Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
9/20/2021

Part I. Definitions

9VAC20-81-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Active life" means the period of operation beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste and ending at completion of closure activities required by this chapter.

"Active portion" means that part of a facility or unit that has received or is receiving wastes and that has not been closed in accordance with this chapter.

"Agricultural waste" means all solid waste produced from farming operations.

"Airport" means, for the purpose of this chapter, a military airfield or a public-use airport open to the public without prior permission and without restrictions within the physical capacities of available facilities.

"Aquifer" means a geologic formation, group of formations, or a portion of a formation capable of yielding significant quantities of groundwater to wells or springs.

"Ash" means the fly ash or bottom ash residual waste material produced from incineration or burning of solid waste or from any fuel combustion.

"Base flood" see "Hundred-year flood."

"Bedrock" means the rock that underlies soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material at a site.

"Benchmark" means a permanent monument constructed of concrete and set in the ground surface below the frostline with identifying information clearly affixed to it. Identifying information will include the designation of the benchmark as well as the elevation and coordinates on the local or Virginia state grid system.

"Beneficial use" means a use that is of benefit as a substitute for natural or commercial products and does not contribute to adverse effects on health or environment.

"Beneficial use of CCR" means the CCR meet all of the following conditions:

1. The CCR must provide a functional benefit;

2. The CCR must substitute for the use of a virgin material, conserving natural resources that would otherwise need to be obtained through practices, such as extraction;

3. The use of the CCR must meet relevant product specifications, regulatory standards, or design standards when available, and when such standards are not available, the CCR is not used in excess quantities; and

4. When unencapsulated use of CCR involving placement on the land of 12,400 tons or more in nonroadway applications, the user must demonstrate and keep records, and provide such documentation upon request, that environmental releases to groundwater, surface water, soil, and air are comparable to or lower than those from analogous products made without CCR, or that environmental releases to groundwater, surface water, soil, and air will be at or below relevant regulatory and health-based benchmarks for human and ecological receptors during use.

"Bioremediation" means remediation of contaminated media by the manipulation of biological organisms to enhance the degradation of contaminants.

"Bird hazard" means an increase in the likelihood of bird/aircraft collisions that may cause damage to the aircraft or injury to its occupants.

"Board" means the Virginia Waste Management Board.

"Bottom ash" means ash or slag that has been discharged from the bottom of the combustion unit after combustion.

"Capacity" means the maximum permitted volume of solid waste, inclusive of daily and intermediate cover, that can be disposed in a landfill. This volume is measured in cubic yards.

"Captive industrial landfill" means an industrial landfill that is located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in that landfill.

"CCR landfill" means an area of land or an excavation that receives CCR and that is not a surface impoundment, an underground injection well, a salt dome formation, a salt bed formation, an underground or surface coal mine, or a cave. For purposes of this chapter, a CCR landfill also includes sand and gravel pits and quarries that receive CCR, CCR piles, and any practice that does not meet the definition of a beneficial use of CCR.

"CCR surface impoundment" means a natural topographic depression, man-made excavation, or diked area that is designed to hold an accumulation of CCR and liquids, and the unit treats, stores, or disposes of CCR.

"Clean wood" means solid waste consisting of untreated wood pieces and particles that do not contain paint, laminate, bonding agents, or chemical preservatives or are otherwise unadulterated.

"Closed facility" means a solid waste management facility that has been properly secured in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.

"Closure" means that point in time when a permitted landfill has been capped, certified as properly closed by a professional engineer, inspected by the department, and closure notification is performed by the department in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 D.

"Coal combustion byproducts" or "CCB" means residuals, including fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas emission control waste produced by burning coal. CCB includes both CCR and other non-CCR wastes identified in this definition.

"Coal combustion residuals" or "CCR" means fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials generated from burning coal for the purpose of generating electricity by electric utilities and independent power producers. CCR is a specific type of CCB.

"Combustion unit" means an incinerator, waste heat recovery unit, or boiler.

"Commercial waste" means all solid waste generated by establishments engaged in business operations other than manufacturing or construction. This category includes, but is not limited to, solid waste resulting from the operation of stores, markets, office buildings, restaurants, and shopping centers.

"Compliance schedule" means a time schedule for measures to be employed on a solid waste management facility that will ultimately upgrade it to conform to this chapter.

"Compost" means a stabilized organic product produced by a controlled aerobic decomposition process in such a manner that the product can be handled, stored, or applied to the land without adversely affecting public health or the environment.

"Composting" means the manipulation of the natural process of decomposition of organic materials to increase the rate of decomposition.

"Construction" means the initiation of permanent physical change at a property with the intent of establishing a solid waste management unit. This does not include land-clearing activities, excavation for borrow purposes, activities intended for infrastructure purposes, or activities necessary to obtain Part A siting approval (i.e., advancing of exploratory borings, digging of test pits, groundwater monitoring well installation, etc.).

"Construction/demolition/debris landfill" or "CDD landfill" means a land burial facility engineered, constructed and operated to contain and isolate construction waste, demolition waste, debris waste, split tires, and white goods or combinations of the above solid wastes.

"Construction waste" means solid waste that is produced or generated during construction, remodeling, or repair of pavements, houses, commercial buildings, and other structures. Construction wastes include, but are not limited to lumber, wire, sheetrock, broken brick, shingles, glass, pipes, concrete, paving materials, and metal and plastics if the metal or plastics are a part of the materials of construction or empty containers for such materials. Paints, coatings, solvents, asbestos, any liquid, compressed gases or semi-liquids and garbage are not construction wastes.

"Contaminated soil" means, for the purposes of this chapter, a soil that, as a result of a release or human usage, has absorbed or adsorbed physical, chemical, or radiological substances at concentrations above those consistent with nearby undisturbed soil or natural earth materials.

"Container" means any portable device in which a material is stored, transported, treated, or otherwise handled and includes transport vehicles that are containers themselves (e.g., tank trucks) and containers placed on or in a transport vehicle.

"Containment structure" means a closed vessel such as a tank or cylinder.

"Convenience center" means a collection point for the temporary storage of solid waste provided for individual solid waste generators who choose to transport solid waste generated on their own premises to an established centralized point, rather than directly to a disposal facility. To be classified as a convenience center, the collection point may not receive waste from collection vehicles that have collected waste from more than one real property owner. A convenience center shall be on a system of regularly scheduled collections.

"Cover material" means compactable soil or other approved material that is used to blanket solid waste in a landfill.

"Daily disposal limit" means the amount of solid waste that is permitted to be disposed at the facility and shall be computed on the amount of waste disposed during any operating day.

"Debris waste" means wastes resulting from land-clearing operations. Debris wastes include, but are not limited to stumps, wood, brush, leaves, soil, and road spoils.

"Decomposed vegetative waste" means a stabilized organic product produced from vegetative waste by a controlled natural decay process in such a manner that the product can be handled, stored, or applied to the land without adversely affecting public health or the environment.

"Demolition waste" means that solid waste that is produced by the destruction of structures and their foundations and includes the same materials as construction wastes.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality. For purposes of submissions to the director as specified in the Waste Management Act, submissions may be made to the department.

"Discard" means to abandon, dispose of, burn, incinerate, accumulate, store, or treat before or instead of being abandoned, disposed of, burned, or incinerated.

"Discarded material" means a material that is:

1. Abandoned by being:

a. Disposed of;

b. Burned or incinerated; or

c. Accumulated, stored, or treated (but not used, reused, or reclaimed) before or in lieu of being abandoned by being disposed of, burned, or incinerated; or

2. Recycled used, reused, or reclaimed material as defined in this part.

"Disclosure statement" means a sworn statement or affirmation as required by § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia (see DEQ Form DISC-01 and 02 (Disclosure Statement)).

"Displacement" means the relative movement of any two sides of a fault measured in any direction.

"Disposal" means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of any solid waste into or on any land or water so that such solid waste or any constituent of it may enter the environment or be emitted into the air or discharged into any waters.

"Disposal unit boundary" or "DUB" means the vertical plane located at the edge of the waste disposal unit. This vertical plane extends down into the uppermost aquifer. The DUB must be positioned within or coincident to the waste management boundary.

"EPA" means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

"Exempt management facility" means a site used for activities that are conditionally exempt from management as a solid waste under this chapter. The facility remains exempt from solid waste management requirements provided it complies with the applicable conditions set forth in Parts II (9VAC20-81-20 et seq.) and IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Existing CCR landfill" means a CCR landfill that receives CCR both before and after October 19, 2015, or for which construction commenced prior to October 19, 2015, and receives CCR on or after October 19, 2015. A CCR landfill has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun prior to October 19, 2015.

"Existing CCR surface impoundment" means a CCR surface impoundment that receives CCR both before and after October 19, 2015, or for which construction commenced prior to October 19, 2015, and receives CCR on or after October 19, 2015. A CCR surface impoundment has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun prior to October 19, 2015.

"Expansion" means a horizontal expansion of the waste management boundary as identified in the Part A application. If a facility's permit was issued prior to the establishment of the Part A process, an expansion is a horizontal expansion of the disposal unit boundary.

"Facility" means solid waste management facility unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

"Facility boundary" means the boundary of the solid waste management facility. For landfills, this boundary encompasses the waste management boundary and all ancillary activities including, but not limited to scales, groundwater monitoring wells, gas monitoring probes, and maintenance facilities as identified in the facility's permit application. For facilities with a permit-by-rule (PBR) the facility boundary is the boundary of the property where the permit-by-rule activity occurs. For unpermitted solid waste management facilities, the facility boundary is the boundary of the property line where the solid waste is located.

"Facility structure" means any building, shed, or utility or drainage line on the facility.

"Fault" means a fracture or a zone of fractures in any material along which strata on one side have been displaced with respect to that on the other side.

"Floodplain" means the lowland and relatively flat areas adjoining inland and coastal waters, including low-lying areas of offshore islands where flooding occurs.

"Fly ash" means ash particulate collected from air pollution attenuation devices on combustion units.

"Food-chain crops" means crops grown for human consumption, tobacco, and crops grown for pasture and forage or feed for animals whose products are consumed by humans.

"Fossil fuel combustion products" means coal combustion byproducts as defined in this regulation, coal combustion byproducts generated at facilities with fluidized bed combustion technology, petroleum coke combustion byproducts, byproducts from the combustion of oil, byproducts from the combustion of natural gas, and byproducts from the combustion of mixtures of coal and "other fuels" (i.e., co-burning of coal with "other fuels" where coal is at least 50% of the total fuel). For purposes of this definition, "other fuels" means waste-derived fuel product, auto shredder fluff, wood wastes, coal mill rejects, peat, tall oil, tire-derived fuel, deionizer resins, and used oil.

"Free liquids" means liquids that readily separate from the solid portion of a waste under ambient temperature and pressure as determined by the Paint Filter Liquids Test, Method 9095, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Publication SW-846.

"Garbage" means readily putrescible discarded materials composed of animal, vegetable or other organic matter.

"Gas condensate" means the liquid generated as a result of gas control or recovery processes at the solid waste management facility.

"Governmental unit" means any department, institution, or commission of the Commonwealth and any public corporate instrumentality thereof, and any district, and shall include local governments.

"Ground rubber" means material processed from waste tires that is no larger than 1/4 inch in any dimension. This includes crumb rubber that is measured in mesh sizes.

"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in a zone of saturation.

"Hazardous constituent" means a constituent of solid waste found listed in Appendix VIII of 9VAC20-60-261.

"Hazardous waste" means a "hazardous waste" as described by the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60).

"Holocene" means the most recent epoch of the Quaternary period, extending from the end of the Pleistocene Epoch to the present.

"Home use" means the use of compost for growing plants that is produced and used on a privately owned residential site.

"Host agreement" means any lease, contract, agreement, or land use permit entered into or issued by the locality in which the landfill is situated that includes terms or conditions governing the operation of the landfill.

"Household hazardous waste" means any waste material derived from households (including single and multiple residences, hotels, motels, bunkhouses, ranger stations, crew quarters, campgrounds, picnic grounds, and day-use recreation areas) which, except for the fact that it is derived from a household, would otherwise be classified as a hazardous waste in accordance with 9VAC20-60.

"Household waste" means any waste material, including garbage, trash, and refuse, derived from households. Households include single and multiple residences, hotels and motels, bunkhouses, ranger stations, crew quarters, campgrounds, picnic grounds, and day-use recreation areas. Household wastes do not include sanitary waste in septic tanks (septage) that is regulated by other state agencies.

"Hundred-year flood" means a flood that has a 1.0% or greater chance of recurring in any given year or a flood of magnitude equaled or exceeded on the average only once in a hundred years on the average over a significantly long period.

"Inactive CCR surface impoundment" means a CCR surface impoundment that no longer receives CCR on or after October 19, 2015, and still contains both CCR and liquids on or after October 19, 2015.

"Incineration" means the controlled combustion of solid waste for disposal.

"Incinerator" means a facility or device designed for the treatment of solid waste by combustion.

"Industrial waste" means any solid waste generated by manufacturing or industrial process that is not a regulated hazardous waste. Such waste may include, but is not limited to, waste resulting from the following manufacturing processes: electric power generation; fertilizer/agricultural chemicals; food and related products/byproducts; inorganic chemicals; iron and steel manufacturing; leather and leather products; nonferrous metals manufacturing/foundries; organic chemicals; plastics and resins manufacturing; pulp and paper industry; rubber and miscellaneous plastic products; stone, glass, clay, and concrete products; textile manufacturing; transportation equipment; and water treatment. This term does not include mining waste or oil and gas waste.

"Industrial waste landfill" means a solid waste landfill used primarily for the disposal of a specific industrial waste or a waste that is a byproduct of a production process.

"Injection well" means, for the purposes of this chapter, a well or bore hole into which fluids are injected into selected geological horizons.

"Institutional waste" means all solid waste emanating from institutions such as, but not limited to, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, and public or private schools. It can include regulated medical waste from health care facilities and research facilities that must be managed as a regulated medical waste.

"Interim cover systems" means temporary cover systems applied to a landfill area when landfilling operations will be temporarily suspended for an extended period (typically, longer than one year). At the conclusion of the interim period, the interim cover system may be removed and landfilling operations resume or final cover is installed.

"Karst topography" means areas where karst terrane, with its characteristic surface and subterranean features, is developed as the result of dissolution of limestone, dolomite, or other soluble rock. Characteristic physiographic features present in karst terranes include, but are not limited to, sinkholes, sinking streams, caves, large springs, and blind valleys.

"Key personnel" means the applicant itself and any person employed by the applicant in a managerial capacity, or empowered to make discretionary decisions, with respect to the solid waste or hazardous waste operations of the applicant in Virginia, but shall not include employees exclusively engaged in the physical or mechanical collection, transportation, treatment, storage, or disposal of solid or hazardous waste and such other employees as the director may designate by regulation. If the applicant has not previously conducted solid waste or hazardous waste operations in Virginia, the term also includes any officer, director, partner of the applicant, or any holder of 5.0% or more of the equity or debt of the applicant. If any holder of 5.0% or more of the equity or debt of the applicant or of any key personnel is not a natural person, the term includes all key personnel of that entity, provided that where such entity is a chartered lending institution or a reporting company under the Federal Security and Exchange Act of 1934, the term does not include key personnel of such entity. Provided further that the term means the chief executive officer of any agency of the United States or of any agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth, and all key personnel of any person, other than a natural person, that operates a landfill or other facility for the disposal, treatment, or storage of nonhazardous solid waste under contract with or for one of those governmental entities.

"Lagoon" means a body of water or surface impoundment designed to manage or treat waste water.

"Land-clearing activities" means the removal of flora from a parcel of land.

"Land-clearing debris" means vegetative waste resulting from land-clearing activities.

"Landfill" means a sanitary landfill, an industrial waste landfill, or a construction/demolition/debris landfill.

"Landfill gas" means gas generated as a byproduct of the decomposition of organic materials in a landfill. Landfill gas consists primarily of methane and carbon dioxide.

"Landfill mining" means the process of excavating solid waste from an existing landfill.

"Leachate" means a liquid that has passed through or emerged from solid waste and contains soluble, suspended, or miscible materials from such waste. Leachate and any material with which it is mixed is solid waste; except that leachate that is pumped from a collection tank for transportation to disposal in an offsite facility is regulated as septage, leachate discharged into a waste water collection system is regulated as industrial waste water and leachate that has contaminated groundwater is regulated as contaminated groundwater.

"Lead acid battery" means, for the purposes of this chapter, any wet cell battery.

"Lift" means the daily landfill layer of compacted solid waste plus the cover material.

"Liquid waste" means any waste material that is determined to contain "free liquids" as defined by this chapter.

"Lithified earth material" means all rock, including all naturally occurring and naturally formed aggregates or masses of minerals or small particles of older rock, that formed by crystallization of magma or by induration of loose sediments. This term does not include man-made materials, such as fill, concrete, and asphalt, or unconsolidated earth materials, soil, or regolith lying at or near the earth's surface.

"Litter" means, for purposes of this chapter, any solid waste that is discarded or scattered about a solid waste management facility outside the immediate working area.

"Lower explosive limit" means the lowest concentration by volume of a mixture of explosive gases in air that will propagate a flame at 25°C and at atmospheric pressure.

"Materials recovery facility" means a solid waste management facility for the collection, processing, and recovery of material such as metals from solid waste or for the production of a fuel from solid waste. This does not include the production of a waste-derived fuel product.

"Maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth material" means the maximum expected horizontal acceleration depicted on a seismic hazard map, with a 90% or greater probability that the acceleration will not be exceeded in 250 years, or the maximum expected horizontal acceleration based on a site-specific seismic risk assessment.

"Monitoring" means all methods, procedures, and techniques used to systematically analyze, inspect, and collect data on operational parameters of the facility or on the quality of air, groundwater, surface water, and soils.

"Monitoring well" means a well point below the ground surface for the purpose of obtaining periodic water samples from groundwater for quantitative and qualitative analysis.

"Mulch" means woody waste consisting of stumps, trees, limbs, branches, bark, leaves and other clean wood waste that has undergone size reduction by grinding, shredding, or chipping, and is distributed to the general public for landscaping purposes or other horticultural uses except composting as defined and regulated under this chapter.

"Municipal solid waste" means that waste that is normally composed of residential, commercial, and institutional solid waste and residues derived from combustion of these wastes.

"New CCR landfill" means a CCR landfill or lateral expansion of a CCR landfill that first receives CCR or commences construction after October 19, 2015. A new CCR landfill has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun after October 19, 2015. Overfills are also considered new CCR landfills.

"New CCR surface impoundment" means a CCR surface impoundment or lateral expansion of an existing or new CCR surface impoundment that first receives CCR or commences construction after October 19, 2015. A new CCR surface impoundment has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun after October 19, 2015.

"New solid waste management facility" means a facility or a portion of a facility that was not included in a previous determination of site suitability (Part A approval).

"Nuisance" means an activity that unreasonably interferes with an individual's or the public's comfort, convenience or enjoyment such that it interferes with the rights of others by causing damage, annoyance, or inconvenience.

"Offsite" means any site that does not meet the definition of onsite as defined in this part.

"Onsite" means the same or geographically contiguous property, which may be divided by public or private right-of-way, provided the entrance and exit to the facility are controlled by the owner or the operator of the facility. Noncontiguous properties owned by the same person, but connected by a right-of-way that he controls and to which the public does not have access, are also considered onsite property.

"Open burning" means the combustion of solid waste without:

1. Control of combustion air to maintain adequate temperature for efficient combustion;

2. Containment of the combustion reaction in an enclosed device to provide sufficient residence time and mixing for complete combustion; and

3. Control of the combustion products' emission.

"Open dump" means a site on which any solid waste is placed, discharged, deposited, injected, dumped, or spilled so as to present a threat of a release of harmful substances into the environment or present a hazard to human health. Such a site is subject to the Open Dump Criteria in 9VAC20-81-45.

"Operating record" means records required to be maintained in accordance with the facility permit or this part (see 9VAC20-81-530).

"Operation" means all waste management activities at a solid waste management facility beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste for treatment, storage, disposal, or transfer and ceasing with the initiation of final closure activities at the solid waste management facility subsequent to the final receipt of waste.

"Operator" means the person responsible for the overall operation and site management of a solid waste management facility.

"Owner" means the person who owns a solid waste management facility or part of a solid waste management facility.

"PCB" means any chemical substance that is limited to the biphenyl molecule that has been chlorinated to varying degrees or any combination of substances that contain such substance (see 40 CFR 761.3, as amended).

"Perennial stream" means a well-defined channel that contains water year round during a year of normal rainfall. Generally, the water table is located above the streambed for most of the year and groundwater is the primary source for stream flow. A perennial stream exhibits the typical biological, hydrological, and physical characteristics commonly associated with the continuous conveyance of water.

"Permit" means the written permission of the director to own, operate, or construct a solid waste management facility.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, vessel, or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. Return flows from irrigated agriculture are not included.

"Pollutant" means any substance that causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, environmental degradation when discharged into the environment.

"Poor foundation conditions" means those areas where features exist that indicate that a natural or man-induced event may result in inadequate foundation support for the structural components of a solid waste management facility.

"Postclosure" means the requirements placed upon solid waste disposal facilities after closure to ensure environmental and public health safety for a specified number of years after closure.

"Process rate" means the maximum rate of waste acceptance that a solid waste management facility can process for treatment and storage. This rate is limited by the capabilities of equipment, personnel, and infrastructure.

"Processing" means preparation, treatment, or conversion of waste by a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about a desired end result.

"Professional engineer" means an engineer licensed to practice engineering in the Commonwealth as defined by the rules and regulations set forth by the Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, Certified Interior Designers and Landscape Architects (18VAC10-20).

"Professional geologist" means a geologist licensed to practice geology in the Commonwealth as defined by the rules and regulations set forth by the Board for Professional Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists (18VAC145-40).

"Progressive cover" means cover material placed over the working face of a solid waste disposal facility advancing over the deposited waste as new wastes are added keeping the exposed area to a minimum.

"Putrescible waste" means solid waste that contains organic material capable of being decomposed by micro-organisms and cause odors.

"Qualified groundwater scientist" means a scientist or engineer who has received a baccalaureate or postgraduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering and has sufficient training and experience in groundwater hydrology and related fields as may be demonstrated by professional certifications or completion of accredited university programs that enable that individual to make sound professional judgments regarding groundwater monitoring, contaminant fate and transport, and corrective action.

"RCRA" means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, and any other applicable amendments to these laws.

"Reclaimed material" means a material that is processed or reprocessed to recover a usable product or is regenerated to a usable form.

"Refuse" means all solid waste products having the character of solids rather than liquids and that are composed wholly or partially of materials such as garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, residues from clean up of spills or contamination, or other discarded materials.

"Refuse-derived fuel (RDF)" means a type of municipal solid waste produced by processing municipal solid waste through shredding and size classification. This includes all classes of refuse-derived fuel including low-density fluff refuse-derived fuel through densified refuse-derived fuel and pelletized refuse-derived fuel.

"Regulated hazardous waste" means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60), that is not excluded from those regulations as a hazardous waste.

"Regulated medical waste" means solid wastes so defined by the Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-120) as promulgated by the Virginia Waste Management Board.

"Release" means, for the purpose of this chapter, any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injection, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment solid wastes or hazardous constituents of solid wastes (including the abandonment or discarding of barrels, containers, and other closed receptacles containing solid waste). This definition does not include any release that results in exposure to persons solely within a workplace; release of source, byproduct, or special nuclear material from a nuclear incident, as those terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 923); and the normal application of fertilizer. For the purpose of this chapter, release also means substantial threat of release.

"Remediation waste" means all solid waste, including all media (groundwater, surface water, soils, and sediments) and debris, that are managed for the purpose of remediating a site in accordance with 9VAC20-81-45 or Part III (9VAC20-81-100 et seq.) of this chapter or under the Voluntary Remediation Regulations (9VAC20-160) or other regulated remediation program under DEQ oversight. For a given facility, remediation wastes may originate only from within the boundary of that facility, and may include wastes managed as a result of remediation beyond the boundary of the facility. Hazardous wastes as defined in 9VAC20-60, as well as "new" or "as generated" wastes, are excluded from this definition.

"Remediation waste management unit" or "RWMU" means an area within a facility that is designated by the director for the purpose of implementing remedial activities required under this chapter or otherwise approved by the director. An RWMU shall only be used for the management of remediation wastes pursuant to implementing such remedial activities at the facility.

"Responsible official" means one of the following:

1. For a business entity, such as a corporation, association, limited liability company, or cooperative: a duly authorized representative of such business entity if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more operating facilities applying for or subject to a permit. The authority to sign documents must be assigned or delegated to such representative in accordance with procedures of the business entity;

2. For a partnership or sole proprietorship: a general partner or the proprietor, respectively; or

3. For a municipality, state, federal, or other public agency: a duly authorized representative of the locality if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more operating facilities applying for or subject to a permit. The authority to sign documents must be assigned or delegated to such representative in accordance with procedures of the locality.

"Rubbish" means combustible or slowly putrescible discarded materials that include but are not limited to trees, wood, leaves, trimmings from shrubs or trees, printed matter, plastic and paper products, grass, rags and other combustible or slowly putrescible materials not included under the term "garbage."

"Runoff" means any rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over land from any part of a solid waste management facility.

"Run-on" means any rainwater, wastewater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over land onto any part of the solid waste management facility.

"Salvage" means the authorized, controlled removal of waste materials from a solid waste management facility.

"Sanitary landfill" means an engineered land burial facility for the disposal of household waste that is so located, designed, constructed, and operated to contain and isolate the waste so that it does not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment. A sanitary landfill also may receive other types of solid wastes, such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, hazardous waste from very small quantity generators, construction demolition debris, and nonhazardous industrial solid waste.

"Saturated zone" means that part of the earth's crust in which all voids are filled with water.

"Scavenging" means the unauthorized or uncontrolled removal of waste materials from a solid waste management facility.

"Scrap metal" means metal parts such as bars, rods, wire, empty containers, or metal pieces that are discarded material and can be used, reused, or reclaimed.

"Secondary containment" means an enclosure into which a container or tank is placed for the purpose of preventing discharge of wastes to the environment.

"Seismic impact zone" means an area with a 10% or greater probability that the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth material, expressed as a percentage of the earth's gravitational pull (g), will exceed 0.10g in 250 years.

"Semiannual" means an interval corresponding to approximately 180 days. For the purposes of scheduling monitoring activities, sampling within 30 days of the 180-day interval will be considered semiannual.

"Site" means all land and structures, other appurtenances, and improvements on them used for treating, storing, and disposing of solid waste. This term includes adjacent land within the facility boundary used for the utility systems such as repair, storage, shipping or processing areas, or other areas incident to the management of solid waste.

"Sludge" means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste generated from a municipal, commercial or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility exclusive of treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.

"Small landfill" means a landfill that disposed of 100 tons/day or less of solid waste during a representative period prior to October 9, 1993, and did not dispose of more than an average of 100 tons/day of solid waste each month between October 9, 1993, and April 9, 1994.

"Solid waste" means any of those materials defined as "solid waste" in 9VAC20-81-95.

"Solid waste disposal facility" means a solid waste management facility at which solid waste will remain after closure.

"Solid waste management facility" or "SWMF" means a site used for planned treating, storing, or disposing of solid waste. A facility may consist of several treatment, storage, or disposal units.

"Special wastes" means solid wastes that are difficult to handle, require special precautions because of hazardous properties, or the nature of the waste creates waste management problems in normal operations. (See Part VI (9VAC20-81-610 et seq.) of this chapter.)

"Speculatively accumulated material" means any material that is accumulated before being used, reused, or reclaimed or in anticipation of potential use, reuse, or reclamation. Materials are not being accumulated speculatively when they can be used, reused, or reclaimed, have a feasible means of use, reuse, or reclamation available and 75% of the materials accumulated are being removed from the facility annually.

"State waters" means all water, on the surface and under the ground, wholly or partially within, or bordering the Commonwealth, or within its jurisdiction.

"Storage" means the holding of waste, at the end of which the waste is treated, disposed, or stored elsewhere.

"Structural fill" means an engineered fill with a projected beneficial end use, constructed using soil or fossil fuel combustion products, when done in accordance with this chapter, spread and compacted with proper equipment, and covered with a vegetated soil cap.

"Sudden event" means a one-time, single event such as a sudden collapse or a sudden, quick release of contaminants to the environment. An example would be the sudden loss of leachate from an impoundment into a surface stream caused by failure of a containment structure.

"Surface impoundment" or "impoundment" means a facility or part of a facility that is a natural topographic depression, man-made excavation, or diked area formed primarily of earthen materials (although it may be lined with man-made materials), that is designed to hold an accumulation of liquid wastes or wastes containing free liquids and that is not an injection well.

"Surface waters" means all state waters that are not groundwater as defined in § 62.1-255 of the Code of Virginia.

"SW-846" means Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, EPA Publication SW-846, Second Edition, 1982 as amended by Update I (April, 1984), and Update II (April, 1985) and the third edition, November, 1986, as amended.

"Tank" means a stationary device, designed to contain an accumulation of liquid or semi-liquid components of solid waste that is constructed primarily of nonearthen materials that provide structural support.

"TEF" or "Toxicity Equivalency Factor" means a factor developed to account for different toxicities of structural isomers of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and to relate them to the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin.

"Terminal" means the location of transportation facilities such as classification yards, docks, airports, management offices, storage sheds, and freight or passenger stations, where solid waste that is being transported may be loaded, unloaded, transferred, or temporarily stored.

"Thermal treatment" means the treatment of solid waste in a device that uses elevated temperature as the primary means to change the chemical, physical, or biological character, or composition of the solid waste.

"Tire chip" means a material processed from waste tires that is a nominal two square inches in size, and ranges from 1/4 inch to four inches in any dimension. Tire chips contain no wire protruding more than 1/4 inch.

"Tire shred" means a material processed from waste tires that is a nominal 40 square inches in size, and ranges from four inches to 10 inches in any dimension.

"Transfer station" means any solid waste storage or collection facility at which solid waste is transferred from collection vehicles to haulage vehicles for transportation to a central solid waste management facility for disposal, incineration, or resource recovery.

"Trash" means combustible and noncombustible discarded materials and is used interchangeably with the term rubbish.

"Treatment" means, for the purpose of this chapter, any method, technique, or process, including but not limited to incineration, designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of any waste to render it more stable, safer for transport, or more amenable to use, reuse, reclamation, recovery, or disposal.

"Underground source of drinking water" means an aquifer or its portion:

1. Which contains water suitable for human consumption; or

2. In which the groundwater contains less than 10,000 mg/liter total dissolved solids.

"Unit" means a discrete area of land used for the disposal of solid waste.

"Unstable area" means a location that is susceptible to natural or human-induced events or forces capable of impairing the integrity of some or all of the landfill structural components responsible for preventing releases from a landfill. Unstable areas can include poor foundation conditions, areas susceptible to mass movements, and karst terranes.

"Uppermost aquifer" means the geologic formation nearest the natural ground surface that is an aquifer, as well as, lower aquifers that are hydraulically interconnected with this aquifer within the facility boundary.

"Used or reused material" means a material that is either:

1. Employed as an ingredient (including use as an intermediate) in a process to make a product, excepting those materials possessing distinct components that are recovered as separate end products; or

2. Employed in a particular function or application as an effective substitute for a commercial product or natural resources.

"Vector" means a living animal, insect, or other arthropod that transmits an infectious disease from one organism to another.

"Vegetative waste" means decomposable materials generated by yard and lawn care or land-clearing activities and includes, but is not limited to, leaves, grass trimmings, woody wastes such as shrub and tree prunings, bark, limbs, roots, and stumps.

"Vermicomposting" means the controlled and managed process by which live worms convert organic residues into fertile excrement.

"Vertical design capacity" means the maximum design elevation specified in the facility's permit or if none is specified in the permit, the maximum elevation based on a 3:1 slope from the waste disposal unit boundary.

"Very small quantity generator" means a generator of hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR 260.10 as incorporated by reference in 9VAC20-60-260 that generates less than or equal to the following amounts in a calendar month: (i) 100 kilograms of nonacute hazardous waste; (ii) one kilogram of acute hazardous waste; and (iii) 100 kilograms of any residue or contaminated soil, water, or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill into or on any land or water of acute hazardous waste.

"VPDES" (Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) means the Virginia system for the issuance of permits pursuant to the Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31), the State Water Control Law (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq. of the Code of Virginia), and § 402 of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.).

"Washout" means carrying away of solid waste by waters of the base flood.

"Waste-derived fuel product" means a solid waste or combination of solid wastes that have been treated (altered physically, chemically, or biologically) to produce a fuel product with a minimum heating value of 5,000 BTU/lb. Solid wastes used to produce a waste-derived fuel product must have a heating value, or act as binders, and may not be added to the fuel for the purpose of disposal. Waste ingredients may not be listed or characteristic hazardous wastes. The fuel product must be stable at ambient temperature, and not degraded by exposure to the elements. This material may not be "refuse derived fuel (RDF)" as defined in 9VAC5-40-890.

"Waste management boundary" means the vertical plane located at the boundary line of the area approved in the Part A application for the disposal of solid waste and storage of leachate. This vertical plane extends down into the uppermost aquifer and is within the facility boundary.

"Waste pile" means any noncontainerized accumulation of nonflowing, solid waste that is used for treatment or storage.

"Waste tire" means a tire that has been discarded because it is no longer suitable for its original intended purpose because of wear, damage or defect. (See 9VAC20-150 for other definitions dealing with the waste tire program.)

"Wastewaters" means, for the purpose of this chapter, wastes that contain less than 1.0% by weight total organic carbon (TOC) and less than 1.0% by weight total suspended solids (TSS).

"Water pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of any state water as will or is likely to create a nuisance or render such waters:

1. Harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare, or to the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life or plants;

2. Unsuitable, with reasonable treatment, for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or

3. Unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses, provided that:

a. An alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters or a discharge or deposit of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters by any owner that by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution but which in combination with such alteration or discharge or deposit to state waters by other persons is sufficient to cause pollution;

b. The discharge of untreated sewage by any person into state waters; and

c. The contribution to the degradation of water quality standards duly established by the State Water Control Board, are "pollution" for the terms and purposes of this chapter.

"Water table" means the upper surface of the zone of saturation in groundwaters in which the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

"Waters of the United States" or "waters of the U.S." means:

1. All waters that are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate "wetlands";

3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mud flats, sand flats, "wetlands," sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including:

a. Any such waters that are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. Any such waters from which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce;

c. Any such waters that are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

d. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as waters of the United States under this definition;

e. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 3 a through d of this definition;

f. The territorial sea; and

g. Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified in subdivisions 3 a through f of this definition.

"Wetlands" means those areas that are defined by the federal regulations under 33 CFR Part 328, as amended.

"White goods" means any stoves, washers, hot water heaters, and other large appliances.

"Working face" means that area within a landfill that is actively receiving solid waste for compaction and cover.

"Yard waste" means a subset of vegetative waste and means decomposable waste materials generated by yard and lawn care and includes leaves, grass trimmings, brush, wood chips, and shrub and tree trimmings. Yard waste shall not include roots or stumps that exceed 12 inches in diameter.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 22, eff. August 3, 2011; Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 12, eff. March 6, 2019.

9VAC20-81-20. Policy.

It is the policy of the Virginia Waste Management Board to promote the development of comprehensive waste management programs that include the following components of a waste management hierarchy:

1. Source reduction.

2. Reuse.

3. Recycling.

4. Resource recovery (waste to energy).

5. Incineration.

6. Landfilling.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-25. Purpose of chapter.

A. The purpose of this chapter is to establish standards and procedures pertaining to the management of solid wastes by providing the requirements for siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, closure, and postclosure care of solid waste management facilities in the Commonwealth in order to protect the public health, public safety the environment, and our natural resources.

B. This chapter provides for the prohibition of open dumping of solid waste to protect public health and safety and the environment.

C. This chapter sets forth the requirements for undertaking corrective actions at solid waste management facilities.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-30. Administration of chapter.

A. The Virginia Waste Management Board promulgates and enforces regulations that it deems necessary to protect the public health, public safety, the environment, and natural resources.

B. The director is authorized and directed to administer this chapter in accordance with the Virginia Waste Management Act (§§ 10.1-1400 through 10.1-1457 of the Code of Virginia).

C. At any time this chapter requires the director to review, approve, disapprove, or modify, any application for a permit or any other submission by an applicant or permittee, such action by the director shall be taken in a timely manner.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-35. Applicability of chapter.

A. This chapter applies to all persons who treat, store, dispose, or otherwise manage solid wastes as defined in 9VAC20-81-95.

B. All facilities that were permitted prior to March 15, 1993, and upon which solid waste has been disposed of prior to October 9, 1993, may continue to receive solid waste until they have reached their vertical design capacity or until the closure date established pursuant to § 10.1-1413.2 of the Code of Virginia, in Table 2.1 provided:

1. The facility is in compliance with the requirements for liners and leachate control in effect at the time of permit issuance.

2. On or before October 9, 1993, the owner or operator of the solid waste management facility submitted to the director:

a. An acknowledgment that the owner or operator is familiar with state and federal law and regulations pertaining to solid waste management facilities operating after October 9, 1993, including postclosure care, corrective action, and financial responsibility requirements;

b. A statement signed by a professional engineer that he has reviewed the regulations established by the department for solid waste management facilities, including the open dump criteria contained therein, that he has inspected the facility and examined the monitoring data compiled for the facility in accordance with applicable regulations and that, on the basis of his inspection and review, he has concluded:

(1) That the facility is not an open dump;

(2) That the facility does not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health and the environment; and

(3) That the leachate or residues from the facility do not pose a threat of contamination or pollution of the air, surface water, or groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or resulting in a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment; and

c. A statement signed by the owner or operator:

(1) That the facility complies with applicable financial assurance regulations; and

(2) Estimating when the facility will reach its vertical design capacity.

3. Enlargement or closure of these facilities shall conform with the following subconditions:

a. The facility may not be enlarged prematurely to avoid compliance with this chapter when such enlargement is not consistent with past operating practices, the permit, or modified operating practices to ensure good management.

b. The facility shall not dispose of solid waste in any portion of a landfill disposal area that has received final cover or has not received waste for a period of one year, in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 C. The facility shall notify the department, in writing, within 30 days, when an area has received final cover or has not received waste for a one-year period, in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 C. However, a facility may apply for a permit, and if approved, can construct and operate a new cell that overlays ("piggybacks") over a closed area in accordance with the permit requirements of this chapter.

c. The facilities subject to the restrictions in this subsection are listed in Table 2.1. The closure dates were established in Final Prioritization and Closure Schedule for HB 1205 Disposal Areas (DEQ, September 2001). The publication of these tables is for the convenience of the regulated community and does not change established dates. Any facility, including, but not limited to those listed in Table 2.1, must cease operation if that facility meets any of the open dump criteria listed in 9VAC20-81-45 A 1.

d. Those facilities assigned a closure date in accordance with § 10.1-1413.2 of the Code of Virginia shall designate on a map, plat, diagram, or other engineered drawing, areas in which waste will be disposed of in accordance with Table 2.1 until the latest cessation of waste acceptance date as listed in Table 2.1 is achieved. This map or plat shall be placed in the operating record and a copy shall be submitted upon request to the department in order to track the progress of closure of these facilities. If the facility already has provided this information under 9VAC20-81-160, then the facility may refer to that information.

TABLE 2.1
Final Prioritization and Closure Schedule For House Bill (HB) 1205 Disposal Areas

Solid Waste Permit Number and Site Name

Location

Department Regional Office1

Latest Cessation of Waste Acceptance Date2

429 - Fluvanna County Sanitary Landfill

Fluvanna County

VRO

12/31/2007

92 - Halifax County Sanitary Landfill3

Halifax County

BRRO

12/31/2007

49 - Martinsville Landfill

City of Martinsville

BRRO

12/31/2007

14 - Mecklenburg County Landfill

Mecklenburg County

BRRO

12/31/2007

228 - Petersburg City Landfill3

City of Petersburg

PRO

12/31/2007

31 - South Boston Sanitary Landfill

Town of South Boston

BRRO

12/31/2007

204 - Waynesboro City Landfill

City of Waynesboro

VRO

12/31/2007

91 - Accomack County Landfill – Bobtown South

Accomack County

TRO

12/31/2012

580 – Bethel Landfill3

City of Hampton

TRO

12/31/2012

182 - Caroline County Landfill

Caroline County

NVRO

12/31/2012

149 - Fauquier County Landfill

Fauquier County

NVRO

12/31/2012

405 - Greensville County Landfill

Greensville County

PRO

12/31/2012

29 - Independent Hill Landfill3

Prince William County

NVRO

12/31/2012

1 - Loudoun County Sanitary Landfill

Loudoun County

NVRO

12/31/2012

194 - Louisa County Sanitary Landfill

Louisa County

NVRO

12/31/2012

227 - Lunenburg County Sanitary Landfill

Lunenburg County

BRRO

12/31/2012

507 - Northampton County Landfill

Northampton County

TRO

12/31/2012

90 - Orange County Landfill

Orange County

NVRO

12/31/2012

75 - Rockbridge County Sanitary Landfill

Rockbridge County

VRO

12/31/2012

23 - Scott County Landfill

Scott County

SWRO

12/31/2012

587 - Shoosmith Sanitary Landfill3

Chesterfield County

PRO

12/31/2012

417 - Southeastern Public Service Authority Landfill3

City of Suffolk

TRO

12/31/2012

461 - Accomack County Landfill #2

Accomack County

TRO

12/31/2020

86 - Appomattox County Sanitary Landfill

Appomattox County

BRRO

12/31/2020

582 - Botetourt County Landfill3

Botetourt County

BRRO

12/31/2020

498 - Bristol City Landfill

City of Bristol

SWRO

12/31/2020

72 - Franklin County Landfill

Franklin County

BRRO

12/31/2020

398 - Virginia Beach Landfill #2 – Mount Trashmore II3

City of Virginia Beach

TRO

12/31/2020

Notes:
1Department of Environmental Quality Regional Offices:

BRRO - Blue Ridge Regional Office
NVRO - Northern Virginia Regional Office
PRO - Piedmont Regional Office
SWRO - Southwest Regional Office
TRO - Tidewater Regional Office
VRO - Valley Regional Office

2This date means the latest date that the disposal area must cease accepting waste.
3A portion of these facilities operated under HB 1205 and another portion currently is compliant with Subtitle D requirements.

C. Facilities are authorized to expand beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, as follows:

1. Existing captive industrial landfills.

a. Existing nonhazardous industrial waste facilities that are located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in the facility shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter except as shown in subdivision 1 of this subsection.

b. Facility owners or operators shall not be required to modify their facility permit in order to expand a captive industrial landfill beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993. Liners and leachate collection systems constructed beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements in effect at the time of permit issuance.

c. Owners or operators of facilities that are authorized under subdivision 1 of this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities in 9VAC20-81-120.

d. Facilities authorized for expansion in accordance with subdivision 1 of this subsection are limited to expansion to the limits of the permitted disposal area existing on October 9, 1993, or the facility boundary existing on October 9, 1993, if no discrete disposal area is defined in the facility permit.

2. Other existing industrial waste landfills.

a. Existing nonhazardous industrial waste facilities that are not located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in the facility shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter except as shown in subdivision 2 of this subsection.

b. Facility owners or operators shall not be required to modify their facility permit in order to expand an industrial landfill beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993. Liners and leachate collection systems constructed beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-130.

c. Prior to the expansion of any such facility, the owner or operator shall submit to the department a written notice of the proposed expansion at least 60 days prior to commencement of construction. The notice shall include recent groundwater monitoring data sufficient to determine that the facility does not pose a threat of contamination of groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or creating a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment (see 9VAC20-81-45). The director shall evaluate the data included with the notification and may advise the owner or operator of any additional requirements that may be necessary to ensure compliance with applicable laws and prevent a substantial present or potential hazard to health or the environment.

d. Owners or operators of facilities which are authorized under subdivision 2 of this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities in 9VAC20-81-120 and 9VAC20-81-130.

e. Facilities authorized for expansion in accordance with subdivision 2 of this subsection are limited to expansion to the limits of the permitted disposal area existing on October 9, 1993, or the facility boundary existing on October 9, 1993, if no discrete disposal area is defined in the facility permit.

3. Existing construction/demolition/debris landfills.

a. Existing facilities that accept only construction/demolition/debris waste shall comply with all the provisions of this chapter except as shown in subdivision 3 of this subsection.

b. Facility owners or operators shall not be required to modify their facility permit in order to expand a construction/demolition/debris landfill beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993. Liners and leachate collection systems constructed beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-130.

c. Prior to the expansion of any such facility, the owner or operator shall submit to the department a written notice of the proposed expansion at least 60 days prior to commencement of construction. The notice shall include recent groundwater monitoring data sufficient to determine that the facility does not pose a threat of contamination of groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or creating a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment (see 9VAC20-81-45). The director shall evaluate the data included with the notification and may advise the owner or operator of any additional requirements that may be necessary to ensure compliance with applicable laws and prevent a substantial present or potential hazard to health or the environment.

d. Owners or operators of facilities which are authorized under subdivision 3 of this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the active portion of the landfill existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities in 9VAC20-81-120 and 9VAC20-81-130.

e. Facilities, or portions thereof, which have reached their vertical design capacity shall be closed in compliance with 9VAC20-81-160.

f. Facilities authorized for expansion in accordance with subdivision 3 of this subsection are limited to expansion to the permitted disposal area existing on October 9, 1993, or the facility boundary existing on October 9, 1993, if no discrete disposal area is defined in the facility permit.

4. Facilities or units undergoing expansion in accordance with the partial exemptions created by subdivision 1 b, 2 b, or 3 b of this subsection may not receive hazardous wastes generated by the exempt small quantity generators, as defined by the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60), for disposal on the expanded portions of the facility. Other wastes that require special handling in accordance with the requirements of Part VI (9VAC20-81-610 et seq.) of this chapter or that contain hazardous constituents that would pose a risk to health or environment, may only be accepted with specific approval by the director.

5. Nothing in subdivisions 1 b, 2 b, and 3 b of this subsection shall alter any requirement for groundwater monitoring, financial responsibility, operator certification, closure, postclosure care, operation, maintenance, or corrective action imposed under this chapter, or impair the powers of the director to revoke or modify a permit pursuant to § 10.1-1409 of the Virginia Waste Management Act or Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter.

D. An owner or operator of a previously unpermitted facility or unpermitted activity that managed materials previously exempt or excluded from this chapter shall submit a complete application for a solid waste management facility permit, permit by rule or a permit modification, as applicable, in accordance with Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter within six months after these materials have been defined or identified as solid wastes. If the director finds that the application is complete, the owner or operator may continue to manage the newly defined or identified waste until a permit or permit modification decision has been rendered or until a date two years after the change in definition whichever occurs sooner, provided however, that in so doing he shall not operate or maintain an open dump, a hazard, or a nuisance.

Owners or operators of solid waste management facilities in existence prior to September 24, 2003, shall now be in compliance with this chapter. Where conflicts exist between the existing facility permit and the new requirements of the regulations, the regulations shall supersede the permit except where the standards in the permit are more stringent than the regulation. Language in an existing permit shall not act as a shield to compliance with the regulation, unless a variance to the regulations has been approved by the director in accordance with the provisions of Part VII (9VAC20-81-700 et seq.) of this chapter. Existing facility permits will not be required to be updated to eliminate requirements conflicting with the regulation, except at the request of the director or if a permit is modified for another reason. However, all sanitary landfills and incinerators that accept waste from jurisdictions outside of Virginia must have submitted the materials required under 9VAC20-81-100 E 4 by March 22, 2004.

E. This chapter is not applicable to landfill units closed in accordance with regulations or permits in effect prior to December 21, 1988, unless releases from these closed landfills meet the open dump criteria found in 9VAC20-81-45, or the closed landfills are found to be a hazard or a nuisance under subdivision 21 of § 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia, or a site where improper waste management has occurred under subdivision 19 of § 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia.

F. Part VIII (9VAC20-81-800 et seq.) of this chapter applies to the following:

1. Owners and operators of new and existing CCR landfills and CCR surface impoundments, including any lateral expansions of such units that dispose or otherwise engage in solid waste management of CCR generated from the combustion of coal at electric utilities and independent power producers;

2. Disposal units located offsite of the electric utility or independent power producer. Part VIII of this chapter also applies to any practice that does not meet the definition of a beneficial use of CCR; and

3. Inactive CCR surface impoundments at active electric utilities or independent power producers, regardless of the fuel currently used at the facility to produce electricity.

G. Part VIII of this chapter is not applicable to the following:

1. CCR landfills that have ceased receiving CCR prior to October 19, 2015;

2. Electric utilities or independent power producers that have ceased producing electricity prior to October 19, 2015;

3. Wastes, including fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials generated at facilities that are not part of an electric utility or independent power producer, such as manufacturing facilities, universities, and hospitals;

4. Fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials, generated primarily from the combustion of fuels (including other fossil fuels) other than coal, for the purpose of generating electricity unless the fuel burned consists of more than 50% coal on a total heat input or mass input basis, whichever results in the greater mass feed rate of coal;

5. Practices that meet the definition of a beneficial use of CCR;

6. CCR placement at active or abandoned underground or surface coal mines; or

7. Municipal solid waste landfills that receive CCR.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 22, eff. August 3, 2011; Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

9VAC20-81-40. Prohibitions.

A. No person shall operate any sanitary landfill or other facility for the disposal, treatment, or storage of solid waste without a permit from the director.

B. No person shall allow waste to be disposed of or otherwise managed on his property except in accordance with this chapter.

C. It shall be the duty of all persons to dispose of or otherwise manage their solid waste in a legal manner.

D. Any person who violates subsection A, B, or C of this section shall immediately cease the activity of improper management and the treatment, storage, or disposal of any additional wastes and shall initiate such removal, cleanup, or closure in place.

E. Management of lead acid batteries.

1. No person shall place a used lead acid battery in mixed municipal solid waste or discard or otherwise dispose of a lead acid battery except by delivery to a battery retailer or wholesaler, or to a secondary lead smelter, or to a collection or reclamation facility authorized under the laws of the Commonwealth or by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

2. No battery retailer shall dispose of a used lead acid battery except by delivery to:

a. The agent of a battery wholesaler or a secondary lead smelter;

b. A battery manufacturer for delivery to a secondary smelter; or

c. A collection or reclamation facility authorized under the laws of the Commonwealth or by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

3. No person selling new lead acid batteries at wholesale shall refuse to accept from customers at the point of transfer, used lead acid batteries of the type and in a quantity at least equal to the number of new batteries purchased, if offered by customers.

4. The provisions of subdivisions 1 through 3 of this subsection shall not be construed to prohibit any person who does not sell new lead acid batteries from collecting and reclaiming such batteries.

F. Any locality may, by ordinance, prohibit the disposal of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in any waste to energy or solid waste disposal facility within its jurisdiction if it has implemented a CRT recycling program that meets the requirements of § 10.1-1425.26 of the Code of Virginia.

G. No person shall dispose of or manage solid waste in an unpermitted facility, including by disposing, causing to be disposed, or arranging for the disposal of solid waste upon a property for which the director has not issued a permit and that is not otherwise exempt from permitting requirements.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 4, eff. November 11, 2020.

9VAC20-81-45. Open dumps.

A. Prohibition.

1. No person shall dispose of solid waste in open dumps, nor own, operate or allow to be operated on his property an open dump as defined in subsection B of this section or § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia. Both permitted and unpermitted sites or facilities may be classified as open dumps.

2. Any person found to be in violation of this section shall be ordered to immediately cease treatment, storage, and disposal of any additional solid waste and shall take measures to abate improper management of the solid waste and come into compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

B. Criteria – Incorporation of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 by reference.

1. Except as otherwise provided, the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are adopted herein and incorporated by reference as part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are part of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are also hereby incorporated as part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations.

2. In all locations in these regulations where 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are incorporated by reference, the following additions, modifications, and exceptions shall amend the incorporated text for the purpose of its incorporation into these regulations:

a. 40 CFR 257.1(b) and 40 CFR 257.3-5 are not included in the incorporation of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 by reference and are not part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations.

b. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a): "Unless otherwise provided, the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 are adopted for determining which solid waste disposal facilities and practices are a nuisance and pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on health or the environment under §§ 1008(a)(3) and 4004(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 USC § 6901 et seq. (1976) (RCRA) and the Virginia Waste Management Act, § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia (Act). Unless otherwise provided, the criteria in §§ 257.50 through 257.107 are adopted for determining which CCR landfills and CCR surface impoundments pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on human health or the environment under sections 1008(a)(3) and 4004(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act."

c. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a)(1): "Facilities failing to satisfy the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 or §§ 257.5 through 257.30 or §§ 257.50 through 257.107 are considered open dumps, which are prohibited under section 4005 of RCRA and § 10.1-1408.1 of the Act."

d. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a)(2): "Practices failing to satisfy the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 or §§ 257.5 through 257.30 or §§ 257.50 through 257.107 constitute open dumping, which is prohibited under section 4005 of RCRA and § 10.1-1408.1 of the Act."

e. In addition to those exceptions found in 40 CFR 257.1(c), the open dump criteria does not apply to sites actively enrolled in the Voluntary Remediation Program (9VAC20-160) or sites that have successfully completed the Voluntary Remediation Program in accordance with all conditions and requirements of their Certificates of Satisfactory Completion.

f. In addition to those exceptions found in 40 CFR 257.1(c), the open dump criteria shall not apply to sites that are undergoing remediation per the requirements of CERCLA or the RCRA Corrective Action Program and are doing so with the department's or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oversight.

C. Site evaluation and remedial action.

1. If a site is a potential or probable open dump, a site evaluation may be conducted. This site evaluation will be conducted by the department in order to determine if further action is required under this section. The site evaluation will include but is not limited to any records that can be obtained from the owner, operator, or other responsible party as well as all documented observations by department personnel regarding the following:

a. The location of the site;

b. The amount, type, and source of the waste at the site;

c. The permit status for the activities taking place at the site; and

d. A preliminary evaluation of the site with respect to the criteria outlined in subsection B of this section.

2. Based on the criteria of subsection B of this section and the information gathered under the provisions of subdivision 1 of this subsection, the department will make a determination that the site is or is not an open dump.

3. If the department determines that the site is an open dump then the department will make a recommendation for remedial action as follows:

a. Remedial action is required; or

b. Removal of the wastes from the site and disposal at a facility permitted to accept the wastes is required. The department may require submission of evidence of proper management of the removed waste and may require evidence, including confirmatory sampling, of the removal of solid waste and any hazardous constituents. A site inspection will be performed by the department to confirm the removal of the waste materials.

4. The site evaluation conducted under this subsection may be performed pursuant to an administrative or judicial order or other appropriate mechanism as chosen by the department.

5. Pursuant to the recommendations made under subdivision 3 of this subsection, any required remedial action as deemed necessary by the department shall be performed by the responsible party pursuant to an administrative or judicial order or other appropriate mechanism as chosen by the department.

D. Process and appeal.

1. Any case decision by the department based on the requirements of this section shall be subject to the process and appeal provisions of the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

2. A final determination and an administrative order requiring remedial action may be obtained in the same hearing or proceeding subject to the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

9VAC20-81-50. Enforcement and appeal.

A. All administrative enforcement and appeals taken from actions of the director relative to the provisions of this chapter shall be governed by the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

B. The Virginia Waste Management Board or the director may enforce the provisions of this chapter utilizing all applicable procedures under the law. The powers of the board and the director include, but are not limited to, those established under Chapter 11.1 (§ 10.1-1182 et seq. (especially in § 10.1-1186)) and in Article 8 (§ 10.1-1455 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 10.1 of the Code of Virginia. These sections describe the right of entry for inspections, the issuance of orders, penalties, injunctions, and other provisions and procedures for enforcement of these regulations.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-60. Ten year permit review.

The director shall review and issue written findings on the environmental compliance history of each permittee, material changes, if any, in key personnel, and technical limitations, standards, or regulations on which the original permit was based. The time period for review of each permit shall be at least once every 10 years. If, upon such review, the director finds that repeated material or substantial violations of the permittee or material changes in the permittee's key personnel would make continued operation of the facility not in the best interests of human health or the environment, the director shall modify or revoke the permit, in accordance with provisions of Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter. Whenever such review is undertaken, the director may modify the permit to include additional limitations, standards, or conditions when the technical limitations, standards, or regulations on which the original permit was based have been changed by statute or amended by regulation or when any of the conditions in § 10.1-1409 B of the Virginia Waste Management Act exist. The director may deny, revoke, or suspend any permit for any of the grounds listed under § 10.1-1409 A of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-70. Public participation and information.

A. All permits for solid waste management facilities will be subject to public participation, as specified in Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. Modifications to solid waste management facility permits shall be subject to public participation in accordance with Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter.

C. Dockets of all permitting actions, enforcement actions, and administrative actions relative to this chapter shall be available to the public for review, consistent with the Commonwealth of Virginia Administrative Process Act, Virginia Freedom of Information Act, and the provisions of this chapter.

D. Public participation in the compliance evaluation and enforcement programs is encouraged. The department will:

1. Investigate all citizen complaints and provide written responses to all signed, written complaints from citizens, concerning matters within the board's purview;

2. Not oppose intervention by any citizen in a suit brought before a court by the department as a result of the enforcement action; and

3. Provide notice on the department's Internet website; and provide at least 30 days of public comment on proposed settlements of civil enforcement actions except where the settlement requires some immediate action. Where a public comment period is not held prior to the settlement of an enforcement action, public notice will still be provided following the settlement.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-80. Solid waste information and assessment program.

A. The owners or operators of all permitted solid waste management facilities that treat, store, or dispose of solid waste shall report by March 31 of each year the amount of solid waste, by weight or volume, received and managed by the facility during the preceding calendar year. The report shall identify solid waste by the following categories: (i) municipal solid waste, (ii) construction and demolition debris, (iii) industrial waste, (iv) regulated medical waste, (v) vegetative and yard waste, (vi) incinerator ash, (vii) sludge other than sludge that is land applied in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia, (viii) tires, (ix) white goods, (x) friable asbestos, (xi) petroleum-contaminated soil, and (xii) other special waste. For each such category the report shall include an estimate of the amount that was generated outside of the Commonwealth and the state or local jurisdictions where such waste originated. The report shall also estimate the amount of solid waste managed or disposed of by each of the following methods: (i) recycling, (ii) composting, (iii) landfilling, (iv) incineration, (v) sending offsite for further management, and (vi) stored on site on December 31 of the reporting year. Information on the available capacity and expected life of the facilities, at the disposal rates submitted in this subsection, shall be included in the annual report required by this section.

B. At the option of the facility owner, the data collected may include an accounting of the facility's economic benefits to the locality where the facility is located including the value of disposal and recycling facilities provided to the locality at no cost or reduced cost, direct employment associated with the facility, and other economic benefits resulting from the facility during the preceding calendar year.

C. No facility shall be required pursuant to this section to provide information that is a trade secret as defined in § 59.1-336 of the Code of Virginia.

D. The reporting form to be used to fulfill the reporting requirement of this part is DEQ Form DEQ 50-25 (Solid Waste Information and Assessment Program - Reporting Table).

E. This section shall not apply to captive waste management facilities including captive industrial landfills.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011.

9VAC20-81-90. Relationship with other regulations promulgated by the Virginia Waste Management Board.

A. Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60).

1. Solid wastes that have been declared hazardous or a universal waste by the generator in accordance with 40 CFR 262.11, as amended, or that are regulated as hazardous wastes by the Commonwealth or another state, and will be treated, stored, or disposed of in Virginia shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-60 and not 9VAC20-81.

2. Any material from a state other than Virginia that is classified as a hazardous waste in that state shall be managed in accordance with 9VAC20-60.

3. Wastes generated by generators who are conditionally exempt pursuant to 40 CFR 261.5 may be managed in solid waste management facilities provided that:

a. (i) A specific approval is obtained from the director for acceptance of the material at a facility with an approved liner and leachate collection system; or (ii) it is included in the facility permit; and

b. Records are kept of the actual amount, type, and source of these wastes.

B. Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-120). Solid wastes that are defined as regulated medical wastes by the Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations shall be managed in accordance with those regulations. Regulated medical wastes that are excluded or exempt by 9VAC20-120 shall be regulated by this chapter.

C. Financial Assurance Regulations for Solid Waste Disposal, Transfer, and Treatment Facilities (9VAC20-70). 9VAC20-70 specifies the requirements for financial assurance and allowable financial assurance mechanisms. Solid waste management facilities shall provide financial assurance in accordance with 9VAC20-70.

D. Solid Waste Management Facility Permit Action Fees and Annual Fees (9VAC20-90). All applicants for solid waste management facility permits are required to pay a fee in accordance with the schedule shown in 9VAC20-90. All solid waste management facilities shall pay annual fees in accordance with 9VAC20-90, as applicable.

E. Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Regulations (9VAC20-130). 9VAC20-130 establishes a framework for local governments to plan for solid waste management needs and a mechanism for tracking recycling rates and solid waste management plan contents.

F. Transportation of Solid and Medical Wastes on State Waters (9VAC20-170). 9VAC20-170 establishes the standards and procedures pertaining to the commercial transport, loading and offloading of solid wastes or regulated medical wastes upon the navigable waters of the Commonwealth.

G. Voluntary Remediation Regulations (9VAC20-160). 9VAC20-160 establishes standards and procedures for the Virginia Voluntary Remediation Program.

H. Coal Combustion Byproduct Regulations (9VAC20-85). 9VAC20-85 establishes standards for the use of fossil fuel combustion products, which are not subject to requirements of this chapter, and establishes standards for siting, design, construction, operation, and administrative procedures pertaining to their use, reuse, or reclamation other than in a manner addressed by this chapter.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

9VAC20-81-95. Identification of solid waste.

A. Wastes identified in this section are solid wastes that are subject to this chapter unless regulated pursuant to other applicable regulations issued by the department.

B. Except as otherwise provided, the definition of solid waste per 40 CFR 261.2 as incorporated by 9VAC20-60-261, as amended, is also hereby incorporated as part of this chapter. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are a part of 9VAC20-60-261, as amended, are also hereby incorporated as part of this chapter as well.

C. Except as otherwise modified or excepted by 9VAC20-60, the materials listed in the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR 261.4(a) are considered a solid waste for the purposes of this chapter. However, these materials are not regulated under the provisions of this chapter if all conditions specified therein are met. This list and all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are part of 40 CFR Part 261.4(a), as incorporated, modified or accepted by 9VAC20-60 are incorporated as part of this chapter. In addition, the following materials are not solid wastes for the purpose of this chapter:

1. Materials generated by any of the following, which are returned to the soil as fertilizers:

a. The growing and harvesting of agricultural crops.

b. The raising and husbanding of animals, including animal manures and used animal bedding.

2. Mining overburden returned to the mine site.

3. Recyclable materials used in manner constituting disposal per 9VAC20-60-266.

4. Wood wastes burned for energy recovery.

5. Materials that are:

a. Used or reused, or prepared for use or reuse, as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product, or as effective substitutes for commercial products or natural resources provided the materials are not being reclaimed or accumulated speculatively; or

b. Returned to the original process from which they are generated.

6. Materials that are beneficially used as determined by the department under this subsection. The department may consider other waste materials and uses to be beneficial in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC20-81-97.

7. The following materials and uses listed in this part are exempt from this chapter as long as they are managed so that they do not create an open dump, hazard, or public nuisance. These materials and the designated use are considered a beneficial use of waste materials:

a. Clean wood, wood chips, or bark from land clearing, logging operations, utility line clearing and maintenance operations, pulp and paper production, and wood products manufacturing, when these materials are placed in commerce for service as mulch, landscaping, animal bedding, erosion control, habitat mitigation, wetlands restoration, or bulking agent at a compost facility operated in compliance with Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter;

b. Clean wood combustion residues when used for pH adjustment in compost, liquid absorbent in compost, or as a soil amendment or fertilizer, provided the application rate of the wood ash is limited to the nutrient need of the crop grown on the land on which the wood combustion residues will be applied and provided that such application meets the requirements of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2VAC5-400 and 2VAC5-410);

c. Compost that satisfies the applicable requirements of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2VAC5-400 and 2VAC5-410);

d. Nonhazardous, contaminated soil that has been excavated as part of a construction project and that is used as backfill for the same excavation or excavations containing similar contaminants at the same site, at concentrations at the same level or higher. Excess contaminated soil from these projects is subject to the requirements of this chapter;

e. Nonhazardous petroleum contaminated soil that has been treated to the satisfaction of the department in accordance with 9VAC20-81-660;

f. Nonhazardous petroleum contaminated soil when incorporated into asphalt pavement products;

g. Solid wastes that are approved in advance of the placement, in writing, by the department or that are specifically mentioned in the facility permit for use as alternate daily cover material or other protective materials for landfill liner or final cover system components;

h. Fossil fuel combustion products that are not CCR when used as a material in the manufacturing of another product (e.g., concrete, concrete products, lightweight aggregate, roofing materials, plastics, paint, flowable fill) or as a substitute for a product or material resource (e.g., blasting grit, roofing granules, filter cloth pre-coat for sludge dewatering, pipe bedding);

i. Tire chips and tire shred when used as a sub-base fill for road base materials or asphalt pavements when approved by the Virginia Department of Transportation or by a local governing body;

j. Tire chips, tire shred, and ground rubber used in the production of commercial products such as mats, pavement sealers, playground surfaces, brake pads, blasting mats, and other rubberized commercial products;

k. Tire chips and tire shred when used as backfill in landfill gas or leachate collection pipes, recirculation lines, and drainage material in landfill liner and cover systems, and gas interception or remediation applications;

l. Waste tires, tire chips or tire shred when burned for energy recovery or when used in pyrolysis, gasification, or similar treatment process to produce fuel;

m. Waste-derived fuel product, as defined in 9VAC20-81-10, derived from nonhazardous solid waste;

n. Uncontaminated concrete and concrete products, asphalt pavement, brick, glass, soil, and rock placed in commerce for service as a substitute for conventional aggregate; and

o. Clean, ground gypsum wallboard when used as a soil amendment or fertilizer, provided the following conditions are met:

(1) No components of the gypsum wallboard have been glued, painted, or otherwise contaminated from manufacture or use (e.g., waterproof or fireproof drywall) unless otherwise processed to remove contaminants.

(2) The gypsum wallboard shall be processed so that 95% of the gypsum wallboard is less than 1/4 inch by 1/4 inch in size, unless an alternate size is approved by the department.

(3) The gypsum wallboard shall be applied only to agricultural, silvicultural, landscaped, or mined lands or roadway construction sites that need fertilization.

(4) The application rate for the ground gypsum wallboard shall not exceed the following rates.

Region

Rate

Piedmont, Mountains, and Ridge and Valley

250 lbs/1,000 ft2

Coastal Plain

50 lbs/1,000 ft2

Note: These weights are for dry ground gypsum wallboard.

D. The following activities are conditionally exempt from this chapter provided no open dump, hazard, or public nuisance is created:

1. Composting of sewage sludge at the sewage treatment plant of generation without addition of other types of solid wastes.

2. Composting of household waste generated at a residence and composted at the site of generation.

3. Composting activities performed for educational purposes as long as no more than 100 cubic yards of materials are onsite at any time. Greater quantities will be allowed with suitable justification presented to the department. For quantities greater than 100 cubic yards, approval from the department will be required prior to composting.

4. Composting of animal carcasses onsite at the farm of generation.

5. Composting of vegetative waste or yard waste generated onsite by owners or operators of agricultural operations or owners of the real property or those authorized by the owners of the real property provided:

a. All decomposed vegetative waste and compost produced is utilized on said property;

b. No vegetative waste or other waste material generated from other sources other than said property is received;

c. All applicable standards of local ordinances that govern or concern vegetative waste handling, composting, storage or disposal are satisfied; and

d. They pose no nuisance or present no potential threat to human health or the environment.

6. Composting of yard waste by owners or operators who accept yard waste generated offsite shall be exempt from all other provisions of this chapter as applied to the composting activities provided the requirements of 9VAC20-81-397 B are met.

7. Composting of preconsumer food waste and kitchen culls generated onsite and composted in containers designed to prohibit vector attraction and prevent nuisance odor generation.

8. Vermicomposting, when used to process Category I, Category II, or Category III feedstocks in containers designed to prohibit vector attraction and prevent nuisance odor generation. If offsite feedstocks are received no more than 100 cubic yards of materials may be onsite at any one time. For quantities greater than 100 cubic yards, approval from the department will be required prior to composting.

9. Composting of sewage sludge or combinations of sewage sludge with nonhazardous solid waste provided the composting facility is permitted under the requirements of a Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) or VPDES permit.

10. Management of solid waste in appropriate containers at the site of its generation, provided that:

a. Putrescible waste is not stored more than seven days between time of collection and time of removal for disposal;

b. Nonputrescible wastes are not stored more than 90 days between time of collection and time of removal for proper management; and

c. Treatment of waste is conducted in accordance with the following:

(1) In accordance with a waste analysis plan that:

(a) Contains a detailed chemical and physical analysis of a representative sample of the waste being treated and contains all records necessary to treat the waste in accordance with the requirements of this part, including the selected testing frequency; and

(b) Is kept in the facility's onsite file and made available to the department upon request.

(2) Notification is made to the receiving waste management facility that the waste has been treated.

11. Using rocks, brick, block, dirt, broken concrete, crushed glass, porcelain, and road pavement as clean fill.

12. Storage of less than 100 waste tires at the site of generation provided that no waste tires are accepted from offsite and that the storage will not present a hazard or a nuisance.

13. Storage in piles of land-clearing debris including stumps and brush, clean wood wastes, log yard scrapings consisting of a mixture of soil and wood, cotton gin trash, peanut hulls, and similar organic wastes that do not readily decompose, are exempt from this chapter if they meet the following conditions at a minimum:

a. The wastes are managed in the following manner:

(1) They do not cause discharges of leachate, or attract vectors.

(2) They cannot be dispersed by wind and rain.

(3) Fire is prevented.

(4) They do not become putrescent.

b. Any facility storing waste materials under the provisions of this subsection shall obtain a stormwater discharge permit if they are considered a significant source under the provisions of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c.

c. No more than a total of 1/3 acre of waste material is stored onsite and the waste pile does not exceed 15 feet in height above base grade.

d. Siting provisions.

(1) All log yard scrapings consisting of a mixture of soil and wood, cotton gin trash, peanut hulls, and similar organic wastes that do not readily decompose are stored at the site of the industrial activity that produces them;

(2) A 50-foot fire break is maintained between the waste pile and any structure or tree line;

(3) The slope of the ground within the area of the pile and within 50 feet of the pile does not exceed 4:1;

(4) No waste material may be stored closer than 50 feet to any regularly flowing surface water body or river, floodplain, or wetland; and

(5) No stored waste materials shall extend closer than 50 feet to any property line.

e. If activities at the site cease, any waste stored at the site must be properly managed in accordance with these regulations within 90 days. The director can approve longer timeframes with appropriate justification. Justification must be provided in writing no more than 30 days after ceasing activity at the site.

f. Waste piles that do not meet these provisions are required to obtain a permit in accordance with the permitting provisions in Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter and meet all of the applicable waste pile requirements in Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter. Facilities that do not comply with the provisions of this subsection and fail to obtain a permit are subject to the provisions of 9VAC20-81-40.

14. Storage of nonhazardous solid wastes and hazardous wastes, or hazardous wastes from very small quantity generators as defined in Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60) at a transportation terminal or transfer station in closed containers meeting the U.S. Department of Transportation specifications is exempt from this section and the permitting provisions of Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter provided such wastes are removed to a permitted storage or disposal facility within 10 days from the initial receipt from the waste generator. To be eligible for this exemption, each shipment must be properly documented to show the name of the generator, the date of receipt by the transporter, and the date and location of the final destination of the shipment. The documentation shall be kept at the terminal or transfer station for at least three years after the shipment has been completed and shall be made available to the department upon request. All such activities shall comply with any local ordinances.

15. Open burning of solid wastes as provided in the following:

a. For forest management, agriculture practices, and highway construction and maintenance programs approved by the State Air Pollution Control Board.

b. For training and instruction of government and public firefighters under the supervision of the designated official and industrial in-house firefighting personnel with clearance from the local firefighting authority. Buildings that have not been demolished may be burned under the provisions of this subdivision only. Additionally, burning rubber tires, asphaltic materials, crankcase oil, impregnated wood, or other rubber-based or petroleum-based wastes is permitted when conducting bona fide firefighting instruction.

c. For the destruction of classified military documents under the supervision of the designated official.

d. For campfires or other fires using clean wood or vegetative waste that are used solely for recreational purposes, for ceremonial occasions, for outdoor preparation of food, and for warming of outdoor workers.

e. For the onsite destruction of vegetative waste located on the premises of private property, provided that no regularly scheduled collection service for such vegetative waste is available at the adjacent street or public road.

f. For the onsite destruction of household waste by homeowners or tenants, provided that no regularly scheduled collection service for such household waste is available at the adjacent street or public road.

g. For the onsite destruction of clean wood waste and debris waste resulting from property maintenance; from the development or modification of roads and highways, parking areas, railroad tracks, pipelines, power and communication lines, buildings or building areas, sanitary landfills; or from any other clearing operations.

16. Open burning of vegetative waste is allowed at a closed landfill that has not been released from postclosure care. The activity shall be included in the text of the postclosure plan and conducted in accordance with § 10.1-1410.3 of the Code of Virginia.

17. Placement of trees, brush, or other vegetation from land used for agricultural or silvicultural purposes on the same property or other property of the same landowner.

18. Using fossil fuel combustion products that are not CCR in one or more of the following applications or when handled, processed, transported, or stockpiled for the following uses:

a. As a base, sub-base or fill material under a paved road, the footprint of a structure, a paved parking lot, sidewalk, walkway or similar structure, or in the embankment of a road. In the case of roadway embankments, materials will be placed in accordance with Virginia Department of Transportation specifications, and exposed slopes not directly under the surface of the pavement must have a minimum of 18 inches of soil cover over the fossil fuel combustion products, the top six inches of which must be capable of sustaining the growth of indigenous plant species or plant species adapted to the area. The use, reuse, or reclamation of unamended coal combustion byproduct shall not be placed in an area designated as a 100-year flood plain;

b. Processed with a cementitious binder to produce a stabilized structural fill product that is spread and compacted with proper equipment for the construction of a project with a specified end use; or

c. For the extraction or recovery of materials and compounds contained within the fossil fuel combustion products.

E. The following solid wastes are exempt from this chapter provided that they are managed in accordance with the requirements promulgated by other applicable state or federal agencies:

1. Management of wastes regulated by the State Board of Health, the State Water Control Board, the Air Pollution Control Board, the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, or any other state or federal agency with such authority.

2. Drilling fluids, produced waters, and other wastes associated with the exploration, development, or production of crude oil, natural gas, or geothermal energy.

3. Solid waste from the extraction, beneficiation, and processing of ores and minerals, including coal.

4. Fossil fuel combustion products used for mine reclamation, mine subsidence, or mine refuse disposal on a mine site permitted by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy (DMME) when used in accordance with the standards.

5. Solid waste management practices that involve only the onsite placing of solid waste from mineral mining activities at the site of those activities and in compliance with a permit issued by the DMME, that do not include any municipal solid waste, are accomplished in an environmentally sound manner, and do not create an open dump, hazard or public nuisance are exempt from all requirements of this chapter.

6. Waste or byproduct derived from an industrial process that meets the definition of fertilizer, soil amendment, soil conditioner, or horticultural growing medium as defined in § 3.2-3600 of the Code of Virginia, or whose intended purpose is to neutralize soil acidity (see § 3.2-3700 of the Code of Virginia), and that is regulated under the authority of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

7. Fossil fuel combustion products bottom ash or boiler slag used as a traction control material or road surface material if the use is consistent with Virginia Department of Transportation practices. This exemption does not apply to CCR used in this manner.

8. Waste tires generated by and stored at salvage yards licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles provided that such storage complies with requirements set forth in § 10.1-1418.2 of the Code of Virginia and such storage does not pose a hazard or nuisance.

9. Tire chips used as the drainage material in construction of septage drain fields regulated under the authority of the Virginia Department of Health.

F. The following solid wastes are exempt from this chapter provided that they are reclaimed or temporarily stored incidentally to reclamation, are not accumulated speculatively, and are managed without creating an open dump, hazard, or a public nuisance:

1. Paper and paper products;

2. Clean wood waste that is to undergo size reduction in order to produce a saleable product, such as mulch;

3. Cloth;

4. Glass;

5. Plastics;

6. Tire chips, tire shred, ground rubber; and

7. Mixtures of above materials only. Such mixtures may include scrap metals excluded from regulation in accordance with the provisions of subsection C of this section.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 22, eff. August 3, 2011; Volume 30, Issue 4, eff. December 5, 2013; Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 12, eff. March 6, 2019.

9VAC20-81-97. Beneficial use demonstrations.

A. The department may consider other waste materials and uses to be beneficial. The generator or proposed user of such materials may request that the department make a case-specific determination that the solid waste may be beneficially used in a manufacturing process to make a product or as an effective substitute for a commercial product. In all such cases, the materials will be managed so they do not create an open dump, hazard, or public nuisance.

1. The requestor shall provide the following information:

a. A description of the solid waste under review and its proposed use;

b. Chemical and physical characteristics of the solid waste under review and of each type of proposed product;

c. A demonstration that there is a known or reasonably probable market for the intended use of the solid waste under review and of all proposed products by providing one or more of the following:

(1) A description of how the proposed product will be used;

(2) A demonstration that the proposed product complies with industry standards and specifications for that product if any; or

(3) Other documentation that a market for the proposed product or use exists; and

d. A demonstration that the management of the solid waste under review will not adversely affect human health and safety, the environment, and natural resources by providing:

(1) A solid waste control plan that describes the following:

(a) The source of the solid waste under review;

(b) Procedures for periodic testing of the solid waste under review and the proposed product to ensure that the proposed product's composition has not changed significantly;

(c) The disposition of any solid waste that may result from the manufacture of the product into which the solid waste under review is intended to be incorporated;

(d) A description of the type of storage (e.g., container, tank, or pile) and the maximum anticipated inventory of the solid waste under review (not to exceed 90 days) before being used;

(e) Procedures for run-on and run-off control of the storage areas for the solid waste under review; and

(f) A program and implementation schedule of best management practices designed to minimize uncontrolled dispersion of the solid waste under review before and during all aspects of its storage as inventory and during beneficial use.

2. Upon receipt of complete information required under subdivision 1 of this subsection, the department will determine in writing within 90 days, on a case-by-case basis, whether the proposal constitutes a beneficial use based on a showing that all of the following criteria have been met:

a. The proposed use of the material constitutes a reuse rather than disposal;

b. For a material that is proposed for incorporation into a manufacturing process, the material is not required to be decontaminated or otherwise specially handled or processed before such incorporation, in order to minimize loss of material or to provide adequate protection, as needed, of public health, safety, or welfare; the environment; or natural resources; and

c. Other criteria as the department shall determine in its discretion to be appropriate. Conversely, the department may determine that owing to the nature of the use, reuse, or reclamation process, some of the informational materials required under subdivision 1 of this subsection may not be required to make the determination.

3. The department will either approve the request, disapprove it, or allow the proposed use of the solid waste under review subject to such conditions as the department may impose. When granting a beneficial use determination, the department shall determine, on a case-by-case basis, the precise point at which the solid waste under review ceases to be solid waste. Unless otherwise determined for the particular solid waste under review, that point occurs when it is used in a manufacturing process to make a product or used as an effective substitute for a commercial product or a fuel. As part of its request, the generator or the proposed user may request that such point occur elsewhere. In such a request, the proponent shall include a demonstration that there is little potential for improper disposal of the material or little potential for the handling, transportation, or storage of the solid waste under review to have an adverse impact upon the public health, safety, or welfare; the environment; or natural resources.

4. The department may revoke any determination made if it finds that one or more of the items of information submitted serving as the basis for the department's determination was incorrect or is no longer valid, the department finds that there has been a violation of any condition that the department attached to such determination, or that the use, reuse, or reclamation process has become a public nuisance.

B. Beneficial use determinations granted by the department before March 16, 2011, shall remain in effect, subject to all conditions contained therein, unless specifically addressed by subsequent department action.

C. Beneficial use determinations involving coal combustion residuals must meet the requirements of beneficial use of CCR as defined in 40 CFR 257.53. Beneficial use determinations for CCR projects involving over 12,400 tons of CCR must provide the required demonstrations identified in the definition of "beneficial use of CCR" to the department for review and approval.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016.

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