Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
8/12/2020

Article 3. Motor Fuel Tax; Liability.

§ 58.1-2217. Taxes levied; rate.

A. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2020, cc. 1230 and 1275) There is hereby levied an excise tax on gasoline and gasohol as follows:

1. On and after July 1, 2020, but before July 1, 2021, the rate shall be 21.2 cents per gallon;

2. On and after July 1, 2021, but before July 1, 2022, the rate shall be 26.2 cents per gallon; and

3. On and after July 1, 2022, the rate shall be adjusted annually based on the greater of (i) the change in the United States Average Consumer Price Index for all items, all urban consumers (CPI-U), as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the U.S. Department of Labor for the previous year or (ii) zero.

A. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2020, cc. 1230 and 1275) There is hereby levied an excise tax on gasoline and gasohol at a rate of 16.2 cents per gallon.

B. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2020, cc. 1230 and 1275) There is hereby levied an excise tax on diesel fuel as follows:

1. On and after July 1, 2020, but before July 1, 2021, the rate shall be 20.2 cents per gallon;

2. On and after July 1, 2021, but before July 1, 2022, the rate shall be 27 cents per gallon; and

3. On and after July 1, 2022, the rate shall be adjusted annually based on the greater of (i) the change in the United States Average Consumer Price Index for all items, all urban consumers (CPI-U), as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the U.S. Department of Labor for the previous year or (ii) zero.

B. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2020, cc. 1230 and 1275) There is hereby levied an excise tax on diesel fuel at a rate of 20.2 cents per gallon.

C. Blended fuel that contains gasoline shall be taxed at the rate levied on gasoline. Blended fuel that contains diesel fuel shall be taxed at the rate levied on diesel fuel.

D. There is hereby levied a tax at the rate of five cents per gallon on aviation gasoline. Any person, whether or not licensed under this chapter, who uses, acquires for use, sells or delivers for use in highway vehicles any aviation gasoline shall be liable for the tax at the rate levied on gasoline and gasohol, along with any penalties and interest that may accrue.

E. There is hereby levied a tax at the rate of five cents per gallon on aviation jet fuel purchased or acquired for use by a user of aviation fuel other than an aviation consumer. There is hereby levied a tax at the rate of five cents per gallon upon the first 100,000 gallons of aviation jet fuel, excluding bonded aviation jet fuel, purchased or acquired for use by any aviation consumer in any fiscal year. There is hereby levied a tax at the rate of one-half cent per gallon on all aviation jet fuel, excluding bonded aviation jet fuel, purchased or acquired for use by an aviation consumer in excess of 100,000 gallons in any fiscal year. Any person, whether or not licensed under this chapter, who uses, acquires for use, sells or delivers for use in highway vehicles any aviation jet fuel taxable under this chapter shall be liable for the tax imposed at the rate levied on diesel fuel, along with any penalties and interest that may accrue.

F. In accordance with § 62.1-44.34:13, a storage tank fee is imposed on each gallon of gasoline, aviation gasoline, diesel fuel (including dyed diesel fuel), blended fuel, and heating oil sold and delivered or used in the Commonwealth.

2000, cc. 729, 758; 2007, c. 896; 2013, c. 766; 2019, c. 854; 2020, cc. 1230, 1275.

§ 58.1-2217.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, cc. 1230 and 1275, cl. 4.

§ 58.1-2218. Point of imposition of motor fuels tax.

The tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-2217 is imposed at the point that the motor fuel is:

1. Removed from a refinery or a terminal and, upon removal, is subject to the federal excise tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. § 4081;

2. Imported by a system transfer to a refinery or a terminal and, upon importation, is subject to the federal excise tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. § 4081;

3. Imported by a means of transfer outside the terminal transfer system for sale, use, or storage in Virginia and would have been subject to the federal excise tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. § 4081 if it had been removed at a terminal or bulk plant rack in Virginia instead of being imported;

4. If the motor fuel is gasohol, (i) removed from a terminal or distribution facility, unless the removed fuel is received by a supplier for subsequent sale or (ii) imported into Virginia outside the terminal transfer system by a means other than a marine vessel, a transport truck, or a railroad tank car;

5. If the motor fuel is blended fuel, made within Virginia or imported into Virginia; or

6. Transferred within the terminal transfer system and, upon transfer, is subject to the federal excise tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. § 4081.

2000, cc. 729, 758; 2003, c. 781.

§ 58.1-2219. Liability for tax on removals from a terminal.

A. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that motor fuel is removed by a system transfer from a terminal in Virginia shall be paid by the position holder of the fuel; however, if the position holder is not the terminal operator, the terminal operator and position holder shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax.

B. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that motor fuel is removed at a terminal rack in Virginia shall be payable by the person that first receives the fuel upon its removal from the terminal. If the motor fuel is first received by an unlicensed distributor, the supplier of the fuel shall be liable for payment of the tax due on the fuel. If the motor fuel is sold by a person who is not licensed as a supplier, then (i) the terminal operator and (ii) the person selling the fuel shall be jointly and severally liable for payment of the tax due on the fuel. If the motor fuel removed is not dyed diesel fuel but the shipping document issued for the fuel states that the fuel is dyed diesel fuel, the terminal operator, the supplier, and the person removing the fuel shall be jointly and severally liable for payment of the tax due on the fuel.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2220. Liability for tax on imports.

A. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that motor fuel is imported by a system transfer (i) to a refinery shall be payable by the refiner or (ii) to a terminal shall be jointly and severally payable by the person importing the fuel and by the terminal operator.

B. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that motor fuel is removed from a terminal rack located in another state and has Virginia as its destination state shall be payable:

1. If the importer of the fuel is a licensed supplier in Virginia and the fuel is removed for the supplier's own account for use in Virginia, by the supplier;

2. If the supplier of the fuel is licensed in Virginia as an elective supplier or a permissive supplier, by the importer of the fuel to the supplier as trustee; or

3. If subdivisions 1 and 2 do not apply, by the importer of the fuel when filing a return with the Commissioner.

C. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that motor fuel is removed from a bulk plant located in another state shall be payable by the person that imports the fuel.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2221. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2003, c. 781, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-2222. Liability for tax on blended fuel.

A. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that blended fuel is made in Virginia shall be payable by the blender. The number of gallons of blended fuel on which the tax is payable is the difference between the number of gallons of blended fuel made and the number of gallons of previously taxed motor fuel used to make the blended fuel.

B. The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that blended fuel is imported to Virginia shall be payable by the importer.

C. The following blended fuel shall be considered to have been made by the supplier of gasoline or undyed diesel fuel used in the blend:

1. An in-line-blend made by combining a liquid with gasoline or undyed diesel fuel as the fuel is delivered at a terminal rack into the motor fuel storage compartment of a transport truck or a tank wagon; and

2. A kerosene splash-blend made when kerosene is delivered into a motor fuel storage compartment of a transport truck or a tank wagon and undyed diesel fuel is also delivered into the same storage compartment, if the buyer of the kerosene notified the supplier before or at the time of delivery that the kerosene would be used to make a splash-blend.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2223. Liability for tax on fuel transferred within terminal transfer system.

The tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-2217 at the point that motor fuel is transferred within the terminal transfer system shall be jointly and severally payable by the supplier of the fuel, the person receiving the fuel, and the terminal operator of the terminal at which the fuel was transferred.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2224. Tax on unaccounted for motor fuel losses; liability.

A. There is hereby levied a tax at the rate specified by § 58.1-2217 annually on taxable unaccounted for motor fuel losses at a terminal. "Taxable unaccounted for motor fuel losses" means the number of gallons of unaccounted for motor fuel losses that exceed one-half of one percent of the number of net gallons removed from the terminal during the year by a system transfer or at the terminal rack. "Unaccounted for motor fuel losses" means the difference between (i) the amount of motor fuel in inventory at the terminal at the beginning of the year plus the amount of motor fuel received by the terminal during the year and (ii) the amount of motor fuel in inventory at the terminal at the end of the year plus the amount of motor fuel removed from the terminal during the year. Accounted for motor fuel losses which have been approved by the Commissioner or motor fuel losses constituting part of a transmix shall not constitute unaccounted for motor fuel losses.

B. The terminal operator whose motor fuel is unaccounted for shall be liable for the tax imposed by this section, together with a penalty equal to the amount of tax payable. Motor fuel received by a terminal operator and not shown on an informational return filed by the terminal operator with the Commissioner as having been removed from the terminal shall be presumed to be unaccounted for motor fuel losses. A terminal operator may rebut this presumption by establishing that motor fuel received at a terminal, but not shown on an informational return as having been removed from the terminal, was an accounted for loss or constitutes part of a transmix.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2225. Backup tax; liability.

A. There is hereby levied a tax at the rate specified in § 58.1-2217 on the following:

1. Dyed diesel fuel that is used to operate a highway vehicle for a taxable use other than a use allowed under 26 U.S.C. § 4082;

2. Motor fuel that was allowed an exemption from the motor fuel tax and was then used for a taxable purpose; and

3. Motor fuel that is used to operate a highway vehicle after an application for a refund of tax paid on the motor fuel is made or allowed on the basis that the motor fuel was used for an off-highway purpose.

B. The operator of a highway vehicle that uses motor fuel that is taxable under this section is liable for the tax. If the highway vehicle that uses the fuel is owned by or leased to a motor carrier, the operator of the highway vehicle and the motor carrier shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax. If the end seller of motor fuel taxable under this section knew or had reason to know that the motor fuel would be used for a purpose that is taxable under this section, the operator of the highway vehicle and the end seller shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax.

C. The tax liability imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty imposed pursuant to this chapter.

D. Persons diverting motor fuel into Virginia that had an original destination outside of Virginia shall incur liability for the tax levied for such motor fuel, as specified in § 58.1-2217, and shall be subject to the reporting and payment requirements set forth in subsection E of § 58.1-2230.

2000, cc. 729, 758; 2003, c. 781.

§ 58.1-2226. Exemptions from tax.

No tax shall be levied or collected pursuant to this chapter on:

1. Motor fuel sold and delivered to a governmental entity for the exclusive use by the governmental entity. This exemption shall not apply with respect to fuel sold or delivered to any person operating under contract with the governmental entity;

2. Motor fuel sold and delivered to a nonprofit charitable organization that is exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and which is organized and operated exclusively for the purpose of providing charitable, long-distance, advanced life-support, air transportation services using emergency medical services vehicles for low-income medical patients in the Commonwealth, for the exclusive use of such organization in the operation of an aircraft;

3. Bonded aviation jet fuel;

4. Dyed diesel fuel, except as provided in subdivision A 1 of § 58.1-2225;

5. Motor fuel removed, by transport truck or another means of transfer outside the terminal transfer system, from a terminal for export, if the supplier of the motor fuel collects tax on the fuel at the rate of the motor fuel's destination state; or

6. Heating oil, as defined in § 58.1-2201.

2000, cc. 729, 758; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

§ 58.1-2227. Sales of aviation jet fuel to licensed aviation consumers.

A licensed aviation consumer required to file a monthly return and remit taxes to the Department pursuant to § 58.1-2230 shall not be required to remit tax to a supplier or distributor for purchases of aviation jet fuel.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2228. Exempt access cards; exempt access codes.

A. A licensed distributor, licensed importer or, in the case of aviation jet fuel, a licensed aviation consumer shall only remove motor fuel from a terminal by means of a supplier-issued exempt access card or exempt access code if (i) the motor fuel will be resold to a governmental entity or an organization exempt from tax under subdivision 2 of § 58.1-2226 for a purpose that is exempt from the tax or (ii) the aviation jet fuel will be used by the aviation consumer or resold to a licensed aviation consumer. The use of such exempt access card or exempt access code shall constitute a representation by the licensed distributor, licensed importer or licensed aviation consumer that the removal of the motor fuel is permitted. A supplier shall be authorized to rely on this representation. A licensed distributor or licensed importer who does not resell motor fuel removed from a terminal by means of an exempt access card or exempt access code to an exempt governmental unit or an organization exempt from tax under subdivision 2 of § 58.1-2226 is liable for any tax due on the fuel. A licensed distributor or licensed importer who does not resell aviation jet fuel removed from a terminal by means of an exempt access card or exempt access code to a licensed aviation consumer is liable for any tax due on the aviation jet fuel.

B. A supplier who issues to, or authorizes another person to issue to, another person an exempt access card or an exempt access code that enables the person to buy motor fuel without paying the tax on the fuel shall determine if the person is exempt from the tax or, in the case of aviation jet fuel, is a licensed aviation consumer allowed to purchase aviation jet fuel without payment of tax. A supplier is liable for tax due on motor fuel purchased at retail by use of an exempt access card or an exempt access code issued to a person who is not exempt from the tax or, in the case of aviation jet fuel, is not a licensed aviation consumer allowed to purchase aviation jet fuel without payment of tax.

C. A person to whom an exempt access card or exempt access code is issued for use at a terminal is liable for any tax due on fuel purchased with the exempt access card or exempt access code for a purpose that is not exempt. A person who misuses an exempt access card or exempt access code by purchasing fuel with the card or code for a purpose that is not exempt is liable for the tax due on the fuel. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to the misuse of a card or code that allows a person to purchase aviation jet fuel without paying the tax.

D. The tax liability imposed by this section shall be in addition to any other penalty imposed pursuant to this chapter.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

§ 58.1-2229. Removals by out-of-state bulk user.

An out-of-state bulk user shall not remove motor fuel from a terminal in the Commonwealth for use in the state in which the bulk user is located unless the bulk user is licensed under this chapter as an exporter.

2000, cc. 729, 758.

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