Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances
Chapter 22. Virginia Real Estate Time-Share Act
11/30/2021

Article 2. Creation, Termination, and Management.

§ 55.1-2207. Time-sharing permitted.

A time-share project shall be permitted on any land or improvement on such land lying within the Commonwealth unless prohibited by zoning then in effect or by the express language of any legally enforceable covenant, condition, or restriction, however denominated, contained in the governing documents of record for such land, including condominium instruments under the Condominium Act (§ 55.1-1900 et seq.), a time-share instrument under this chapter, a declaration under the Virginia Real Estate Cooperative Act (§ 55.1-2100 et seq.), or a master deed under the Horizontal Property Act (§ 55.1-2000 et seq.). This chapter shall not be construed to affect the validity of any provision of any time-share program or any expansion of such a program or time-share instrument recorded or in existence prior to July 1, 1981.

1981, c. 462, § 55-366; 1994, c. 580; 1998, c. 460; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2208. Instruments.

A. In order to create a time-share program for a time-share estate project, the developer shall execute a time-share instrument prepared and executed in accordance with this chapter and record it in the clerk's office where such time-share project is located. The time-share instrument shall contain the following:

1. The name of the time-share project, which shall include or be followed by a qualifying adjective or term outlined in § 55.1-2205;

2. The name of the locality and the state or situs in which the time-share project is situated;

3. The legal description, street address, or other description sufficient to identify the time-share project;

4. A legally sufficient description of the real estate constituting the time-share project;

5. A statement of the form of time-share program, i.e., whether it is a time-share estate or time-share use;

6. Identification of time periods by letter, name, number, or combination thereof;

7. Identification of time-shares and, where applicable, the method by which additional time-shares may be created or withdrawn;

8. The formula, fraction, or percentage of the common expenses and any voting rights assigned to each time-share;

9. Any restrictions on the use, occupancy, enjoyment, alteration, or alienation of time-shares;

10. The ownership interest, if any, in personal property available to time-share owners;

11. The program by which the managing entity, if any, will provide management of the project;

12. The period for which units are designated and committed to the time-share program and the property classification of the units at the expiration of such period;

13. Any provision for amending the time-share instrument;

14. A description of the events, including condemnation and damage or destruction, upon which the time-share program may or shall be terminated before the expiration of its full term and the consequences of such termination, including the manner in which the time-share project or the proceeds from the disposition of such project shall be held or distributed among owners;

15. A statement of whether or not the developer reserves the right to add to or delete any incidental benefit;

16. A statement of whether or not the developer reserves the right to add to or delete any alternative purchase; and

17. Such other matters as the developer deems appropriate.

B. In order to create a time-share program for a time-share use project, the developer shall (i) execute and record a time-share instrument as required by subsection A or (ii) execute a time-share instrument that takes the form of and is a part of the contract that contains the information required by subsection A.

C. If the developer explicitly reserves the right to develop additional time-shares, the time-share instrument shall also contain the following:

1. A legally sufficient description of all land that may be added to the time-share project, which shall be referred to as "additional land";

2. A statement outlining the order in which portions of the additional land may be subjected to the exercise of each development right or a statement that no assurances are made in that regard;

3. A statement of the time limit upon which the option to develop shall expire, together with a statement of the circumstances, if any, that will terminate that option prior to the expiration of the specified time limit;

4. A statement of the maximum number of units that may be added to the time-share project, if known, or, if the maximum number of units that may be added to the time-share project is not known, a statement to that effect; and

5. A statement of the property classification of the additional land if the developer fails to exercise the development rights as reserved in the time-share instrument.

1981, c. 462, § 55-367; 1985, c. 517; 1994, c. 580; 1998, c. 460; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2209. Time-share instrument for time-share estate project.

In addition to the requirements of § 55.1-2208, the time-share instrument for a time-share estate project shall outline or prescribe reasonable arrangements for the management and operation of the time-share estate program and for the maintenance, repair, and furnishing of units it comprises, which shall include provisions for the following:

1. Creation of an association, the members of which shall be the time-share estate owners. The association may be formed pursuant to the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act (§ 13.1-801 et seq.); however, the association shall be formed prior to the time the project and program are registered with the Board. Nothing shall affect the validity of the association, once formed, and the rights applicable to it as granted by this chapter, notwithstanding the time when such association was formed;

2. Payment of costs and expenses of operating the time-share estate program and owning and maintaining the units it comprises;

3. Employment and termination of employment of the managing agent for the project. Any agreement pertaining to the employment of the managing agent and executed during the developer control period shall be voidable by the association at any time after termination of the developer control period for the time-share project, and any provision in such agreement to the contrary is hereby declared to be void;

4. Termination of leases and contracts for goods and services for the time-share estate project that are entered into during the developer control period. Any such lease or contract shall become voidable at the option of the association upon termination of the developer control period for the entire time-share project, or sooner if the provisions of such lease or contract so state;

5. Preparation and dissemination to time-share estate owners of the annual report required by § 55.1-2213;

6. Adoption of standards and rules of conduct for the use, enjoyment, and occupancy of units by the time-share estate owners;

7. Collection of regular assessments, fees or dues, or special assessments from time-share estate owners to defray all time-share expenses;

8. Comprehensive general liability insurance for death, bodily injury, and property damage arising out of, or in connection with, the use and enjoyment of the project by time-share estate owners, their guests, and other users. The costs associated with securing and maintaining such insurance shall be a time-share expense. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to obligate the managing entity to secure insurance on the conduct of the time-share estate owners, their guests, and other users or the personal effects or property of such owners, guests, and users;

9. Methods for providing compensation or alternate use periods or monetary compensation to a time-share estate owner if his contracted-for unit cannot be made available for the period to which the owner is entitled by schedule or by confirmed reservation;

10. Procedures for imposing a monetary penalty or suspension of a time-share estate owner's rights and privileges in the time-share estate program or time-share project for failure of such owner to comply with provisions of the time-share instrument or the rules and regulations of the association with respect to the use and enjoyment of the units and the time-share project. Under these procedures, a time-share estate owner shall be given reasonable notice and reasonable opportunity to be heard and explain the charges against him in person or in writing to the board of directors of the association before a decision to impose discipline is rendered; and

11. Employment of attorneys, accountants, and other professional persons as necessary to assist in the management of the time-share estate program and the units it comprises.

1981, c. 462, § 55-368; 1985, c. 517; 1989, c. 637; 1991, c. 704; 1994, c. 580; 1998, c. 460; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2210. Developer control in time-share estate program.

A. The time-share instrument for a time-share estate program shall provide for a developer control period. All costs associated with the control, management, and operation of the time-share estate project during the developer control period shall belong to the developer, except for time-share estate occupancy expenses that shall, if required by the developer in the time-share instrument, be allocated only to and paid by time-share estate owners other than the developer. Nothing shall preclude the developer, during the developer control period and at any time after the lapse of a purchaser's right of cancellation and without regard to the recordation of the deed, provided that the deed has been delivered to the purchaser or the purchaser's agent, from collecting an annual or specially assessed charge from each time-share estate owner for the payment of the time-share estate occupancy expenses by way of a maintenance fee. However, any such funds received and not spent, or any other funds received and allocated to the benefit of the association, shall be transferred to the association by the developer at the termination of the developer control period.

B. Except to the extent that the purchase contract or time-share instrument expressly provides otherwise, fee simple title to the common elements shall be transferred to the time-share estate owners' association, free of charge, no later than at such time as the developer (i) transfers to purchasers legal or equitable ownership of at least 90 percent of the time-share estates, excluding any reacquisitions by the developer; (ii) is no longer the beneficiary on deeds of trust secured on at least 20 percent of the time-share estates; or (iii) has completed all of the promised common elements and facilities that the time-share estate project comprises, whichever occurs last. The developer may make such transfer when the period has ended for a phase or portion of the time-share estate project. The transfer required of the developer by this subsection shall not exonerate the developer from the responsibility of completion of the promised and incomplete common elements once the transfer occurs. Upon transfer of the time-share project or portion to the association, the developer control period for such project or portion of such project shall terminate.

1981, c. 462, § 55-369; 1985, c. 517; 1989, c. 637; 1991, c. 704; 1993, c. 842; 1994, c. 580; 1998, c. 460; 2001, c. 543; 2008, c. 376; 2013, cc. 259, 327; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2211. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Time-share estate owners' association control liens.

A. The board of directors of the association shall have the authority to adopt regular annual assessments and to levy periodic special assessments against each of the time-share estate unit owners and to collect the same from such owners according to law if the purpose in so doing is determined by the board of directors to be in the best interest of the time-share project or time-share program and the proceeds are used to either pay common expenses or fund a reserve. In addition, the board of directors of the association shall have the authority to collect, on behalf of the developer or on its own account, the maintenance fee imposed by the developer pursuant to § 55.1-2210. The authority hereby granted and conferred upon the association shall exist notwithstanding any covenants and restrictions of record applicable to the project stated to the contrary, and any such covenants and restrictions are hereby declared void.

B. The developer may provide that it not be obligated to pay all or a portion of any assessment, dues, or other charges of the association, however denominated, passed, or adopted, pursuant to subsection A, if such developer so provides, in bold type, in the time-share instrument for the time-share estate project. If no such provision exists, the developer shall be responsible to pay the same assessment, dues, or other charges that a time-share estate owner is obligated to pay for each of its unsold time-shares existing at the end of the fiscal year of the association and no more if the board of directors of the association so determines. In no event shall either a time-share expense or the dues, assessment, or charges of the association discriminate against the developer.

C. The association shall have a lien on every time-share estate within its project for unpaid and past due regular or special assessments levied against that estate in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and for all unpaid and past due maintenance fees. The exemption created by § 34-4 shall not be claimed against the debt or lien of the association created by this section.

The association, in order to perfect the lien given by this subsection, shall file, before the expiration of four years from the time such special or regular assessment or maintenance fee became due, in the clerk's office of the county or city in which the project is situated, a memorandum verified by the oath of any officer of the association or its managing agent and containing the following information:

1. The name and location of the project;

2. The name and address of each owner of the time-share on which the lien exists and a description of the unit in which the time-share is situated;

3. The amount of past due special or regular assessments or past due maintenance fees applicable to the time-share, together with the date when each became due;

4. The amount of any other charges owing occasioned by the failure of the owner to pay the assessments or maintenance fees, including late charges, interest, postage and handling, attorney fees, recording costs, and release fees;

5. The name, address, and telephone number of the association's trustee, if known at the time, who will be called upon by the association to foreclose on the lien upon the owner's failure to pay as provided in this subsection; and

6. The date of issuance of the memorandum.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, or any other provision of law requiring documents to be recorded in the deed books of the clerk's office of any court, from July 1, 1981, all memoranda of liens arising under this subsection shall be recorded in the deed books in such clerk's office. Any such memorandum shall be indexed in the general index to deeds, and such general index shall identify the lien as a lien for time-share estate regular or special assessments or maintenance fees.

The clerk in whose office such memorandum is filed as provided in this subsection shall record and index such memorandum as provided in this subsection, in the names of the persons identified in such memorandum as well as in the name of the time-share estates owners' association. The cost of recording such memorandum shall be taxed against the owner of the time-share on which the lien is placed. The filing with the clerk of one memorandum on which is listed two or more delinquent time-share estate unit owners is permitted in order to perfect the lien hereby allowed, and the cost of filing in this event shall be the clerk's fee as prescribed in subdivision A 2 of § 17.1-275.

D. At any time after perfecting the lien pursuant to this section, the association may sell the time-share estate at a public sale, subject to prior liens. For purposes of this section, the association shall have the power both to sell and convey the time-share estate and shall be deemed the time-share estate owner's statutory agent for the purpose of transferring title to the time-share estate. A nonjudicial foreclosure sale shall be conducted by a trustee and in accordance with the following:

1. The association shall give notice to the time-share estate owner, prior to advertisement, as required by subdivision 4. The notice shall specify (i) the debt secured by the perfected lien; (ii) the action required to satisfy the debt secured by the perfected lien; (iii) the date, not less than 60 days from the date the notice is given to the time-share estate owner, by which the debt secured by the lien shall be satisfied; and (iv) that failure to satisfy the debt secured by the lien on or before the date specified in the notice may result in the sale of the time-share estate. The notice shall further inform the time-share estate owner of the right to bring a court action in the circuit court of the county or city where the time-share project is located to assert the nonexistence of a debt or any other defenses of the time-share estate owner to the sale.

2. After expiration of the 60-day notice period provided in subdivision 1, the association may appoint a trustee to conduct the sale. The appointment of the trustee shall be filed in the clerk's office of the circuit court in the county or city in which the time-share project is located. It shall be the duty of the clerk in whose office such appointment is filed to record and index the same, as provided in this subsection, in the names of the persons identified therein as well as in the name of the association. The association, at its option, may from time to time remove the trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

3. If, prior to the date of the foreclosure sale, the time-share estate owner (i) satisfies the debt secured by lien that is the subject of the nonjudicial foreclosure sale and (ii) pays all expenses and costs incurred in perfecting and enforcing the lien, including advertising costs and reasonable attorney fees, the time-share estate owner shall have the right to have enforcement of the perfected lien discontinued prior to the sale of the time-share estate.

4. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivision 5, the association shall give written notice of the time, date, and place of any proposed sale in execution of the lien, including the name, address, and telephone number of the trustee, by personal delivery or by mail to (i) the present owner of the time-share estate to be sold at his last known address as such owner and address appear in the records of the association, (ii) any lienholder that holds a note against the time-share estate secured by a deed of trust recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale and whose address is recorded with the deed of trust, and (iii) any assignee of such a note secured by a deed of trust, provided that the assignment and address of the assignee are likewise recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale. Mailing a copy of the advertisement or the notice containing the same information to the owner by certified or registered mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale and to the lienholders and their assigns, at the addresses noted in the memorandum of lien, by regular mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale shall be a sufficient compliance with the requirement of notice.

5. The advertisement of sale by the association shall be in a newspaper having a general circulation in the county or city wherein the time-share estate to be sold and the time-share project, or any portion of such project, lies pursuant to the following provisions:

a. The association shall advertise once a week for four successive weeks; however, if the time-share estate and the time-share project or some portion of such project is located in a city or in a county immediately contiguous to a city, publication of the advertisement five different days, which may be consecutive days, shall be deemed adequate. The sale shall be held on any day following the day of the last advertisement that is no earlier than eight days following the first advertisement nor more than 30 days following the last advertisement.

b. Such advertisement shall be placed in that section of the newspaper where legal notices appear or where the type of time-share estate being sold is generally advertised for sale. The advertisement of sale, in addition to such other matters as the association finds appropriate, shall set forth:

(1) A description of the time-share estate to be sold, which description need not be as extensive as that contained in the deed of trust, but shall identify the time-share project by street address, if any, or, if none, shall give the general location of such time-share project with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks with further identification of the time-share estate to be sold. Where available, tax map identification may be used. The advertisement shall also include the date, time, place, and terms of sale and the name of the association. It shall set forth the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who is authorized to respond to inquiries concerning the sale; or

(2) In lieu of the requirements of subdivision (1), the advertisement shall set forth the date, time, place, and terms of sale and the name of the association; the street address of the time-share estate to be sold, if any, or, if none, the general location of the time-share project; and the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who is authorized to respond to inquiries and give additional information concerning the time-share estate to be sold, including providing in hard copy or electronic form a description of the time-share estate to be sold by street address, if any, or, if none, by the general location of the time-share project with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks, and, where available, tax map identification. The advertisement under this subdivision (2) shall also include a website address where the information contained in subdivision (1) is displayed for the time-share estate to be sold.

c. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivisions 5 a and b, the association may give such other further and different advertisement as the association finds appropriate.

6. In the event of postponement of the sale, which postponement shall be at the discretion of the association, advertisement of the postponed sale shall be in the same manner as the original advertisement of sale.

7. Failure to comply with the requirements for advertisement contained in this section shall, upon petition, render a sale of the property voidable by the court. Such petition shall be filed within 60 days of the sale or the right to do so shall lapse.

8. In the event of a sale, the association shall have the following powers and duties:

a. The association may sell two or more time-share estates at the sale. Written one-price bids may be made and shall be received by the trustee from the association or any person for entry by announcement at the sale. Any person other than the trustee may bid at the foreclosure sale, including a person that has submitted a written one-price bid. Upon request to the trustee, any other bidder in attendance at a foreclosure sale shall be permitted to inspect written bids. Unless otherwise provided in the time-share instrument, the association may bid to purchase the time-share estate at a foreclosure sale. The association may own, lease, encumber, exchange, sell, or convey the time-share estate. Whenever the written bid of the association is the highest bid submitted at the sale, such written bid shall be filed by the trustee with his account of sale required under subdivision 10 of this subsection and § 64.2-1309. The written bid submitted pursuant to this subsection may be prepared by the association, its agent, or its attorney.

b. The association may require of any bidder at any sale a cash deposit of as much as one-third of the sale price before his bid is received, which shall be refunded to him if the time-share estate is not sold to him through action of the trustee. The deposit of the successful bidder shall be applied to his credit at settlement; if such bidder fails to complete his purchase promptly, the deposit shall be applied to pay the costs and expenses of the sale, and the balance, if any, shall be retained by the association in connection with that sale.

c. The association shall receive and receipt for the proceeds of sale, no purchaser being required to see to the application of the proceeds, and shall apply such proceeds in the following order: first, to the reasonable expenses of sale, including reasonable attorney fees; second, to the satisfaction of all taxes, levies, and assessments, with costs and interest; third, to the satisfaction of the lien for the time-share estate owners' assessments; fourth, to the satisfaction in the order of priority of any remaining inferior claims of record; and fifth, to pay the residue of the proceeds to the time-share estate owner or his assigns, provided, however, that the association as to such residue shall not be bound by any inheritance, devise, conveyance, assignment, or lien of or upon the unit owner's equity, without actual notice thereof prior to distribution.

9. The trustee shall deliver to the purchaser a trustee's deed conveying the time-share estate with special warranty of title. The trustee shall not be required to take possession of the time-share estate prior to the sale of such estate or deliver possession of the time-share estate to the purchaser at the sale.

10. If the sale of a time-share estate is made pursuant to this subsection and the accounting is made by the trustee, the title of the purchaser at such sale shall not be disturbed unless, within six months from the date of foreclosure, the sale is set aside by the court or an appeal is allowed by the Supreme Court of Virginia and an order is entered requiring such sale to be set aside.

When payment or satisfaction is made of a debt secured by the lien perfected by this subsection, such lien shall be released in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-339. For the purposes of § 55.1-339, any officer of the time-share estate owners' association or its managing agent shall be deemed the duly authorized agent of the lien creditor.

E. The commissioner of accounts to whom an account of sale is returned in connection with the foreclosure of either a lien under subsection C or a purchase money deed of trust taken back by the developer in the sale of a time-share in order to satisfy § 64.2-1309 shall be entitled to a fee, not to exceed $70, on each foreclosure of a lien under subsection C and not to exceed $125 on each foreclosure of a purchase money deed of trust taken back by the developer.

F. Any time-share owner within the project having executed a contract for the disposition of the time-share shall be entitled, upon request, to a recordable statement setting forth the amount of unpaid regular or special assessments or maintenance fees currently levied against that time-share. Such request shall be in writing, directed to the president of the time-share estate owners' association, and delivered to the principal office of the association. Failure of the association to furnish or make available such statement within 20 days from the actual receipt of such written request shall extinguish the lien created by subsection C as to the time-share involved. Payment of a fee reflecting the reasonable cost of materials and labor, not to exceed the actual cost of such materials and labor, may be required as a prerequisite to the issuance of such a statement.

1981, c. 462, § 55-370; 1985, c. 517; 1989, c. 637; 1991, c. 704; 1993, c. 842; 1994, cc. 432, 580; 1998, c. 460; 2001, c. 543; 2006, c. 653; 2007, c. 267; 2012, c. 406; 2013, cc. 259, 327; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2211. (Effective January 1, 2022) Time-share estate owners' association control liens.

A. The board of directors of the association shall have the authority to adopt regular annual assessments and to levy periodic special assessments against each of the time-share estate unit owners and to collect the same from such owners according to law if the purpose in so doing is determined by the board of directors to be in the best interest of the time-share project or time-share program and the proceeds are used to either pay common expenses or fund a reserve. In addition, the board of directors of the association shall have the authority to collect, on behalf of the developer or on its own account, the maintenance fee imposed by the developer pursuant to § 55.1-2210. The authority hereby granted and conferred upon the association shall exist notwithstanding any covenants and restrictions of record applicable to the project stated to the contrary, and any such covenants and restrictions are hereby declared void.

B. The developer may provide that it not be obligated to pay all or a portion of any assessment, dues, or other charges of the association, however denominated, passed, or adopted, pursuant to subsection A, if such developer so provides, in bold type, in the time-share instrument for the time-share estate project. If no such provision exists, the developer shall be responsible to pay the same assessment, dues, or other charges that a time-share estate owner is obligated to pay for each of its unsold time-shares existing at the end of the fiscal year of the association and no more if the board of directors of the association so determines. In no event shall either a time-share expense or the dues, assessment, or charges of the association discriminate against the developer.

C. The association shall have a lien on every time-share estate within its project for unpaid and past due regular or special assessments levied against that estate in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and for all unpaid and past due maintenance fees. The exemption created by § 34-4 shall not be claimed against the debt or lien of the association created by this section.

The association, in order to perfect the lien given by this subsection, shall file, before the expiration of four years from the time such special or regular assessment or maintenance fee became due, in the clerk's office of the county or city in which the project is situated, a memorandum verified by the oath of any officer of the association or its managing agent and containing the following information:

1. The name and location of the project;

2. The name and address of each owner of the time-share on which the lien exists and a description of the unit in which the time-share is situated;

3. The amount of past due special or regular assessments or past due maintenance fees applicable to the time-share, together with the date when each became due;

4. The amount of any other charges owing occasioned by the failure of the owner to pay the assessments or maintenance fees, including late charges, interest, postage and handling, attorney fees, recording costs, and release fees;

5. The name, address, and telephone number of the association's trustee, if known at the time, who will be called upon by the association to foreclose on the lien upon the owner's failure to pay as provided in this subsection; and

6. The date of issuance of the memorandum.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, or any other provision of law requiring documents to be recorded in the deed books of the clerk's office of any court, from July 1, 1981, all memoranda of liens arising under this subsection shall be recorded in the deed books in such clerk's office. Any such memorandum shall be indexed in the general index to deeds, and such general index shall identify the lien as a lien for time-share estate regular or special assessments or maintenance fees.

The clerk in whose office such memorandum is filed as provided in this subsection shall record and index such memorandum as provided in this subsection, in the names of the persons identified in such memorandum as well as in the name of the time-share estates owners' association. The cost of recording such memorandum shall be taxed against the owner of the time-share on which the lien is placed. The filing with the clerk of one memorandum on which is listed two or more delinquent time-share estate unit owners is permitted in order to perfect the lien hereby allowed, and the cost of filing in this event shall be the clerk's fee as prescribed in subdivision A 2 of § 17.1-275.

D. At any time after perfecting the lien pursuant to this section, the association may sell the time-share estate at a public sale, subject to prior liens. For purposes of this section, the association shall have the power both to sell and convey the time-share estate and shall be deemed the time-share estate owner's statutory agent for the purpose of transferring title to the time-share estate. A nonjudicial foreclosure sale shall be conducted by a trustee and in accordance with the following:

1. The association shall give notice to the time-share estate owner, prior to advertisement, as required by subdivision 4. The notice shall specify (i) the debt secured by the perfected lien; (ii) the action required to satisfy the debt secured by the perfected lien; (iii) the date, not less than 60 days from the date the notice is given to the time-share estate owner, by which the debt secured by the lien shall be satisfied; and (iv) that failure to satisfy the debt secured by the lien on or before the date specified in the notice may result in the sale of the time-share estate. The notice shall further inform the time-share estate owner of the right to bring a court action in the circuit court of the county or city where the time-share project is located to assert the nonexistence of a debt or any other defenses of the time-share estate owner to the sale.

2. After expiration of the 60-day notice period provided in subdivision 1, the association may appoint a trustee to conduct the sale. The appointment of the trustee shall be filed in the clerk's office of the circuit court in the county or city in which the time-share project is located. It shall be the duty of the clerk in whose office such appointment is filed to record and index the same, as provided in this subsection, in the names of the persons identified therein as well as in the name of the association. The association, at its option, may from time to time remove the trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

3. If, prior to the date of the foreclosure sale, the time-share estate owner (i) satisfies the debt secured by lien that is the subject of the nonjudicial foreclosure sale and (ii) pays all expenses and costs incurred in perfecting and enforcing the lien, including advertising costs and reasonable attorney fees, the time-share estate owner shall have the right to have enforcement of the perfected lien discontinued prior to the sale of the time-share estate.

4. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivision 5, the association shall give written notice of the time, date, and place of any proposed sale in execution of the lien, including the name, address, and telephone number of the trustee, by personal delivery or by mail to (i) the present owner of the time-share estate to be sold at his last known address as such owner and address appear in the records of the association, (ii) any lienholder that holds a note against the time-share estate secured by a deed of trust recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale and whose address is recorded with the deed of trust, and (iii) any assignee of such a note secured by a deed of trust, provided that the assignment and address of the assignee are likewise recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale. Mailing a copy of the advertisement or the notice containing the same information to the owner by certified or registered mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale and to the lienholders and their assigns, at the addresses noted in the memorandum of lien, by regular mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale shall be a sufficient compliance with the requirement of notice.

5. The advertisement of sale by the association shall be in a newspaper having a general circulation in the county or city wherein the time-share estate to be sold and the time-share project, or any portion of such project, lies pursuant to the following provisions:

a. The association shall advertise once a week for four successive weeks; however, if the time-share estate and the time-share project or some portion of such project is located in a city or in a county immediately contiguous to a city, publication of the advertisement five different days, which may be consecutive days, shall be deemed adequate. The sale shall be held on any day following the day of the last advertisement that is no earlier than eight days following the first advertisement nor more than 30 days following the last advertisement.

b. Such advertisement shall be placed in that section of the newspaper where legal notices appear or where the type of time-share estate being sold is generally advertised for sale. The advertisement of sale, in addition to such other matters as the association finds appropriate, shall set forth:

(1) A description of the time-share estate to be sold, which description need not be as extensive as that contained in the deed of trust, but shall identify the time-share project by street address, if any, or, if none, shall give the general location of such time-share project with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks with further identification of the time-share estate to be sold. Where available, tax map identification may be used. The advertisement shall also include the date, time, place, and terms of sale and the name of the association. It shall set forth the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who is authorized to respond to inquiries concerning the sale; or

(2) In lieu of the requirements of subdivision (1), the advertisement shall set forth the date, time, place, and terms of sale and the name of the association; the street address of the time-share estate to be sold, if any, or, if none, the general location of the time-share project; and the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who is authorized to respond to inquiries and give additional information concerning the time-share estate to be sold, including providing in hard copy or electronic form a description of the time-share estate to be sold by street address, if any, or, if none, by the general location of the time-share project with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks, and, where available, tax map identification. The advertisement under this subdivision (2) shall also include a website address where the information contained in subdivision (1) is displayed for the time-share estate to be sold.

c. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivisions 5 a and b, the association may give such other further and different advertisement as the association finds appropriate.

6. In the event of postponement of the sale, which postponement shall be at the discretion of the association, advertisement of the postponed sale shall be in the same manner as the original advertisement of sale.

7. Failure to comply with the requirements for advertisement contained in this section shall, upon petition, render a sale of the property voidable by the court. Such petition shall be filed within 60 days of the sale or the right to do so shall lapse.

8. In the event of a sale, the association shall have the following powers and duties:

a. The association may sell two or more time-share estates at the sale. Written one-price bids may be made and shall be received by the trustee from the association or any person for entry by announcement at the sale. Any person other than the trustee may bid at the foreclosure sale, including a person that has submitted a written one-price bid. Upon request to the trustee, any other bidder in attendance at a foreclosure sale shall be permitted to inspect written bids. Unless otherwise provided in the time-share instrument, the association may bid to purchase the time-share estate at a foreclosure sale. The association may own, lease, encumber, exchange, sell, or convey the time-share estate. Whenever the written bid of the association is the highest bid submitted at the sale, such written bid shall be filed by the trustee with his account of sale required under subdivision 10 of this subsection and § 64.2-1309. The written bid submitted pursuant to this subsection may be prepared by the association, its agent, or its attorney.

b. The association may require of any bidder at any sale a cash deposit of as much as one-third of the sale price before his bid is received, which shall be refunded to him if the time-share estate is not sold to him through action of the trustee. The deposit of the successful bidder shall be applied to his credit at settlement; if such bidder fails to complete his purchase promptly, the deposit shall be applied to pay the costs and expenses of the sale, and the balance, if any, shall be retained by the association in connection with that sale.

c. The association shall receive and receipt for the proceeds of sale, no purchaser being required to see to the application of the proceeds, and shall apply such proceeds in the following order: first, to the reasonable expenses of sale, including reasonable attorney fees; second, to the satisfaction of all taxes, levies, and assessments, with costs and interest; third, to the satisfaction of the lien for the time-share estate owners' assessments; fourth, to the satisfaction in the order of priority of any remaining inferior claims of record; and fifth, to pay the residue of the proceeds to the time-share estate owner or his assigns, provided, however, that the association as to such residue shall not be bound by any inheritance, devise, conveyance, assignment, or lien of or upon the unit owner's equity, without actual notice thereof prior to distribution.

9. The trustee shall deliver to the purchaser a trustee's deed conveying the time-share estate with special warranty of title. The trustee shall not be required to take possession of the time-share estate prior to the sale of such estate or deliver possession of the time-share estate to the purchaser at the sale.

10. If the sale of a time-share estate is made pursuant to this subsection and the accounting is made by the trustee, the title of the purchaser at such sale shall not be disturbed unless, within six months from the date of foreclosure, the sale is set aside by the court or an appeal is filed in the Court of Appeals or granted by the Supreme Court and an order is entered requiring such sale to be set aside.

When payment or satisfaction is made of a debt secured by the lien perfected by this subsection, such lien shall be released in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-339. For the purposes of § 55.1-339, any officer of the time-share estate owners' association or its managing agent shall be deemed the duly authorized agent of the lien creditor.

E. The commissioner of accounts to whom an account of sale is returned in connection with the foreclosure of either a lien under subsection C or a purchase money deed of trust taken back by the developer in the sale of a time-share in order to satisfy § 64.2-1309 shall be entitled to a fee, not to exceed $70, on each foreclosure of a lien under subsection C and not to exceed $125 on each foreclosure of a purchase money deed of trust taken back by the developer.

F. Any time-share owner within the project having executed a contract for the disposition of the time-share shall be entitled, upon request, to a recordable statement setting forth the amount of unpaid regular or special assessments or maintenance fees currently levied against that time-share. Such request shall be in writing, directed to the president of the time-share estate owners' association, and delivered to the principal office of the association. Failure of the association to furnish or make available such statement within 20 days from the actual receipt of such written request shall extinguish the lien created by subsection C as to the time-share involved. Payment of a fee reflecting the reasonable cost of materials and labor, not to exceed the actual cost of such materials and labor, may be required as a prerequisite to the issuance of such a statement.

1981, c. 462, § 55-370; 1985, c. 517; 1989, c. 637; 1991, c. 704; 1993, c. 842; 1994, cc. 432, 580; 1998, c. 460; 2001, c. 543; 2006, c. 653; 2007, c. 267; 2012, c. 406; 2013, cc. 259, 327; 2019, c. 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 489.

§ 55.1-2212. Time-share owners' association books and records; meetings; use of email.

A. Subject to the provisions of subsection B, all books and records, or copies of such books and records, kept by or on behalf of the association shall be maintained so that such books and records, or copies of such books and records, are reasonably available for inspection after written request by a member in good standing or his authorized agent. The association may charge such member or his agent a reasonable fee for copying the requested information. No books or records shall be removed from their location by the examining member or his agent. The right of inspection shall exist without reference to the duration of membership and may be exercised only during reasonable business hours and at a mutually convenient time and location, under the supervision of the custodian, and upon 15 days' written notice.

For purposes of this subsection, the requested books and records shall be considered "reasonably available" if copies of such books and records are delivered to the requesting member or his agent within seven business days of the date the association receives the written request. However, the requesting member or his agent shall be permitted to inspect the books and records wherever located at any reasonable time, under reasonable conditions, and under the supervision of the custodian of the records. The custodian shall supply copies of the records where requested and upon payment of the copying fee.

The association shall provide members of the association with the location of the books and records, along with the name and address of the custodian, by any reasonable method, which may include posting in a reasonable location at the situs of the time-share project or in the annual report required by § 55.1-2213.

B. Books and records kept by or on behalf of an association may be withheld from inspection to the extent that they concern:

1. Personnel records;

2. An individual's medical records;

3. Records relating to business transactions that are currently in negotiation;

4. Privileged communications with legal counsel;

5. Complaints against an individual member of the association;

6. Agreements containing confidentiality requirements;

7. Pending litigation;

8. The name, address, phone number, electronic mail address, or other personal information of time-share owners or members of the association, unless such owner or member first approves of the disclosure in writing;

9. Disclosure of information in violation of law; or

10. Meeting minutes or other records of an executive session of the board of directors held in accordance with subsection D.

The association shall be under no obligation to provide requested records to the extent that they are matters of public record or are otherwise readily obtainable from another source.

C. The association shall maintain among its records a complete, up-to-date list of the names and addresses of all current members in good standing who are owners of time-share estates in the time-share project. The association shall not publish such list or provide a copy of it to any time-share owner or to any third party except the board of directors or the developer. However, the association shall mail to those persons named on the list materials provided by any member in good standing, upon written request of that member, if the purpose of the mailing is to advance legitimate association business. The use of any proxies solicited in this manner shall comply with the provisions of the time-share instrument and this chapter. A mailing requested for the purpose of advancing legitimate association business shall occur within 45 days after receipt of a request from a member in good standing. The board of directors of the association shall be responsible for determining the appropriateness of any mailing requested pursuant to this subsection whose decision in this regard shall be final. The association shall be paid in advance for the association's actual costs in performing the mailing, including postage, supplies, reasonable labor, and attorney fees.

D. Meetings of the board of directors shall be open to all members of record who are eligible to vote and who are in good standing. Minutes shall be recorded and shall be available as provided in subsection A. The board of directors may convene in closed session to consider personnel matters; consult with legal counsel; discuss and consider contracts, potential or pending litigation, and matters involving violations of the time-share instrument or rules and regulations adopted pursuant to such instrument for which a member, his family members, tenants, or guests, or other invitees are responsible; or discuss and consider the personal liability of members to the association upon the affirmative vote in open meeting to assemble in closed session. The motion shall state specifically the purpose for the closed session. Reference to the motion and the stated purpose for the closed session shall be included in the minutes. The board of directors shall restrict the consideration of matters during the closed portions of meetings only to those purposes specifically exempted and stated in the motion. No contract, motion, or other action adopted, passed, or agreed to in closed session shall become effective unless the board of directors, following the closed session, reconvenes in an open meeting and takes a vote on such contract, motion, or other action, which shall have its substance reasonably identified in the open meeting. The requirements of this section shall not require the disclosure of information in violation of law.

E. Notwithstanding any provisions of the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act (§ 13.1-801 et seq.) to the contrary:

1. The bylaws of the association may prescribe different quorum requirements for meetings of its members; and

2. A director of the association may be removed from the office pursuant to any procedure provided in its articles of incorporation and, if none is provided, may be removed at a meeting called expressly for that purpose, with or without cause, by such vote as would suffice for his election.

F. Whenever this chapter requires communication between the board of directors and a member of the association by mail, any electronic means may be used in the alternative, including email, provided that such electronic communication is personal and only between such board and such member.

G. Filings with the board may be made by any electronic means, provided that such board is willing to accept such format.

2006, c. 653, § 55-370.01; 2007, c. 267; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2213. Time-share estate owners' association annual report.

A. Commencing with the time-share estate program and within 180 days after the close of each fiscal year thereafter, an annual report shall be prepared and distributed to all time-share estate owners. Such annual report shall be prepared and distributed for each time-share estate project registered with the Board. During the developer control period, the annual report shall be prepared and distributed to all time-share purchasers by the developer or its designated managing entity. After the developer control period, such annual report shall be prepared and distributed by the association.

B. The annual report shall contain the following:

1. The full legal name of the time-share project and its address;

2. The full legal name of the association;

3. A list of the names and mailing addresses of the members of the association's board of directors and the name of the person who prepared the report;

4. The managing entity's name, address, and contact person, if any, for the project;

5. A statement of whether or not the developer control period has terminated for the time-share estate project;

6. Financial statements of the association audited by an independent certified public accounting firm of the association that contain at least the following:

a. A balance sheet as of the end of the fiscal year;

b. An income statement as of the end of the fiscal year; and

c. A statement of the net changes in the financial position of the association for the fiscal year just ended;

7. A statement of the time-share estates occupancy expenses, the regular assessment, and any special assessments or other charges due for the current year from each time-share estate owner;

8. A copy of the current budget reflecting the anticipated time-share estate occupancy expenses along with:

a. A statement as to who prepared the budget;

b. A statement of the budgetary assumptions concerning occupancy factors;

c. A description of any provision made in the budget for reserves for repairs and replacement;

d. A statement of any other reserves;

e. The projected financial liability for each time-share estate owner, including a statement of (i) the nature of all charges, assessments, maintenance fees, and other expenses that may be assessed; (ii) the current amounts assessed; and (iii) the method and formula for changing any such assessments; and

f. A statement of any services not reflected in the budget that the developer provides, or expenses that it pays, that the association expects may become a time-share expense at any subsequent time, and the projected time-share expense assessment attributable to each of those services or expenses for the association and for each time-share; and

9. A statement of the location of the books and records of the association along with the name and contact address of the custodian of such books and records.

C. In lieu of the annual report required by subsection A, during the first 12 months of the time-share program, the developer or the association shall prepare a budget that shall contain the information contained in subdivision B 8.

1985, c. 517, § 55-370.1; 1991, c. 704; 1994, c. 580; 1998, c. 460; 2014, c. 533; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2214. Time-share instrument for project.

In addition to the requirements of § 55.1-2208, the time-share instrument for a time-share use program shall prescribe and outline reasonable arrangements for the management and operation of the time-share use program and for the maintenance, repair, and furnishing of time-share use units it comprises. Such arrangements shall include provisions for the following:

1. Standards and procedures for upkeep, repair, and interior furnishing of time-share use units, for the replacements of such furnishings, and for providing maid, cleaning, linen, and similar services to the units during use and occupancy periods;

2. Adoption of standards and rules of conduct governing the use, enjoyment, and occupancy of time-share use units by owners;

3. Payment by the developer of the costs and expenses of operating the time-share use program and owning and maintaining the time-share use units it comprises;

4. Selection of a managing agent to act for and on behalf of the developer should the developer elect not to undertake the duties, responsibilities, and obligations of the management of the time-share use program;

5. Procedures for establishing the rights of time-share use owners to occupancy, use, and enjoyment of time-share use units by prearrangement or under a first-reserved, first-served priority system;

6. Procedures for imposing and collecting regular or special assessments, maintenance fees, or use fees from time-share use owners as necessary to defray all time-share expenses and in providing materials and services to the units, as required of the developer in this chapter;

7. Comprehensive general liability insurance for death, bodily injury, and property damage arising out of, or in connection with, the occupancy, use, and enjoyment of time-share use units by time-share use owners, their guests, and other users. The costs associated with securing and maintaining such insurance shall be a time-share expense. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to obligate the developer to secure insurance on the conduct of the time-share use owners, their guests, and other users or the personal effects or property of such owners, guests, and users;

8. Methods for providing compensating or alternate use periods or monetary compensation to a time-share use owner if a time-share use unit cannot be made available for the period to which the owner is entitled by schedule or by a confirmed reservation; and

9. Procedures for imposing a monetary penalty or suspension of a time-share use owner's rights and privileges in the time-share use program or project or termination of the time-share use itself for failure of the time-share use owner to (i) comply with the provisions of the time-share use instrument; (ii) comply with the rules and regulations established by the developer with respect to the occupancy, use, and enjoyment of the time-share use units; or (iii) pay the charges imposed by the developer against the time-share use owner for providing the materials and services as required of the developer in this chapter. Except in matters where the time-share use owner has failed to pay the charge imposed by the developer for a period of less than 60 days after it has become due and payable, the owner shall be given notice and the opportunity to be heard.

1981, c. 462, § 55-371; 1985, c. 517; 1994, c. 580; 1998, c. 460; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2215. Partition.

No action for partition of a unit may be maintained except as permitted by the time-share instrument or by subsection C of § 55.1-2216.

1981, c. 462, § 55-372; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-2216. Termination of certain time-shares.

A. This section applies to all time-share estate programs and, when provided by the time-share instrument, to time-share use programs.

B. A time-share project may be terminated in whole by the developer at any time and for any reason if such developer is the sole owner of all time-shares within the time-share project. Such termination shall be accomplished by the developer executing and recording a termination document where the time-share instrument is recorded. Time-shares subject to this section also may be terminated by written agreement of the time-share owners having at least 51 percent of the time-shares or by written agreement of such larger percentage of the time-share owners as may otherwise be provided in the time-share instrument. The termination agreement shall specify a date upon which it shall become void, unless it is recorded before that date in the clerk's office of the appropriate court where the time-share project is located.

C. If the termination agreement sets forth the material terms of a contract or proposed contract under which an estate or interests equal to the sum of the time-shares are to be sold and designates a trustee to effect the sale, the termination agreement becomes effective upon recordation, and title to that estate or interest vests upon termination in the trustee for the benefit of the time-share owners, to be transferred pursuant to the contract. If the termination agreement does not set forth the material terms of a contract or proposed contract under which an estate or interests equal to the sum of the time-shares are to be sold and designates a trustee to effect the sale, the termination agreement becomes effective upon recordation, and title to an estate or interests equal to the sum of the time-shares therein vests upon termination in the time-share owners in proportion to their respective interests as provided in subsection F. Liens on the time-shares shall accordingly encumber the respective interests; and in this instance, any co-owner of that estate or interest may maintain an action for partition or for allotment or sale in lieu of partition pursuant to the laws of the Commonwealth.

D. Except as otherwise specified in the termination agreement, so long as the former time-share owners or their trustee holds title to the estate or interests equal to the sum of the time-shares, each former time-share owner and his successor in interest have the same rights with respect to the use, enjoyment, and occupancy in the former time-share unit that such former time-share owner and his successor in interest would have had if termination had not occurred, together with the same liabilities and other obligations imposed by this act or the time-share instrument.

E. After termination of all time-shares in a time-share project and adequate provision for payment of the claims of the creditors for time-share expenses, distribution shall be made, in proportion to their respective interests as provided in subsection F, to the former time-share owners and their successors in interest of (i) the proceeds of any sale pursuant to this section, (ii) the proceeds of any personalty held for the use and benefit of the former time-share owners, and (iii) any other funds held for the use and benefit of the former time-share owners.

F. The time-share instrument may specify the respective fractional or percentage interest that will be owned by each former time-share owner after termination, in accordance with the provisions of this section. Otherwise, not more than 180 days prior to the termination, an appraisal shall be made of the fair market value of each time-share by one or more impartial qualified appraisers selected either by the trustee designated in the termination agreement or by the managing entity if no trustee was so designated. The appraisal shall also state the corresponding fractional or percentage interests calculated in proportion to those values and in accordance with this subsection. A notice stating all of those values and corresponding interests and the return address of the sender shall be sent by certified or registered mail, by the managing entity or the trustee designated in the termination agreements, to all of the time-share owners. The appraisal governs the magnitude of each interest unless (i) at least 25 percent of the time-share owners deliver, within 60 days after the date the notices were mailed, written disapprovals to the return address of the sender of the notice or (ii) the final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction, entered during or after that period, holds that the appraisal should be set aside. The appraisal and the calculation of interests shall be made in accordance with the following:

1. If the termination agreement sets forth the material terms of a contract or proposed contract for the sale of the estate or interests equal to the sum of the time-shares, each time-share conferring a right of occupancy during a limited number of time periods shall be appraised as if the time until the date specified for the conveyance of the property had already elapsed. Otherwise, each time-share of that kind shall be appraised as if the time until the date specified pursuant to subsection B had already elapsed.

2. The interest of each time-share owner is the value of the time-share he owned divided by the sum of the values of all time-shares in the unit or units to which his time-share applies.

G. Foreclosure or enforcement of a lien or encumbrance against all of the time-shares in a time-share project does not of itself terminate those time-shares.

1981, c. 462, § 55-373; 1985, c. 517; 2006, c. 653; 2019, c. 712.