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Code of Virginia
Title 46.2. Motor Vehicles
Chapter 10. Motor Vehicle and Equipment Safety
3/4/2024

Article 22. Emissions Inspections.

§ 46.2-1176. Definitions.

The following words and phrases when used in this article shall have the following meanings except where the context clearly indicates a different meaning:

"Basic, test and repair program" means a motor vehicle emissions inspection system established by regulations of the Board which shall designate the use of an OBD-II (on-board diagnostic system) with wireless capability, and a two-speed idle analyzer as the only authorized testing equipment. Only those computer software programs and emissions testing procedures necessary to comply with the applicable provisions of Title I of the federal Clean Air Act shall be included. Such testing equipment shall be approvable for motor vehicle manufacturers' warranty repairs.

"Board" means the State Air Pollution Control Board.

"Certificate of emissions inspection" means a document, device, or symbol, prescribed by the Director and issued pursuant to this article, which indicates that (i) a motor vehicle has satisfactorily complied with the emissions standards and passed the emissions inspection provided for in this article; (ii) the requirement of compliance with such emissions standards has been waived; or (iii) the motor vehicle has failed such emissions inspection.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Emissions inspection station" means any facility or portion of a facility that has obtained an emissions inspection station permit from the Director authorizing the facility to perform emissions inspections in accordance with this article.

"Enhanced emissions inspection program" means a motor vehicle emissions inspection system established by regulations of the Board that shall designate, as the only authorized testing equipment for emissions inspection stations, (i) the use of the ASM 50-15 (acceleration simulation mode or method) together with an OBD-II (on-board diagnostic system) with wireless capability, (ii) the use of the ASM 50-15 together with the use of a dynamometer, and (iii) two-speed tailpipe testing equipment. Possession and availability of a dynamometer shall be required for enhanced emissions inspection stations. Only those computer software programs and emissions testing procedures necessary to comply with applicable provisions of Title I of the federal Clean Air Act shall be included. Such testing equipment shall be approvable for motor vehicle manufacturers' warranty repairs. An enhanced emissions inspection program shall include remote sensing and an on-road clean screen program as provided in this article.

"Fleet emissions inspection station" means any inspection facility operated under a permit issued to a qualified fleet owner or lessee as determined by the Director.

"Motor vehicle" means any vehicle that:

1. Is designed for the transportation of persons or property; and

2. Is powered by an internal combustion engine.

"On-road clean screen program" means a program that allows a motor vehicle owner to voluntarily certify compliance with emissions standards by means of on-road remote sensing.

"On-road emissions inspector" means the entity or entities authorized by the Department of Environmental Quality to perform on-road testing, including on-road testing in accordance with the on-road clean screen program.

"On-road testing" means tests of motor vehicle emissions or emissions control devices by means of roadside pullovers or remote sensing devices.

"Program coordinator" means any person or corporation that has entered into a contract with the Director to provide services in accordance with this article.

"Qualified hybrid motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle that (i) meets or exceeds all applicable regulatory requirements, (ii) meets or exceeds the applicable federal motor vehicle emissions standards for gasoline-powered passenger cars, and (iii) can draw propulsion energy both from gasoline or diesel fuel and a rechargeable energy storage system.

"Referee station" means an inspection facility operated or used by the Department of Environmental Quality (i) to determine program effectiveness, (ii) to resolve emissions inspection conflicts between motor vehicle owners and emissions inspection stations, and (iii) to provide such other technical support and information, as appropriate, to emissions inspection stations and vehicle owners.

"Remote sensing" means the measurement of motor vehicle emissions through electronic or light-sensing equipment from a remote location such as the roadside. Remote sensing equipment may include devices to detect and record the vehicle's registration or other identification numbers.

"Test and repair" means motor vehicle emissions inspection facilities that perform official motor vehicle emissions inspections and may also perform vehicle repairs. No regulation of the Board pertaining to test and repair shall bar inspection facilities from also performing vehicle repairs. Emissions inspections and vehicle safety inspections may be performed in the same service bay, provided that the facility is both an emissions inspection station and an official safety inspection station pursuant to §§ 46.2-1163 and 46.2-1166. Emissions inspections may be performed in any service bay of the emissions inspection station or, if by wireless means, in any other area on the premises of the emissions inspection station.

"Validation program" or "program validation" means a program approved by the Director by which vehicles are randomly identified and provided a free emissions inspection for the purpose of monitoring the effectiveness of the emissions inspection program. A "validation program" may be conducted at an emissions inspection station, as defined by § 46.2-1176, in conjunction with a state safety inspection or using on-road testing.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.2; 1982, c. 92; 1984, c. 256; 1988, cc. 81, 806; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1994, c. 838; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 2000, c. 311; 2002, c. 710; 2004, c. 915; 2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1177. Emissions inspection program.

The Director shall administer an emissions inspection program. Such program shall require biennial inspections of motor vehicles at official emissions inspection stations in accordance with this article and may require additional inspections of motor vehicles that have been shown by on-road testing to exceed emissions standards established by the Board.

The emissions inspections required in § 46.2-1178 shall not apply to any:

1. Vehicle powered by a clean special fuel as defined in § 46.2-749.3, provided provisions of the federal Clean Air Act permit such exemption for vehicles powered by a clean special fuel;

2. Motorcycle or autocycle, unless such autocycle has been emissions certified with an on-board diagnostic system by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency;

3. Vehicle which, at the time of its manufacture was not designed to meet emissions standards set or approved by the federal government;

4. Antique motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-100 and licensed pursuant to § 46.2-730;

5. Vehicle for which no testing standards have been adopted by the Board; or

6. Vehicle manufactured for the current model year or any of the three immediately preceding model years unless identified by the remote sensing program as violating the emissions standards established for that program.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.3; 1981, c. 624; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 2006, c. 729; 2015, cc. 95, 161.

§ 46.2-1177.1. Inspection program coordinator; agreement for services.

The Director may enter into an agreement to designate a program coordinator for all inspection programs pursuant to this article, except that no on-road clean screen program or any program or inspection process that utilizes remote sensing shall be included in the agreement. The Director shall determine the services to be provided by the program coordinator and the amount to be paid to the program coordinator for such services by the Department. Such agreement shall include a provision that the program coordinator shall provide and maintain inspection stations as defined in § 46.2-1176 with equipment, as set forth in this article, as required for a station to provide inspections. In addition to the amount the Director agrees for the Department to pay the program coordinator, the agreement shall permit the program coordinator to be paid up to $3,500 per year from each inspection station for each set of required equipment for the provision and maintenance of such equipment by the program coordinator.

2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1178. Administration and scope of emissions inspection program.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the emissions inspection program provided for in this article shall apply to motor vehicles having actual gross weights of 8,500 pounds or less that are registered in the Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, and Prince William, and the Cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, and Manassas Park. The provisions of this subsection shall expire when the provisions of subsection C of this section become effective.

B. An emissions inspection program as required by regulations adopted by the Board under this article shall apply to motor vehicles that have actual gross weights of 8,500 pounds or less and are registered or operated primarily, as defined by the Board in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), in the Counties of Chesterfield, Hanover, and Henrico and the Cities of Colonial Heights, Hopewell, and Richmond. Such emissions inspection program shall be a basic, test and repair program with the greatest number of inspection facilities consistent with the consumer protection and fee provisions herein as consistent with the federal Clean Air Act.

The provisions of this subsection shall apply but not necessarily be limited to (i) motor vehicles owned by governmental entities, (ii) motor vehicles owned by military personnel residing in those localities, (iii) motor vehicles owned by leasing or rental companies, and (iv) motor vehicles owned or leased by employees of the federal government and operated on a federal installation. The provisions of this subsection shall become effective July 1, 1995. The Board may promulgate regulations to implement the provisions of this article, but such regulations shall not require inspections in the localities mentioned in this subsection prior to the later of: (i) July 1, 1996; or (ii) the date on which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, pursuant to the federal Clean Air Act, formally and in writing approves this program for such localities or on such later date as may be provided by regulations of the Board.

B1. The emissions inspection program provided for in this article shall not apply to any qualified hybrid motor vehicle if such vehicle obtains a rating from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of at least (i) 50 miles per gallon during city fuel economy tests or (ii) 48 miles per gallon during city fuel economy tests for hybrid vehicles with a model year of 2008 or 2009, unless remote sensing devices indicate the hybrid vehicle may not meet current emissions standards. The Board shall adopt such regulations as may be required to implement this exemption.

C. The emissions inspection program provided for in this subsection shall be a test and repair enhanced emissions inspection program with the greatest number of inspection facilities consistent with the consumer protection and fee provisions herein and shall include on-road testing, remote sensing devices, and an on-road clean screen program. Any enhanced emissions inspection program provided for in this article shall apply to motor vehicles that have actual gross weights of 10,000 pounds or less that were actually manufactured or designated by the manufacturer as a model manufactured in a calendar year less than 25 calendar years prior to January 1 of the present calendar year and are registered or operated primarily, as defined by the Board in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) in the Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, and Stafford and the Cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, and Manassas Park. On and after July 1, 2012, and before July 1, 2013, an on-road clean screen program shall be limited to no more than 10 percent of the motor vehicles described in this subsection which are eligible for emissions inspection during the applicable 12-month period. On and after July 1, 2013, and before July 1, 2014, an on-road clean screen program shall be limited to no more than 20 percent of the motor vehicles described in this subsection which are eligible for emissions inspection during the applicable 12-month period. On and after July 1, 2014, an on-road clean screen program shall be limited to no more than 30 percent of the motor vehicles described in this subsection which are eligible for emissions inspection during the applicable 12-month period. An on-road clean screen program or a validation program utilizing remote sensing equipment shall not be considered emissions inspection stations. The Board may reduce the percentage of vehicles eligible to participate in the on-road clean screen program as is necessary to meet applicable air quality requirements under the federal Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7401 et seq., as amended. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-1176, the Board shall designate remote sensing equipment as authorized testing equipment pursuant to this section.

The provisions of this subsection shall apply but not necessarily be limited to (i) motor vehicles owned by governmental entities, (ii) motor vehicles owned by military personnel residing in those localities, (iii) vehicles owned by leasing or rental companies, and (iv) motor vehicles owned or leased by employees of the federal government and operated on a federal installation.

The provisions of this subsection shall be effective January 1, 1996, or on such later date as may be provided by regulations of the Board. However, the provisions of this subsection may become effective immediately provided that (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, pursuant to the federal Clean Air Act, formally and in writing approves the program for such localities; (b) the Governor determines in writing that expedited promulgation of such regulations is in the best interest of the Commonwealth, determining that such shall constitute an "emergency situation" pursuant to § 2.2-4011; and (c) the Governor authorizes the Board to promulgate the regulations as emergency regulations in accordance with this section.

D. Any emissions inspection program regulations in effect at the time amendments to this section become effective shall remain in effect until the Board promulgates new regulations or amends or repeals existing regulations in accordance with this section.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.4; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1994, c. 838; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 1997, c. 507; 2002, c. 710; 2004, c. 915; 2012, cc. 216, 824; 2013, c. 634.

§ 46.2-1178.1. On-road testing of motor vehicle emissions; authority to adopt regulations; civil charges.

A. The emissions inspection program authorized by § 46.2-1177 and provided for in § 46.2-1178 shall include on-road testing of motor vehicle emissions and an on-road clean screen program. The Board shall promulgate regulations establishing on-road testing and on-road clean screen program requirements including, but not limited to, collecting data and information necessary to comply with or determine compliance with applicable laws and regulations, random testing of motor vehicle emissions, procedures to notify owners of test results, assessment of civil charges for noncompliance with emissions standards adopted by the Board, and standards for operating the on-road clean screen program, including provisions for the suspension or revocation of any on-road emissions inspection program for failure to act in accordance with the provisions of this article and regulations adopted by the Board.

B. If an emissions test performed pursuant to this section indicates that a motor vehicle does not meet emissions standards established by the Board, the Board may collect from the owner of the vehicle a civil charge based on actual emissions. The Board shall establish a schedule of civil charges to be collected pursuant to this section. Such civil penalties shall not exceed $450 using 1990 as the base year and adjusted annually by the Consumer Price Index. The schedule of charges and their assessment shall be established by regulations promulgated to be in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

C. Civil charges assessed pursuant to this section shall be waived by the Board if, within 30 calendar days of notice of the violation, the vehicle's owner provides proof that the vehicle (i) since the date of the violation, has passed a vehicle emissions test as provided in § 46.2-1178, (ii) qualifies for an emissions inspection waiver as provided in § 46.2-1181, or (iii) has qualified for an emissions inspection waiver as provided in § 46.2-1181 within the 12 months prior to the violation.

D. Civil charges collected pursuant to this section shall be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund pursuant to § 46.2-1182.2.

E. If the on-road clean screen program indicates that a motor vehicle does not exceed emissions standards adopted by the Board for on-road testing pursuant to § 46.2-1179, then such testing may be considered proof of compliance for the purposes of § 46.2-1183 and may be considered to satisfy the requirements of § 46.2-1177 for a biennial inspection. The Board shall establish criteria under which such testing shall satisfy the requirements of § 46.2-1183.

1995, cc. 836, 851; 1996, cc. 35, 100; 2002, c. 710; 2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1178.2. Repair of certain vehicles not in compliance with standards established by the Board; payment of repairs from Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund.

The Department of Environmental Quality shall operate a program to subsidize repairs of vehicles identified by on-road testing pursuant to § 46.2-1178.1 that fail to meet emissions standards established by the Board when the owner of the vehicle is financially unable to have the vehicle repaired. The costs of implementing and operating such program shall be borne by the Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund. The Board shall, in connection with such program, establish by regulation such standards, criteria, and procedures as the Board shall deem necessary or convenient.

2002, c. 710.

§ 46.2-1179. Board to adopt emissions standards.

A. The Board shall adopt emissions standards necessary to implement the emissions inspection program provided for in this article. Such standards shall include specifications and criteria that will enable the identification of vehicles whose emissions so far exceed those permissible under this article as to qualify them as "gross violators," and enable the expedited identification of such vehicles through on-road testing pursuant to § 46.2-1178.1.

B. The Board shall establish separate and distinct emissions standards applicable to on-road testing of motor vehicles pursuant to § 46.2-1178.1. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of this article, except for any motor vehicle registered as an antique motor vehicle or a military surplus motor vehicle, such criteria shall be applicable to all motor vehicles manufactured for the 1968 model year or any more recent model year, with criteria for each model year being appropriate to that model year.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.5; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 2002, c. 710; 2018, c. 555.

§ 46.2-1179.1. Board to adopt clean alternative fuel fleet standards for motor vehicles; penalty.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Clean alternative fuel" means any fuel, including methanol, ethanol, other alcohols, reformulated gasoline, diesel, natural gases, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and electricity or other power source used in a clean fuel vehicle that complies with the standards applicable to such vehicle under the federal Clean Air Act when using such fuel or other power source. In the case of a flexible fuel vehicle or dual fuel vehicle, "clean alternative fuel" means only a fuel for which the vehicle was certified when operating on clean alternative fuel.

"Fleet" means any centrally fueled fleet of ten or more motor vehicles owned or operated by a single entity. "Fleet" does not include motor vehicles held for lease or rental to the general public, motor vehicles held for sale by motor vehicle dealers, motor vehicles used for manufacturer product tests, law-enforcement and other emergency vehicles, or nonroad vehicles, including farm and construction vehicles.

B. The Board may adopt by regulation motor vehicle clean alternative fuel fleet standards consistent with the provisions of Part C of Title II of the federal Clean Air Act for model years beginning with the model year 1998 or the first succeeding model year for which adoption of such standards is practicable. If adoption and implementation by the Board of an equivalent air pollution reduction program is approved by the federal Environmental Protection Agency, the regulation and program authorized by this section shall not become effective. Such regulations shall contain the minimum phase-in schedule contained in § 246 (b) of Part C of Title II of the Clean Air Act. However, nothing in this section shall preclude affected fleet owners from exceeding the minimum requirements of the federal Clean Air Act. Beginning in 1995 and upon adoption of the standards by the Board, the Board shall require the fleet owned by the federal government to meet the clean alternative fuel fleet standard and phase-in schedule established by the Board. If necessary to meet the Board's standards and phase-in schedule, the Board shall require fleets owned by the federal government to convert a portion of existing fleet vehicles to the use of clean alternative fuels as defined by the federal Clean Air Act. The standards specified in this subsection shall apply only to (i) motor vehicles registered in localities designated by the federal Environmental Protection Agency, pursuant to the federal Clean Air Act, as serious, severe, or extreme air quality nonattainment areas, or as maintenance areas formerly designated serious, severe, or extreme and (ii) motor vehicles not registered in the above-mentioned localities, but having either (a) a base of operations or (b) a majority of their annual travel in one or more of those localities.

C. An owner of a covered fleet shall not use any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine which is manufactured during or after the first model year to which the standards specified in subsection A of this section are applicable, if such vehicle or engine is registered or has its base of operations in the localities specified in subsection B of this section and has not been certified in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board. The Board may promulgate regulations providing for reasonable exemptions consistent with the provisions of Part C of Title II of the federal Clean Air Act. Motor vehicles exempted from the provisions of this section shall forever be exempt.

D. Any person that violates the requirements of this section or any regulation adopted hereunder shall be subject to the penalties in §§ 46.2-1187 and 46.2-1187.2. Each day of violation shall be a separate offense, and each motor vehicle shall be treated separately in assessing violations.

E. In order to limit adverse economic and administrative impacts on covered fleets operating both in Virginia and in neighboring states, the Department of Environmental Quality shall, to the maximum extent practicable, coordinate the provisions of its regulations promulgated under this section with neighboring states' statutes and regulations relating to use of clean alternative fuels by motor vehicle fleets.

F. The State Corporation Commission, as to matters within its jurisdiction, and the Department of Environmental Quality, as to other matters, may, should they deem such action necessary, promulgate regulations necessary or convenient to ensure the availability of clean alternative fuels to operators of fleets covered by the provisions of this section. The State Air Pollution Control Board may delegate to the Commissioner of Agriculture its authority under the Air Pollution Control Law of Virginia, Chapter 13 (§ 10.1-1300 et seq.) of Title 10.1, to implement and enforce any provisions of its regulations covering the availability of clean alternative fuels. Upon receiving such delegation, the authority to implement and enforce the regulations under the Air Pollution Control Law of Virginia shall be vested solely in the Commissioner, notwithstanding any provision of law contained in Title 10.1, except as provided in this section. The State Air Pollution Control Board, in delegating its authority under this section, may make the delegation subject to any conditions it deems appropriate to ensure effective implementation of the regulations according to the policies of the State Air Pollution Control Board.

1993, cc. 234, 571; 1995, c. 141; 1998, cc. 401, 421.

§ 46.2-1180. Board to adopt regulations; exemption of certain motor vehicles.

A. The Board is authorized to adopt such regulations for purposes of implementation, administration, and regulation as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this article. Such regulations shall include but not necessarily be limited to requirements for the following:

1. The collection of data and maintenance of records of emissions inspection test results and vehicle repairs under this article and the inspection results of the air pollution control systems or devices in accordance with § 46.2-1048 and regulations of the Board.

2. The calibration of emissions testing equipment by emissions inspection stations to ensure conformance with the standards adopted by the Board.

3. The establishment of appropriate referee stations.

4. The permitting of emissions inspection stations and fleet emissions inspection stations and the licensing of emissions inspectors, including the suspension or revocation of such permit or license.

5. The protection of consumer interests in accordance with regulations of the Board concerning, but not limited to: (i) the number of inspection facilities and inspection lanes relative to population density, (ii) the proximity of inspection facilities to motor vehicle owners, (iii) the time spent waiting for inspections, and (iv) the days and hours of operation of inspection facilities.

6. The prohibition of any manufacturer or distributor of emissions testing equipment from directly or indirectly owning or operating any emissions testing facility or having any direct or indirect financial interest in any such facility other than the leasing of or providing financing for equipment related to emissions testing.

7. The certification of motor vehicle emissions repair technicians and emissions repair facilities, including the suspension or revocation of such certification. The regulations shall apply to emissions repair technicians and emissions repair facilities that conduct emissions-related repairs for vehicles that have failed a motor vehicle emissions test according to regulations adopted by the Board.

The Director shall administer these regulations and seek compliance with conditions of any contractual arrangements which the Commonwealth may make for inspection services related to air pollution control and may include entering into an agreement with a program coordinator to implement provisions of this subsection.

B. Motor vehicles being titled for the first time may be registered for up to four years without being subject to an emissions inspection, and the four immediately preceding model years being held in a motor vehicle dealer's inventory for resale may be registered in the localities mentioned in subsection C of § 46.2-1178 for up to one year without being subject to an emissions inspection, provided that the dealer states in writing that the emissions equipment on the motor vehicle was operating in accordance with the manufacturer's or distributor's warranty at the time of resale.

C. No motor vehicle for which the Board has not adopted emissions inspection standards shall be subject to an emissions inspection.

D. The Director may enter into bilateral agreements with other states providing for assistance in enforcing each state's statutes and regulations relating to motor vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions programs as to vehicles registered in one state and operated in another. Subject to such bilateral agreement, owners of motor vehicles registered in other states and operated in Virginia shall be subject to the on-road testing provisions of § 46.2-1178.1, and shall be notified of test results and assessment of civil charges for noncompliance with emissions standards adopted by the Board. Such notification shall also be provided to the appropriate motor vehicle agency in the state of registration.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.6; 1982, c. 92; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1994, c. 838; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 1997, c. 559; 2006, c. 729; 2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1181. Emissions inspection; cost of repairs; waivers.

A. A motor vehicle shall qualify for an emissions inspection waiver in the event that such vehicle has failed an initial inspection and subsequently failed a reinspection if the owner provides written proof that (i) at least the amount specified in this section has been spent by the owner on the maintenance and repair of the vehicle's engine and emission control system and related equipment and (ii) any emission control system or part thereof which has been removed, damaged, or rendered inoperable by any act enumerated in § 46.2-1048 has been replaced and restored to operating condition.

B. The Director shall establish and revise, as necessary, specifications and procedures for motor vehicle maintenance and repair of pollution control devices and systems.

C. For the purposes of subsection A:

For motor vehicles subject to basic emissions inspections under subsection A of § 46.2-1178, cost limitations on repairs under the emissions inspection program, including parts and labor, but excluding costs of repairs covered by warranties, shall be $175 for pre-1980 model vehicles and $200 for 1980 and newer vehicles, using 2012, or a later date if allowed by federal regulations and approved by the Board, as the base year and annually adjusted by the Consumer Price Index. The Board may phase in waiver amounts.

For motor vehicles subject to emissions inspections under subsection C of § 46.2-1178, the cost limitations on repairs shall be a base amount of $450 per vehicle using 1990, or a later date if allowed by federal regulations and approved by the Board, as the base year and annually adjusted by the Consumer Price Index. The Board may phase in waiver amounts.

Repairs credited toward this waiver must be done by a repair technician certified in accordance with § 46.2-1180. Repairs shall include parts and labor.

D. For the purposes of subsection A of this section, for motor vehicles subject to emissions inspections under subsection B of § 46.2-1178, the cost limitations on repairs under the emissions inspection program, including parts and labor but excluding costs of repairs covered by warranties, shall be:

1. $75 for pre-1981 vehicles; and

2. $200 for 1981 and newer vehicles.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.7; 1988, c. 806; 1989, cc. 722, 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1182. Emissions inspection fees; exemption.

Emissions inspection stations performing emissions inspections under subsection A of § 46.2-1178 may charge $11.40 for each emissions inspection, but such charge shall not be mandatory. Any such fee shall be paid to the emissions inspection station.

Each emissions inspection station performing emissions inspections under subsection B of § 46.2-1178 may charge for each emissions inspection an amount not to exceed $17. Any such fee shall be paid to and retained by the emissions inspection station.

Beginning at such date upon which the program becomes an enhanced emissions program, each emissions inspection station performing emissions inspections under subsection C of § 46.2-1178 may charge an amount not to exceed $28 for each emissions inspection. Any such fee shall be paid to and retained by the emissions inspection station.

Within 14 days of an initial failure of an emissions inspection performed at an emissions inspection station, the vehicle's owner shall be entitled to one free reinspection at the station or facility that conducted the original inspection.

The on-road emissions inspector performing emissions inspections under subsection C of § 46.2-1178 may charge each motor vehicle owner who elects to participate in the on-road clean screen program an amount not to exceed $28 for each emissions inspection. Any such fee shall be paid to the on-road emissions inspector. From each emissions inspection fee received by the on-road emissions inspector, a minimum of $4.50 shall be appropriated to the Highway Maintenance and Operating Fund established pursuant to § 33.2-1530.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.8; 1982, c. 646; 1983, c. 85; 1984, c. 263; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1990, c. 522; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 2002, c. 322; 2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1182.1. Additional registration fee; exemption.

Beginning July 1, 1994, in addition to any other fees imposed, at the time of registration by the Department of Motor Vehicles, the owner of any motor vehicle subject to registration in Virginia and subject to the program provided for in this article by virtue of the locality in which it is registered shall pay two dollars per year.

Beginning July 1, 1995, or later if required by regulation of the Board, owners of motor vehicles which are subject to the program by virtue of the location of their base of operation or the location where they are primarily operated shall remit a fee of two dollars per vehicle per year to the Department of Environmental Quality. Payment shall be made according to procedures and on a schedule prescribed by the Department of Environmental Quality. State and local governmental units and agencies shall be exempt from the payment of fees under this subsection.

1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1995, cc. 836, 851.

§ 46.2-1182.2. Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund established; use of moneys.

A special nonreverting fund known as the Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund is hereby established in the state treasury.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 2.2-1802, all moneys collected pursuant to § 46.2-1182.1 shall be paid into the treasury and credited to the Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund.

No moneys remaining in the Fund at the end of each fiscal year shall revert to the general fund, but shall remain in the Fund. Interest earned on such moneys shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it.

The Department of Environmental Quality may release moneys from the Fund, on warrants issued by the State Comptroller, for covering the costs of the emissions inspection program, including payment to the program coordinator for contracted services. The moneys in this Fund may also be released for the purpose of long-term maintenance of air quality and the correction and prevention of nonattainment status for National Ambient Air Quality Standards through air quality programs under the direction of the Director. Any remaining funds shall be remitted for use in transportation maintenance projects so that such funds generated from localities required to have emissions inspections pursuant to subsection B of § 46.2-1178 shall have such remaining funds generated pursuant to § 46.2-1182.1 transferred on an annual basis to the Northern Virginia Transportation District. Such funds shall be used for transportation maintenance in the respective locality.

1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 2012, cc. 216, 824.

§ 46.2-1183. Emissions inspection required prior to registration of certain vehicles; records.

No vehicle subject to the provisions of this article shall be registered or reregistered until it has passed an emissions inspection or has been issued an emissions inspection waiver. Any (i) proof of compliance with emissions standards and emissions inspection requirements and (ii) emissions inspection waiver issued for any motor vehicle shall be valid for two years from the end of the month in which it is issued, regardless of any sale or trade of the motor vehicle for which either document was issued during that time, unless such motor vehicle has failed on-road testing pursuant to § 46.2-1178.1 and has not subsequently passed an emissions inspection or received a waiver. Motor vehicles being titled for the first time shall be considered to have valid emissions inspection certificates for a period of four years from the month of first titling. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may enter into an agreement with the Director whereby the Department of Motor Vehicles may refuse to register or reregister those motor vehicles subject to emissions inspection programs set forth in this article if the registration period for such vehicles exceeds the valid emissions inspection period by a period of time to be determined by the Director in consultation with the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Commissioner.

Owners of motor vehicles that are not registered with the Department of Motor Vehicles shall maintain such records pertaining to all vehicles located or operated in the areas specified in § 46.2-1178 as the Board may by regulation require. Such records shall contain proof of compliance with this article and be made available to the Department of Environmental Quality upon the Department's request.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.9; 1981, c. 624; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2; 1995, cc. 836, 851; 1996, cc. 35, 100; 2006, c. 729.

§ 46.2-1183.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2018, cc. 286 and 288, cl. 2.

§ 46.2-1184. Fleet emissions inspection stations.

Any registered owner or lessee of a fleet of at least twenty vehicles may apply to the Director for a permit to establish a fleet emissions inspection station consistent with federal requirements. The Director shall not issue any fleet emissions inspection station permit until he has found that the applicant:

1. Maintains an established place of business for the applicant's fleet of vehicles;

2. Has obtained approved machinery, tools, and equipment to adequately conduct the required emissions inspection in the manner prescribed by regulations of the Board;

3. Employs properly trained and licensed personnel to perform the necessary labor; and

4. Agrees to provide test records and data as may be prescribed by the Director.

Upon issuance of a permit by the Director, the owner or lessee of the motor vehicle fleet may conduct emissions inspections of the vehicles in his fleet. No emissions inspection approval shall be issued to any fleet vehicle until it has been inspected and found to comply with applicable regulations.

No holder of a fleet emissions inspection station permit shall inspect any vehicle for which such permittee is not the registered owner or lessee.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.10; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2.

§ 46.2-1185. Investigation of inspection stations; revocation or suspension of permits for emissions inspection stations.

The Director shall investigate the operation of each emissions inspection station and fleet emissions inspection station as the conditions and circumstances of such operation indicate. He may require the holder of any permit to submit such documentation required concerning the operation of such inspection station. The Director may suspend or revoke and require the forfeiture of any emissions inspection station permit if he finds that such station is not operated in accordance with the provisions of this article and the regulations adopted by the Board or the holder of such permit has failed or refused to submit records or documentation required.

If the Director finds that any permit holder has violated any provision of this article or any order or regulation of the Board, after notice or a reasonable attempt to give notice to the permit holder, the Director may, without a hearing, suspend the permit of the emissions inspection station and require the permit holder immediately to cease performing emissions inspections. Within ten days of such action, the Director shall, after reasonable notice to the permit holder as to the time and place thereof, hold a hearing to affirm, modify, amend, or cancel the suspension and the requirement to cease performing emissions inspections. With the consent of the permit holder, the Director may forego such hearing and allow the suspension and requirement to cease performing emissions inspections to stand. If the Director finds that a permit holder is not complying with any such suspension or requirement to cease performing emissions inspections, the Director may proceed in accordance with § 46.2-1187 or § 46.2-1187.2.

Nothing in this section shall limit the Director's authority to proceed against the permit holder directly under § 46.2-1187 or § 46.2-1187.2.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.11; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1991, c. 531; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2.

§ 46.2-1186. False certificate.

No person shall make, issue, or knowingly use any imitation or otherwise counterfeit official certificate of emissions inspection.

No person shall issue or cause or permit to be issued any certificate of inspection knowing it to be fictitious or knowing it to have been issued for a vehicle other than the vehicle identified on the certificate.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.12; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2.

§ 46.2-1187. Penalties.

Any person violating this article shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor for the first offense and fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 for each subsequent offense except as otherwise provided in this article. If any official emissions inspection station violates this article or regulations of the Director made pursuant hereto, the Director, in addition to or in lieu of such fine imposed by a court, may suspend the permit of the emissions inspection station or if, in the opinion of the Director, the facts warrant such action, the Director may revoke the authority and cancel the permit of such inspection station, whether or not the violation is a first offense against this article.

1980, c. 469, § 46.1-326.13; 1988, c. 806; 1989, c. 727; 1991, c. 531; 1993, cc. 995, 998; 1993, Sp. Sess., c. 2.

§ 46.2-1187.1. Right of entry.

Whenever it is necessary for the purposes of this article, the Executive Director or his duly authorized agent or employee at reasonable times may enter any establishment or upon any public or private property to obtain information or conduct surveys, audits, or investigations.

1991, c. 531.

§ 46.2-1187.2. Compelling compliance with regulations and order of Board; penalty.

Any emissions inspection station owner violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey any regulation or order of the Board may be compelled to comply by injunction, mandamus, or other appropriate remedy.

Without limiting the remedies which may be obtained under the foregoing provisions of this section, any emissions inspection station owner violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey any regulation or order of the Board or any provision of this article, shall, in the discretion of the court, be subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25,000 for each violation. Each day of violation shall constitute a separate offense. In determining the amount of any civil penalty to be assessed, the court shall consider, in addition to such other factors as it may deem appropriate, the size of the emissions inspection station owner's business, the severity of the economic impact of the penalty on that business, and the seriousness of the violation. Such civil penalties may, in the discretion of the court, be directed to be paid into the treasury of the county, city, or town in which the violation occurred to be used to abate environmental pollution in whatever manner the court, by order, may direct. However, where the emissions inspection station owner is the county, city, or town or an agent thereof, the court shall direct the penalty to be paid into the state treasury.

With the consent of the emissions inspection station owner who has violated or failed, neglected, or refused to obey any regulation or order of the Board or any provision of this article, the Board may, in any order issued by the Board against such owner, provide for the payment of civil charges in specific sums, not to exceed the limit in the foregoing provisions of this section. Such civil charges shall be in lieu of any civil penalty which could be imposed under the foregoing provisions of this section.

Any penalty provided for in this section to which an emissions inspection station owner is subject shall apply to any emissions inspector or certified emissions repair mechanic employed by or at that station.

As to emissions inspection station owners, emissions inspectors, and certified emissions repair mechanics, minor violations as set forth in Board regulations may be punishable by letters of reprimand from the Department. Major violations as set forth in Board regulations may be punishable by probation, suspension and/or license or certificate revocation, depending on the nature and type of violation. Civil penalties may be imposed only for major types of violations.

The Board shall provide by regulation a process whereby emissions inspection station owners, emissions inspectors and certified emissions repair mechanics may appeal penalties for violations. Such regulations regarding the process to appeal penalties for violations shall provide that the appeal process shall be handled by a person other than the Program Manager for the applicable emissions program or one of his regional employees.

1991, c. 531; 1995, cc. 836, 851.

§ 46.2-1187.3. Vehicles used for investigations.

Motor vehicles owned by the Commonwealth and used solely for investigations pursuant to this article may be issued the same license plates as those issued for vehicles owned by private citizens. The Executive Director shall certify under oath to the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles the vehicles to be used solely for such investigations.

1991, c. 531.