1-308
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Private roads; public use; maintenance and improvements
      § 55.1-309
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deeds good between parties
      § 55.1-310
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conveyance of property not owned but subsequently acquired
      § 55.1-311
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Vendor's equitable lien abolished
      § 55.1-312
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain deeds to county real estate validated
      § 55.1-313
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validation of sales, etc., by county courts prior to 1860
      § 55.1-314
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deeds and writings executed for persons in military service, etc., under defective powers
      § 55.1-315
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of option; recording
    • Article 2. Form and Effect of Deeds of Trust; Sales Thereunder; Assignments; Releases
    • § 55.1-316
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form of deed of trust to secure debts, etc.
      § 55.1-317
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Requirements for trustees
      § 55.1-318
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Credit line deed of trust defined; relative priority of credit line deed of trust and other instruments of judgment
      § 55.1-319
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Priority of residential refinance mortgage over subordinate mortgage
      § 55.1-320
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How deed of trust construed; duties, rights, etc., of parties
      § 55.1-321
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notices required before sale by trustee to owners, lienors, etc.; if note lost
      § 55.1-322
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Advertisement required before sale by trustee
      § 55.1-323
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of advertisements of sale
      § 55.1-324
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Powers and duties of trustee in event of sale under or satisfaction of deed of trust
      § 55.1-325
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meaning of phrases that may be included in deed of trust
      § 55.1-326
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Evidences of indebtedness placed on equal footing
      § 55.1-327
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Sales under deeds of trust that contain no maturity date or provision authorizing sale
      § 55.1-328
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validation of conveyances of real property under trust instrument not authorizing sale
      § 55.1-329
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Permissible form for notice of sale under deed of trust
      § 55.1-330
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction of deeds requiring notice by advertisement in newspaper
      § 55.1-331
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disposition of surplus from trustee's sale after death of grantor
      § 55.1-332
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Title to real estate sold not affected by nonlisting of secured notes for taxation
      § 55.1-333
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validation of certain sales made under deeds of trust
      § 55.1-334
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validation of certain sales made under deeds of trust prior to October 1, 1977
      § 55.1-335
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validation of other sales under deeds of trust
      § 55.1-336
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Protection of assignees or transferees of debts secured by real estate; form of certificate of transfer
      § 55.1-337
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required notice of foreclosure or repossession of manufactured home
      § 55.1-338
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Release to person dead inures to successors
      § 55.1-339
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Release of deed of trust or other lien
      § 55.1-340
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Release by financial institution upon payment of debt placed with it for collection
      § 55.1-341
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Partial satisfaction
      § 55.1-342
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Permissible form for certificate of satisfaction or certificate of partial satisfaction
      § 55.1-343
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Where certificates of satisfaction are to be indexed
      § 55.1-344
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Releases made by court; costs and attorney fees
      § 55.1-345
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation of certificate of satisfaction, etc., required when release of lien recorded
    • Article 3. Satisfaction of Security Interest in Real Property
    • § 55.1-346
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability
      § 55.1-347
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-348
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Document of rescission; effect; liability for wrongful recording
      § 55.1-349
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Secured creditor to submit satisfaction for recording; liability for failure
      § 55.1-350
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form and effect of satisfaction
      § 55.1-351
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Relation to Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act
      § 55.1-352
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniform standards
    • Article 4. Effect of Certain Expressions in Deeds
    • § 55.1-353
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of word "covenants."
      § 55.1-354
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of covenant of general warranty
      § 55.1-355
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Covenant of special warranty
      § 55.1-356
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Words "with general warranty," "with special warranty," and "with English covenants of title" construed
      § 55.1-357
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Implied warranties on new homes
      § 55.1-358
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of certain transfer fee covenants
      § 55.1-359
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Covenant of "right to convey."
      § 55.1-360
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Covenant for "quiet possession" and "free from all encumbrances."
      § 55.1-361
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Covenant for "further assurances."
      § 55.1-362
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Covenant of "no act to encumber."
      § 55.1-363
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of certain words of release in a deed
  • Chapter 4. Fraudulent and Voluntary Conveyances; Writings Necessary to Be Recorded
    • § 55.1-400
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Void fraudulent acts; bona fide purchasers not affected
      § 55.1-401
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Voluntary gifts, conveyances, assignments, transfers, or charges; void as to prior creditors
      § 55.1-402
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Creditor's action to avoid such gifts, conveyances, assignments, transfers, or charges
      § 55.1-403
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Creditor's action; attorney fees
      § 55.1-404
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Authority of court to set aside
      § 55.1-405
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Loans and reservations of a use or property to be recorded
      § 55.1-406
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain recorded contracts as valid as deeds
      § 55.1-407
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contracts, etc., void as to creditors and purchasers until recorded; priority of credit line deed of trust
      § 55.1-408
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Where to be recorded
      § 55.1-409
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation of instruments affecting civil aircraft of United States
      § 55.1-410
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Priority of writings when admitted to record same day
      § 55.1-411
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When writings to be recorded in county, and when in city
      § 55.1-412
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Words "creditors" and "purchasers," how construed
      § 55.1-413
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lien of subsequent purchaser for purchase money paid before notice
      § 55.1-414
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When purchaser not affected by record of deed or contract
  • Chapter 5. Commutation and Valuation of Certain Estates and Interests
    • § 55.1-500
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annuity table
      § 55.1-501
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rule of calculation under § 55.1-500
      § 55.1-502
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Table of uniform seniority
      § 55.1-503
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rules of calculation under § 55.1-502
      § 55.1-504
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Makehamized mortality table
      § 55.1-505
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Commutation in case of persons under disability
      § 55.1-506
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Commutation of certain life estates
  • Subtitle II. Real Estate Settlements and Recordation
  • Chapter 6. Recordation of Documents
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-600
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When and where writings recorded
      § 55.1-601
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recording and indexing of certain documents showing changes of names
      § 55.1-602
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Presumption that recorded writings are in proper form
      § 55.1-603
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deed of real estate investment trust
      § 55.1-604
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When clerk may refuse document to be recorded
      § 55.1-605
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Power of attorney; where recorded
      § 55.1-606
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Standards for writings to be docketed or recorded
      § 55.1-607
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When original of writing once recorded is lost, how copy recorded elsewhere
      § 55.1-608
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certifications of recordation upon copies of certain instruments and subsequent recordation in other county or city
      § 55.1-609
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Correcting errors in deeds, deeds of trust, and mortgages; affidavit
      § 55.1-610
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation of copy of lost deed previously recorded in what is now West Virginia
      § 55.1-611
      Repealed
    • Article 2. Acknowledgments Generally
    • § 55.1-612
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgment within the United States or its dependencies
      § 55.1-613
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments outside of the United States and its dependencies
      § 55.1-614
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments by persons subject to Uniform Code of Military Justice; validation of certain acknowledgments
      § 55.1-615
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken before commissioned officers in military service
    • Article 3. Uniform Recognition of Acknowledgments Act
    • § 55.1-616
      (Effective October 1, 2019) "Notarial acts" defined; who may perform notarial acts outside the Commonwealth for use in the Commonwealth
      § 55.1-617
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Proof of authority of person performing notarial act
      § 55.1-618
      (Effective October 1, 2019) What person taking acknowledgment shall certify
      § 55.1-619
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When form of certificate of acknowledgment accepted
      § 55.1-620
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meaning of "acknowledged before me."
      § 55.1-621
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Statutory short forms of acknowledgment
      § 55.1-622
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application of article; article cumulative
      § 55.1-623
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniform interpretation
    • Article 4. Deeds and Acknowledgments of Corporations
    • § 55.1-624
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deeds of corporations; how to be executed and acknowledged
      § 55.1-625
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments on behalf of corporations and others
      § 55.1-626
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Corporate acknowledgment taken before officer or stockholder
    • Article 5. Validating Certain Acts, Deeds, and Acknowledgments
    • § 55.1-627
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acts of notaries public, etc., who have held certain other offices
      § 55.1-628
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validation of acknowledgments when seal not affixed
      § 55.1-629
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgment taken by trustee in deed of trust
      § 55.1-630
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgment taken by trustee in deed of trust; later date
      § 55.1-631
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain acknowledgments taken and certified before July 1, 1995
      § 55.1-632
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken by certain justices of the peace, mayors, etc.
      § 55.1-633
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken by officers after expiration of terms
      § 55.1-634
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken by notaries in service during World War I
      § 55.1-635
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments before foreign officials who failed to affix seals
      § 55.1-636
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken by notaries in foreign countries
      § 55.1-637
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken by officer who was spouse of grantee
      § 55.1-638
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgment when notary certifies erroneously as to expiration of commission
      § 55.1-639
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments before officer of city or county consolidating, etc., prior to expiration date of commission
      § 55.1-640
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken before notary whose commission has expired
      § 55.1-641
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken before notary whose commission has expired; later date; intervening vested rights saved
      § 55.1-642
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken before notary who was appointed but failed to qualify; vested rights saved
      § 55.1-643
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments taken before a notary at large who failed to cite the jurisdiction in which the acknowledgment was taken; vested rights saved
      § 55.1-644
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deeds defectively executed by corporation
      § 55.1-645
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deeds to which corporate seal not affixed or not attested
      § 55.1-646
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acknowledgments of corporations taken by officers or stockholders
      § 55.1-647
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation certificate not signed by clerk
      § 55.1-648
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation certificate not signed by clerk; when clerk has died
    • Article 6. United States Judgments; Bankruptcy
    • § 55.1-649
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation of judgments affecting title to land
      § 55.1-650
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Judgments of United States courts affecting realty
      § 55.1-651
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Orders in bankruptcy
      § 55.1-652
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certificates of commencement of case in bankruptcy
    • Article 7. Uniform Federal Lien Registration Act
    • § 55.1-653
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Where notices and certificates affecting liens to be filed
      § 55.1-654
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certification of notices and certificates
      § 55.1-655
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Duties of filing officers
      § 55.1-656
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fees of filing officers other than clerk of State Corporation Commission
      § 55.1-657
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fees of clerk of State Corporation Commission
      § 55.1-658
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction of article
      § 55.1-659
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certificates and notices affecting liens filed on or before July 1, 1970
      § 55.1-660
      (Effective October 1, 2019) No action to be brought against the State Corporation Commission or its staff
    • Article 8. Uniform Real Property Electronic Recording Act
    • § 55.1-661
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-662
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validity of electronically filed and recorded land records
      § 55.1-663
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recording of electronic documents among the land records
      § 55.1-664
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniform standards
      § 55.1-665
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniformity of application and construction
      § 55.1-666
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Relation to Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act
  • Chapter 7. Virginia Residential Property Disclosure Act
    • § 55.1-700
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-701
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability
      § 55.1-702
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exemptions
      § 55.1-703
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures for buyer to beware; buyer to exercise necessary due diligence
      § 55.1-704
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures pertaining to a military air installation
      § 55.1-705
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures; defective drywall
      § 55.1-706
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures; pending building or zoning violations
      § 55.1-707
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Permissive disclosure; tourism activity zone
      § 55.1-708
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures; property previously used to manufacture methamphetamine
      § 55.1-709
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time for disclosure; termination of contract
      § 55.1-710
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Owner liability
      § 55.1-711
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Change in circumstances
      § 55.1-712
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Duties of real estate licensees
      § 55.1-713
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Actions under this chapter
      § 55.1-714
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Real Estate Board to develop form; when effective
  • Chapter 8. Exchange Facilitators Act
    • § 55.1-800
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-801
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Change in control
      § 55.1-802
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Separately identified accounts, or qualified escrows or qualified trusts
      § 55.1-803
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Errors and omissions insurance; cash or letters of credit
      § 55.1-804
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Accounting for moneys and property
      § 55.1-805
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Prohibited acts
      § 55.1-806
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalty; attorney fees
  • Chapter 9. Real Estate Settlements
    • § 55.1-900
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-901
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability; effect of noncompliance
      § 55.1-902
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Duty of lender
      § 55.1-903
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Duty of settlement agent
      § 55.1-904
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Prohibition against payment or receipt of settlement services kickbacks, rebates, commissions, and other payments; penalty
      § 55.1-905
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disclosure of affiliated business by settlement service providers
      § 55.1-906
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disclosure of charges for appraisal or valuation using automated or other valuation mechanism
      § 55.1-907
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalty
  • Chapter 10. Real Estate Settlement Agents
    • § 55.1-1000
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-1001
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitation on applicability of chapter
      § 55.1-1002
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Scope of chapter; lay real estate settlement agents
      § 55.1-1003
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Persons who may act as a settlement agent
      § 55.1-1004
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Duties of settlement agents
      § 55.1-1005
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Persons prohibited from assisting or being employed by settlement agents
      § 55.1-1006
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Choice of settlement agent
      § 55.1-1007
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disclosure
      § 55.1-1008
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conditions for providing escrow, closing, or settlement services and for maintaining escrow accounts
      § 55.1-1009
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Falsifying settlement statements prohibited
      § 55.1-1010
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Separate charge for reporting transactions limited
      § 55.1-1011
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Record retention requirements
      § 55.1-1012
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Regulations and orders
      § 55.1-1013
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Accounting by title insurance companies
      § 55.1-1014
      (Effective October 1, 2019, until January 1, 2021) Settlement agent registration requirements and compliance with unauthorized practice of law guidelines; civil penalty
      § 55.1-1014
      (Effective January 1, 2021) Settlement agent registration requirements and compliance with unauthorized practice of law guidelines; civil penalty
      § 55.1-1015
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalties and liabilities
      § 55.1-1016
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Confidentiality of information obtained by the Commission
  • Chapter 11. Commercial Real Estate Broker's Lien Act
  • Subtitle III. Rental Conveyances
  • Chapter 12. Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-1200
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-1201
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability of chapter; local authority
      § 55.1-1202
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice
      § 55.1-1203
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application deposit and application fee
      § 55.1-1204
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Terms and conditions of rental agreement; payment of rent; copy of rental agreement for tenant
      § 55.1-1205
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Prepaid rent; maintenance of escrow account
      § 55.1-1206
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord may obtain certain insurance for tenant
      § 55.1-1207
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of unsigned or undelivered rental agreement
      § 55.1-1208
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Prohibited provisions in rental agreements
      § 55.1-1209
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Confidentiality of tenant records
      § 55.1-1210
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord and tenant remedies for abuse of access
      § 55.1-1211
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Appointment of resident agent by nonresident property owner; service of process, etc., on such agent or on Secretary of the Commonwealth
      § 55.1-1212
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Energy submetering, energy allocation equipment, sewer and water submetering equipment, and ratio utility billing systems; local government fees
      § 55.1-1213
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Transfer of deposits upon purchase
    • Article 2. Landlord Obligations
    • § 55.1-1214
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Inspection of dwelling unit; report
      § 55.1-1215
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disclosure of mold in dwelling units
      § 55.1-1216
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disclosure of sale of premises
      § 55.1-1217
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures for properties located adjacent to a military air installation; remedy for nondisclosure
      § 55.1-1218
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures for properties with defective drywall; remedy for nondisclosure
      § 55.1-1219
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required disclosures for property previously used to manufacture methamphetamine; remedy for nondisclosure
      § 55.1-1220
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord to maintain fit premises
      § 55.1-1221
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord to provide locks and peepholes
      § 55.1-1222
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Access of tenant to cable, satellite, and other television facilities
      § 55.1-1223
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice to tenants for insecticide or pesticide use
      § 55.1-1224
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitation of liability
      § 55.1-1225
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenancy at will; effect of notice of change of terms or provisions of tenancy
      § 55.1-1226
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Security deposits
    • Article 3. Tenant Obligations
    • § 55.1-1227
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenant to maintain dwelling unit
      § 55.1-1228
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rules and regulations
      § 55.1-1229
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Access; consent; correction of nonemergency conditions; relocation of tenant; security systems
      § 55.1-1230
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Access following entry of certain court orders
      § 55.1-1231
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Relocation of tenant where mold remediation needs to be performed in the dwelling unit
      § 55.1-1232
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use and occupancy by tenant
      § 55.1-1233
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenant to surrender possession of dwelling unit
    • Article 4. Tenant Remedies
    • § 55.1-1234
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Noncompliance by landlord
      § 55.1-1235
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Early termination of rental agreement by military personnel
      § 55.1-1236
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Early termination of rental agreements by victims of family abuse, sexual abuse, or criminal sexual assault
      § 55.1-1237
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice to tenant in event of foreclosure
      § 55.1-1238
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Failure to deliver possession
      § 55.1-1239
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Wrongful failure to supply an essential service
      § 55.1-1240
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fire or casualty damage
      § 55.1-1241
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord's noncompliance as defense to action for possession for nonpayment of rent
      § 55.1-1242
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rent escrow required for continuance of tenant's case
      § 55.1-1243
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenant's remedies for landlord's unlawful ouster, exclusion, or diminution of service
      § 55.1-1244
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenant's assertion; rent escrow
    • Article 5. Landlord Remedies
    • § 55.1-1245
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Noncompliance with rental agreement; monetary penalty
      § 55.1-1246
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Barring guest or invitee of a tenant
      § 55.1-1247
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Sheriffs authorized to serve certain notices; fee for service
      § 55.1-1248
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Remedy by repair, etc.; emergencies
      § 55.1-1249
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Remedies for absence, nonuse, and abandonment
      § 55.1-1250
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord's acceptance of rent with reservation
      § 55.1-1251
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Remedy after termination
      § 55.1-1252
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recovery of possession limited
      § 55.1-1253
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Periodic tenancy; holdover remedies
      § 55.1-1254
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disposal of property abandoned by tenants
      § 55.1-1255
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Authority of sheriffs to store and sell personal property removed from residential premises; recovery of possession by owner; disposition or sale
      § 55.1-1256
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disposal of property of deceased tenants
      § 55.1-1257
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Who may recover rent or possession
    • Article 6. Retaliatory Action
    • § 55.1-1258
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Retaliatory conduct prohibited
      § 55.1-1259
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Actions to enforce chapter
    • Article 7. Eviction Diversion Pilot Program
    • § 55.1-1260
      (Effective July 1, 2020; Expires July 1, 2023) Establishment of Eviction Diversion Pilot Program; purpose; goals
      § 55.1-1261
      (Effective July 1, 2020; Expires July 1, 2023) Eviction Diversion Pilot Program; administration
      § 55.1-1262
      (Effective July 1, 2020; Expires July 1, 2023) Eviction Diversion Pilot Program; process; court-ordered payment plan
  • Chapter 13. Manufactured Home Lot Rental Act
    • § 55.1-1300
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-1301
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Written rental agreement required
      § 55.1-1302
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Term of rental agreement; renewal; security deposits
      § 55.1-1303
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Landlord's obligations
      § 55.1-1304
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tenant's obligations
      § 55.1-1305
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rent; liability of secured party taking possession of an abandoned manufactured home
      § 55.1-1306
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Demands and charges prohibited; access by tenant's guest or invitee; purchases by manufactured home owner not restricted; exception; conditions of occupancy
      § 55.1-1307
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Charge for utility service
      § 55.1-1308
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of tenancy
      § 55.1-1309
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Waiver of landlord's right to terminate
      § 55.1-1310
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Sale or lease of manufactured home by manufactured home owner
      § 55.1-1311
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Other provisions of law applicable
      § 55.1-1312
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Authority of local governments over manufactured home parks
      § 55.1-1313
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice of uncorrected violations
      § 55.1-1314
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Retaliatory conduct prohibited
      § 55.1-1315
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Eviction of tenant
      § 55.1-1316
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Right to sell manufactured home upon eviction
      § 55.1-1317
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Transfer of deposits upon purchase
      § 55.1-1318
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalties for violation of chapter
      § 55.1-1319
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Injunctive relief
  • Chapter 14. Nonresidential Tenancies
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-1400
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability; right to terminate tenant
      § 55.1-1401
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Appointment of resident agent by nonresident property owner; service of process, etc., on such agent or on Secretary of the Commonwealth
      § 55.1-1402
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Apportionment on purchase of part of land by holder of rent
      § 55.1-1403
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Perfection of lien or interest in leases, rents, and profits
      § 55.1-1404
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Energy submetering, energy allocation equipment, sewer and water submetering equipment, ratio utility billings systems; local government fees
      § 55.1-1405
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Transfer of deposits upon purchase
    • Article 2. Assignments
    • § 55.1-1406
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Grantees and assignees have same rights against lessees as lessors
      § 55.1-1407
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lessees have same rights against grantees as against lessors
      § 55.1-1408
      (Effective October 1, 2019) What powers to pass to grantee or devisee; when attornment unnecessary
      § 55.1-1409
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When attornment void
    • Article 3. Landlord Obligations
    • § 55.1-1410
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice to terminate a tenancy in nonresidential rental property; notice of change in use of multifamily residential building
      § 55.1-1411
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Nonresidential buildings destroyed or lessee deprived of possession; covenant to pay rent or repair; reduction of rent
      § 55.1-1412
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Security systems for nonresidential rental property
    • Article 4. Landlord Remedies
    • § 55.1-1413
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of failure of tenant in nonresidential rental property to vacate premises at expiration of term
      § 55.1-1414
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Abandonment of nonresidential rental property
      § 55.1-1415
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Failure to pay certain rents after five days' notice forfeits right of possession
      § 55.1-1416
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Authority of sheriffs to store and sell personal property removed from nonresidential premises; recovery of possession by owner; disposition or sale
      § 55.1-1417
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Who may recover rent or possession
    • Article 5. Miscellaneous Provisions
    • § 55.1-1418
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Remedy when rent is to be paid in other thing than money
      § 55.1-1419
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Proceedings to establish right of reentry; judgment
      § 55.1-1420
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When defendant barred of relief
      § 55.1-1421
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How trustee or mortgagee relieved from the forfeiture
      § 55.1-1422
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How owner relieved in court
      § 55.1-1423
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How judgment of forfeiture prevented
      § 55.1-1424
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When action for reentry brought
      § 55.1-1425
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Written act of reentry to be returned and recorded and certificate of reentry published
      § 55.1-1426
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fee of clerk
      § 55.1-1427
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How person entitled to lands may be restored to his possession
      § 55.1-1428
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitation of action against person in possession by reentry
  • Chapter 15. Residential Ground Rent Act
    • § 55.1-1500
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-1501
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form of instrument
      § 55.1-1502
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Changes in amount of rent
      § 55.1-1503
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Encumbrance on real property
      § 55.1-1504
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Redemption rights
      § 55.1-1505
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Incorporation of agreement into deed
  • Chapter 16. Deeds of Lease
    • § 55.1-1600
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form of a lease
      § 55.1-1601
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Memoranda of leases and options
      § 55.1-1602
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain covenants of lessee "to pay the rent" and "to pay the taxes."
      § 55.1-1603
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain covenants of lessee that "he will not assign without leave" and that "he will leave the premises in good repair."
      § 55.1-1604
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Covenant of lessor "for lessee's quiet enjoyment."
      § 55.1-1605
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of provision for reentry by lessor
  • Chapter 17. Emblements
    • § 55.1-1700
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Law of emblements
      § 55.1-1701
      (Effective October 1, 2019) What rent tenant entitled to emblements to pay
      § 55.1-1702
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Compensation to outgoing tenant for preparation of land for crop
      § 55.1-1703
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lessee of life tenant may hold land through end of year on death of tenant; apportionment of rent
  • Subtitle IV. Common Interest Communities
  • Chapter 18. Property Owners' Association Act
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-1800
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-1801
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability
      § 55.1-1803
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitation on certain contracts and leases by declarant
      § 55.1-1804
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Documents to be provided by declarant upon transfer of control
      § 55.1-1805
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Association charges
      § 55.1-1806
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rental of lots
      § 55.1-1807
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Statement of lot owner rights
    • Article 2. Disclosure Requirements; Authorized Fees
    • § 55.1-1808
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contract disclosure statement; right of cancellation
      § 55.1-1809
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of association disclosure packet; delivery of packet
      § 55.1-1810
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fees for disclosure packet; professionally managed associations
      § 55.1-1811
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fees for disclosure packet; associations not professionally managed
      § 55.1-1812
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Properties subject to more than one declaration
      § 55.1-1813
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Requests by settlement agents
      § 55.1-1814
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exceptions to disclosure requirements
    • Article 3. Operation and Management of Association
    • § 55.1-1815
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Access to association records; association meetings; notice
      § 55.1-1816
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meetings of the board of directors
      § 55.1-1817
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Distribution of information by members
      § 55.1-1818
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Common areas; notice of pesticide application
      § 55.1-1819
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Adoption and enforcement of rules
      § 55.1-1820
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Display of the flag of the United States; necessary supporting structures; affirmative defense
      § 55.1-1821
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Home-based businesses permitted; compliance with local ordinances
      § 55.1-1822
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use of for sale signs in connection with sale
      § 55.1-1823
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Designation of authorized representative
      § 55.1-1824
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Assessments; late fees
      § 55.1-1825
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Authority to levy special assessments
      § 55.1-1826
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual budget; reserves for capital components
      § 55.1-1827
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deposit of funds; fidelity bond
      § 55.1-1828
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Compliance with declaration
      § 55.1-1829
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Amendment to declaration and bylaws; consent of mortgagee
      § 55.1-1830
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validity of declaration; corrective amendments
      § 55.1-1831
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Reformation of declaration; judicial procedure
      § 55.1-1832
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use of technology
      § 55.1-1833
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lien for assessments
      § 55.1-1834
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice of sale under deed of trust
      § 55.1-1835
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report by association
      § 55.1-1836
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Condemnation of common area; procedure
  • Chapter 19. Virginia Condominium Act
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-1900
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-1901
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application and construction of chapter
      § 55.1-1902
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Variation by agreement
      § 55.1-1903
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Separate assessments, titles, and taxation
      § 55.1-1904
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Association charges
      § 55.1-1905
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Local ordinances; nonconforming conversion condominiums; applicability of Uniform Statewide Building Code; other regulations
      § 55.1-1906
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Eminent domain
    • Article 2. Creation, Alteration, and Termination of Condominiums
    • § 55.1-1907
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How condominium may be created
      § 55.1-1908
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Release of liens
      § 55.1-1909
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Description of condominium units
      § 55.1-1910
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Execution of condominium instruments
      § 55.1-1911
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation of condominium instruments
      § 55.1-1912
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction of condominium instruments
      § 55.1-1913
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Complementarity of condominium instruments; controlling construction
      § 55.1-1914
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Validity of condominium instruments; discrimination prohibited
      § 55.1-1915
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Compliance with condominium instruments
      § 55.1-1916
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of declaration
      § 55.1-1917
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Allocation of interests in the common elements
      § 55.1-1918
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Reallocation of interests in common elements
      § 55.1-1919
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Assignments of limited common elements; conversion to common element
      § 55.1-1920
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of plats and plans
      § 55.1-1921
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bond to insure completion of improvements
      § 55.1-1922
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Preliminary recordation of plats and plans
      § 55.1-1923
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Easement for encroachments
      § 55.1-1924
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conversion of convertible lands
      § 55.1-1925
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conversion of convertible spaces
      § 55.1-1926
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Expansion of condominium
      § 55.1-1927
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contraction of condominium
      § 55.1-1928
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Easement to facilitate conversion and expansion
      § 55.1-1929
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Easement to facilitate sales
      § 55.1-1930
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Declarant's obligation to complete and restore
      § 55.1-1931
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Alterations within units
      § 55.1-1932
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Relocation of boundaries between units
      § 55.1-1933
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Subdivision of units
      § 55.1-1934
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Amendment of condominium instruments
      § 55.1-1935
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use of technology
      § 55.1-1936
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Merger or consolidation of condominiums; procedure
      § 55.1-1937
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of condominium
      § 55.1-1938
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rights of mortgagees
      § 55.1-1939
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Statement of unit owner rights
    • Article 3. Management of Condominium
    • § 55.1-1940
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bylaws to be recorded with declaration; contents; unit owners' association; executive board; amendment of bylaws
      § 55.1-1941
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Amendment to condominium instruments; consent of mortgagee
      § 55.1-1942
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Reformation of declaration; judicial procedure
      § 55.1-1943
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Control of condominium by declarant
      § 55.1-1944
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deposit of funds
      § 55.1-1945
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Books, minutes, and records; inspection
      § 55.1-1946
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Management office
      § 55.1-1947
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Transfer of special declarant rights
      § 55.1-1948
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Declarants not succeeding to special declarant rights
      § 55.1-1949
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meetings of unit owners' association and executive board
      § 55.1-1950
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Distribution of information by members
      § 55.1-1951
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Display of the flag of the United States; necessary supporting structures; affirmative defense
      § 55.1-1952
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meetings of unit owners' associations and executive board; quorums
      § 55.1-1953
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meetings of unit owners' associations and executive board; voting by unit owners; proxies
      § 55.1-1954
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Officers
      § 55.1-1955
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Upkeep of condominiums; warranty against structural defects; statute of limitations for warranty; warranty review committee
      § 55.1-1956
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Control of common elements
      § 55.1-1957
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Common elements; notice of pesticide application
      § 55.1-1958
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tort and contract liability; judgment lien
      § 55.1-1959
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Suspension of services for failure to pay assessments; corrective action; assessment of charges for violations; notice; hearing; adoption and enforcement of rules and regulations
      § 55.1-1960
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitation of occupancy of a unit
      § 55.1-1961
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use of for sale sign in connection with resale
      § 55.1-1962
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Designation of authorized representative
      § 55.1-1963
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Insurance
      § 55.1-1964
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Liability for common expenses; late fees
      § 55.1-1965
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual budget; reserves for capital components
      § 55.1-1966
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lien for assessments
      § 55.1-1967
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice of sale under deed of trust
      § 55.1-1968
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bond to be posted by declarant
      § 55.1-1969
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Restraints on alienation
    • Article 4. Administration of Chapter; Sale, Etc., of Condominium Units
    • § 55.1-1970
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Common Interest Community Board
      § 55.1-1971
      (Effective October 1, 2019) General powers and duties of the Common Interest Community Board
      § 55.1-1972
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exemptions from certain provisions of article
      § 55.1-1973
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rental of units
      § 55.1-1974
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitations on dispositions of units
      § 55.1-1975
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application for registration; fee
      § 55.1-1976
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement; condominium securities
      § 55.1-1977
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Inquiry and examination
      § 55.1-1978
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice of filing and registration
      § 55.1-1979
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report by declarant
      § 55.1-1980
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report by unit owners' association
      § 55.1-1981
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of registration
      § 55.1-1982
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conversion condominiums; special provisions
      § 55.1-1983
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escrow of deposits
      § 55.1-1984
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Declarant to deliver declaration to purchaser
      § 55.1-1985
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Investigations and proceedings
      § 55.1-1986
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Cease and desist orders
      § 55.1-1987
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Revocation of registration
      § 55.1-1988
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Judicial review
      § 55.1-1989
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalties
    • Article 5. Disclosure Requirements; Authorized Fees
    • § 55.1-1990
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Resale by purchaser; contract disclosure; right of cancellation
      § 55.1-1991
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of resale certificate; delivery
      § 55.1-1992
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Fees for resale certificate
      § 55.1-1993
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Properties subject to more than one declaration
      § 55.1-1994
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Requests by settlement agents
      § 55.1-1995
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exceptions to disclosure requirements
  • Chapter 20. Horizontal Property Act
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-2000
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2001
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property taxes assessed on individual apartments
      § 55.1-2002
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Chapter additional and supplemental
    • Article 2. Creation and Alteration of Horizontal Property Regimes
    • § 55.1-2003
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Establishment of horizontal property regime
      § 55.1-2004
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Partition
    • Article 3. Management of Horizontal Property Regimes
    • § 55.1-2005
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Apartments subject to individual titles and interests; recording; transfer of garage unit
      § 55.1-2006
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Joint or common ownership
      § 55.1-2007
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exclusive and common rights of owners
      § 55.1-2008
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Master deed or lease; recordation; particulars
      § 55.1-2009
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deeds of individual apartments
      § 55.1-2010
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Regrouping or merger of estates with principal property
      § 55.1-2011
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Merger not to bar subsequent condominium
      § 55.1-2012
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bylaws governing administration of buildings
      § 55.1-2013
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Books and records; inspection; audit
      § 55.1-2014
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contributions by co-owners
      § 55.1-2015
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Payment of assessments upon conveyance of apartment; priority
      § 55.1-2016
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Liens or encumbrances
      § 55.1-2017
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rule against perpetuities; rule restricting unreasonable restraints on alienation
      § 55.1-2018
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Liability of owner
      § 55.1-2019
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Compliance by co-owner with bylaws and administrative rules and regulations
    • Article 4. Protection of Purchasers
    • § 55.1-2020
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deposits to be held in escrow
  • Chapter 21. Virginia Real Estate Cooperative Act
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-2100
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2101
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability
      § 55.1-2102
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Variation by agreement
      § 55.1-2103
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property classification of cooperative interests; taxation
      § 55.1-2104
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability of local ordinances, regulations, and building codes; local authority
      § 55.1-2105
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Eminent domain
      § 55.1-2106
      (Effective October 1, 2019) General principles of law applicable
      § 55.1-2107
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction against implicit repeal
      § 55.1-2108
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Uniformity of application and construction
      § 55.1-2109
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Unconscionable agreement or term of contract
      § 55.1-2110
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Obligation of good faith
      § 55.1-2111
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Remedies to be liberally administered
    • Article 2. Creation, Alteration, and Termination of Cooperatives
    • § 55.1-2112
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Creation of cooperative ownership
      § 55.1-2113
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Unit boundaries
      § 55.1-2114
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction and validity of declaration and bylaws
      § 55.1-2115
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Description of units
      § 55.1-2116
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of declaration
      § 55.1-2117
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Leasehold cooperatives
      § 55.1-2118
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Allocation of ownership interests, votes, and common expense liabilities
      § 55.1-2119
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limited common elements
      § 55.1-2120
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exercise of development rights
      § 55.1-2121
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Alterations of units
      § 55.1-2122
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Relocation of boundaries between adjoining units
      § 55.1-2123
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Subdivision of units
      § 55.1-2124
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Easement for encroachments
      § 55.1-2125
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use for sales purposes
      § 55.1-2126
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Easement rights
      § 55.1-2127
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Amendment of declaration
      § 55.1-2128
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of cooperative ownership
      § 55.1-2129
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Rights of secured lenders
      § 55.1-2130
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Master associations
      § 55.1-2131
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Merger or consolidation of cooperatives
    • Article 3. Management of Cooperatives
    • § 55.1-2132
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Organization of the association
      § 55.1-2133
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Powers of the association
      § 55.1-2134
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Executive board members and officers
      § 55.1-2135
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Transfer of special declarant rights
      § 55.1-2136
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of contracts and leases of declarant
      § 55.1-2137
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bylaws
      § 55.1-2138
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Upkeep of cooperative
      § 55.1-2139
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Common elements; notice of pesticide application
      § 55.1-2140
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Meetings
      § 55.1-2141
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Quorums
      § 55.1-2142
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Voting; proxies
      § 55.1-2143
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Tort and contract liability
      § 55.1-2144
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conveyance or encumbrance of the cooperative
      § 55.1-2145
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Insurance
      § 55.1-2146
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Assessments for common expenses
      § 55.1-2147
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual budget; reserves for capital components
      § 55.1-2148
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Remedies for nonpayment of assessments
      § 55.1-2149
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Other liens affecting the cooperative
      § 55.1-2150
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Limitation of assumption of debt and encumbrances
      § 55.1-2151
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Association records
      § 55.1-2152
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Association as trustee
    • Article 4. Protection of Cooperative Purchasers
    • § 55.1-2153
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability; waiver
      § 55.1-2154
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Liability for public offering statement; requirements
      § 55.1-2155
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement; general provisions
      § 55.1-2156
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement; cooperatives subject to development rights
      § 55.1-2157
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement; time-shares
      § 55.1-2158
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement; cooperatives containing conversion building
      § 55.1-2159
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement; cooperative securities
      § 55.1-2160
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Purchaser's right to cancel
      § 55.1-2161
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Resales of cooperative interests
      § 55.1-2162
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escrow of deposits
      § 55.1-2163
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Release of liens
      § 55.1-2164
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conversion buildings
      § 55.1-2165
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Express warranties of quality
      § 55.1-2166
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Implied warranties of quality
      § 55.1-2167
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exclusion or modification of implied warranties of quality
      § 55.1-2168
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Statute of limitations for warranties
      § 55.1-2169
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of violation on rights of action; attorney fees; arbitration of disputes
      § 55.1-2170
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Labeling of promotional material
      § 55.1-2171
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Declarant's obligation to complete and restore
      § 55.1-2172
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Substantial completion of units
    • Article 5. Administration and Registration of Cooperatives
    • § 55.1-2173
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Common Interest Community Board
      § 55.1-2174
      (Effective October 1, 2019) General powers and duties of the Common Interest Community Board
      § 55.1-2175
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Registration required
      § 55.1-2176
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application for registration; approval of uncompleted unit
      § 55.1-2177
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Receipt of application; order or registration
      § 55.1-2178
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Cease and desist order
      § 55.1-2179
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Revocation of registration
      § 55.1-2180
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Investigative powers of the Common Interest Community Board
      § 55.1-2181
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report and amendments
      § 55.1-2182
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report by associations
      § 55.1-2183
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Common Interest Community Board regulation of public offering statement
      § 55.1-2184
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalties
  • Chapter 22. Virginia Real Estate Time-Share Act
    • Article 1. General Provisions
    • § 55.1-2200
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2201
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability
      § 55.1-2202
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Administrative agency
      § 55.1-2203
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Status of time-share estates with respect to real property interests
      § 55.1-2204
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Applicability of local ordinances, regulations, and building codes
      § 55.1-2205
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Use of terms
      § 55.1-2206
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Severability of provisions of time-share instruments
    • Article 2. Creation, Termination, and Management
    • § 55.1-2207
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time-sharing permitted
      § 55.1-2208
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Instruments
      § 55.1-2209
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time-share instrument for time-share estate project
      § 55.1-2210
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Developer control in time-share estate program
      § 55.1-2211
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time-share estate owners' association control liens
      § 55.1-2212
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time-share owners' association books and records; meetings; use of email
      § 55.1-2213
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time-share estate owners' association annual report
      § 55.1-2214
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Time-share instrument for project
      § 55.1-2215
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Partition
      § 55.1-2216
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of certain time-shares
    • Article 3. Protection of Purchasers
    • § 55.1-2217
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Public offering statement
      § 55.1-2218
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain advertising practices regulated
      § 55.1-2219
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exchange programs
      § 55.1-2220
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escrow of deposits; use of corporate surety bond or irrevocable letter of credit
      § 55.1-2221
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Purchaser's rights of cancellation
      § 55.1-2222
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Possibility of reverter
      § 55.1-2223
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recording and delivery of deed
      § 55.1-2224
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Liability limited; liability actions prohibited
      § 55.1-2225
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Warning required
      § 55.1-2226
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Buyer's Acknowledgment
      § 55.1-2227
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Resale of time-shares
      § 55.1-2228
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Required resale disclosures
      § 55.1-2229
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Liens
      § 55.1-2230
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of violations on rights of action; attorney fees; prior determination of Common Interest Community Board required for certain violations
      § 55.1-2231
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Statute of limitations; actions; limitation on rescission rights
      § 55.1-2232
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Class actions
      § 55.1-2233
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Financial records
      § 55.1-2234
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Developer's obligation to complete
    • Article 4. Financing
    • § 55.1-2235
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Financing of time-share programs
      § 55.1-2236
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Purchaser's rights under developer's foreclosure
      § 55.1-2237
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Protection of lien holder
    • Article 5. Registration
    • § 55.1-2238
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Registration of time-share program required
      § 55.1-2239
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application for registration
      § 55.1-2240
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Filing fee
      § 55.1-2241
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Receipt of application; effectiveness of registration
      § 55.1-2242
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report; amendments
      § 55.1-2243
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of registration
      § 55.1-2244
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Registration required for time-share resellers; exemptions; prohibited practices
      § 55.1-2245
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordkeeping by resellers
      § 55.1-2246
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Alternative purchase; registration
    • Article 6. Administration
    • § 55.1-2247
      (Effective October 1, 2019) General powers and duties of Board
      § 55.1-2248
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Cancellation of cease and desist order; reinstatement of registration of developer
      § 55.1-2249
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Board regulation of public offering statement
      § 55.1-2250
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Proceedings and investigations
      § 55.1-2251
      Repealed
      § 55.1-2252
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalties
  • Chapter 23. Subdivided Land Sales Act
    • § 55.1-2300
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2301
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exemptions
      § 55.1-2302
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Transfer of ownership
      § 55.1-2303
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Blanket encumbrances
      § 55.1-2304
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Restraints on alienation
      § 55.1-2305
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Management, regulation, and control of subdivisions with common facilities or property owners' associations
      § 55.1-2306
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalties
  • Subtitle V. Miscellaneous
  • Chapter 24. Escheats
    • § 55.1-2400
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definition
      § 55.1-2401
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Appointment of escheators
      § 55.1-2402
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bond of escheator
      § 55.1-2403
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Increase or reduction of penalty of escheator's bond; effect
      § 55.1-2404
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Annual report to escheator; lands not liable
      § 55.1-2405
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheator to hold inquest; notice of inquest
      § 55.1-2406
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Jury of inquest; presentation of evidence
      § 55.1-2407
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Attendance of jurors; compensation
      § 55.1-2408
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How verdict signed; where returned and recorded
      § 55.1-2409
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Proceedings to claim land escheated
      § 55.1-2410
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Trial by jury; judgment of court
      § 55.1-2411
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Facts or evidence to be certified
      § 55.1-2412
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lands may be committed to claimant while claim pending
      § 55.1-2413
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disposition of lands while claim is pending, if not committed to claimant
      § 55.1-2414
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheator to notify State Treasurer of claim and decision
      § 55.1-2415
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheators to certify lands escheated
      § 55.1-2416
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Removal of parcels from the certificate
      § 55.1-2417
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheat of property with hazardous materials
      § 55.1-2418
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Publication of escheator's certificate
      § 55.1-2419
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Order of sale by Governor
      § 55.1-2420
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form of sale agreement; notice of right to refund
      § 55.1-2421
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When grant to issue to purchaser; reimbursable expenses
      § 55.1-2422
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Form of grant of escheated property
      § 55.1-2423
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Governor to sign and seal grant; Librarian of Virginia to record it; delivery to and by State Treasurer
      § 55.1-2424
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recordation of certified copy of grant
      § 55.1-2425
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Resale in case of default
      § 55.1-2426
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Reports by escheators to State Treasurer
      § 55.1-2427
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Reports by State Treasurer to the Governor; penalty on escheators for failure of duty
      § 55.1-2428
      (Effective October 1, 2019) State Treasurer may examine records of any escheator, commissioner of the revenue, or treasurer
      § 55.1-2429
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When State Treasurer to issue grant to purchaser
      § 55.1-2430
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheator's pay
      § 55.1-2431
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheat of estates in trust and equitable titles
      § 55.1-2432
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Provision in favor of tenant of escheated land
      § 55.1-2433
      (Effective October 1, 2019) in favor of creditor of decedent
      § 55.1-2434
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Escheators to defend on behalf of Commonwealth
      § 55.1-2435
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recovery by escheator of decedent's escheated residue and of property abandoned or derelict; fee
      § 55.1-2436
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Publication of action; what to state and require
      § 55.1-2437
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Order of the court
      § 55.1-2438
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How money paid into state treasury from escheats may be recovered
      § 55.1-2439
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Regulations of the State Treasurer
      § 55.1-2440
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Continuation of certain statutes
      § 55.1-2441
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Pendency of escheat proceedings no bar to condemnation proceedings
  • Chapter 25. Virginia Disposition of Unclaimed Property Act
    • Article 1. Definitions; Property Abandoned or Assumed Abandoned
    • § 55.1-2500
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2501
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property presumed abandoned; general rule
      § 55.1-2502
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Taking custody of intangible unclaimed property; general rules
      § 55.1-2503
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Bank deposits and funds in financial organizations
      § 55.1-2504
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Traveler's checks and money orders
      § 55.1-2505
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Checks, drafts, and similar instruments issued or certified by banking and financial organizations
      § 55.1-2506
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Contents of safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository
      § 55.1-2507
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Funds owing under life insurance policies
      § 55.1-2508
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Intangible personal property held by insurance corporation subject to § 55.1-2501
      § 55.1-2509
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Unclaimed demutualization proceeds
      § 55.1-2510
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Deposits held by utilities
      § 55.1-2511
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Intangible interest in business association
      § 55.1-2512
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Refunds held by business associations
      § 55.1-2513
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property of business associations held in course of dissolution
      § 55.1-2514
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Intangible personal property held in fiduciary capacity
      § 55.1-2515
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Gift certificates and credit balances
      § 55.1-2516
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Wages
      § 55.1-2517
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Intangible property held for owner by public agency
      § 55.1-2518
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property held by courts
      § 55.1-2519
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Responsibilities of general receiver and clerk
      § 55.1-2520
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Employee benefit trust distribution
      § 55.1-2521
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Holder of tangible or intangible personal property may voluntarily report such property
    • Article 2. Reciprocity for Property Presumed Abandoned or Escheated under Laws of Another State
    • § 55.1-2522
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Certain property not presumed abandoned in the Commonwealth
      § 55.1-2523
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Interstate agreements and cooperation
    • Article 3. Procedural and Administrative Matters
    • § 55.1-2524
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Report and remittance to be made by holder of funds or property presumed abandoned; holder to exercise due diligence to locate owner
      § 55.1-2525
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notices to be published by administrator
      § 55.1-2526
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Holder relieved of liability for property paid or delivered to administrator; payment to owner by holder; proceedings against prior holder; notice to administrator and Attorney General; reimbursement of holder
      § 55.1-2527
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Crediting of dividends, interest, or increments to owner's account
      § 55.1-2528
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Periods of limitation
      § 55.1-2529
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Sale of abandoned property by administrator
      § 55.1-2530
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Securities received in name of owner
      § 55.1-2531
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Disposition of funds received under chapter; records to be kept by administrator
      § 55.1-2532
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Filing claim to property or proceeds of sale of such property
      § 55.1-2533
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Consideration of and hearing on claim by administrator; payment; interest
      § 55.1-2534
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Judicial review of decision of administrator
      § 55.1-2535
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Election of administrator not to receive property or to postpone taking possession of funds
      § 55.1-2536
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Requests for verified reports and examinations of records
      § 55.1-2537
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Retention of records
      § 55.1-2538
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Confidentiality of information and records
      § 55.1-2539
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Enforcement of chapter
      § 55.1-2540
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Interest and penalties
      § 55.1-2541
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Determinations; appeal procedures; regulations of administrator
      § 55.1-2542
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Agreements to locate reported property; penalty
      § 55.1-2543
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property presumed abandoned or escheated under laws of another state
      § 55.1-2544
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property held or payable pursuant to Title 51.1
      § 55.1-2545
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Construction of chapter
  • Chapter 26. Property Loaned to Museums
    • § 55.1-2600
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2601
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Status of loaned property; statute of limitations on recovery
      § 55.1-2602
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice to lenders of the provisions of this chapter
      § 55.1-2603
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Status of title to property acquired from museum
      § 55.1-2604
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Notice of termination of loan; content of notice
      § 55.1-2605
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Procedure for giving notice of termination of a loan of property; responsibility of owner of loaned property
      § 55.1-2606
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Acquiring title to undocumented property
      § 55.1-2607
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Status of property loaned to or deposited with museum prior to July 1, 2002
  • Chapter 27. Drift Property
    • § 55.1-2700
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Who is entitled to drift property
      § 55.1-2701
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Conditions on which owner may remove drift property
      § 55.1-2702
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When owner of land may sell drift property; owner of property entitled to proceeds after payment of expenses, etc.
      § 55.1-2703
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Right of property to be proved
  • Chapter 28. Trespasses; Fences
    • Article 1. Electric Fences
    • § 55.1-2800
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definition
      § 55.1-2801
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Unlawful to sell, distribute, construct, install, maintain, or use certain electric fences upon agricultural land
      § 55.1-2802
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Unlawful to sell other controlling devices unless they meet certain standards
      § 55.1-2803
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Penalty
    • Article 2. What Constitutes Lawful Fence
    • § 55.1-2804
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Description of lawful fence
      § 55.1-2805
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Proceeding to declare stream of water or canal a lawful fence
      § 55.1-2806
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Boundary lines of certain low grounds on James River a lawful fence
      § 55.1-2807
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Statutes declaring watercourses lawful fences continued
    • Article 3. Cattle Guards and Gates Across Rights-of-Way
    • § 55.1-2808
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Property owner may place cattle guards or gates across right-of-way
      § 55.1-2809
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Persons having easement may replace gate with cattle guard; maintenance and use thereof; deemed lawful gate
    • Article 4. Trespass in Crossing Lawful Fence
    • § 55.1-2810
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Damages for trespass by animals; punitive and double damages
      § 55.1-2811
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lien on animals
      § 55.1-2812
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Impounding animals
      § 55.1-2813
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Duty to issue warrant when animal impounded
    • Article 5. No-Fence Law
    • § 55.1-2814
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How governing body of county may make local fence law
      § 55.1-2815
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of such law on certain fences
      § 55.1-2816
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Application to railroad companies
      § 55.1-2817
      (Effective October 1, 2019) No authority to adopt more stringent fence laws
      § 55.1-2818
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect on existing fence laws or no-fence laws
      § 55.1-2819
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lands under quarantine
      § 55.1-2820
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When unlawful for animals to run at large
    • Article 6. Division Fences
    • § 55.1-2821
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Obligation to provide division fences
      § 55.1-2822
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When no division fence has been built
      § 55.1-2823
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When division fence already built
      § 55.1-2824
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Recovery of amount due in connection with division fence
      § 55.1-2825
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Requirements for agreement to bind successors in title; subsequent owners
      § 55.1-2826
      (Effective October 1, 2019) How notice given
    • Article 7. Special Provisions for Unincorporated Communities
    • § 55.1-2827
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Courts to fix boundaries of villages to prevent animals from running at large
      § 55.1-2828
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Petition for action to fix boundaries of village or unincorporated community
      § 55.1-2829
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Entry of order if petition not contested
      § 55.1-2830
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Procedure in case of contest
      § 55.1-2831
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Order of court
      § 55.1-2832
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Animals shall not run at large after entry of order
      § 55.1-2833
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Costs
      § 55.1-2834
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Owner of domesticated livestock liable for trespasses
    • Article 8. Cutting Timber
    • § 55.1-2835
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Damages recoverable for timber cutting
      § 55.1-2836
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Procedure for determination of damage
      § 55.1-2837
      (Effective October 1, 2019) When person damaged may proceed in court
      § 55.1-2838
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Larceny of timber; penalty
      § 55.1-2839
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Larceny of timber; failure to remit payment to owner; penalty
      § 55.1-2840
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Load tickets required for certain sales of timber; penalty
      § 55.1-2841
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of article
  • Chapter 29. Virginia Self-Service Storage Act
    • § 55.1-2900
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-2901
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Lien on personal property stored within a leased space
      § 55.1-2902
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Enforcement of lien
      § 55.1-2903
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Other legal remedies may be used
      § 55.1-2904
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Care, custody, and control of property
      § 55.1-2905
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Savings clause
      § 55.1-2906
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Effective date and application of chapter
  • Chapter 30. Residential Executory Real Estate Contracts Act
    • § 55.1-3000
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Definitions
      § 55.1-3001
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Exemptions
      § 55.1-3002
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Provisions applicable to residential executory real estate contracts
      § 55.1-3003
      (Effective October 1, 2019) Board for Housing and Community Development; development of best practice provisions for residential executory real estate contracts