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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 8. Education
Agency 20. State Board of Education
Chapter 81. Regulations Governing Special Education Programs for Children with Disabilities in Virginia
7/10/2020

8VAC20-81-110. Individualized Education Program.

A. Responsibility. The local educational agency shall ensure that an IEP is developed and implemented for each child with a disability served by that local educational agency, including a child placed in a private special education school by: (34 CFR 300.112)

1. A local school division; or

2. A noneducational placement by a Comprehensive Services Act team that includes the school division. The local school division's responsibility is limited to special education and related services.

B. Accountability.

1. At the beginning of each school year, each local educational agency shall have an IEP in effect for each child with a disability within its jurisdiction, with the exception of children placed in a private school by parents when a free appropriate public education is not at issue. (34 CFR 300.323(a))

2. Each local educational agency shall ensure that an IEP: (34 CFR 300.323(c))

a. Is in effect before special education and related services are provided to an eligible child;

b. Is developed within 30 calendar days of the date of the initial determination that the child needs special education and related services;

c. Is developed within 30 calendar days of the date the eligibility group determines that the child remains eligible for special education and related services following reevaluation, if the IEP team determines that changes are needed to the child's IEP, or if the parent requests it; and

d. Is implemented as soon as possible following parental consent to the IEP.

3. Each local educational agency shall ensure that: (34 CFR 300.323(d))

a. The child's IEP is accessible to each regular education teacher, special education teacher, related service provider, and other service provider who is responsible for its implementation; and

b. Teachers and providers are informed of:

(1) Their specific responsibilities related to implementing the child's IEP; and

(2) The specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that shall be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP.

4. Each local educational agency is responsible for initiating and conducting meetings to develop, review, and revise the IEP of a child with a disability.

5. Each local educational agency shall ensure that the IEP team reviews the child's IEP periodically, but not less than annually, to determine whether the annual goals are being achieved and to revise its provisions, as appropriate, to address: (34 CFR 300.324(b))

a. Any lack of expected progress toward the annual goals and in the general curriculum, if appropriate;

b. The results of any reevaluation conducted under this chapter;

c. Information about the child provided to or by the parent(s);

d. The child's anticipated needs; or

e. Other matters.

6. Each local educational agency shall provide special education and related services to a child with a disability in accordance with the child's IEP. (34 CFR 300.323(c)(2))

7. Nothing in this section limits a parent's right to ask for revisions of the child's IEP if the parent feels that the efforts required by this chapter are not being met.

8. To the extent possible, the local educational agency shall encourage the consolidation of reevaluation and IEP team meetings for the child. (34 CFR 300.324(a)(5))

9. In making changes to a child's IEP after the annual IEP team meeting for the school year, the parent(s) and the local educational agency may agree not to convene an IEP team meeting for the purposes of making those changes, and instead may develop a written document to amend or modify the child's current IEP. (34 CFR 300.324(a)(4) and (6))

a. If changes are made to the child's IEP, the local educational agency shall ensure that the child's IEP team is informed of those changes.

b. Upon request, a parent shall be provided with a revised copy of the IEP with the amendments incorporated.

c. This meeting is not a substitute for the required annual IEP meeting.

C. IEP team.

1. General. The local educational agency shall ensure that the IEP team for each child with a disability includes: (34 CFR 300.321(a), (c) and (d))

a. The parent(s) of the child;

b. Not less than one regular education teacher of the child (if the child is or may be participating in the regular educational environment);

c. Not less than one special education teacher of the child or, if appropriate, not less than one special education provider of the child. For a child whose only disability is speech-language impairment, the special education provider shall be the speech-language pathologist;

d. A representative of the local educational agency who is:

(1) Qualified to provide or supervise the provision of specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of children with disabilities;

(2) Knowledgeable about the general education curriculum; and

(3) Knowledgeable about the availability of resources of the local education agency. A local educational agency may designate another member of the IEP team to serve simultaneously as the agency representative if the individual meets the above criteria;

e. An individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results. This individual may be a member of the team serving in another capacity, other than the parent of the child;

f. At the discretion of the parent(s) or local educational agency, other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, including related services personnel, as appropriate. The determination of knowledge or special expertise of any individual shall be made by the party (parent(s) or local educational agency) who invited the individual to be a member of the team; and

g. Whenever appropriate, the child.

2. The local educational agency determines the school personnel to fill the roles of the required IEP team members in subdivisions 1 b through 1 e of this subsection.

3. Secondary transition service participants. (34 CFR 300.321(b))

a. The local educational agency shall invite a student with a disability of any age to attend the student's IEP meeting if a purpose of the meeting will be the consideration of:

(1) The student's postsecondary goals;

(2) The needed transition services for the student; or

(3) Both.

b. If the student does not attend the IEP meeting, the local educational agency shall take other steps to ensure that the student's preferences and interests are considered.

c. To the extent appropriate and with the consent of the parent(s) or a child who has reached the age of majority, the local educational agency shall invite a representative of any participating agency that is likely to be responsible for providing or paying for transition services. If an agency invited to send a representative to a meeting does not do so, the local educational agency shall take other steps to obtain the participation of the other agency in the planning of any transition services.

4. Part C transition participants. In the case of a child who was previously served under Part C of the Act, the local educational agency shall, at the parent's(s') request, invite the Part C service coordinator or other representatives of the Part C system to the initial IEP meeting to assist with the smooth transition of services. (34 CFR 300.321(f))

D. IEP team attendance. (34 CFR 300.321(e))

1. A required member of the IEP team described in subdivisions C 1 b through C 1 e of this section is not required to attend an IEP team meeting, in whole or in part, if the parent and the local educational agency agree, in writing, that the attendance of this member is not necessary because the member's area of the curriculum or related services is not being modified or discussed in the meeting.

2. A required member of the IEP team may be excused from attending the IEP team meeting, in whole or in part, when the meeting involves a modification to or discussion of the member's area of curriculum or related services, if:

a. The parent and the local educational agency consent in writing to the excusal; and

b. The member submits, in writing, to the parent and the IEP team input into the development of the IEP prior to the meeting.

E. Parent participation.

1. Each local educational agency shall take steps to ensure that one or both of the parents of the child with a disability are present at each IEP meeting or are afforded the opportunity to participate including: (34 CFR 300.322(a))

a. Notifying the parent(s) of the meeting early enough to ensure that they will have an opportunity to attend; and

b. Scheduling the meeting at a mutually agreed on time and place.

2. Notice. (34 CFR 300.322(b))

a. General notice. The notice given to the parent(s):

(1) May be in writing, or given by telephone or in person with proper documentation;

(2) Shall indicate the purpose, date, time, and location of the meeting, and who will be in attendance; and

(3) Shall inform the parent(s) of the provisions relating to the participation of other individuals on the IEP team who have knowledge or special expertise about the child under subdivision C 1 f of this section.

b. Additional notice requirements are provided if transition services are under consideration.

(1) For Part C transition, the notice shall inform the parents of the provisions relating to the participation of the Part C service coordinator or other representative(s) of the Part C system under subdivision C 4 of this section.

(2) For secondary transition, the notice shall also:

(a) Indicate that a purpose of the meeting will be the consideration of the postsecondary goals and transition services for the child;

(b) Indicate that the local educational agency will invite the student; and

(c) Identify any other agency that will be invited to send a representative.

3. If neither parent can attend, the local educational agency shall use other methods to ensure parent participation, including individual or conference telephone calls and audio conferences. If the local educational agency uses an alternative means of meeting participation that results in additional costs, the local educational agency is responsible for those costs. (34 CFR 300.322(c))

4. A meeting may be conducted without a parent(s) in attendance if the local educational agency is unable to convince the parent(s) that they should attend. In this case, the local educational agency shall have a record of the attempts to arrange a mutually agreed on time and place, such as: (34 CFR 300.322(d))

a. Detailed records of telephone calls made or attempted and the results of those calls;

b. Copies of correspondence (written, electronic, or facsimile) sent to the parent(s) and any responses received; or

c. Detailed records of visits made to the parent's(s') home or place of employment and the results of those visits.

5. The local educational agency shall take whatever action is necessary to ensure that the parent(s) understand the proceedings at the IEP meeting, including arranging for an interpreter for parents with deafness or whose native language is other than English. (34 CFR 300.322(e))

6. At the IEP meeting, the IEP team shall provide the parent(s) of a child with a disability with a written description of the factors in subdivisions F 1 and F 2 of this section that will be considered during the IEP meeting. The description shall be written in language understandable by the general public and provided in the native language of the parent(s) or other mode of communication used by the parent(s), unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.

7. The local educational agency shall give the parent(s) a copy of the child's IEP at no cost to the parent(s) at the IEP meeting, or within a reasonable period of time after the IEP meeting, not to exceed 10 calendar days. (34 CFR 300.322(f))

F. Development, review, and revision of the IEP. (34 CFR 300.324(a))

1. In developing each child's IEP, the IEP team shall consider:

a. The strengths of the child;

b. The concerns of the parent(s) for enhancing the education of their child;

c. The results of the initial or most recent evaluation of the child; and

d. The academic, developmental, and functional needs of the child.

2. The IEP team also shall: (34 CFR 300.324(a))

a. In the case of a child whose behavior impedes the child's learning or that of others, consider the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address the behavior;

b. In the case of a child with limited English proficiency, consider the language needs of the child as those needs relate to the child's IEP;

c. In the case of a child who is blind or visually impaired, provide for instruction in Braille and the use of Braille unless the IEP team determines after an evaluation of the child's reading and writing skills, needs, and appropriate reading and writing media, including an evaluation of the child's future needs for instruction in Braille or the use of Braille, that instruction in Braille or the use of Braille is not appropriate for the child;

d. Consider the communication needs of the child;

e. Consider the child's needs for benchmarks or short-term objectives;

f. In the case of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing, consider the child's language and communication needs, opportunities for direct communications with peers and professional personnel in the child's language and communication mode, academic level, and full range of needs, including opportunities for direct instruction in the child's language and communication mode; and

g. Consider whether the child requires assistive technology devices and services.

3. If, in considering the special factors, the IEP team determines that a child needs a particular device or service, including an intervention, accommodation, or other program modification in order for the child to receive a free appropriate public education, the IEP team shall include a statement to that effect in the child's IEP. (34 CFR 300.324(b)(2))

4. The regular education teacher of a child with a disability, as a member of the IEP team, shall participate, to the extent appropriate, in the development, review, and revision of the child's IEP, including assisting in the determination of: (34 CFR 300.324(a)(3))

a. Appropriate positive behavioral interventions and supports and other strategies for the child; and

b. Supplementary aids and services, accommodations, program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided for the child.

5. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require: (34 CFR 300.320(d))

a. The IEP team to include information under one component of a child's IEP that is already contained under another component of the child's IEP; or

b. That additional information be included in the child's IEP beyond what is explicitly required in this chapter.

6. The IEP team shall consider all factors identified under a free appropriate public education in 8VAC20-81-100, as appropriate, and work toward consensus. If the IEP team cannot reach consensus, the local educational agency shall provide the parent(s) with prior written notice of the local educational agency's proposals or refusals, or both, regarding the child's educational placement or provision of a free appropriate public education in accordance with 8VAC20-81-170 C.

G. Content of the individualized education program. The IEP for each child with a disability shall include:

1. A statement of the child's present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, including how the child's disability affects the child's involvement and progress in the general curriculum or, for preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child's participation in appropriate activities. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(1))

a. The statement shall be written in objective measurable terms, to the extent possible. Test scores, if appropriate, shall be self-explanatory or an explanation shall be included.

b. The present level of performance shall directly relate to the other components of the IEP.

2. A statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals designed to: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(2))

a. Meet the child's needs that result from the child's disability to enable the child to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum, or for preschool children, as appropriate, to participate in appropriate activities; and

b. Meet each of the child's other educational needs that result from the child's disability.

3. If determined appropriate by the IEP team, as outlined in subdivision F 2 of this section, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives. For children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, the IEP shall include a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(2))

The IEP team shall document its consideration of the inclusion in the child's IEP of benchmarks or short-term objectives.

4. A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable, to be provided for the child, or on behalf of the child, and a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided to enable the child: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(4))

a. To advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals;

b. To be involved and progress in the general curriculum and to participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities; and

c. To be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and children without disabilities in the activities described in this section.

5. An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with children without disabilities in the regular class and in the activities described in this section. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(5))

6. The following information concerning state and divisionwide assessments shall be included: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(6))

a. A statement of any individual appropriate accommodations or modifications that are necessary to measure the child's academic achievement and functional performance, in accordance with the guidelines approved by the Board of Education, in the administration of state assessments of student achievement that are needed in order for the child to participate in the assessment;

b. If the IEP team determines that the child must take an alternate assessment instead of a particular state assessment of student achievement (or part of an assessment), a statement of:

(1) Why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment;

(2) Why the particular assessment selected is appropriate for the child, including that the child meets the criteria for the alternate assessment; and

(3) How the child's nonparticipation in the assessment will impact the child's promotion; graduation with a modified standard, standard, or advanced studies diploma; or other matters.

c. A statement that the child shall participate in either a state assessment for all children that is part of the state assessment program or the state's alternate assessment;

d. A statement of any individual appropriate accommodations or modifications approved for use in the administration of divisionwide assessments of student achievement that are needed in order for the child to participate in the assessment;

e. If the IEP team determines that the child must take an alternate assessment instead of a particular divisionwide assessment of student achievement (or part of an assessment), a statement of:

(1) Why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment;

(2) Why the particular alternate assessment selected is appropriate for the child; and

(3) How the child's nonparticipation in the assessment will impact the child's courses; promotion; graduation with a modified standard, standard, or advanced studies diploma; or other matters.

7. The projected dates (month, day, and year) for the beginning of the services and modifications and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(7))

8. A statement of: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(3))

a. How the child's progress toward the annual goals will be measured; and

b. When periodic reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals will be provided; for example, through the use of quarterly or other periodic reports, concurrent with the issuance of report cards, and at least as often as parents are informed of the progress of their children without disabilities.

9. Initial transition services (34 CFR 300.101(b) and 34 CFR 300.323(b))

a. In the case of a preschool-aged child with a disability, age two (on or before September 30) through age five (on or before September 30), whose parent(s) elect to receive services under Part B of the Act, the local educational agency shall develop an IEP.

b. The IEP team shall consider an IFSP that contains the IFSP content described under Part C of the Act (§ 1431 et seq.) including:

(1) A statement regarding natural environments; and

(2) A component that promotes school readiness and incorporates pre-literacy, language, and numeracy skills.

c. These components of the child's IFSP may be incorporated into the child's IEP.

10. Secondary transition services. (34 CFR 300.43 and 34 CFR 300.320(b))

a. Prior to the child entering secondary school but not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child turns 14, or younger if determined appropriate by the IEP team, and updated annually thereafter, the IEP shall include age-appropriate:

(1) Measurable postsecondary goals based upon age-appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and where appropriate, independent living skills; and

(2) Transition services, including courses of study, needed to assist the child in reaching those goals. Transition services shall be based on the individual child's needs, taking into account the child's strengths, preferences, and interests.

b. Beginning not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child turns 16, or younger if determined appropriate by the IEP team, and updated annually, in addition to the requirements of subdivision 10 a of this subsection, the IEP shall also include a statement, if appropriate, of interagency responsibilities or any linkages.

c. For a child pursuing a modified standard diploma, the IEP team shall consider the child's need for occupational readiness upon school completion, including consideration of courses to prepare the child as a career and technical education program completer.

11. Beginning at least one year before a student reaches the age of majority, the student's IEP shall include a statement that the student and parent(s) have been informed of the rights under this chapter, if any, that will transfer to the student on reaching the age of majority. (34 CFR 300.320(c))

H. Agency responsibilities for secondary transition services. (34 CFR 300.324(c))

1. If a participating agency, other than the local educational agency, fails to provide the transition services described in the IEP of a student with a disability, the local educational agency shall reconvene the IEP team to identify alternative strategies to meet the transition objectives for the student set out in the IEP.

2. Nothing in this part relieves any participating agency, including a state vocational rehabilitation agency, of the responsibility to provide or pay for any transition service that the agency would otherwise provide to students with disabilities who meet the eligibility criteria of that agency.

I. Additional requirements for eligible students with disabilities in state, regional, or local adult or juvenile correctional facilities. (34 CFR 300.324(d) and 34 CFR 300.102(a)(2); Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia (8VAC20-131))

1. A representative of the state from a state, regional, or local adult or juvenile correctional facility may participate as a member of the IEP team.

2. All requirements regarding IEP development, review, and revision in this section apply to students with disabilities in state, regional, or local adult or juvenile correctional facilities, including assessment requirements to graduate with a modified standard, standard, or advanced studies diploma. The requirements related to least restrictive environment in 8VAC20-81-130 do not apply.

3. The following additional exceptions to subdivision 2 of this subsection apply only to students with disabilities who are convicted as an adult under state law and incarcerated in adult prisons:

a. The IEP team may modify the student's IEP or placement if the state has demonstrated to the IEP team a bona fide security or compelling penological interest that cannot be otherwise accommodated.

b. IEP requirements regarding participation in state assessments, including alternate assessments, do not apply.

c. IEP requirements regarding transition planning and transition services do not apply to students whose eligibility for special education and related services will end because of their age before they will be eligible for release from the correctional facility based on consideration of their sentence and their eligibility for early release.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-214 of the Code of Virginia; 20 USC § 1400 et seq.; 34 CFR Part 300.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 25, Issue 21, eff. July 7, 2009.

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