Administrative Code

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Virginia Administrative Code
Title 22. Social Services
Agency 40. Department of Social Services
Chapter 73. Standards for Licensed Assisted Living Facilities
10/26/2020

22VAC40-73-10. Definitions.

Part I
General Provisions

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Activities of daily living" or "ADLs" means bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, bowel control, bladder control, and eating/feeding. A person's degree of independence in performing these activities is a part of determining appropriate level of care and services.

"Administer medication" means to open a container of medicine or to remove the ordered dosage and to give it to the resident for whom it is ordered.

"Administrator" means the licensee or a person designated by the licensee who is responsible for the general administration and management of an assisted living facility and who oversees the day-to-day operation of the facility, including compliance with all regulations for licensed assisted living facilities.

"Admission" means the date a person actually becomes a resident of the assisted living facility and is physically present at the facility.

"Advance directive" means, as defined in § 54.1-2982 of the Code of Virginia, (i) a witnessed written document, voluntarily executed by the declarant in accordance with the requirements of § 54.1-2983 of the Code of Virginia or (ii) a witnessed oral statement, made by the declarant subsequent to the time he is diagnosed as suffering from a terminal condition and in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2983 of the Code of Virginia.

"Ambulatory" means the condition of a resident who is physically and mentally capable of self-preservation by evacuating in response to an emergency to a refuge area as defined by 13VAC5-63, the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code, without the assistance of another person, or from the structure itself without the assistance of another person if there is no such refuge area within the structure, even if such resident may require the assistance of a wheelchair, walker, cane, prosthetic device, or a single verbal command to evacuate.

"Assisted living care" means a level of service provided by an assisted living facility for adults who may have physical or mental impairments and require at least moderate assistance with the activities of daily living. Included in this level of service are individuals who are dependent in behavior pattern (i.e., abusive, aggressive, disruptive) as documented on the uniform assessment instrument.

"Assisted living facility" means, as defined in § 63.2-100 of the Code of Virginia, any congregate residential setting that provides or coordinates personal and health care services, 24-hour supervision, and assistance (scheduled and unscheduled) for the maintenance or care of four or more adults who are aged, infirm, or disabled and who are cared for in a primarily residential setting, except (i) a facility or portion of a facility licensed by the State Board of Health or the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, but including any portion of such facility not so licensed; (ii) the home or residence of an individual who cares for or maintains only persons related to him by blood or marriage; (iii) a facility or portion of a facility serving infirm or disabled persons between the ages of 18 and 21 years, or 22 years if enrolled in an educational program for the handicapped pursuant to § 22.1-214 of the Code of Virginia, when such facility is licensed by the department as a children's residential facility under Chapter 17 (§ 63.2-1700 et seq.) of Title 63.2 of the Code of Virginia, but including any portion of the facility not so licensed; and (iv) any housing project for persons 62 years of age or older or the disabled that provides no more than basic coordination of care services and is funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or by the Virginia Housing Development Authority. Included in this definition are any two or more places, establishments, or institutions owned or operated by a single entity and providing maintenance or care to a combined total of four or more aged, infirm, or disabled adults. Maintenance or care means the protection, general supervision, and oversight of the physical and mental well-being of an aged, infirm, or disabled individual.

"Attorney-in-fact" means strictly, one who is designated to transact business for another: a legal agent.

"Behavioral health authority" means the organization, appointed by and accountable to the governing body of the city or county that established it, that provides mental health, developmental, and substance abuse services through its own staff or through contracts with other organizations and providers.

"Board" means the State Board of Social Services.

"Building" means a structure with exterior walls under one roof.

"Cardiopulmonary resuscitation" or "CPR" means an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration; the first treatment for a person who has collapsed, has no pulse, and has stopped breathing; and attempts to restore circulation of the blood and prevent death or brain damage due to lack of oxygen.

"Case management" means multiple functions designed to link clients to appropriate services. Case management may include a variety of common components such as initial screening of needs, comprehensive assessment of needs, development and implementation of a plan of care, service monitoring, and client follow-up.

"Case manager" means an employee of a public human services agency who is qualified and designated to develop and coordinate plans of care.

"Chapter" or "this chapter" means these regulations, that is, Standards for Licensed Assisted Living Facilities, 22VAC40-73, unless noted otherwise.

"Chemical restraint" means a psychopharmacologic drug that is used for discipline or convenience and not required to treat the resident's medical symptoms or symptoms from mental illness or intellectual disability and that prohibits the resident from reaching his highest level of functioning.

"Commissioner" means the commissioner of the department, his designee, or authorized representative.

"Community services board" or "CSB" means a public body established pursuant to § 37.2-501 of the Code of Virginia that provides mental health, developmental, and substance abuse programs and services within the political subdivision or political subdivisions participating on the board.

"Companion services" means assistance provided to residents in such areas as transportation, meal preparation, shopping, light housekeeping, companionship, and household management.

"Conservator" means a person appointed by the court who is responsible for managing the estate and financial affairs of an incapacitated person and, where the context plainly indicates, includes a "limited conservator" or a "temporary conservator." The term includes (i) a local or regional program designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public conservator pursuant to Article 6 (§ 51.5-149 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 of the Code of Virginia or (ii) any local or regional tax-exempt charitable organization established pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code to provide conservatorial services to incapacitated persons. Such tax-exempt charitable organization shall not be a provider of direct services to the incapacitated person. If a tax-exempt charitable organization has been designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public conservator, it may also serve as a conservator for other individuals.

"Continuous licensed nursing care" means around-the-clock observation, assessment, monitoring, supervision, or provision of medical treatments provided by a licensed nurse. Individuals requiring continuous licensed nursing care may include:

1. Individuals who have a medical instability due to complexities created by multiple, interrelated medical conditions; or

2. Individuals with a health care condition with a high potential for medical instability.

"Days" means calendar days unless noted otherwise.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Social Services.

"Department's representative" means an employee or designee of the Virginia Department of Social Services, acting as an authorized agent of the Commissioner of Social Services.

"Dietary supplement" means a product intended for ingestion that supplements the diet, is labeled as a dietary supplement, is not represented as a sole item of a meal or diet, and contains a dietary ingredient or ingredients, (e.g., vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, dietary substances (such as enzymes), and concentrates, metabolites, constituents, extracts, or combinations of the preceding types of ingredients). Dietary supplements may be found in many forms, such as tablets, capsules, liquids, or bars.

"Direct care staff" means supervisors, assistants, aides, or other staff of a facility who assist residents in the performance of personal care or daily living activities.

"Discharge" means the movement of a resident out of the assisted living facility.

"Electronic record" means a record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means.

"Electronic signature" means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with a record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.

"Emergency placement" means the temporary status of an individual in an assisted living facility when the person's health and safety would be jeopardized by denying entry into the facility until the requirements for admission have been met.

"Emergency restraint" means a restraint used when the resident's behavior is unmanageable to the degree an immediate and serious danger is presented to the health and safety of the resident or others.

"General supervision and oversight" means assuming responsibility for the well-being of residents, either directly or through contracted agents.

"Guardian" means a person appointed by the court who is responsible for the personal affairs of an incapacitated person, including responsibility for making decisions regarding the person's support, care, health, safety, habilitation, education, therapeutic treatment, and, if not inconsistent with an order of involuntary admission, residence. Where the context plainly indicates, the term includes a "limited guardian" or a "temporary guardian." The term includes (i) a local or regional program designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public guardian pursuant to Article 6 (§ 51.5-149 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 of the Code of Virginia or (ii) any local or regional tax-exempt charitable organization established pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code to provide guardian services to incapacitated persons. Such tax-exempt charitable organization shall not be a provider of direct services to the incapacitated person. If a tax-exempt charitable organization has been designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public guardian, it may also serve as a guardian for other individuals.

"Habilitative service" means activities to advance a normal sequence of motor skills, movement, and self-care abilities or to prevent avoidable additional deformity or dysfunction.

"Health care provider" means a person, corporation, facility, or institution licensed by this Commonwealth to provide health care or professional services, including a physician or hospital, dentist, pharmacist, registered or licensed practical nurse, optometrist, podiatrist, chiropractor, physical therapist, physical therapy assistant, clinical psychologist, or health maintenance organization.

"Household member" means any person domiciled in an assisted living facility other than residents or staff.

"Imminent physical threat or danger" means clear and present risk of sustaining or inflicting serious or life threatening injuries.

"Independent clinical psychologist" means a clinical psychologist who is chosen by the resident of the assisted living facility and who has no financial interest in the assisted living facility, directly or indirectly, as an owner, officer, or employee or as an independent contractor with the facility.

"Independent living status" means that the resident is assessed as capable of performing all activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living for himself without requiring the assistance of another person and is assessed as capable of taking medications without the assistance of another person. If the policy of a facility dictates that medications are administered or distributed centrally without regard for the residents' capacity, this policy shall not be considered in determining independent status.

"Independent physician" means a physician who is chosen by the resident of the assisted living facility and who has no financial interest in the assisted living facility, directly or indirectly, as an owner, officer, or employee or as an independent contractor with the facility.

"Individualized service plan" or "ISP" means the written description of actions to be taken by the licensee, including coordination with other services providers, to meet the assessed needs of the resident.

"Instrumental activities of daily living" or "IADLs" means meal preparation, housekeeping, laundry, and managing money. A person's degree of independence in performing these activities is a part of determining appropriate level of care and services.

"Intellectual disability" means disability, originating before the age of 18 years, characterized concurrently by (i) significantly subaverage intellectual functioning as demonstrated by performance on a standardized measure of intellectual functioning, administered in conformity with accepted professional practice, that is at least two standard deviations below the mean and (ii) significant limitations in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.

"Intermittent intravenous therapy" means therapy provided by a licensed health care professional at medically predictable intervals for a limited period of time on a daily or periodic basis.

"Legal representative" means a person legally responsible for representing or standing in the place of the resident for the conduct of his affairs. This may include a guardian, conservator, attorney-in-fact under durable power of attorney ("durable power of attorney" defines the type of legal instrument used to name the attorney-in-fact and does not change the meaning of attorney-in-fact), trustee, or other person expressly named by a court of competent jurisdiction or the resident as his agent in a legal document that specifies the scope of the representative's authority to act. A legal representative may only represent or stand in the place of a resident for the function or functions for which he has legal authority to act. A resident is presumed competent and is responsible for making all health care, personal care, financial, and other personal decisions that affect his life unless a representative with legal authority has been appointed by a court of competent jurisdiction or has been appointed by the resident in a properly executed and signed document. A resident may have different legal representatives for different functions. For any given standard, the term "legal representative" applies solely to the legal representative with the authority to act in regard to the function or functions relevant to that particular standard.

"Licensed health care professional" means any health care professional currently licensed by the Commonwealth of Virginia to practice within the scope of his profession, such as a nurse practitioner, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse (nurses may be licensed or hold multistate licensure pursuant to § 54.1-3000 of the Code of Virginia), clinical social worker, dentist, occupational therapist, pharmacist, physical therapist, physician, physician assistant, psychologist, and speech-language pathologist. Responsibilities of physicians referenced in this chapter may be implemented by nurse practitioners or physician assistants in accordance with their protocols or practice agreements with their supervising physicians and in accordance with the law.

"Licensee" means any person, association, partnership, corporation, company, or public agency to whom the license is issued.

"Manager" means a designated person who serves as a manager pursuant to 22VAC40-73-170 and 22VAC40-73-180.

"Mandated reporter" means persons specified in § 63.2-1606 of the Code of Virginia who are required to report matters giving reason to suspect abuse, neglect, or exploitation of an adult.

"Maximum physical assistance" means that an individual has a rating of total dependence in four or more of the seven activities of daily living as documented on the uniform assessment instrument. An individual who can participate in any way with performance of the activity is not considered to be totally dependent.

"Medical/orthopedic restraint" means the use of a medical or orthopedic support device that has the effect of restricting the resident's freedom of movement or access to his body for the purpose of improving the resident's stability, physical functioning, or mobility.

"Medication aide" means a staff person who has current registration with the Virginia Board of Nursing to administer drugs that would otherwise be self-administered to residents in an assisted living facility in accordance with the Regulations Governing the Registration of Medication Aides (18VAC90-60). This definition also includes a staff person who is an applicant for registration as a medication aide in accordance with subdivision 2 of 22VAC40-73-670.

"Mental illness" means a disorder of thought, mood, emotion, perception, or orientation that significantly impairs judgment, behavior, capacity to recognize reality, or ability to address basic life necessities and requires care and treatment for the health, safety, or recovery of the individual or for the safety of others.

"Mental impairment" means a disability that reduces an individual's ability to reason logically, make appropriate decisions, or engage in purposeful behavior.

"Minimal assistance" means dependency in only one activity of daily living or dependency in one or more of the instrumental activities of daily living as documented on the uniform assessment instrument.

"Moderate assistance" means dependency in two or more of the activities of daily living as documented on the uniform assessment instrument.

"Nonambulatory" means the condition of a resident who by reason of physical or mental impairment is not capable of self-preservation without the assistance of another person.

"Nonemergency restraint" means a restraint used for the purpose of providing support to a physically weakened resident.

"Physical impairment" means a condition of a bodily or sensory nature that reduces an individual's ability to function or to perform activities.

"Physical restraint" means any manual method or physical or mechanical device, material, or equipment attached or adjacent to the resident's body that the resident cannot remove easily, which restricts freedom of movement or access to his body.

"Physician" means an individual licensed to practice medicine or osteopathic medicine in any of the 50 states or the District of Columbia.

"Premises" means a building or buildings, under one license, together with the land or grounds on which located.

"Prescriber" means a practitioner who is authorized pursuant to §§ 54.1-3303 and 54.1-3408 of the Code of Virginia to issue a prescription.

"Private duty personnel" means an individual hired, either directly or through a licensed home care organization, by a resident, family member, legal representative, or similar entity to provide one-on-one services to the resident, such as a private duty nurse, home attendant, personal aide, or companion. Private duty personnel are not hired by the facility, either directly or through a contract.

"Private pay" means that a resident of an assisted living facility is not eligible for an auxiliary grant.

"Psychopharmacologic drug" means any drug prescribed or administered with the intent of controlling mood, mental status, or behavior. Psychopharmacologic drugs include not only the obvious drug classes, such as antipsychotic, antidepressants, and the antianxiety/hypnotic class, but any drug that is prescribed or administered with the intent of controlling mood, mental status, or behavior, regardless of the manner in which it is marketed by the manufacturers and regardless of labeling or other approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

"Public pay" means that a resident of an assisted living facility is eligible for an auxiliary grant.

"Qualified" means having appropriate training and experience commensurate with assigned responsibilities, or if referring to a professional, possessing an appropriate degree or having documented equivalent education, training, or experience. There are specific definitions for "qualified assessor" and "qualified mental health professional" in this section.

"Qualified assessor" means an individual who is authorized to perform an assessment, reassessment, or change in level of care for an applicant to or resident of an assisted living facility. For public pay individuals, a qualified assessor is an employee of a public human services agency trained in the completion of the uniform assessment instrument (UAI). For private pay individuals, a qualified assessor is an employee of the assisted living facility trained in the completion of the UAI or an independent private physician or a qualified assessor for public pay individuals.

"Qualified mental health professional" means a behavioral health professional who is trained and experienced in providing psychiatric or mental health services to individuals who have a psychiatric diagnosis, including (i) a physician licensed in Virginia; (ii) a psychologist: an individual with a master's degree in psychology from a college or university accredited by an association recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education, with at least one year of clinical experience; (iii) a social worker: an individual with at least a master's degree in human services or related field (e.g., social work, psychology, psychiatric rehabilitation, sociology, counseling, vocational rehabilitation, or human services counseling) from a college or university accredited by an association recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education, with at least one year of clinical experience providing direct services to persons with a diagnosis of mental illness; (iv) a registered psychiatric rehabilitation provider (RPRP) registered with the International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services (IAPSRS); (v) a clinical nurse specialist or psychiatric nurse practitioner licensed in the Commonwealth of Virginia with at least one year of clinical experience working in a mental health treatment facility or agency; (vi) any other licensed mental health professional; or (vii) any other person deemed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services as having qualifications equivalent to those described in this definition. Any unlicensed person who meets the requirements contained in this definition shall either be under the supervision of a licensed mental health professional or employed by an agency or organization licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services.

"Rehabilitative services" means activities that are ordered by a physician or other qualified health care professional that are provided by a rehabilitative therapist (e.g., physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech-language pathologist). These activities may be necessary when a resident has demonstrated a change in his capabilities and are provided to restore or improve his level of functioning.

"Resident" means any adult residing in an assisted living facility for the purpose of receiving maintenance or care. The definition of resident also includes adults residing in an assisted living facility who have independent living status. Adults present in an assisted living facility for part of the day for the purpose of receiving day care services are also considered residents.

"Residential living care" means a level of service provided by an assisted living facility for adults who may have physical or mental impairments and require only minimal assistance with the activities of daily living. Included in this level of service are individuals who are dependent in medication administration as documented on the uniform assessment instrument, although they may not require minimal assistance with the activities of daily living. This definition includes the services provided by the facility to individuals who are assessed as capable of maintaining themselves in an independent living status.

"Respite care" means services provided in an assisted living facility for the maintenance or care of aged, infirm, or disabled adults for a temporary period of time or temporary periods of time that are regular or intermittent. Facilities offering this type of care are subject to this chapter.

"Restorative care" means activities designed to assist the resident in reaching or maintaining his level of potential. These activities are not required to be provided by a rehabilitative therapist and may include activities such as range of motion, assistance with ambulation, positioning, assistance and instruction in the activities of daily living, psychosocial skills training, and reorientation and reality orientation.

"Restraint" means either "physical restraint" or "chemical restraint" as these terms are defined in this section.

"Safe, secure environment" means a self-contained special care unit for residents with serious cognitive impairments due to a primary psychiatric diagnosis of dementia who cannot recognize danger or protect their own safety and welfare. There may be one or more self-contained special care units in a facility or the whole facility may be a special care unit. Nothing in this definition limits or contravenes the privacy protections set forth in § 63.2-1808 of the Code of Virginia.

"Sanitizing" means treating in such a way to remove bacteria and viruses through using a disinfectant solution (e.g., bleach solution or commercial chemical disinfectant) or physical agent (e.g., heat).

"Serious cognitive impairment" means severe deficit in mental capability of a chronic, enduring, or long-term nature that affects areas such as thought processes, problem-solving, judgment, memory, and comprehension and that interferes with such things as reality orientation, ability to care for self, ability to recognize danger to self or others, and impulse control. Such cognitive impairment is not due to acute or episodic conditions, nor conditions arising from treatable metabolic or chemical imbalances or caused by reactions to medication or toxic substances. For the purposes of this chapter, serious cognitive impairment means that an individual cannot recognize danger or protect his own safety and welfare.

"Significant change" means a change in a resident's condition that is expected to last longer than 30 days. It does not include short-term changes that resolve with or without intervention, a short-term acute illness or episodic event, or a well-established, predictive, cyclic pattern of clinical signs and symptoms associated with a previously diagnosed condition where an appropriate course of treatment is in progress.

"Skilled nursing treatment" means a service ordered by a physician or other prescriber that is provided by and within the scope of practice of a licensed nurse.

"Skills training" means systematic skill building through curriculum-based psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral interventions. These interventions break down complex objectives for role performance into simpler components, including basic cognitive skills such as attention, to facilitate learning and competency.

"Staff" or "staff person" means personnel working at a facility who are compensated or have a financial interest in the facility, regardless of role, service, age, function, or duration of employment at the facility. "Staff" or "staff person" also includes those individuals hired through a contract with the facility to provide services for the facility.

"Substance abuse" means the use of drugs enumerated in the Virginia Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq. of the Code of Virginia), without a compelling medical reason, or alcohol that (i) results in psychological or physiological dependence or danger to self or others as a function of continued and compulsive use or (ii) results in mental, emotional, or physical impairment that causes socially dysfunctional or socially disordering behavior; and (iii) because of such substance abuse, requires care and treatment for the health of the individual. This care and treatment may include counseling, rehabilitation, or medical or psychiatric care. All determinations of whether a compelling medical reason exists shall be made by a physician or other qualified medical personnel.

"Systems review" means a physical examination of the body to determine if the person is experiencing problems or distress, including cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, urinary system, endocrine system, musculoskeletal system, nervous system, sensory system, and the skin.

"Transfer" means movement of a resident to a different assigned living area within the same licensed facility.

"Trustee" means one who stands in a fiduciary or confidential relation to another; especially, one who, having legal title to property, holds it in trust for the benefit of another and owes a fiduciary duty to that beneficiary.

"Uniform assessment instrument" or "UAI" means the department designated assessment form. There is an alternate version of the form that may be used for private pay residents. Social and financial information that is not relevant because of the resident's payment status is not included on the private pay version of the form.

"Volunteer" means a person who works at an assisted living facility who is not compensated. An exception to this definition is a person who, either as an individual or as part of an organization, is only present at or facilitates group activities on an occasional basis or for special events.

Statutory Authority

§§ 63.2-217, 63.2-1732, 63.2-1802, 63.2-1805, and 63.2-1808 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 06, eff. February 1, 2018; Errata, 34:8 VA.R. 832 December 11, 2017.

Website addresses provided in the Virginia Administrative Code to documents incorporated by reference are for the reader's convenience only, may not necessarily be active or current, and should not be relied upon. To ensure the information incorporated by reference is accurate, the reader is encouraged to use the source document described in the regulation.

As a service to the public, the Virginia Administrative Code is provided online by the Virginia General Assembly. We are unable to answer legal questions or respond to requests for legal advice, including application of law to specific fact. To understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.