Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances
Chapter 3. Form and Effect of Deeds and Covenants; Liens
12/1/2022

Article 3. Satisfaction of Security Interest in Real Property.

§ 55.1-346. Applicability.

The procedure authorized by this article for the release of a security interest in real property using an automated electronic recording system may be used to effect the release of a security interest regardless of when the security interest was created, assigned, or satisfied by payment made by the settlement agent. The procedure authorized by this section for the release of a security interest shall constitute an optional method of accomplishing a release of a security interest secured by property in the Commonwealth.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.8; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-347. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Day" means calendar day.

"Document" means information that is:

1. Inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form; and

2. Eligible to be recorded in the land records maintained by the clerk.

"Electronic," as defined in the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.), means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government, or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Real property" means real property that is used for residential or nonresidential purposes.

"Recording data" means the date, and deed book and page number or instrument number, that indicates where a document is recorded in the land records of the clerk of the circuit court pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.).

"Secured creditor" means a person that holds or is the beneficiary of a security interest or that is authorized both to receive payments on behalf of a person that holds a security interest in real property and to record a satisfaction of the security instrument upon receiving full performance of the secured obligation. "Secured creditor" does not include a trustee under a security instrument. "Secured creditor" also includes "lender" as used in Chapter 10 (§ 55.1-1000 et seq.) and "lien creditor" and "servicer" as defined in § 55.1-339.

"Secured obligation" means an obligation the payment or performance of which is secured by a security interest.

"Security instrument" means an agreement, however denominated, that creates or provides for a security interest, whether or not it also creates or provides for a lien on personal property.

"Security interest" means an interest in real property created by a security instrument, securing payment, or performance of an obligation and includes a mortgage or deed of trust.

"Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate, accept, or adopt a document:

1. To execute or adopt a tangible symbol; or

2. To attach to or logically associate with the document an electronic sound, symbol, or process.

"State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

"Submit for recording" means to deliver, with required fees and taxes, a document sufficient to be recorded under this article to the office of the clerk of the circuit court pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.).

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.9; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-348. Document of rescission; effect; liability for wrongful recording.

A. As used in this section, "document of rescission" means a document stating that an identified satisfaction, certificate of satisfaction, or affidavit of satisfaction of a security instrument was recorded erroneously or fraudulently, the secured obligation remains unsatisfied, and the security instrument remains in force.

B. If a person records a satisfaction, certificate of satisfaction, or affidavit of satisfaction of a security instrument in error or by fraud, the person may execute and record a document of rescission. Upon recording, the document rescinds an erroneously recorded satisfaction, certificate, or affidavit.

C. A recorded document of rescission has no effect on the rights of a person who:

1. Acquired an interest in the real property described in a security instrument after the recording of the satisfaction, certificate of satisfaction, or affidavit of satisfaction of the security instrument and before the recording of the document of rescission; and

2. Would otherwise have priority over or take free of the lien created by the security instrument under the laws of the Commonwealth.

D. A person, other than the clerk of the circuit court or any of his employees or other governmental official in the course of the performance of his recordation duties, who erroneously, fraudulently, or wrongfully records a document of rescission is subject to liability under § 55.1-339.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.10; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-349. Secured creditor to submit satisfaction for recording; liability for failure.

A. A secured creditor shall submit for recording a satisfaction of a security instrument within 90 days after the creditor receives full payment or performance of the secured obligation in accordance with subsection B of § 55.1-339. If a security instrument secures a line of credit or future advances, the secured obligation is fully performed only if, in addition to full payment, the secured creditor has received a notification requesting the creditor to terminate the line of credit or containing a statement sufficient to terminate the effectiveness of the provision for future advances in the security instrument.

B. A secured creditor who is required to submit a satisfaction of a security instrument for recording and fails to do so by the end of the period specified in subsection A is subject to liability under § 55.1-339.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.11; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-350. Form and effect of satisfaction.

A. A document is sufficient to constitute a satisfaction of a security instrument if it conforms substantially in form and content to the requirements of § 55.1-342 and it:

1. Identifies the security instrument, the original parties to the security instrument, the recording data for the security instrument, and the office in which the security instrument is recorded;

2. States that the person signing the satisfaction is the secured creditor;

3. Contains a legal description of the real property identified in the security instrument, but only if a legal description is necessary for a satisfaction to be properly indexed; otherwise, the deed book and page number or instrument number is sufficient;

4. Contains language terminating the effectiveness of the security instrument; and

5. Is signed by the secured creditor and acknowledged as required by law for a conveyance of an interest in real property.

B. The clerk of the circuit court shall accept for recording a satisfaction document, unless:

1. An amount equal to or greater than the applicable recording fees and taxes is not tendered;

2. The document is submitted by a method or in a medium not authorized by the laws of the Commonwealth; or

3. The document is not signed by the secured creditor and acknowledged as required by law for a conveyance of an interest in real property.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.12; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-351. Relation to Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.

To the extent permitted by law, this article modifies, limits, and supersedes the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7001 et seq., except that nothing in this article modifies, limits, or supersedes §§ 7001(c) and 7004 of that Act or authorizes electronic delivery of any of the notices described in § 7003(b) of that Act.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.13; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-352. Uniform standards.

In consultation with the circuit court clerks, the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court, and interested citizens and businesses, the Virginia Information Technologies Agency shall develop standards to implement electronic recording of real property documents. The Virginia Information Technologies Agency shall consider standards and practices of other jurisdictions, the most recent standards promulgated by national standard-setting bodies, such as the Property Records Industry Association, views of interested persons and other governmental entities, and needs of localities of varying sizes, population, and resources.

2005, c. 749, § 55-66.14; 2019, c. 712.