Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
Chapter 3. Income Tax
5/7/2021

Article 3. Tax Credits for Individuals.

§ 58.1-330. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, cc. 507, 525, effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1990.

§ 58.1-331. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 34, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-332. Credits for taxes paid other states.

A. Whenever a Virginia resident has become liable to another state for income tax on any earned or business income or any gain on the sale of a capital asset (within the meaning of § 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code), not including an asset used in a trade or business, to the extent that such gain is included in federal adjusted gross income, for the taxable year, derived from sources outside the Commonwealth and subject to taxation under this chapter, the amount of such tax payable by him shall, upon proof of such payment, be credited on the taxpayer's return with the income tax so paid to the other state.

However, no franchise tax, license tax, excise tax, unincorporated business tax, occupation tax or any tax characterized as such by the taxing jurisdiction, although applied to earned or business income, shall qualify for a credit under this section, nor shall any tax which, if characterized as an income tax or a commuter tax, would be illegal and unauthorized under such other state's controlling or enabling legislation qualify for a credit under this section.

The credit allowable under this section shall not exceed: (i) such proportion of the income tax otherwise payable by him under this chapter as his income upon which the tax imposed by the other state was computed bears to his Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth was computed or (ii) the income tax otherwise payable under this chapter in the event that the income upon which the tax imposed by the other state is computed is less than the Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth is computed and all income derived from sources outside the Commonwealth and subject to taxation under this chapter is earned income or business income reported on federal form Schedule C from a single state contiguous to Virginia. The credit provided for by this section shall not be granted to a resident individual when the laws of another state, under which the income in question is subject to tax assessment, provide a credit to such resident individual substantially similar to that granted by subsection B of this section.

B. Whenever a nonresident individual of this Commonwealth has become liable to the state where he resides for income tax upon his Virginia taxable income for the taxable year, derived from Virginia sources and subject to taxation under this chapter, the amount of such tax payable under this chapter shall be credited with such proportion of the tax so payable by him to the state where he resides, upon proof of such payment, as his income subject to taxation under this chapter bears to his entire income upon which the tax so payable to such other state was imposed. The credit, however, shall be allowed only if the laws of such state: (i) grant a substantially similar credit to residents of Virginia subject to income tax under such laws or (ii) impose a tax upon the income of its residents derived from Virginia sources and exempt from taxation the income of residents of this Commonwealth. No credit shall be allowed against the amount of the tax on any income taxable under this chapter which is exempt from taxation under the laws of such other state.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any state income tax paid by an electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be deemed to have been paid by its individual shareholders in proportion to their ownership of the stock of such corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.015; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 466; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 1992, c. 317; 1994, c. 195; 1998, c. 291; 1999, c. 317.

§ 58.1-332.1. Credit for taxes paid to a foreign country on retirement income.

A. Whenever a Virginia resident has become liable to a foreign country for income tax paid on any pension or retirement income to the extent that such income is included in federal adjusted gross income for the taxable year, derived from foreign sources as a result of past employment in a foreign country and subject to taxation under this chapter, the amount of such tax payable by him shall, upon proof of such payment, be credited on the taxpayer's return with the income tax so paid to the foreign country. The credit allowable under this section shall not exceed: (i) such proportion of the income tax otherwise payable by him under this chapter as his income upon which the tax imposed by the foreign country was computed bears to his Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth was computed or (ii) the income tax otherwise payable under this chapter, in the event that the income upon which the tax imposed by the foreign country is computed is less than the Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth is computed.

B. For purposes of determining this credit, the foreign currency must be translated into United States dollars using the prevailing rate of exchange which most nearly reflects the value of the foreign currency at the time the taxes were actually paid to the foreign country.

C. As used in this section, a foreign country shall include all possessions of the United States. Any foreign country which does not qualify for the federal foreign tax credit under § 901(j) of the Internal Revenue Code will also be disqualified for the credit allowed under this section.

1998, c. 292.

§ 58.1-332.2. (Applicable for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2007) Definition of income tax.

A. For purposes of the credits in §§ 58.1-332 and 58.1-332.1, the term "income tax" is a term of art that refers to a specific type of tax levied on earned and unearned income and shall not include any other type of tax merely because it may be measured by or referenced to gross or net income. An income tax includes, but is not limited to, a tax imposed on all income of an individual if a resident, or all income of an individual from the jurisdiction's sources if a nonresident; however, an income tax so imposed may incorporate other provisions that grant exemptions, exclusions, deductions, subtractions, credits, or other preferences for specific types of income, expenses, individuals, or other criteria.

B. An income tax shall not include:

1. A tax conditioned upon the exercise of any franchise, privilege, or business within the jurisdiction even though the tax is measured or based upon gross or net income derived therefrom, but such measure does not include income that the person exercising such franchise, privilege, or business may receive from other sources within the jurisdiction.

2. License and occupation taxes, which are payable in respect to the privilege of engaging in or carrying on a particular business or vocation, even though the amount of tax payable by an individual may be measured by the amount of business which he transacts or his earnings therefrom, but such measure does not include income that the person engaging in or carrying on a particular business or vocation may receive from other sources within the jurisdiction.

C. The credits in §§ 58.1-332 and 58.1-332.1 shall apply only when the tax imposed in the other state or foreign country is substantially similar to the tax imposed by Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), as defined by this section. The nomenclature used to describe the tax of the other jurisdiction shall not be binding on Virginia for this purpose whether such nomenclature is that of the other jurisdiction's legislature or courts or the United States Congress or courts.

2012, c. 292.

§ 58.1-333. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 292, 300.

§ 58.1-334. Tax credit for purchase of conservation tillage equipment.

A. Any individual shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 of an amount equaling 25 percent of all expenditures made for the purchase and installation of conservation tillage equipment used in agricultural production by the purchaser. As used in this section the term "conservation tillage equipment" means a planter, drill, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction commonly known as a "no-till" planter, drill, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction including guidance systems to control traffic patterns that are designed to minimize disturbance of the soil in planting crops, including such planters, drills, or other equipment designed to reduce soil compaction which may be attached to equipment already owned by the taxpayer.

B. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $4,000 or the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year of purchase. If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such tax year, the amount which exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such individual in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase and installation of conservation tillage equipment by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1985, c. 560; 1990, c. 416; 2005, c. 58.

§ 58.1-335. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, c. 875, effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1990.

§ 58.1-336. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 293 and 299.

§ 58.1-337. Tax credit for purchase of advanced technology pesticide and fertilizer application equipment.

A. Any individual engaged in agricultural production for market who has in place a nutrient management plan approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District by the required tax return filing date of the individual shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 of an amount equaling twenty-five percent of all expenditures made by such individual for the purchase of equipment certified by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board as providing more precise pesticide and fertilizer application. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Virginia State University shall provide at the request of the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board technical assistance in determining appropriate specifications for certified equipment which would provide for more precise pesticide and fertilizer application to reduce the potential for adverse environmental impacts. The equipment shall be divided into the following categories:

1. Sprayers for pesticides and liquid fertilizers;

2. Pneumatic fertilizer applicators;

3. Monitors, computer regulators, and height adjustable booms for sprayers and liquid fertilizer applicators;

4. Manure applicators;

5. Tramline adapters; and

6. Starter fertilizer banding attachments for planters.

B. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $3,750 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year of purchase. If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year, the amount which exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such individual in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase of equipment certified by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board as providing more precise pesticide and fertilizer application by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1990, c. 416; 1996, c. 739.

§ 58.1-338. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-339. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, c. 851, cl. 2, effective for taxable periods on or after January 1, 2011.

§ 58.1-339.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 394.

§ 58.1-339.2. Historic rehabilitation tax credit.

A. Effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1997, any individual, trust or estate, or corporation incurring eligible expenses in the rehabilitation of a certified historic structure shall be entitled to a credit against the tax imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3; Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.); Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25; and Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26, in accordance with the following schedule:

aYear% of Eligible Expenses
b199710%
c199815%
d199920%
e2000 and thereafter25%

If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year, the amount that exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the taxes of such taxpayer in the next ten taxable years or until the full credit is used, whichever occurs first. Credits granted to a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be passed through to the partners or shareholders, respectively. Credits granted to a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated among all partners or shareholders, respectively, either in proportion to their ownership interest in such entity or as the partners or shareholders mutually agree as provided in an executed document, the form of which shall be prescribed by the Director of the Department of Historic Resources.

B. Effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, any individual, trust, estate, or corporation resident in Virginia that incurs eligible expenses in the rehabilitation of a certified historic structure in any other state that has in effect a reciprocal historic structure rehabilitation tax credit program and agreement for residents of that state who rehabilitate historic structures in Virginia shall be entitled to a credit to the same extent as provided in subsection A and other applicable provisions of law; however, no eligible party shall receive any credit authorized under this subsection prior to taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2002.

C. 1. To claim the credit authorized under this section, the taxpayer shall apply to the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, which shall determine the amount of eligible rehabilitation expenses and issue a certificate thereof to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall attach the certificate to the Virginia tax return on which the credit is claimed.

2. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2017, the amount of the credit that may be claimed by each taxpayer, including amounts carried over from prior taxable years, shall not exceed $5 million in any taxable year.

D. When used in this section:

"Certified historic structure" means a property listed individually on the Virginia Landmarks Register, or certified by the Director of the Virginia Department of Historic Resources as contributing to the historic significance of a historic district that is listed on the Virginia Landmarks Register or certified by the Director of the Virginia Department of Historic Resources as meeting the criteria for listing on the Virginia Landmarks Register.

"Eligible rehabilitation expenses" means expenses incurred in the material rehabilitation of a certified historic structure and added to the property's capital account.

"Material rehabilitation" means improvements or reconstruction consistent with "The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation," the cost of which amounts to at least fifty percent of the assessed value of such building for local real estate tax purposes for the year prior to the initial expenditure of any rehabilitation expenses, unless the building is an owner-occupied building, in which case the cost shall amount to at least twenty-five percent of the assessed value of such building for local real estate tax purposes for the year prior to the initial expenditure of any rehabilitation expenses.

"Owner-occupied building" means any building that is used as a personal residence by the owner.

E. The Director of the Department of Historic Resources shall establish by regulation the requirements needed for this program, including the fees to defray necessary expenses thereof, and, except as otherwise prohibited by this section, the extent to which the availability of the credit provided by this section is coextensive with the availability of the federal tax credit for the rehabilitation of certified historic resources.

F. Any gain or income under federal law from the allocation or application of a tax credit under this section shall not be (i) taxable gain or income for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), (ii) taxable gain or income for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Article 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), or (iii) taxable gain or income for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.). However, nothing in this subsection shall be construed or interpreted as allowing a subtraction or deduction for such gain or income under federal law if the gain or income is otherwise excluded, deducted, or subtracted in computing the respective tax set forth under clauses (i) through (iii).

1996, c. 520; 1998, cc. 371, 372; 1999, cc. 152, 183, 213; 2000, cc. 356, 367, 429; 2012, cc. 92, 639; 2017, cc. 717, 721; 2019, c. 25.

§ 58.1-339.3. Agricultural best management practices tax credit.

A. For all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1998, any individual who is engaged in agricultural production for market, or has equines that create needs for agricultural best management practices to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, and has in place a soil conservation plan approved by the local Soil And Water Conservation District (SWCD), shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 of an amount equaling 25 percent of the first $70,000 expended for agricultural best management practices by the individual.

As used in this section, "agricultural best management practice" means a practice approved by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board (VSWCB) which will provide a significant improvement to water quality in the state's streams and rivers and the Chesapeake Bay and is consistent with other state and federal programs that address agricultural, nonpoint-source-pollution management. Eligible practices shall include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Livestock-waste and poultry-waste management;

2. Soil erosion control;

3. Nutrient and sediment filtration and detention;

4. Nutrient management; and

5. Pest management and pesticide handling.

A detailed list of the standards and criteria for practices eligible for credit shall be found in the most recently approved "Virginia Agricultural BMP Manual" published annually prior to July 1 by the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

B. Any practice approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District Board shall be completed within the taxable year in which the credit is claimed. After the practice installation has been completed, the local SWCD Board shall certify the practice as approved and completed, and eligible for credit. The applicant shall forward the certification to the Department of Taxation on forms provided by the Department. The credit shall be allowed only for expenditures made by the taxpayer from funds of his own sources.

C. 1. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $17,500 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year the project was completed, as certified by the Board. Any taxpayer claiming a tax credit under this section shall not claim a credit under any similar Virginia law for costs related to the same eligible practices.

2. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's liability for such taxable year, the excess may be refunded by the Tax Commissioner. Tax credits shall be refunded by the Tax Commissioner on behalf of the Commonwealth for 100 percent of face value. Tax credits shall be refunded within 90 days after the filing date of the income tax return on which the individual applies for the refund.

D. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to agricultural best management practices by a pass-through entity such as a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S Corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in such entity.

E. A pass-through tax entity, such as a partnership, limited liability company or electing small business corporation (S corporation), may appoint a tax matters representative, who shall be a general partner, member-manager or shareholder, and register that representative with the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall be entitled to deal with the tax matters representative as representative of the taxpayers to whom credits have been allocated by the entity under this article with respect to those credits. In the event a pass-through tax entity allocates tax credits arising under this article to its partners, members or shareholders and the allocated credits shall be disallowed, in whole or in part, such that an assessment of additional tax against a taxpayer shall be made, the Tax Commissioner shall first make written demand for payment of any additional tax, together with interest and penalties, from the tax matters representative. In the event such payment demand is not satisfied, the Tax Commissioner shall proceed to collection against the taxpayers in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 18 (§ 58.1-1800 et seq.).

1996, c. 629; 2006, c. 440; 2011, c. 352.

§ 58.1-339.4. Qualified equity and subordinated debt investments tax credit.

A. As used in this section:

"Commercialization investment" means a qualified investment in a qualified business that was created to commercialize research developed at or in partnership with an institution of higher education.

"Equity" means common stock or preferred stock, regardless of class or series, of a corporation; a partnership interest in a limited partnership; or a membership interest in a limited liability company, which is not required or subject to an option on the part of the taxpayer to be redeemed by the issuer within three years from the date of issuance.

"Qualified business" means a business which (i) has annual gross revenues of no more than $3 million in its most recent fiscal year, (ii) has its principal office or facility in the Commonwealth, (iii) is engaged in business primarily in or does substantially all of its production in the Commonwealth, (iv) has not obtained during its existence more than $3 million in aggregate gross cash proceeds from the issuance of its equity or debt investments (not including commercial loans from chartered banking or savings and loan institutions), and (v) is primarily engaged, or is primarily organized to engage, in the fields of advanced computing, advanced materials, advanced manufacturing, agricultural technologies, biotechnology, electronic device technology, energy, environmental technology, information technology, medical device technology, nanotechnology, or any similar technology-related field determined by regulation by the Department of Taxation to fall under the purview of this section.

"Qualified investment" means a cash investment in a qualified business in the form of equity or subordinated debt; however, an investment shall not be qualified if the taxpayer who holds such investment, or any of such taxpayer's family members, or any entity affiliated with such taxpayer, receives or has received compensation from the qualified business in exchange for services provided to such business as an employee, officer, director, manager, independent contractor or otherwise in connection with or within one year before or after the date of such investment. For the purposes hereof, reimbursement of reasonable expenses incurred shall not be deemed to be compensation.

"Subordinated debt" means indebtedness of a corporation, general or limited partnership, or limited liability company that (i) by its terms required no repayment of principal for the first three years after issuance; (ii) is not guaranteed by any other person or secured by any assets of the issuer or any other person; and (iii) is subordinated to all indebtedness and obligations of the issuer to national or state-chartered banking or savings and loan institutions.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1999, a taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-360 in an amount equal to 50 percent of such taxpayer's qualified investments during such taxable year. No credit shall be allowed to any taxpayer that has committed capital under management in excess of $10 million and engages in the business of making debt or equity investments in private businesses, or to any taxpayer that is allocated a credit as a partner, shareholder, member or owner of an entity that engages in such business.

C. The amount of any credit attributable to a qualified investment by a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, as the case may be, as they may determine.

D. The aggregate amount of the credit for each taxpayer shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the tax imposed for such taxable year or (ii) $50,000. Any credit not usable for the taxable year in which the credit was allowed may be, to the extent usable, carried over for the next 15 succeeding taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever occurs first.

E. The amount of tax credits available under this section for a calendar year shall be $5 million. Of the amount of available credits, one-half of the amount shall be allocated exclusively for credits for commercialization investments. Such allocation of tax credits shall constitute the minimum amount of tax credits to be allocated for commercialization investments. However, if the amount of tax credits requested for commercialization investments is less than one-half of the total amount of credits available under this section, the balance of such credits shall be allocated for qualified investments in any qualified business under this section.

F. Unless the taxpayer transfers the equity received in connection with a qualified investment as a result of (i) the liquidation of the qualified business issuing such equity, (ii) the merger, consolidation or other acquisition of such business with or by a party not affiliated with such business, or (iii) the death of the taxpayer, any taxpayer that fails to hold such equity for at least three full calendar years following the calendar year for which a tax credit for a qualified investment is allocated pursuant to this section shall forfeit both used and unused tax credits and in addition shall pay the Department of Taxation interest on the total allowed credits at the rate of one percent per month, compounded monthly, from the date the tax credits were allocated to the taxpayer. The Department of Taxation shall deposit any amounts received under this subsection into the general fund of the Commonwealth.

G. Prior to December 31, 1998, the Department of Taxation shall promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) (i) establishing procedures for claiming the tax credit provided by this section and (ii) providing for the allocation of tax credits among taxpayers requesting credits in the event the amount of credits for which requests are made exceeds the available amount of credits in any one calendar year. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Department of Taxation shall permit an application for certification as a qualified business to be filed at any time during the calendar year regardless of when the investment was made during the calendar year.

1998, c. 491; 2004, c. 614; 2009, c. 853.

§ 58.1-339.5. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-339.6. Political candidate contribution tax credit.

For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, but before January 1, 2017, any individual shall be entitled to a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 of an amount equal to 50 percent of the amount contributed by the taxpayer to a candidate, as defined in § 24.2-101, in one or more primary, special, or general elections for local or state office held in the Commonwealth in the taxable year in which the contributions are made. The amount of the credit shall not exceed $25 for an individual taxpayer or $50 for taxpayers filing a joint return.

1999, c. 464; 2016, cc. 50, 348.

§ 58.1-339.7. Livable Home Tax Credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, any taxpayer who purchases a new residence or retrofits or hires someone to retrofit an existing residence, provided that such new residence or the retrofitting of such existing residence is designed to improve accessibility, provide universal visitability, and meets the eligibility requirements established by guidelines developed by the Department of Housing and Community Development, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-320 of an amount equal to $500, or $2,000 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010, for such new residence or 25 percent of the total amount spent for the retrofitting of such existing residence. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010, the 25 percent shall increase to 50 percent. The amount of the credit allowed for the retrofitting of an existing residence shall not exceed $500, or $2,000 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010. Such a credit shall require application by the taxpayer as provided in subsection C. For purposes of this section, the purchase of a new residence means a transaction involving the first sale of a residence or dwelling. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, an individual shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 for a portion of the total purchase price paid by him for a new residence or the total amount expended by him to retrofit an existing residence, provided that the new residence or the retrofitting of the existing residence is designed to improve accessibility, to provide universal visitability, and it meets the eligibility requirements established by guidelines developed by the Department of Housing and Community Development. In addition, a licensed contractor, as defined in § 54.1-1100, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 for a portion of the total amount it expended in constructing a new residential structure or unit or retrofitting or renovating an existing residential structure or unit, provided that the new residential structure or unit or the retrofitting or renovating of the existing residential structure or unit is designed to improve accessibility, to provide universal visitability, and it meets the eligibility requirements established by guidelines developed by the Department of Housing and Community Development.

The credit shall be allowed for the taxable year in which the residence has been purchased or construction, retrofitting, or renovation of the residence or residential structure or unit has been completed. The credit allowed under this section shall not exceed (i) $5,000 for the purchase of each new residence or the construction of each new residential structure or unit or (ii) 50 percent of the total amount expended, but not to exceed $5,000, for the retrofitting or renovation of each existing residence or residential structure or unit.

No credit shall be allowed under this section for the purchase, construction, retrofitting, or renovation of residential rental property.

C. Eligible taxpayers shall apply for the credit by making application to the Department of Housing and Community Development. The Department of Housing and Community Development shall issue a certification for an approved application to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall attach the certification to the applicable income tax return. The total amount of tax credits granted under this section for any fiscal year shall not exceed $1 million. In each year, the Department of Housing and Community Development shall allocate $500,000 in tax credits for the purchase or construction of new residences and $500,000 in tax credits for the retrofitting or renovation of existing residences or residential structures or units. If the amount of tax credits approved in a fiscal year for the purchase or construction of new residences is less than $500,000, the Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development shall allocate the remaining balance of such tax credits for the retrofitting or renovation of existing residences or residential structures or units. If the amount of tax credits approved in a fiscal year for the retrofitting or renovation of existing residences or residential structures or units is less than $500,000, the Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development shall allocate the remaining balance of such tax credits for the purchase or construction of new residences. In the event applications for the tax credit exceed the amount allocated by the Director for the fiscal year, the Department of Housing and Community Development shall issue the tax credits pro rata based upon the amount of tax credit approved for each taxpayer and the amount of tax credits allocated by the Director.

In no case shall the Director issue any tax credit relating to transactions or dealings between affiliated entities. In no case shall the Director issue any tax credit more than once to the same or different persons relating to the same retrofitting, renovation, or construction project.

D. In no case shall the amount of credit taken by a taxpayer pursuant to this section exceed the taxpayer's income tax liability for the taxable year. If the amount of credit allowed for the taxable year in which the residence has been purchased or construction, retrofitting, or renovation of the residence or residential structure or unit has been completed exceeds the taxpayer's income tax liability imposed for such taxable year, then the amount that exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such taxpayer in the next seven taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit issued has been taken, whichever is sooner. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

1999, c. 404; 2007, cc. 68, 765; 2009, cc. 15, 496; 2011, c. 365.

§ 58.1-339.8. Income tax credit for low-income taxpayers.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Family Virginia adjusted gross income" means the combined Virginia adjusted gross income of an individual, the individual's spouse, and any person claimed as a dependent on the individual's or his spouse's income tax return for the taxable year.

"Poverty guidelines" means the poverty guidelines for the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of § 673(2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

"Virginia adjusted gross income" has the same meaning as the term is defined in § 58.1-321.

B. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, any individual or persons filing a joint return whose family Virginia adjusted gross income does not exceed 100 percent of the poverty guideline amount corresponding to a household of an equal number of persons as listed in the poverty guidelines published during such taxable year, shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 in an amount equal to $300 each for the individual, the individual's spouse, and any person claimed as a dependent on the individual's or married individuals' income tax return for the taxable year. For any taxable year in which married individuals file separate Virginia income tax returns, the credit provided under this section shall be allowed against the tax for only one of such two tax returns. Additionally, the credit provided under this section shall not be allowed against such tax of a dependent of the individual or of married individuals.

2. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2006, any individual or married individuals, eligible for a tax credit pursuant to § 32 of the Internal Revenue Code, may for the taxable year, in lieu of the credit authorized under subdivision B 1, claim a credit against the tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-320 in an amount equal to 20 percent of the credit claimed by the individual or married individuals for federal individual income taxes pursuant to § 32 of the Internal Revenue Code for the taxable year. In no case shall a household be allowed a credit pursuant to this subdivision and subdivision B 1 for the same taxable year.

For the purpose of this subdivision, "household" means an individual and, in the case of married individuals, the individual and his spouse regardless of whether or not the individual and his spouse file combined or separate Virginia individual income tax returns.

C. The amount of the credit provided pursuant to subsection B for any taxable year shall not exceed the individual's or married individuals' Virginia income tax liability.

D. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no credit shall be allowed pursuant to subsection B in any taxable year in which the individual, the individual's spouse, or both, or any person claimed as a dependent on such individual's or married individuals' income tax return, claims one or any combination of the following on his or their income tax return for such taxable year:

1. The subtraction under subdivision 8 of § 58.1-322.02;

2. The subtraction under subdivision 15 of § 58.1-322.02;

3. The subtraction under subdivision 16 of § 58.1-322.02;

4. The deduction for the additional personal exemption for blind or aged taxpayers under subdivision 2 b of § 58.1-322.03; or

5. The deduction under subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03.

2000, c. 397; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2017, c. 444; 2020, c. 900.

§ 58.1-339.9. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-339.10. Riparian forest buffer protection for waterways tax credit.

A. For all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, any individual who owns land abutting a waterway on which timber is harvested, and who forbears harvesting timber on certain portions of the land near the waterway, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 as set forth in this section. For purposes of this section, "waterway" means any perennial or intermittent stream of water depicted on the then most current United States Geological Survey topographical map. For purposes of this section and for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2008, "individual" means an individual person and an individual's grantor trust.

B. The State Forester shall develop guidelines setting forth the general requirements of qualifying for the credit, including the land for which credit is eligible. To qualify for the credit, the individual must comply with an individualized Forest Stewardship Plan to be certified by the State Forester. In no event shall the distance from such waterway to the far end of the timber buffer, on which the tax credit is based, be less than thirty-five feet or more than three hundred feet. The minimum duration for the buffer shall be fifteen years. The State Forester shall check each certified buffer annually to verify its continued compliance with the individual's Forest Stewardship Plan. If the State Forester discovers that the timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer has been harvested prior to the end of the required term, written notification of such violation shall be delivered to the individual by the State Forester.

C. The tax credit shall be an amount equal to twenty-five percent of the value of timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $17,500 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year that the timber outside the buffer was harvested. If the amount of the credit exceeds the individual's liability for such taxable year, the excess may be carried over for credit against income taxes in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to qualified buffer protection by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S Corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S Corporation. The land which is the subject of a tax credit under this section cannot again be the subject of a tax credit under this section for at least fifteen years. The State Forester shall check each certified buffer annually to verify its continued compliance with the individual's Forest Stewardship Plan. If the State Forester discovers that the timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer has been harvested prior to the end of the required term, written notification of such noncompliance shall be delivered to the individual by the State Forester.

D. To claim the credit authorized under this section, the individual shall apply to the State Forester, who shall determine the amount of credit, using the assessed value of the timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer, and issue a certificate thereof to the individual. The individual shall attach the certificate to the Virginia tax return on which the credit is claimed. In the event the timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer is harvested by the individual or any other person prior to the end of the term originally established in the individual's Forest Stewardship Plan, the individual shall repay the tax credit claimed. Within sixty days after receiving written notification from the State Forester that the individual's plan no longer qualifies for the credit, repayment shall be made to the Department of Taxation. If repayment is not made within the sixty-day period, the State Forester shall notify the locality's Commonwealth Attorney for assistance in collecting the funds from the individual.

2000, cc. 568, 607; 2008, c. 449.

§ 58.1-339.11. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2013, c. 801, cl. 2, effective for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

§ 58.1-339.12. (Effective until July 1, 2021) Farm wineries and vineyards tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Qualified capital expenditures" means all expenditures made by the taxpayer for the purchase and installation of barrels, bins, bottling equipment, capsuling equipment, chemicals, corkers, crushers and destemmers, dirt, fermenters, or other recognized fermentation devices, fertilizer and soil amendments, filters, grape harvesters, grape plants, hoses, irrigation equipment, labeling equipment, poles, posts, presses, pumps, refractometers, refrigeration equipment, seeders, tanks, tractors, vats, weeding and spraying equipment, wine tanks, and wire.

"Virginia vineyard" means agricultural lands located in the Commonwealth consisting of at least one contiguous acre dedicated to the growing of grapes that are used or are intended to be used in the production of wine by a Virginia farm winery as well as any plants or other improvements located thereon.

"Virginia farm winery" means an establishment located in the Commonwealth that is licensed as a Virginia farm winery pursuant to § 4.1-207.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, any Virginia farm winery or vineyard shall be entitled to a credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400 for qualified capital expenditures made in connection with the establishment of new Virginia farm wineries or vineyards and capital improvements made to existing Virginia farm wineries or vineyards. The amount of the credit shall be equal to 25 percent of all qualified capital expenditures.

C. The total amount of tax credits available under this section for a calendar year shall not exceed $250,000. In the event that applications for such credit exceed $250,000 for any calendar, the Department of Taxation shall allocate the credits on a pro rata basis.

D. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year, the excess may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the taxpayer in the next 10 taxable years, or until the total credit amount has been taken, whichever occurs first.

E. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

F. The credit allowed in this section shall not be claimed to the extent the taxpayer has claimed a deduction for the same expenses for federal income tax purposes under § 179 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

2011, cc. 214, 226.

§ 58.1-339.12. (Effective July 1, 2021) Farm wineries and vineyards tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Qualified capital expenditures" means all expenditures made by the taxpayer for the purchase and installation of barrels, bins, bottling equipment, capsuling equipment, chemicals, corkers, crushers and destemmers, dirt, fermenters, or other recognized fermentation devices, fertilizer and soil amendments, filters, grape harvesters, grape plants, hoses, irrigation equipment, labeling equipment, poles, posts, presses, pumps, refractometers, refrigeration equipment, seeders, tanks, tractors, vats, weeding and spraying equipment, wine tanks, and wire.

"Virginia vineyard" means agricultural lands located in the Commonwealth consisting of at least one contiguous acre dedicated to the growing of grapes that are used or are intended to be used in the production of wine by a Virginia farm winery as well as any plants or other improvements located thereon.

"Virginia farm winery" means an establishment located in the Commonwealth that is licensed as a Virginia farm winery pursuant to § 4.1-206.1.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, any Virginia farm winery or vineyard shall be entitled to a credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400 for qualified capital expenditures made in connection with the establishment of new Virginia farm wineries or vineyards and capital improvements made to existing Virginia farm wineries or vineyards. The amount of the credit shall be equal to 25 percent of all qualified capital expenditures.

C. The total amount of tax credits available under this section for a calendar year shall not exceed $250,000. In the event that applications for such credit exceed $250,000 for any calendar, the Department of Taxation shall allocate the credits on a pro rata basis.

D. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year, the excess may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the taxpayer in the next 10 taxable years, or until the total credit amount has been taken, whichever occurs first.

E. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

F. The credit allowed in this section shall not be claimed to the extent the taxpayer has claimed a deduction for the same expenses for federal income tax purposes under § 179 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

2011, cc. 214, 226; 2019, c. 817; 2020, cc. 1113, 1114.