Code of Virginia

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Chapter 10.
Motor Vehicle and Equipment Safety
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  • Article 1.
    Vehicle and Equipment Safety, Generally
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  • § 46.2-1000
    Department to suspend registration of vehicles lacking certain equipment; officer to take possession of registration card, license plates and decals when observing defect in motor vehicle; when to be returned
    § 46.2-1001
    Removal of unsafe vehicles; penalty
    § 46.2-1001.1
    Special equipment required for converted electric vehicles
    § 46.2-1002
    Illegal possession or sale of certain unapproved equipment
    § 46.2-1003
    Illegal use of defective and unsafe equipment
    § 46.2-1004
    Trademark or name and instructions required
  • Article 2.
    Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Equipment
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1005
    Procedure for approval of equipment
    § 46.2-1005.1
    Auxiliary lights on motorcycles
    § 46.2-1006
    Approval of brake and head light testing methods and equipment
    § 46.2-1007
    Retesting of devices and revocation of approval certificates
    § 46.2-1008
    Fees for approval certificates
    § 46.2-1009
    Exemptions for certain electrically powered vehicles; standards and permits for such vehicles
  • Article 3.
    Lights and Turn Signals
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1010
    Equipment required
    § 46.2-1011
    Headlights on motor vehicles
    § 46.2-1012
    Headlights, auxiliary headlights, tail lights, brake lights, auxiliary lights, and illumination of license plates on motorcycles or autocycles
    § 46.2-1013
    Tail lights
    § 46.2-1014
    Brake lights
    § 46.2-1014.1
    Supplemental high mount stop light
    § 46.2-1015
    Lights on bicycles, electric personal assistive mobility devices, personal delivery devices, electric power-assisted bicycles, mopeds, and motorized skateboards or scooters
    § 46.2-1016
    Lights on other vehicles; reflectors
    § 46.2-1017
    Dimension or marker lights and reflectors, generally
    § 46.2-1018
    Marker lights on vehicles or loads exceeding thirty-five feet
    § 46.2-1019
    § 46.2-1020
    Other permissible lights
    § 46.2-1021
    Additional lights permitted on certain commercial vehicles
    § 46.2-1021.1
    Additional lights permitted on certain privately owned cars
    § 46.2-1022
    Flashing or steady-burning blue or red, flashing red and blue or blue and white, or red, white, and blue warning lights
    § 46.2-1023
    Flashing red or red and white warning lights
    § 46.2-1024
    Flashing or steady-burning red or red and white warning light units
    § 46.2-1025
    Flashing amber, purple, or green warning lights
    § 46.2-1026
    Flashing high-intensity amber warning lights
    § 46.2-1027
    Warning lights on certain demonstrator vehicles
    § 46.2-1028
    Auxiliary lights on firefighting, Virginia Department of Transportation, and other emergency vehicles
    § 46.2-1028.1
    Illuminated identification systems on certain emergency vehicles
    § 46.2-1028.2
    Auxiliary lights on public utility vehicles
    § 46.2-1029
    Auxiliary lights on law-enforcement vehicles
    § 46.2-1029.1
    Flashing of headlights on certain vehicles
    § 46.2-1029.2
    Certain vehicles may be equipped with secondary warning lights
    § 46.2-1030
    When lights to be lighted; number of lights to be lighted at any time; use of warning lights
    § 46.2-1031
    Requirements as to single-beam head lights
    § 46.2-1032
    Requirements as to multiple-beam headlights
    § 46.2-1033
    Indicator light required
    § 46.2-1034
    When dimming headlights required
    § 46.2-1035
    Dimming headlights on parked vehicles
    § 46.2-1036
    Acetylene lights on antique motor vehicles
    § 46.2-1037
    Lights on parked vehicles
    § 46.2-1038
    When turn signals required; exceptions
    § 46.2-1039
    Requirements of turn signals; regulations
    § 46.2-1040
    Hazard lights
  • Article 8.
    Steering and Suspension Systems
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  • § 46.2-1063
    Alteration of suspension system; bumper height limits; raising body above frame rail
    § 46.2-1064
    Modification of front-end suspension by use of lift blocks
    § 46.2-1065
    Steering gear; installation, sale, etc., of repair kit or preventive maintenance kit for use on part of steering gear prohibited
  • Article 10.
    Miscellaneous Equipment
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  • § 46.2-1072
    Operation of vehicle without serial or identification number; requirements for stamping, cutting, or embossing numbers; regulations
    § 46.2-1072.1
    § 46.2-1073
    Engine or serial number illegible, removed, or obliterated
    § 46.2-1074
    Removing or altering serial or identification numbers, decals and devices without consent of Department
    § 46.2-1075
    Possession of vehicles with serial numbers removed or altered
    § 46.2-1075.1
    Tampering with gross vehicle weight ratings; penalty
    § 46.2-1076
    Lettering on certain vehicles
    § 46.2-1077
    Motor vehicles not to be equipped with television within view of driver; viewing motion pictures or similar displays while driving
    § 46.2-1077.01
    Display of certain visual material in motor vehicles prohibited; penalty
    § 46.2-1077.1
    Mobile infrared transmitters; demerit points not to be awarded
    § 46.2-1078
    Unlawful to operate motor vehicle, bicycle, electric personal assistive mobility device, electric power-assisted bicycle, or moped while using earphones
    § 46.2-1078.1
    § 46.2-1079
    Radar detectors; demerit points not to be awarded
    § 46.2-1080
    Speedometer in good working order
    § 46.2-1081
    Slow-moving vehicle emblems
    § 46.2-1082
    § 46.2-1083
    Rear fenders, flaps, or guards required for certain motor vehicles
    § 46.2-1084
    Vehicle to have securely affixed seat for driver; location of such seat
    § 46.2-1085
    § 46.2-1086
    Devices for emission of smoke screens, gas projectors or flame throwers; prohibited
    § 46.2-1087
    Forfeiture of vehicles equipped with smoke projectors, etc.
    § 46.2-1088
    Air conditioning units
    § 46.2-1088.1
    Hood scoops
    § 46.2-1088.2
    Warning devices required on certain vehicles
    § 46.2-1088.3
    Air bags; installation of other object in lieu of air bag prohibited; manufacture, sale, etc., of counterfeit or nonfunctional air bag prohibited; notice of installation of previously installed air bag required; penalties
    § 46.2-1088.4
    Devices used to supply nitrous oxide to the engines of motor vehicles
    § 46.2-1088.5
    Reflectors or reflectorized material required on rear end of certain trailers
    § 46.2-1088.6
    Motor vehicle recording devices
  • Article 11.
    Paint, Lettering, and Special Equipment for School Buses
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1089
    Paint and lettering on school bus
    § 46.2-1089.1
    Signs and markings on school buses using alternative fuels
    § 46.2-1090
    Warning devices on school buses; other buses; use thereof; penalties
    § 46.2-1090.1
    Warning lights on school buses
  • Article 12.
    Safety Belts
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1091
    Safety belts to be worn by certain bus drivers
    § 46.2-1092
    Safety lap belts or a combination of lap belts and shoulder harnesses to be installed in certain motor vehicles
    § 46.2-1093
    Requirements for safety lap belts, shoulder harnesses and combinations thereof
    § 46.2-1094
    Occupants of front seats of motor vehicles required to use safety lap belts and shoulder harnesses; penalty
  • Article 13.
    Child Restraints
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1095
    Child restraint devices required when transporting certain children; safety belts for passengers less than 18 years old required
    § 46.2-1096
    Exceptions for certain children
    § 46.2-1097
    Child restraint devices; special fund created
    § 46.2-1098
    Penalties; violations not negligence per se
    § 46.2-1099
    Further exemptions
    § 46.2-1100
    Use of standard seat belts permitted for certain children
  • Article 14.
    Maximum Vehicle Size, Generally
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1101
    Limitations applicable throughout Commonwealth; alteration by local authorities
    § 46.2-1102
    Size and weight limitations inapplicable to farm machinery, agricultural multipurpose drying units, and firefighting equipment; amber warning lights
    § 46.2-1103
    Greater size, weight, and load limits permitted by interstate commerce regulations
    § 46.2-1104
    Reduction of limits by Commissioner of Highways and local authorities; penalties
  • Article 16.
    Maximum Vehicle Lengths
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  • § 46.2-1112
    Length of vehicles, generally; special permits; vehicle combinations, etc., operating on certain highways; penalty
    § 46.2-1113
    Length exceptions for certain passenger buses and motor homes
    § 46.2-1114
    Length of watercraft transporters; operation on certain highways
    § 46.2-1114.1
    Length of automobile transporters; operation on certain highways
    § 46.2-1115
    Lengths of manufactured homes or house trailers
    § 46.2-1116
    Vehicles having more than one trailer, etc., attached thereto; exceptions
    § 46.2-1117
    Tractor truck semitrailer combinations operating on certain highways; access to certain facilities
    § 46.2-1117.1
    Commercial delivery of towaway trailers
    § 46.2-1118
    Connection between vehicles; tow trucks towing vehicles by means of a wheel lift apparatus
    § 46.2-1119
    Tow dolly and converter gear
    § 46.2-1120
    Extension of loads beyond front of vehicles
    § 46.2-1121
    Flag or light at end of load
  • Article 17.
    Maximum Vehicle Weights
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1122
    § 46.2-1123
    Weight of vehicles and loads
    § 46.2-1124
    Maximum single axle weight, generally; maximum weight per inch of tire width
    § 46.2-1125
    Maximum tandem axle weight, generally
    § 46.2-1126
    Maximum gross weight, generally
    § 46.2-1127
    Weight limits for vehicles using interstate highways
    § 46.2-1127.1
    Weight limit exception for certain emergency vehicles using the interstate highways
    § 46.2-1128
    Extensions of weight limits; fees
    § 46.2-1129
    Further extensions of weight limits for certain vehicles hauling Virginia-grown farm or forest products
    § 46.2-1129.1
    Further extension of weight limits for certain vehicles utilizing an auxiliary power unit or other idle reduction technology
    § 46.2-1129.2
    Further extension of weight limits for vehicles fueled by natural gas or powered by means of electric battery power
    § 46.2-1130
    Crossing bridge or culvert by vehicle heavier than allowed; where weight signs to be erected
    § 46.2-1130.1
    Overweight permits granted to cross bridges and culverts by certain emergency response vehicles responding to an emergency call
    § 46.2-1131
    Penalty for violation of weight limits
    § 46.2-1132
    Service of process in weight violation cases
    § 46.2-1133
    Special processing provisions for overweight violations
    § 46.2-1134
    Special overweight seizure provisions; penalty
    § 46.2-1135
    (Contingent expiration date -- see note*) Liquidated damages for violation of weight limits
    § 46.2-1135
    (Contingent effective date -- see note*) Liquidated damages for violation of weight limits
    § 46.2-1136
    Procedures for issuing and serving process in overweight vehicle cases
    § 46.2-1137
    Weighing vehicles; procedure; shifting loads; unloading excess load; weighing fee; certificate as to accuracy of scales admissible in evidence; penalties
    § 46.2-1138
    County ordinances fixing weight limits on roads that have been withdrawn from secondary system
    § 46.2-1138.1
    City ordinances fixing weight limits on certain roads
    § 46.2-1138.2
    Town ordinances concerning weight limits on certain roads
  • Article 18.
    Permits for Excessive Size and Weight
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  • § 46.2-1139
    Permits for excessive size and weight generally; penalty
    § 46.2-1139.1
    Delegation of permitting authority
    § 46.2-1140
    Authority to use certain streets and highways in cities and towns
    § 46.2-1140.1
    Annual overweight permits; fees
    § 46.2-1141
    Overweight permits for containerized freight and fluid milk
    § 46.2-1142
    Overweight permits for concrete haulers
    § 46.2-1142.1
    Extensions of overweight limits authorized under § 46.2-1142 for vehicles used to haul concrete; fees
    § 46.2-1143
    Overweight permits for coal haulers; trucks hauling gravel, sand, asphalt, crushed stone, or liquids produced from gas or oil wells in certain counties; penalties
    § 46.2-1143.1
    Overweight permits for haulers of excavated material
    § 46.2-1144
    Overweight permits for solid waste haulers
    § 46.2-1144.1
    Overweight permits for tank wagons
    § 46.2-1144.2
    Overweight permits for haulers of farm animal feed
    § 46.2-1145
    Overweight permits for certain trucks operated by Arlington County
    § 46.2-1146
    Excess height and length permits for haulers of certain imported goods
    § 46.2-1147
    Permits for excessive size and weight for articulated buses
    § 46.2-1148
    Overweight permit for hauling Virginia-grown farm produce
    § 46.2-1148.1
    Overweight permit for hauling forest products
    § 46.2-1149
    Unladen, oversize and overweight, rubber-tired, self-propelled haulers and loaders; permits; engineering analysis; costs
    § 46.2-1149.1
    Excess tandem axle weight permits for cotton module haulers
    § 46.2-1149.2
    Permit authorizing transportation of tree-length logs
    § 46.2-1149.3
    Payment of fees into special fund
    § 46.2-1149.4
    Overweight permits for specialized mobile equipment
    § 46.2-1149.5
    Overweight permits for underground pipe cleaning, hydroexcavating, and water blasting equipment
    § 46.2-1149.6
    Permits for truck cranes
    § 46.2-1149.7
    Specialized construction equipment; permits; engineering analysis; costs
    § 46.2-1149.8
    Excess width permits for vehicles transporting watercraft
  • Article 19.
    Towing and Towed Vehicles
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  • § 46.2-1150
    Towing certain unlicensed or uninspected vehicles
    § 46.2-1151
    Weight limit exception as to vehicles designed for towing disabled vehicles
    § 46.2-1151.1
    Weight limit exception for covered heavy duty tow and recovery vehicles
    § 46.2-1152
    Certain tow trucks need not be weighed
    § 46.2-1153
    Permissible lengths of combination vehicles being towed in emergencies
    § 46.2-1154
    Length of vehicles; exceptions in case of breakdown
  • Article 20.
    Loads and Cargoes
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1155
    Fastening load of logs, barrels, etc.
    § 46.2-1156
    Construction, maintenance and loading must prevent escape of contents; load covers; exemptions
    § 46.2-1156.1
    Transportation of persons less than sixteen years old in pickup truck beds prohibited; exception
  • Article 21.
    Safety Inspections
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1157
    Inspection of motor vehicles required
    § 46.2-1158
    Frequency of inspection; scope of inspection
    § 46.2-1158.02
    Penalty for failure to have motor vehicle inspection
    § 46.2-1158.1
    Extension of validity of vehicle safety inspection approval stickers issued for vehicles whose registered owners are persons in the armed services of the United States
    § 46.2-1158.01
    Exceptions to motor vehicle inspection requirement
    § 46.2-1159
    Logtrailers defined; exempt from inspection under certain conditions
    § 46.2-1160
    Towed vehicle defined; exempt from inspection requirement
    § 46.2-1161
    § 46.2-1161.1
    Inspections of trailers and semitrailers equipped with heating or cooking appliances
    § 46.2-1162
    Inspection of certain trailers
    § 46.2-1163
    Official inspection stations; safety inspection approval stickers; actions of Superintendent subject to the Administrative Process Act
    § 46.2-1164
    Reinspection not required when windshield replaced; transfer of inspection sticker to new windshield; replacement of lost or damaged stickers
    § 46.2-1165
    Regulations for inspection of vehicles; posting
    § 46.2-1166
    Minimum standards required for inspection stations; appointments
    § 46.2-1167
    Charges for inspection and reinspection; exemption
    § 46.2-1167.1
    § 46.2-1168
    Additional registration fee
    § 46.2-1169
    Inspection defined; making of repairs or adjustments
    § 46.2-1170
    Advertising, etc., of official inspection station when not authorized
    § 46.2-1171
    Penalties for violation of article
    § 46.2-1172
    Unauthorized taking, possession, or use of inspection stickers, etc.; penalty
    § 46.2-1173
    Imitation or counterfeit inspection stickers
    § 46.2-1174
    Superintendent authorized to enter into Uniform Vehicle Inspection Reciprocity Agreement
    § 46.2-1175
    Operators of certain commuter buses to maintain certain records; inspection of records and buses by employees of Department of State Police; penalty
    § 46.2-1175.1
    Inspection of certain refuse collection and highway maintenance vehicles
  • Article 22.
    Emissions Inspections
    Read all
  • § 46.2-1176
    § 46.2-1177
    Emissions inspection program
    § 46.2-1177.1
    Inspection program coordinator; agreement for services
    § 46.2-1178
    Administration and scope of emissions inspection program
    § 46.2-1178.1
    On-road testing of motor vehicle emissions; authority to adopt regulations; civil charges
    § 46.2-1178.2
    Repair of certain vehicles not in compliance with standards established by the Board; payment of repairs from Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund
    § 46.2-1179
    Board to adopt emissions standards
    § 46.2-1179.1
    Board to adopt clean alternative fuel fleet standards for motor vehicles; penalty
    § 46.2-1180
    Board to adopt regulations; exemption of certain motor vehicles
    § 46.2-1181
    Emissions inspection; cost of repairs; waivers
    § 46.2-1182
    Emissions inspection fees; exemption
    § 46.2-1182.1
    Additional registration fee; exemption
    § 46.2-1182.2
    Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program Fund established; use of moneys
    § 46.2-1183
    Emissions inspection required prior to registration of certain vehicles; records
    § 46.2-1183.1
    § 46.2-1184
    Fleet emissions inspection stations
    § 46.2-1185
    Investigation of inspection stations; revocation or suspension of permits for emissions inspection stations
    § 46.2-1186
    False certificate
    § 46.2-1187
    § 46.2-1187.1
    Right of entry
    § 46.2-1187.2
    Compelling compliance with regulations and order of Board; penalty
    § 46.2-1187.3
    Vehicles used for investigations