Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
4/24/2024

Part II. General Information

9VAC20-81-20. Policy.

It is the policy of the Virginia Waste Management Board to promote the development of comprehensive waste management programs that include the following components of a waste management hierarchy:

1. Source reduction.

2. Reuse.

3. Recycling.

4. Resource recovery (waste to energy).

5. Incineration.

6. Landfilling.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-25. Purpose of chapter.

A. The purpose of this chapter is to establish standards and procedures pertaining to the management of solid wastes by providing the requirements for siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, closure, and postclosure care of solid waste management facilities in the Commonwealth in order to protect the public health, public safety the environment, and our natural resources.

B. This chapter provides for the prohibition of open dumping of solid waste to protect public health and safety and the environment.

C. This chapter sets forth the requirements for undertaking corrective actions at solid waste management facilities.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-30. Administration of chapter.

A. The Virginia Waste Management Board promulgates and enforces regulations that it deems necessary to protect the public health, public safety, the environment, and natural resources.

B. The director is authorized and directed to administer this chapter in accordance with the Virginia Waste Management Act (§§ 10.1-1400 through 10.1-1457 of the Code of Virginia).

C. At any time this chapter requires the director to review, approve, disapprove, or modify, any application for a permit or any other submission by an applicant or permittee, such action by the director shall be taken in a timely manner.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-35. Applicability of chapter.

A. This chapter applies to all persons who treat, store, dispose, or otherwise manage solid wastes as defined in 9VAC20-81-95.

B. All facilities that were permitted prior to March 15, 1993, and upon which solid waste has been disposed of prior to October 9, 1993, may continue to receive solid waste until they have reached their vertical design capacity or until the closure date established pursuant to § 10.1-1413.2 of the Code of Virginia, in Table 2.1 provided:

1. The facility is in compliance with the requirements for liners and leachate control in effect at the time of permit issuance.

2. On or before October 9, 1993, the owner or operator of the solid waste management facility submitted to the director:

a. An acknowledgment that the owner or operator is familiar with state and federal law and regulations pertaining to solid waste management facilities operating after October 9, 1993, including postclosure care, corrective action, and financial responsibility requirements;

b. A statement signed by a professional engineer that he has reviewed the regulations established by the department for solid waste management facilities, including the open dump criteria contained therein, that he has inspected the facility and examined the monitoring data compiled for the facility in accordance with applicable regulations and that, on the basis of his inspection and review, he has concluded:

(1) That the facility is not an open dump;

(2) That the facility does not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health and the environment; and

(3) That the leachate or residues from the facility do not pose a threat of contamination or pollution of the air, surface water, or groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or resulting in a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment; and

c. A statement signed by the owner or operator:

(1) That the facility complies with applicable financial assurance regulations; and

(2) Estimating when the facility will reach its vertical design capacity.

3. Enlargement or closure of these facilities shall conform with the following subconditions:

a. The facility may not be enlarged prematurely to avoid compliance with this chapter when such enlargement is not consistent with past operating practices, the permit, or modified operating practices to ensure good management.

b. The facility shall not dispose of solid waste in any portion of a landfill disposal area that has received final cover or has not received waste for a period of one year, in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 C. The facility shall notify the department, in writing, within 30 days, when an area has received final cover or has not received waste for a one-year period, in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 C. However, a facility may apply for a permit, and if approved, can construct and operate a new cell that overlays ("piggybacks") over a closed area in accordance with the permit requirements of this chapter.

c. The facilities subject to the restrictions in this subsection are listed in Table 2.1. The closure dates were established in Final Prioritization and Closure Schedule for HB 1205 Disposal Areas (DEQ, September 2001). The publication of these tables is for the convenience of the regulated community and does not change established dates. Any facility, including, but not limited to those listed in Table 2.1, must cease operation if that facility meets any of the open dump criteria listed in 9VAC20-81-45 A 1.

d. Those facilities assigned a closure date in accordance with § 10.1-1413.2 of the Code of Virginia shall designate on a map, plat, diagram, or other engineered drawing, areas in which waste will be disposed of in accordance with Table 2.1 until the latest cessation of waste acceptance date as listed in Table 2.1 is achieved. This map or plat shall be placed in the operating record and a copy shall be submitted upon request to the department in order to track the progress of closure of these facilities. If the facility already has provided this information under 9VAC20-81-160, then the facility may refer to that information.

TABLE 2.1
Final Prioritization and Closure Schedule For House Bill (HB) 1205 Disposal Areas

Solid Waste Permit Number and Site Name

Location

Department Regional Office1

Latest Cessation of Waste Acceptance Date2

429 - Fluvanna County Sanitary Landfill

Fluvanna County

VRO

12/31/2007

92 - Halifax County Sanitary Landfill3

Halifax County

BRRO

12/31/2007

49 - Martinsville Landfill

City of Martinsville

BRRO

12/31/2007

14 - Mecklenburg County Landfill

Mecklenburg County

BRRO

12/31/2007

228 - Petersburg City Landfill3

City of Petersburg

PRO

12/31/2007

31 - South Boston Sanitary Landfill

Town of South Boston

BRRO

12/31/2007

204 - Waynesboro City Landfill

City of Waynesboro

VRO

12/31/2007

91 - Accomack County Landfill – Bobtown South

Accomack County

TRO

12/31/2012

580 – Bethel Landfill3

City of Hampton

TRO

12/31/2012

182 - Caroline County Landfill

Caroline County

NVRO

12/31/2012

149 - Fauquier County Landfill

Fauquier County

NVRO

12/31/2012

405 - Greensville County Landfill

Greensville County

PRO

12/31/2012

29 - Independent Hill Landfill3

Prince William County

NVRO

12/31/2012

1 - Loudoun County Sanitary Landfill

Loudoun County

NVRO

12/31/2012

194 - Louisa County Sanitary Landfill

Louisa County

NVRO

12/31/2012

227 - Lunenburg County Sanitary Landfill

Lunenburg County

BRRO

12/31/2012

507 - Northampton County Landfill

Northampton County

TRO

12/31/2012

90 - Orange County Landfill

Orange County

NVRO

12/31/2012

75 - Rockbridge County Sanitary Landfill

Rockbridge County

VRO

12/31/2012

23 - Scott County Landfill

Scott County

SWRO

12/31/2012

587 - Shoosmith Sanitary Landfill3

Chesterfield County

PRO

12/31/2012

417 - Southeastern Public Service Authority Landfill3

City of Suffolk

TRO

12/31/2012

461 - Accomack County Landfill #2

Accomack County

TRO

12/31/2020

86 - Appomattox County Sanitary Landfill

Appomattox County

BRRO

12/31/2020

582 - Botetourt County Landfill3

Botetourt County

BRRO

12/31/2020

498 - Bristol City Landfill

City of Bristol

SWRO

12/31/2020

72 - Franklin County Landfill

Franklin County

BRRO

12/31/2020

398 - Virginia Beach Landfill #2 – Mount Trashmore II3

City of Virginia Beach

TRO

12/31/2020

Notes:
1Department of Environmental Quality Regional Offices:

BRRO - Blue Ridge Regional Office
NVRO - Northern Virginia Regional Office
PRO - Piedmont Regional Office
SWRO - Southwest Regional Office
TRO - Tidewater Regional Office
VRO - Valley Regional Office

2This date means the latest date that the disposal area must cease accepting waste.
3A portion of these facilities operated under HB 1205 and another portion currently is compliant with Subtitle D requirements.

C. Facilities are authorized to expand beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, as follows:

1. Existing captive industrial landfills.

a. Existing nonhazardous industrial waste facilities that are located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in the facility shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter except as shown in subdivision 1 of this subsection.

b. Facility owners or operators shall not be required to modify their facility permit in order to expand a captive industrial landfill beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993. Liners and leachate collection systems constructed beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements in effect at the time of permit issuance.

c. Owners or operators of facilities that are authorized under subdivision 1 of this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities in 9VAC20-81-120.

d. Facilities authorized for expansion in accordance with subdivision 1 of this subsection are limited to expansion to the limits of the permitted disposal area existing on October 9, 1993, or the facility boundary existing on October 9, 1993, if no discrete disposal area is defined in the facility permit.

2. Other existing industrial waste landfills.

a. Existing nonhazardous industrial waste facilities that are not located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in the facility shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter except as shown in subdivision 2 of this subsection.

b. Facility owners or operators shall not be required to modify their facility permit in order to expand an industrial landfill beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993. Liners and leachate collection systems constructed beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-130.

c. Prior to the expansion of any such facility, the owner or operator shall submit to the department a written notice of the proposed expansion at least 60 days prior to commencement of construction. The notice shall include recent groundwater monitoring data sufficient to determine that the facility does not pose a threat of contamination of groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or creating a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment (see 9VAC20-81-45). The director shall evaluate the data included with the notification and may advise the owner or operator of any additional requirements that may be necessary to ensure compliance with applicable laws and prevent a substantial present or potential hazard to health or the environment.

d. Owners or operators of facilities which are authorized under subdivision 2 of this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities in 9VAC20-81-120 and 9VAC20-81-130.

e. Facilities authorized for expansion in accordance with subdivision 2 of this subsection are limited to expansion to the limits of the permitted disposal area existing on October 9, 1993, or the facility boundary existing on October 9, 1993, if no discrete disposal area is defined in the facility permit.

3. Existing construction/demolition/debris landfills.

a. Existing facilities that accept only construction/demolition/debris waste shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter except as shown in subdivision 3 of this subsection.

b. Facility owners or operators shall not be required to modify their facility permit in order to expand a construction/demolition/debris landfill beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993. Liners and leachate collection systems constructed beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-130.

c. Prior to the expansion of any such facility, the owner or operator shall submit to the department a written notice of the proposed expansion at least 60 days prior to commencement of construction. The notice shall include recent groundwater monitoring data sufficient to determine that the facility does not pose a threat of contamination of groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or creating a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment (see 9VAC20-81-45). The director shall evaluate the data included with the notification and may advise the owner or operator of any additional requirements that may be necessary to ensure compliance with applicable laws and prevent a substantial present or potential hazard to health or the environment.

d. Owners or operators of facilities which are authorized under subdivision 3 of this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the active portion of the landfill existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities in 9VAC20-81-120 and 9VAC20-81-130.

e. Facilities, or portions thereof, which have reached their vertical design capacity shall be closed in compliance with 9VAC20-81-160.

f. Facilities authorized for expansion in accordance with subdivision 3 of this subsection are limited to expansion to the permitted disposal area existing on October 9, 1993, or the facility boundary existing on October 9, 1993, if no discrete disposal area is defined in the facility permit.

4. Facilities or units undergoing expansion in accordance with the partial exemptions created by subdivision 1 b, 2 b, or 3 b of this subsection may not receive hazardous wastes generated by the exempt small quantity generators, as defined by the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60), for disposal on the expanded portions of the facility. Other wastes that require special handling in accordance with the requirements of Part VI (9VAC20-81-610 et seq.) of this chapter or that contain hazardous constituents that would pose a risk to health or environment, may only be accepted with specific approval by the director.

5. Nothing in subdivisions 1 b, 2 b, and 3 b of this subsection shall alter any requirement for groundwater monitoring, financial responsibility, operator certification, closure, postclosure care, operation, maintenance, or corrective action imposed under this chapter, or impair the powers of the director to revoke or modify a permit pursuant to § 10.1-1409 of the Virginia Waste Management Act or Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter.

D. An owner or operator of a previously unpermitted facility or unpermitted activity that managed materials previously exempt or excluded from this chapter shall submit a complete application for a solid waste management facility permit, permit by rule or a permit modification, as applicable, in accordance with Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter within six months after these materials have been defined or identified as solid wastes. If the director finds that the application is complete, the owner or operator may continue to manage the newly defined or identified waste until a permit or permit modification decision has been rendered or until a date two years after the change in definition whichever occurs sooner, provided however, that in so doing he shall not operate or maintain an open dump, a hazard, or a nuisance.

Owners or operators of solid waste management facilities in existence prior to September 24, 2003, shall now be in compliance with this chapter. Where conflicts exist between the existing facility permit and the new requirements of the regulations, the regulations shall supersede the permit except where the standards in the permit are more stringent than the regulation. Language in an existing permit shall not act as a shield to compliance with the regulation, unless a variance to the regulations has been approved by the director in accordance with the provisions of Part VII (9VAC20-81-700 et seq.) of this chapter. Existing facility permits will not be required to be updated to eliminate requirements conflicting with the regulation, except at the request of the director or if a permit is modified for another reason. However, all sanitary landfills and incinerators that accept waste from jurisdictions outside of Virginia must have submitted the materials required under 9VAC20-81-100 E 4 by March 22, 2004.

E. This chapter is not applicable to landfill units closed in accordance with regulations or permits in effect prior to December 21, 1988, unless releases from these closed landfills meet the open dump criteria found in 9VAC20-81-45, or the closed landfills are found to be a hazard or a nuisance under subdivision 21 of § 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia, or a site where improper waste management has occurred under subdivision 19 of § 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia.

F. Part VIII (9VAC20-81-800 et seq.) of this chapter applies to the following:

1. Owners and operators of new and existing CCR landfills and CCR surface impoundments, including any lateral expansions of such units that dispose or otherwise engage in solid waste management of CCR generated from the combustion of coal at electric utilities and independent power producers;

2. Disposal units located offsite of the electric utility or independent power producer. Part VIII of this chapter also applies to any practice that does not meet the definition of a beneficial use of CCR; and

3. Inactive CCR surface impoundments at active electric utilities or independent power producers, regardless of the fuel currently used at the facility to produce electricity.

G. Part VIII of this chapter is not applicable to the following:

1. CCR landfills that have ceased receiving CCR prior to October 19, 2015;

2. Electric utilities or independent power producers that have ceased producing electricity prior to October 19, 2015;

3. Wastes, including fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials generated at facilities that are not part of an electric utility or independent power producer, such as manufacturing facilities, universities, and hospitals;

4. Fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials, generated primarily from the combustion of fuels (including other fossil fuels) other than coal, for the purpose of generating electricity unless the fuel burned consists of more than 50% coal on a total heat input or mass input basis, whichever results in the greater mass feed rate of coal;

5. Practices that meet the definition of a beneficial use of CCR;

6. CCR placement at active or abandoned underground or surface coal mines; or

7. Municipal solid waste landfills that receive CCR.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 22, eff. August 3, 2011; Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

9VAC20-81-40. Prohibitions.

A. No person shall operate any sanitary landfill or other facility for the disposal, treatment, or storage of solid waste without a permit from the director.

B. No person shall allow waste to be disposed of or otherwise managed on his property except in accordance with this chapter.

C. It shall be the duty of all persons to dispose of or otherwise manage their solid waste in a legal manner.

D. Any person who violates subsection A, B, or C of this section shall immediately cease the activity of improper management and the treatment, storage, or disposal of any additional wastes and shall initiate such removal, cleanup, or closure in place.

E. Management of lead acid batteries.

1. No person shall place a used lead acid battery in mixed municipal solid waste or discard or otherwise dispose of a lead acid battery except by delivery to a battery retailer or wholesaler, or to a secondary lead smelter, or to a collection or reclamation facility authorized under the laws of the Commonwealth or by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

2. No battery retailer shall dispose of a used lead acid battery except by delivery to:

a. The agent of a battery wholesaler or a secondary lead smelter;

b. A battery manufacturer for delivery to a secondary smelter; or

c. A collection or reclamation facility authorized under the laws of the Commonwealth or by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

3. No person selling new lead acid batteries at wholesale shall refuse to accept from customers at the point of transfer, used lead acid batteries of the type and in a quantity at least equal to the number of new batteries purchased, if offered by customers.

4. The provisions of subdivisions 1 through 3 of this subsection shall not be construed to prohibit any person who does not sell new lead acid batteries from collecting and reclaiming such batteries.

F. Any locality may, by ordinance, prohibit the disposal of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in any waste to energy or solid waste disposal facility within its jurisdiction if it has implemented a CRT recycling program that meets the requirements of § 10.1-1425.26 of the Code of Virginia.

G. No person shall dispose of or manage solid waste in an unpermitted facility, including by disposing, causing to be disposed, or arranging for the disposal of solid waste upon a property for which the director has not issued a permit and that is not otherwise exempt from permitting requirements.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 4, eff. November 11, 2020.

9VAC20-81-45. Open dumps.

A. Prohibition.

1. No person shall dispose of solid waste in open dumps, nor own, operate or allow to be operated on his property an open dump as defined in subsection B of this section or § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia. Both permitted and unpermitted sites or facilities may be classified as open dumps.

2. Any person found to be in violation of this section shall be ordered to immediately cease treatment, storage, and disposal of any additional solid waste and shall take measures to abate improper management of the solid waste and come into compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

B. Criteria – Incorporation of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 by reference.

1. Except as otherwise provided, the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are adopted herein and incorporated by reference as part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are part of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are also hereby incorporated as part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations.

2. In all locations in these regulations where 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are incorporated by reference, the following additions, modifications, and exceptions shall amend the incorporated text for the purpose of its incorporation into these regulations:

a. 40 CFR 257.1(b) and 40 CFR 257.3-5 are not included in the incorporation of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 by reference and are not part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations.

b. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a): "Unless otherwise provided, the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 are adopted for determining which solid waste disposal facilities and practices are a nuisance and pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on health or the environment under §§ 1008(a)(3) and 4004(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 USC § 6901 et seq. (1976) (RCRA) and the Virginia Waste Management Act, § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia (Act). Unless otherwise provided, the criteria in §§ 257.50 through 257.107 are adopted for determining which CCR landfills and CCR surface impoundments pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on human health or the environment under sections 1008(a)(3) and 4004(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act."

c. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a)(1): "Facilities failing to satisfy the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 or §§ 257.5 through 257.30 or §§ 257.50 through 257.107 are considered open dumps, which are prohibited under section 4005 of RCRA and § 10.1-1408.1 of the Act."

d. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a)(2): "Practices failing to satisfy the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 or §§ 257.5 through 257.30 or §§ 257.50 through 257.107 constitute open dumping, which is prohibited under section 4005 of RCRA and § 10.1-1408.1 of the Act."

e. In addition to those exceptions found in 40 CFR 257.1(c), the open dump criteria does not apply to sites actively enrolled in the Voluntary Remediation Program (9VAC20-160) or sites that have successfully completed the Voluntary Remediation Program in accordance with all conditions and requirements of their Certificates of Satisfactory Completion.

f. In addition to those exceptions found in 40 CFR 257.1(c), the open dump criteria shall not apply to sites that are undergoing remediation per the requirements of CERCLA or the RCRA Corrective Action Program and are doing so with the department's or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oversight.

C. Site evaluation and remedial action.

1. If a site is a potential or probable open dump, a site evaluation may be conducted. This site evaluation will be conducted by the department in order to determine if further action is required under this section. The site evaluation will include but is not limited to any records that can be obtained from the owner, operator, or other responsible party as well as all documented observations by department personnel regarding the following:

a. The location of the site;

b. The amount, type, and source of the waste at the site;

c. The permit status for the activities taking place at the site; and

d. A preliminary evaluation of the site with respect to the criteria outlined in subsection B of this section.

2. Based on the criteria of subsection B of this section and the information gathered under the provisions of subdivision 1 of this subsection, the department will make a determination that the site is or is not an open dump.

3. If the department determines that the site is an open dump then the department will make a recommendation for remedial action as follows:

a. Remedial action is required; or

b. Removal of the wastes from the site and disposal at a facility permitted to accept the wastes is required. The department may require submission of evidence of proper management of the removed waste and may require evidence, including confirmatory sampling, of the removal of solid waste and any hazardous constituents. A site inspection will be performed by the department to confirm the removal of the waste materials.

4. The site evaluation conducted under this subsection may be performed pursuant to an administrative or judicial order or other appropriate mechanism as chosen by the department.

5. Pursuant to the recommendations made under subdivision 3 of this subsection, any required remedial action as deemed necessary by the department shall be performed by the responsible party pursuant to an administrative or judicial order or other appropriate mechanism as chosen by the department.

D. Process and appeal.

1. Any case decision by the department based on the requirements of this section shall be subject to the process and appeal provisions of the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

2. A final determination and an administrative order requiring remedial action may be obtained in the same hearing or proceeding subject to the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

9VAC20-81-50. Enforcement and appeal.

A. All administrative enforcement and appeals taken from actions of the director relative to the provisions of this chapter shall be governed by the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

B. The Virginia Waste Management Board or the director may enforce the provisions of this chapter utilizing all applicable procedures under the law. The powers of the board and the director include, but are not limited to, those established under Chapter 11.1 (§ 10.1-1182 et seq. (especially in § 10.1-1186)) and in Article 8 (§ 10.1-1455 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 10.1 of the Code of Virginia. These sections describe the right of entry for inspections, the issuance of orders, penalties, injunctions, and other provisions and procedures for enforcement of these regulations.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-60. Ten year permit review.

The director shall review and issue written findings on the environmental compliance history of each permittee, material changes, if any, in key personnel, and technical limitations, standards, or regulations on which the original permit was based. The time period for review of each permit shall be at least once every 10 years. If, upon such review, the director finds that repeated material or substantial violations of the permittee or material changes in the permittee's key personnel would make continued operation of the facility not in the best interests of human health or the environment, the director shall modify or revoke the permit, in accordance with provisions of Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter. Whenever such review is undertaken, the director may modify the permit to include additional limitations, standards, or conditions when the technical limitations, standards, or regulations on which the original permit was based have been changed by statute or amended by regulation or when any of the conditions in § 10.1-1409 B of the Virginia Waste Management Act exist. The director may deny, revoke, or suspend any permit for any of the grounds listed under § 10.1-1409 A of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-70. Public participation and information.

A. All permits for solid waste management facilities will be subject to public participation, as specified in Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. Modifications to solid waste management facility permits shall be subject to public participation in accordance with Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter.

C. Dockets of all permitting actions, enforcement actions, and administrative actions relative to this chapter shall be available to the public for review, consistent with the Commonwealth of Virginia Administrative Process Act, Virginia Freedom of Information Act, and the provisions of this chapter.

D. Public participation in the compliance evaluation and enforcement programs is encouraged. The department will:

1. Investigate all citizen complaints and provide written responses to all signed, written complaints from citizens, concerning matters within the board's purview;

2. Not oppose intervention by any citizen in a suit brought before a court by the department as a result of the enforcement action; and

3. Provide notice on the department's Internet website; and provide at least 30 days of public comment on proposed settlements of civil enforcement actions except where the settlement requires some immediate action. Where a public comment period is not held prior to the settlement of an enforcement action, public notice will still be provided following the settlement.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-80. Solid waste information and assessment program.

A. The owners or operators of all permitted solid waste management facilities that treat, store, or dispose of solid waste shall report by March 31 of each year the amount of solid waste, by weight or volume, received and managed by the facility during the preceding calendar year. The report shall identify solid waste by the following categories: (i) municipal solid waste, (ii) construction and demolition debris, (iii) industrial waste, (iv) regulated medical waste, (v) vegetative and yard waste, (vi) incinerator ash, (vii) sludge other than sludge that is land applied in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia, (viii) tires, (ix) white goods, (x) friable asbestos, (xi) petroleum-contaminated soil, and (xii) other special waste. For each such category the report shall include an estimate of the amount that was generated outside of the Commonwealth and the state or local jurisdictions where such waste originated. The report shall also estimate the amount of solid waste managed or disposed of by each of the following methods: (i) recycling, (ii) composting, (iii) landfilling, (iv) incineration, (v) sending offsite for further management, and (vi) stored on site on December 31 of the reporting year. Information on the available capacity and expected life of the facilities, at the disposal rates submitted in this subsection, shall be included in the annual report required by this section.

B. At the option of the facility owner, the data collected may include an accounting of the facility's economic benefits to the locality where the facility is located including the value of disposal and recycling facilities provided to the locality at no cost or reduced cost, direct employment associated with the facility, and other economic benefits resulting from the facility during the preceding calendar year.

C. No facility shall be required pursuant to this section to provide information that is a trade secret as defined in § 59.1-336 of the Code of Virginia.

D. The reporting form to be used to fulfill the reporting requirement of this part is DEQ Form DEQ 50-25 (Solid Waste Information and Assessment Program - Reporting Table).

E. This section shall not apply to captive waste management facilities including captive industrial landfills.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-90. Relationship with other regulations promulgated by the Virginia Waste Management Board.

A. Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60).

1. Solid wastes that have been declared hazardous or a universal waste by the generator in accordance with 40 CFR 262.11, as amended, or that are regulated as hazardous wastes by the Commonwealth or another state, and will be treated, stored, or disposed of in Virginia shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-60 and not 9VAC20-81.

2. Any material from a state other than Virginia that is classified as a hazardous waste in that state shall be managed in accordance with 9VAC20-60.

3. Wastes generated by generators who are conditionally exempt pursuant to 40 CFR 261.5 may be managed in solid waste management facilities provided that:

a. (i) A specific approval is obtained from the director for acceptance of the material at a facility with an approved liner and leachate collection system; or (ii) it is included in the facility permit; and

b. Records are kept of the actual amount, type, and source of these wastes.

B. Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-121). Solid wastes that are defined as regulated medical wastes by the Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations shall be managed in accordance with those regulations. Regulated medical wastes that are excluded or exempt by 9VAC20-121 shall be regulated by this chapter.

C. Financial Assurance Regulations for Solid Waste Disposal, Transfer, and Treatment Facilities (9VAC20-70). 9VAC20-70 specifies the requirements for financial assurance and allowable financial assurance mechanisms. Solid waste management facilities shall provide financial assurance in accordance with 9VAC20-70.

D. Solid Waste Management Facility Permit Action Fees and Annual Fees (9VAC20-90). All applicants for solid waste management facility permits are required to pay a fee in accordance with the schedule shown in 9VAC20-90. All solid waste management facilities shall pay annual fees in accordance with 9VAC20-90, as applicable.

E. Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Regulations (9VAC20-130). 9VAC20-130 establishes a framework for local governments to plan for solid waste management needs and a mechanism for tracking recycling rates and solid waste management plan contents.

F. Transportation of Solid and Medical Wastes on State Waters (9VAC20-170). 9VAC20-170 establishes the standards and procedures pertaining to the commercial transport, loading and offloading of solid wastes or regulated medical wastes upon the navigable waters of the Commonwealth.

G. Voluntary Remediation Regulations (9VAC20-160). 9VAC20-160 establishes standards and procedures for the Virginia Voluntary Remediation Program.

H. Coal Combustion Byproduct Regulations (9VAC20-85). 9VAC20-85 establishes standards for the use of fossil fuel combustion products, which are not subject to requirements of this chapter, and establishes standards for siting, design, construction, operation, and administrative procedures pertaining to their use, reuse, or reclamation other than in a manner addressed by this chapter.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016; Volume 40, Issue 4, eff. November 8, 2023.

9VAC20-81-95. Identification of solid waste.

A. Wastes identified in this section are solid wastes that are subject to this chapter unless regulated pursuant to other applicable regulations issued by the department.

B. Except as otherwise provided, the definition of solid waste per 40 CFR 261.2 as incorporated by 9VAC20-60-261, as amended, is also hereby incorporated as part of this chapter. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are a part of 9VAC20-60-261, as amended, are also hereby incorporated as part of this chapter as well.

C. Except as otherwise modified or excepted by 9VAC20-60, the materials listed in the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR 261.4(a) are considered a solid waste for the purposes of this chapter. However, these materials are not regulated under the provisions of this chapter if all conditions specified therein are met. This list and all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are part of 40 CFR Part 261.4(a), as incorporated, modified or accepted by 9VAC20-60 are incorporated as part of this chapter. In addition, the following materials are not solid wastes for the purpose of this chapter:

1. Materials generated by any of the following, which are returned to the soil as fertilizers:

a. The growing and harvesting of agricultural crops.

b. The raising and husbanding of animals, including animal manures and used animal bedding.

2. Mining overburden returned to the mine site.

3. Recyclable materials used in manner constituting disposal per 9VAC20-60-266.

4. Wood wastes burned for energy recovery.

5. Materials that are:

a. Used or reused, or prepared for use or reuse, as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product, or as effective substitutes for commercial products or natural resources provided the materials are not being reclaimed or accumulated speculatively; or

b. Returned to the original process from which they are generated.

6. Materials that are beneficially used as determined by the department under this subsection. The department may consider other waste materials and uses to be beneficial in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC20-81-97.

7. The following materials and uses listed in this part are exempt from this chapter as long as they are managed so that they do not create an open dump, hazard, or public nuisance. These materials and the designated use are considered a beneficial use of waste materials:

a. Clean wood, wood chips, or bark from land clearing, logging operations, utility line clearing and maintenance operations, pulp and paper production, and wood products manufacturing, when these materials are placed in commerce for service as mulch, landscaping, animal bedding, erosion control, habitat mitigation, wetlands restoration, or bulking agent at a compost facility operated in compliance with Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter;

b. Clean wood combustion residues when used for pH adjustment in compost, liquid absorbent in compost, or as a soil amendment or fertilizer, provided the application rate of the wood ash is limited to the nutrient need of the crop grown on the land on which the wood combustion residues will be applied and provided that such application meets the requirements of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2VAC5-400 and 2VAC5-410);

c. Compost that satisfies the applicable requirements of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2VAC5-400 and 2VAC5-410);

d. Nonhazardous, contaminated soil that has been excavated as part of a construction project and that is used as backfill for the same excavation or excavations containing similar contaminants at the same site, at concentrations at the same level or higher. Excess contaminated soil from these projects is subject to the requirements of this chapter;

e. Nonhazardous petroleum contaminated soil that has been treated to the satisfaction of the department in accordance with 9VAC20-81-660;

f. Nonhazardous petroleum contaminated soil when incorporated into asphalt pavement products;

g. Solid wastes that are approved in advance of the placement, in writing, by the department or that are specifically mentioned in the facility permit for use as alternate daily cover material or other protective materials for landfill liner or final cover system components;

h. Fossil fuel combustion products that are not CCR when used as a material in the manufacturing of another product (e.g., concrete, concrete products, lightweight aggregate, roofing materials, plastics, paint, flowable fill) or as a substitute for a product or material resource (e.g., blasting grit, roofing granules, filter cloth pre-coat for sludge dewatering, pipe bedding);

i. Tire chips and tire shred when used as a sub-base fill for road base materials or asphalt pavements when approved by the Virginia Department of Transportation or by a local governing body;

j. Tire chips, tire shred, and ground rubber used in the production of commercial products such as mats, pavement sealers, playground surfaces, brake pads, blasting mats, and other rubberized commercial products;

k. Tire chips and tire shred when used as backfill in landfill gas or leachate collection pipes, recirculation lines, and drainage material in landfill liner and cover systems, and gas interception or remediation applications;

l. Waste tires, tire chips or tire shred when burned for energy recovery or when used in pyrolysis, gasification, or similar treatment process to produce fuel;

m. Waste-derived fuel product, as defined in 9VAC20-81-10, derived from nonhazardous solid waste;

n. Uncontaminated concrete and concrete products, asphalt pavement, brick, glass, soil, and rock placed in commerce for service as a substitute for conventional aggregate; and

o. Clean, ground gypsum wallboard when used as a soil amendment or fertilizer, provided the following conditions are met:

(1) No components of the gypsum wallboard have been glued, painted, or otherwise contaminated from manufacture or use (e.g., waterproof or fireproof drywall) unless otherwise processed to remove contaminants.

(2) The gypsum wallboard shall be processed so that 95% of the gypsum wallboard is less than 1/4 inch by 1/4 inch in size, unless an alternate size is approved by the department.

(3) The gypsum wallboard shall be applied only to agricultural, silvicultural, landscaped, or mined lands or roadway construction sites that need fertilization.

(4) The application rate for the ground gypsum wallboard shall not exceed the following rates.

Region

Rate

Piedmont, Mountains, and Ridge and Valley

250 lbs/1,000 ft2

Coastal Plain

50 lbs/1,000 ft2

Note: These weights are for dry ground gypsum wallboard.

D. The following activities are conditionally exempt from this chapter provided no open dump, hazard, or public nuisance is created:

1. Composting of sewage sludge at the sewage treatment plant of generation without addition of other types of solid wastes.

2. Composting of household waste generated at a residence and composted at the site of generation.

3. Composting activities performed for educational purposes as long as no more than 100 cubic yards of materials are onsite at any time. Greater quantities will be allowed with suitable justification presented to the department. For quantities greater than 100 cubic yards, approval from the department will be required prior to composting.

4. Composting of animal carcasses onsite at the farm of generation.

5. Composting of vegetative waste or yard waste generated onsite by owners or operators of agricultural operations or owners of the real property or those authorized by the owners of the real property provided:

a. All decomposed vegetative waste and compost produced is utilized on said property;

b. No vegetative waste or other waste material generated from other sources other than said property is received;

c. All applicable standards of local ordinances that govern or concern vegetative waste handling, composting, storage or disposal are satisfied; and

d. They pose no nuisance or present no potential threat to human health or the environment.

6. Composting of yard waste by owners or operators who accept yard waste generated offsite shall be exempt from all other provisions of this chapter as applied to the composting activities provided the requirements of 9VAC20-81-397 B are met.

7. Composting of preconsumer food waste and kitchen culls generated onsite and composted in containers designed to prohibit vector attraction and prevent nuisance odor generation.

8. Vermicomposting, when used to process Category I, Category II, or Category III feedstocks in containers designed to prohibit vector attraction and prevent nuisance odor generation. If offsite feedstocks are received no more than 100 cubic yards of materials may be onsite at any one time. For quantities greater than 100 cubic yards, approval from the department will be required prior to composting.

9. Composting of sewage sludge or combinations of sewage sludge with nonhazardous solid waste provided the composting facility is permitted under the requirements of a Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) or VPDES permit.

10. Management of solid waste in appropriate containers at the site of its generation, provided that:

a. Putrescible waste is not stored more than seven days between time of collection and time of removal for disposal;

b. Nonputrescible wastes are not stored more than 90 days between time of collection and time of removal for proper management; and

c. Treatment of waste is conducted in accordance with the following:

(1) In accordance with a waste analysis plan that:

(a) Contains a detailed chemical and physical analysis of a representative sample of the waste being treated and contains all records necessary to treat the waste in accordance with the requirements of this part, including the selected testing frequency; and

(b) Is kept in the facility's onsite file and made available to the department upon request.

(2) Notification is made to the receiving waste management facility that the waste has been treated.

11. Using rocks, brick, block, dirt, broken concrete, crushed glass, porcelain, and road pavement as clean fill.

12. Storage of less than 100 waste tires at the site of generation provided that no waste tires are accepted from offsite and that the storage will not present a hazard or a nuisance.

13. Storage in piles of land-clearing debris including stumps and brush, clean wood wastes, log yard scrapings consisting of a mixture of soil and wood, cotton gin trash, peanut hulls, and similar organic wastes that do not readily decompose, are exempt from this chapter if they meet the following conditions at a minimum:

a. The wastes are managed in the following manner:

(1) They do not cause discharges of leachate, or attract vectors.

(2) They cannot be dispersed by wind and rain.

(3) Fire is prevented.

(4) They do not become putrescent.

b. Any facility storing waste materials under the provisions of this subsection shall obtain a stormwater discharge permit if they are considered a significant source under the provisions of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c.

c. No more than a total of 1/3 acre of waste material is stored onsite and the waste pile does not exceed 15 feet in height above base grade.

d. Siting provisions.

(1) All log yard scrapings consisting of a mixture of soil and wood, cotton gin trash, peanut hulls, and similar organic wastes that do not readily decompose are stored at the site of the industrial activity that produces them;

(2) A 50-foot fire break is maintained between the waste pile and any structure or tree line;

(3) The slope of the ground within the area of the pile and within 50 feet of the pile does not exceed 4:1;

(4) No waste material may be stored closer than 50 feet to any regularly flowing surface water body or river, floodplain, or wetland; and

(5) No stored waste materials shall extend closer than 50 feet to any property line.

e. If activities at the site cease, any waste stored at the site must be properly managed in accordance with these regulations within 90 days. The director can approve longer timeframes with appropriate justification. Justification must be provided in writing no more than 30 days after ceasing activity at the site.

f. Waste piles that do not meet these provisions are required to obtain a permit in accordance with the permitting provisions in Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter and meet all of the applicable waste pile requirements in Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter. Facilities that do not comply with the provisions of this subsection and fail to obtain a permit are subject to the provisions of 9VAC20-81-40.

14. Storage of nonhazardous solid wastes and hazardous wastes, or hazardous wastes from very small quantity generators as defined in Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60) at a transportation terminal or transfer station in closed containers meeting the U.S. Department of Transportation specifications is exempt from this section and the permitting provisions of Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter provided such wastes are removed to a permitted storage or disposal facility within 10 days from the initial receipt from the waste generator. To be eligible for this exemption, each shipment must be properly documented to show the name of the generator, the date of receipt by the transporter, and the date and location of the final destination of the shipment. The documentation shall be kept at the terminal or transfer station for at least three years after the shipment has been completed and shall be made available to the department upon request. All such activities shall comply with any local ordinances.

15. Open burning of solid wastes as provided in the following:

a. For forest management, agriculture practices, and highway construction and maintenance programs approved by the State Air Pollution Control Board.

b. For training and instruction of government and public firefighters under the supervision of the designated official and industrial in-house firefighting personnel with clearance from the local firefighting authority. Buildings that have not been demolished may be burned under the provisions of this subdivision only. Additionally, burning rubber tires, asphaltic materials, crankcase oil, impregnated wood, or other rubber-based or petroleum-based wastes is permitted when conducting bona fide firefighting instruction.

c. For the destruction of classified military documents under the supervision of the designated official.

d. For campfires or other fires using clean wood or vegetative waste that are used solely for recreational purposes, for ceremonial occasions, for outdoor preparation of food, and for warming of outdoor workers.

e. For the onsite destruction of vegetative waste located on the premises of private property, provided that no regularly scheduled collection service for such vegetative waste is available at the adjacent street or public road.

f. For the onsite destruction of household waste by homeowners or tenants, provided that no regularly scheduled collection service for such household waste is available at the adjacent street or public road.

g. For the onsite destruction of clean wood waste and debris waste resulting from property maintenance; from the development or modification of roads and highways, parking areas, railroad tracks, pipelines, power and communication lines, buildings or building areas, sanitary landfills; or from any other clearing operations.

16. Open burning of vegetative waste is allowed at a closed landfill that has not been released from postclosure care. The activity shall be included in the text of the postclosure plan and conducted in accordance with § 10.1-1410.3 of the Code of Virginia.

17. Placement of trees, brush, or other vegetation from land used for agricultural or silvicultural purposes on the same property or other property of the same landowner.

18. Using fossil fuel combustion products that are not CCR in one or more of the following applications or when handled, processed, transported, or stockpiled for the following uses:

a. As a base, sub-base or fill material under a paved road, the footprint of a structure, a paved parking lot, sidewalk, walkway or similar structure, or in the embankment of a road. In the case of roadway embankments, materials will be placed in accordance with Virginia Department of Transportation specifications, and exposed slopes not directly under the surface of the pavement must have a minimum of 18 inches of soil cover over the fossil fuel combustion products, the top six inches of which must be capable of sustaining the growth of indigenous plant species or plant species adapted to the area. The use, reuse, or reclamation of unamended coal combustion byproduct shall not be placed in an area designated as a 100-year flood plain;

b. Processed with a cementitious binder to produce a stabilized structural fill product that is spread and compacted with proper equipment for the construction of a project with a specified end use; or

c. For the extraction or recovery of materials and compounds contained within the fossil fuel combustion products.

E. The following solid wastes are exempt from this chapter provided that they are managed in accordance with the requirements promulgated by other applicable state or federal agencies:

1. Management of wastes regulated by the State Board of Health, the State Water Control Board, the Air Pollution Control Board, the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, or any other state or federal agency with such authority.

2. Drilling fluids, produced waters, and other wastes associated with the exploration, development, or production of crude oil, natural gas, or geothermal energy.

3. Solid waste from the extraction, beneficiation, and processing of ores and minerals, including coal.

4. Fossil fuel combustion products used for mine reclamation, mine subsidence, or mine refuse disposal on a mine site permitted by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy (DMME) when used in accordance with the standards.

5. Solid waste management practices that involve only the onsite placing of solid waste from mineral mining activities at the site of those activities and in compliance with a permit issued by the DMME, that do not include any municipal solid waste, are accomplished in an environmentally sound manner, and do not create an open dump, hazard or public nuisance are exempt from all requirements of this chapter.

6. Waste or byproduct derived from an industrial process that meets the definition of fertilizer, soil amendment, soil conditioner, or horticultural growing medium as defined in § 3.2-3600 of the Code of Virginia, or whose intended purpose is to neutralize soil acidity (see § 3.2-3700 of the Code of Virginia), and that is regulated under the authority of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

7. Fossil fuel combustion products bottom ash or boiler slag used as a traction control material or road surface material if the use is consistent with Virginia Department of Transportation practices. This exemption does not apply to CCR used in this manner.

8. Waste tires generated by and stored at salvage yards licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles provided that such storage complies with requirements set forth in § 10.1-1418.2 of the Code of Virginia and such storage does not pose a hazard or nuisance.

9. Tire chips used as the drainage material in construction of septage drain fields regulated under the authority of the Virginia Department of Health.

F. The following solid wastes are exempt from this chapter provided that they are reclaimed or temporarily stored incidentally to reclamation, are not accumulated speculatively, and are managed without creating an open dump, hazard, or a public nuisance:

1. Paper and paper products;

2. Clean wood waste that is to undergo size reduction in order to produce a saleable product, such as mulch;

3. Cloth;

4. Glass;

5. Plastics;

6. Tire chips, tire shred, ground rubber; and

7. Mixtures of above materials only. Such mixtures may include scrap metals excluded from regulation in accordance with the provisions of subsection C of this section.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 22, eff. August 3, 2011; Volume 30, Issue 4, eff. December 5, 2013; Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 12, eff. March 6, 2019.

9VAC20-81-97. Beneficial use demonstrations.

A. The department may consider other waste materials and uses to be beneficial. The generator or proposed user of such materials may request that the department make a case-specific determination that the solid waste may be beneficially used in a manufacturing process to make a product or as an effective substitute for a commercial product. In all such cases, the materials will be managed so they do not create an open dump, hazard, or public nuisance.

1. The requestor shall provide the following information:

a. A description of the solid waste under review and its proposed use;

b. Chemical and physical characteristics of the solid waste under review and of each type of proposed product;

c. A demonstration that there is a known or reasonably probable market for the intended use of the solid waste under review and of all proposed products by providing one or more of the following:

(1) A description of how the proposed product will be used;

(2) A demonstration that the proposed product complies with industry standards and specifications for that product if any; or

(3) Other documentation that a market for the proposed product or use exists; and

d. A demonstration that the management of the solid waste under review will not adversely affect human health and safety, the environment, and natural resources by providing:

(1) A solid waste control plan that describes the following:

(a) The source of the solid waste under review;

(b) Procedures for periodic testing of the solid waste under review and the proposed product to ensure that the proposed product's composition has not changed significantly;

(c) The disposition of any solid waste that may result from the manufacture of the product into which the solid waste under review is intended to be incorporated;

(d) A description of the type of storage (e.g., container, tank, or pile) and the maximum anticipated inventory of the solid waste under review (not to exceed 90 days) before being used;

(e) Procedures for run-on and run-off control of the storage areas for the solid waste under review; and

(f) A program and implementation schedule of best management practices designed to minimize uncontrolled dispersion of the solid waste under review before and during all aspects of its storage as inventory and during beneficial use.

2. Upon receipt of complete information required under subdivision 1 of this subsection, the department will determine in writing within 90 days, on a case-by-case basis, whether the proposal constitutes a beneficial use based on a showing that all of the following criteria have been met:

a. The proposed use of the material constitutes a reuse rather than disposal;

b. For a material that is proposed for incorporation into a manufacturing process, the material is not required to be decontaminated or otherwise specially handled or processed before such incorporation, in order to minimize loss of material or to provide adequate protection, as needed, of public health, safety, or welfare; the environment; or natural resources; and

c. Other criteria as the department shall determine in its discretion to be appropriate. Conversely, the department may determine that owing to the nature of the use, reuse, or reclamation process, some of the informational materials required under subdivision 1 of this subsection may not be required to make the determination.

3. The department will either approve the request, disapprove it, or allow the proposed use of the solid waste under review subject to such conditions as the department may impose. When granting a beneficial use determination, the department shall determine, on a case-by-case basis, the precise point at which the solid waste under review ceases to be solid waste. Unless otherwise determined for the particular solid waste under review, that point occurs when it is used in a manufacturing process to make a product or used as an effective substitute for a commercial product or a fuel. As part of its request, the generator or the proposed user may request that such point occur elsewhere. In such a request, the proponent shall include a demonstration that there is little potential for improper disposal of the material or little potential for the handling, transportation, or storage of the solid waste under review to have an adverse impact upon the public health, safety, or welfare; the environment; or natural resources.

4. The department may revoke any determination made if it finds that one or more of the items of information submitted serving as the basis for the department's determination was incorrect or is no longer valid, the department finds that there has been a violation of any condition that the department attached to such determination, or that the use, reuse, or reclamation process has become a public nuisance.

B. Beneficial use determinations granted by the department before March 16, 2011, shall remain in effect, subject to all conditions contained therein, unless specifically addressed by subsequent department action.

C. Beneficial use determinations involving coal combustion residuals must meet the requirements of beneficial use of CCR as defined in 40 CFR 257.53. Beneficial use determinations for CCR projects involving over 12,400 tons of CCR must provide the required demonstrations identified in the definition of "beneficial use of CCR" to the department for review and approval.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

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