Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 16.1. Courts Not of Record
5/27/2018

Article 2. Organization and Personnel.

§ 16.1-230. Organization and operation of juvenile and domestic relations district courts.

The provisions of Chapter 4.1 (§ 16.1-69.1 et seq.) of this title establishing the district court system shall be controlling over the provisions of this chapter with respect to the organization, judges, administration and supervision, personnel, and financing of the juvenile and domestic relations district courts in the event of any conflict between the provisions of Chapter 4.1 and this chapter.

Code 1950, § 16.1-153.1; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1977, c. 559.

§ 16.1-231. Rules of procedure.

The chief judge may adopt and publish rules not in violation of law or in conflict with rules adopted pursuant to Chapter 4.1 (§ 16.1-69.1 et seq.) of this title to regulate the conduct of the clerks and employees of the court, which rules shall be construed and enforced liberally in furtherance of the remedial purposes of this chapter. Insofar as is practicable all such records and rules shall be uniform throughout the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 16.1-154; 1956, c. 555; 1968, c. 451; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1975, c. 334; 1977, c. 559.

§ 16.1-232. Attorney for the Commonwealth to prosecute certain cases and represent Commonwealth on appeal.

The attorney for the Commonwealth shall prosecute felony charges before the juvenile court, unless relieved of such responsibility by order of the court. In his discretion, the attorney for the Commonwealth may prosecute misdemeanor charges before such court.

The attorney for the Commonwealth shall represent the Commonwealth in all cases appealed from the juvenile and domestic relations district court to the circuit court.

Code 1950, § 16.1-155; 1956, c. 555; 1977, c. 559; 1980, c. 530; 1991, c. 262.

§ 16.1-233. Department to develop court services; court services units; appointment and removal of employees; salaries.

A. Within funds appropriated for the purpose, it shall be a function of the Department to develop and operate, except as hereinafter provided, probation, parole and other court services for juvenile and domestic relations district courts in order that all children coming within the jurisdiction of such courts throughout the Commonwealth shall receive the fullest protection of the court. To this end the Director may establish court services units in the Department. The Director shall appoint such employees as he may find to be necessary to carry out properly the responsibilities of the Department relative to the development, supervision and operation of probation, parole and other court services throughout the Commonwealth as set forth in this chapter.

B. The salaries of the persons employed pursuant to this section shall be paid out of funds appropriated for such purpose to the Department of Juvenile Justice. The Director and such employees as he may find necessary to carry out properly the responsibilities of the Department pursuant to subsection A of this section shall have access to all probation offices, other social services and to their records.

C. The State Board shall establish minimum standards for court service staffs and related supportive personnel and promulgate regulations pertaining to their appointment and function to the end that uniform services, insofar as is practical, will be available to juvenile and domestic relations district courts throughout the Commonwealth. In counties or cities now served by regional juvenile and domestic relations courts or where specialized court service units are not provided, and in any county or city which provided specialized services on June 30, 1973, that requests the development of a court service unit, appointment to positions in such units shall be based on merit as provided in the Virginia Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.).

D. No person shall be assigned to or discharged from the state-operated court service staff of a juvenile and domestic relations district court except as provided in the Virginia Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.). The Director shall have the authority, for good cause, after consulting with the judge or judges of that juvenile and domestic relations district court and after due notice and opportunity to be heard, to order the transfer, demotion or separation of any person from the court service staff subject only to the limitations of the Virginia Personnel Act.

Code 1950, § 16.1-203; 1956, c. 555; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1977, c. 559; 1979, c. 700; 1989, c. 733; 1995, cc. 696, 699; 2001, c. 853; 2003, c. 648.

§ 16.1-234. Duties of Department; provision of quarters, utilities, and office equipment to court service unit.

The Director shall cause the Department to study the conditions existing in the several cities and counties, to confer with the judges of the juvenile and domestic relations district courts, the directors and boards of social services, and other appropriate officials, as the case may be, and to plan, establish and operate unless otherwise provided an adequate and coordinated program of probation, parole and related services to all juvenile and domestic relations district courts in counties or cities heretofore served by regional juvenile and domestic relations courts, and where specialized probation, parole and related court services were not provided as of July 1, 1973, and to counties and cities that request a development of a court service unit with the approval of the governing bodies after consultation with the chief juvenile and domestic relations district court judge.

In each county and city in which there is located an office for a state juvenile and domestic relations district court service unit such jurisdiction shall provide suitable quarters and utilities, including telephone service, for such court service unit staff. Such county or city shall also provide all necessary furniture and furnishings for the efficient operation of the unit. When such court service unit serves counties or cities in addition to the county or city where the office is located, the jurisdiction or jurisdictions so served shall share proportionately, based on the population of the jurisdictions, in the cost of the quarters and utilities, including telephone service and necessary furniture and furnishings. All other office equipment and supplies, including postage, shall be furnished by the Commonwealth and shall be paid out of the appropriation for criminal charges.

In counties and cities that provided specialized court service programs prior to July 1, 1973, which do not request the development of a state-operated court service unit, it shall be the duty of the Department to insure that minimum standards established by the State Board are adhered to, to confer with the judges of the juvenile and domestic relations district court and other appropriate officials as the case may be, and to assist in the continued development and extension of an adequate and coordinated program of court services, probation, parole and detention facilities and other specialized services and facilities to such juvenile and domestic relations district courts.

Code 1950, § 16.1-204; 1956, c. 555; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1974, c. 641; 1977, c. 559; 1979, c. 700; 2001, c. 853.

§ 16.1-235. How probation, parole and related court services provided.

Probation, parole and related court services shall be provided through the following means:

A. State court service units. -- The Department shall develop and operate probation, parole and related court services in counties or cities heretofore served by regional juvenile and domestic relations district courts and where specialized probation, parole and related court services were not provided as of July 1, 1973, and make such services available to juvenile and domestic relations district courts, as required by this chapter and by regulations established by the Board. All other counties or cities may request the development of a state-operated court service unit with the approval of their governing bodies after consultation with the chief judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court of such jurisdiction.

B. Local units. -- In counties and cities providing specialized court services as of July 1, 1973, who do not request the development of a state-operated court service unit, the governing body or bodies of the district shall appoint one or more suitable persons as probation and parole officers and related court service personnel in accordance with established qualifications and regulations and shall develop and operate probation, parole, detention and related court services.

The transfer, demotion, or separation of probation officers and related court service personnel appointed pursuant to this subsection shall be under the authority of the governing body or bodies of the district and shall be only for good cause shown, after consulting with the judge or judges of that juvenile and domestic relations district court, in accordance with the Virginia Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.) and after due notice and opportunity to be heard.

C. A county or city that is providing court services through a state-operated court services unit, with the approval of its governing body after consultation with the chief judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court of the jurisdiction, may cease providing services through a state-operated court services unit and commence operation as a local unit, subject to all laws, regulations, policies and procedures applicable to a local unit.

Code 1950, § 16.1-205; 1956, c. 555; 1972, cc. 73, 708; 1973, c. 546; 1974, cc. 44, 45, 673; 1977, c. 559; 2001, c. 853; 2002, c. 510; 2003, c. 648.

§ 16.1-235.1. Provision of court services; replacement intake officers.

The chief judge may make arrangements for a replacement intake officer from another court service unit to ensure the capability of a prompt response in matters under § 16.1-255 or 16.1-260 during hours the court is closed. The replacement intake officer shall have all the authority and power of an intake officer of that district when authorized in writing by the appointing authority and by the chief judge of that district.

2002, c. 700; 2012, cc. 164, 456.

§ 16.1-236. Supervisory officers.

In any court where more than one probation or parole officer or other court services staff has been appointed under the provisions of this law, one or more probation or parole officers may be designated to serve in a supervisory position, other than court services unit director, by the Director, if it is a state-operated court services unit, or by the local governing body, if it is a locally operated court services unit.

The transfer, demotion, or separation of supervisory officers, other than court services unit directors, of state court service units shall be under the authority of the Director and shall be only for good cause shown, after consulting with the judge or judges of that juvenile and domestic relations district court, and in accordance with the Virginia Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.). The transfer, demotion or separation of supervisory officers of local court service units shall be under the authority of the local governing body and shall be only for good cause shown, after consulting with the judge or judges of that juvenile and domestic relations district court and after due notice and opportunity to be heard.

Code 1950, § 16.1-207; 1956, c. 555; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1974, c. 673; 1977, c. 559; 2001, c. 853; 2003, c. 648.

§ 16.1-236.1. Court services unit directors.

A. State-operated court services units. A court services unit director shall be designated for each state-operated court services unit. The judge or judges of the juvenile and domestic relations district court shall, from a list of eligible persons submitted by the Director appoint one court services unit director for the state-operated court services unit serving that district court. The list of eligible persons shall be developed in accordance with state personnel laws and regulations, and Department policies and procedures.

If any list of eligible persons submitted by the Director is unsatisfactory to the judge or judges, the judge or judges may request the Director to submit a new list containing the names of additional eligible persons. Upon such request by the judge or judges, the Director shall develop and submit a new list of eligible persons in accordance with state personnel laws and regulations, and Department policies and procedures.

The transfer, demotion, or separation of a court services unit director, appointed pursuant to this subsection shall be under the authority of the Director and shall be only for good cause shown, after consulting with the judge or judges of that juvenile and domestic relations district court, and in accordance with the Virginia Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.).

B. Locally operated court services units. A court services unit director shall be designated for each locally operated court services unit. The judge or judges of the juvenile and domestic relations district court shall, from a list of eligible persons submitted by the governing body or bodies of the district, appoint one court services unit director for the locally operated court services unit serving that district court. The list of eligible persons shall be in accordance with locally established qualifications that are consistent with state personnel laws and regulations, and Department policies and procedures.

If any list of eligible persons submitted by the governing body or bodies of the district is unsatisfactory to the judge or judges, the judge or judges may request the governing body or bodies to submit a new list containing the names of additional eligible persons. Upon such request by the judge or judges, the governing body or bodies shall develop and submit a new list of eligible persons in accordance with locally established qualifications that are consistent with state personnel laws and regulations, and Department policies and procedures.

The transfer, demotion, or separation of a court services unit director appointed pursuant to this subsection shall be under the authority of the local governing body or bodies and shall be only for good cause shown after consulting with the judge or judges of that juvenile and domestic relations district court and in accordance with the Virginia Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.).

2003, c. 648.

§ 16.1-237. Powers, duties and functions of probation and parole officers.

In addition to any other powers and duties imposed by this law, a probation or parole officer appointed hereunder shall:

A. Investigate all cases referred to him by the judge or any person designated so to do, and shall render reports of such investigation as required;

B. Supervise persons placed under his supervision and shall keep informed concerning the conduct and condition of every person under his supervision by visiting, requiring reports and in other ways, and shall report thereon as required;

C. Under the general supervision of the director of the court service unit, investigate complaints and accept for informal supervision cases wherein such handling would best serve the interests of all concerned;

D. Use all suitable methods not inconsistent with conditions imposed by the court to aid and encourage persons on probation or parole and to bring about improvement in their conduct and condition;

E. Furnish to each person placed on probation or parole a written statement of the conditions of his probation or parole and instruct him regarding the same;

F. Keep records of his work including photographs and perform such other duties as the judge or other person designated by the judge or the Director shall require;

G. Have the authority to administer oaths and take acknowledgements for the purposes of §§ 16.1-259 and 16.1-260 to facilitate the processes of intake and petition;

H. Have the powers of arrest of a police officer and the power to carry a concealed weapon when specifically so authorized by the judge; and

I. Determine by reviewing the Local Inmate Data System or the Juvenile Tracking System (JTS) upon intake and again prior to discharge whether a blood, saliva, or tissue sample has been taken for DNA analysis for each offender required to submit a sample pursuant to § 16.1-299.1 and, if no sample has been taken, require an offender to submit a sample for DNA analysis.

Code 1950, § 16.1-208; 1956, c. 555; 1964, c. 516; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1974, c. 464; 1977, c. 559; 2001, c. 853; 2007, c. 528; 2009, c. 726.

§ 16.1-238. Compensation of probation officers, court service staff members and related court service personnel; reimbursement; traveling and other expenses.

The compensation of probation officers and other court service staff members appointed in accordance with subsection B of § 16.1-235 shall be fixed by the governing body of the city or county in which they serve. They shall be paid out of the county or city treasury. One-half of such compensation shall be reimbursed to any city or county from funds appropriated to the Department. Any funds from the Department of Criminal Justice Services or from other public fund sources outside of the provisions of this law which are used in compensating such personnel shall not be considered state funds.

Compensation of all other probation officers and related court service personnel appointed in accordance with subsection A of § 16.1-235 shall be fixed in accordance with Chapter 29 (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.) of Title 2.2. Personnel transferred from local and regional court staffs shall suffer no reduction in pay and shall transfer into the state program all accrued leave and other benefits allowable under Chapter 29 of Title 2.2. Probation officers and related court service personnel appointed in accordance with subsection A of § 16.1-235 shall be paid necessary traveling and other expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties.

The salary and expenses provided for personnel appointed in accordance with subsection A of § 16.1-235 shall be paid by the Commonwealth, and no part shall be paid by or chargeable to any county or city. The governing body of any county or city, however, may add to the compensation of such personnel such an amount as the governing body may appropriate not to exceed 50 percent of the amount paid by the Commonwealth. No such additional amount paid by a local governing body shall be chargeable to the Department of Juvenile Justice nor shall it remove or supersede any authority, control or supervision of the Department.

Code 1950, § 16.1-206; 1956, c. 555; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1977, c. 559; 1982, c. 636; 1983, c. 358; 1989, c. 733; 2012, cc. 164, 456.

§ 16.1-239. Payment of traveling expenses of court officers; reimbursement.

In counties and cities providing specialized court service programs prior to July 1, 1973, as provided in §§ 16.1-234 and 16.1-235, and under the rules of the Department the traveling expenses incurred by a probation officer, court service officer or other officer of the court when traveling under the order of the judge, shall be paid out of the county or city treasury. One-half of such expenses shall be reimbursed to the city or county by the Department out of funds appropriated for such purposes.

Code 1950, § 16.1-213; 1956, c. 555; 1972, c. 708; 1973, c. 546; 1977, c. 559; 1982, c. 636; 1983, c. 358.

§ 16.1-240. Citizens advisory council.

A. The governing bodies of each county and city served by a court service unit may appoint one or more members to a citizens advisory council, in total not to exceed 15 members; and the chief judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court may appoint one or more members to the advisory council, in total not to exceed five members. The duties of the council shall be as follows:

1. To advise and cooperate with the court upon all matters affecting the working of this law and other laws relating to children, their care and protection and to domestic relations;

2. To consult and confer with the court and director of the court service unit from time to time relative to the development and extension of the court service program;

3. To encourage the member selected by the council to serve on the central advisory council to visit, as often as the member conveniently can, institutions and associations receiving children under this law, and to report to the court from time to time and at least annually in its report made pursuant to subdivision 5 the conditions and surroundings of the children received by or in charge of any such persons, institutions or associations;

4. To make themselves familiar with the work of the court under this law; and

5. To make an annual report to the court and the participating governing bodies on the work of the council.

B. If the governing body does not exercise its option to appoint a citizens advisory council pursuant to subsection A, the judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court may appoint an advisory board of citizens, not to exceed 15 members, who shall perform the same duties as provided in this section.

Code 1950, § 16.1-157; 1956, c. 555; 1968, c. 435; 1977, c. 559; 1989, c. 733; 2012, cc. 164, 456.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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