Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
10/30/2020

Article 9. Taxation of Partnerships.

§ 58.1-390. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3, effective September 1, 2004.

§ 58.1-390.1. Definitions.

The following words and terms, when used in this article, shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Owner" means any individual or entity who is treated as a partner, member, or shareholder of a pass-through entity for federal income tax purposes.

"Pass-through entity" means any entity, including a limited partnership, a limited liability partnership, a general partnership, a limited liability company, a professional limited liability company, a business trust or a Subchapter S corporation, that is recognized as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes, in which the partners, members or shareholders report their share of the income, gains, losses, deductions and credits from the entity on their federal income tax returns.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-390.2. Taxation of pass-through entities.

Except as provided for in this article, owners of pass-through entities shall be liable for tax under this chapter only in their separate or individual capacities on income passed through to the owners of pass-through entities. Any taxes imposed on the pass-through entity itself, such as, but not limited to, sales and use taxes, withholding taxes with respect to employees or nonresident owners, and minimum taxes in lieu of income taxes, shall be paid by the pass-through entity.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2009, cc. 37, 152.

§ 58.1-391. Virginia taxable income of owners of a pass-through entity.

A. In determining Virginia taxable income of an owner, any modification described in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, 58.1-322.03, and 58.1-322.04 that relates to an item of pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction shall be made in accordance with the owner's distributive share, for federal income tax purposes, of the item to which the modification relates. Where an owner's distributive share of any such item is not included in any category of income, gain, loss or deduction required to be taken into account separately for federal income tax purposes, the owner's distributive share of such item shall be determined in accordance with his distributive share, for federal income tax purposes, of pass-through entity taxable income or loss.

B. Each item of pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction shall have the same character for an owner under this chapter as for federal income tax purposes. Where an item is not characterized for federal income tax purposes, it shall have the same character for an owner as if realized directly from the source from which realized by the pass-through entity or incurred in the same manner by the pass-through entity.

C. Where an owner's distributive shares of an item of pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction is determined for federal income tax purposes by special provision in the pass-through entity agreement with respect to such item, and where the principal purpose of such provision is the avoidance or evasion of tax under this chapter, the owner's distributive share of such item, and any modification required with respect thereto, shall be determined as if the pass-through entity agreement made no special provision with respect to such item.

Code 1950, § 58-151.014; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-392. Reports by pass-through entities.

A. Every pass-through entity doing business in Virginia, or having income from Virginia sources, shall make a return to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of its taxable year. Such returns shall be made and filed in the manner prescribed by the Department.

B. The return of a pass-through entity shall be signed by any one of the owners. An owner's name signed on the return shall be prima facie evidence that such owner is authorized to sign the return on behalf of the pass-through entity.

C. The Tax Commissioner may establish an income threshold for the filing of returns by pass-through entities and their owners. Pass-through entities and owners with income below this threshold shall not be required to file a return.

D. Receivers, trustees in dissolution, trustees in bankruptcy, and assignees operating the property or business of pass-through entities must make and file returns of income for such pass-through entities. If a receiver has full custody of and control over the business or property of a pass-through entity, he shall be deemed to be operating such business or property, whether he is engaged in carrying on the business for which the pass-through entity was organized or only in marshaling, selling, or disposing of its assets for purposes of liquidation.

E. Pass-through entities may be required to file the return using an electronic medium prescribed by the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall establish a minimum number of owners for the electronic filing requirement. Waivers shall be granted only if the Tax Commissioner finds that the requirement creates an unreasonable burden on the pass-through entity. All requests for waivers must be submitted to the Tax Commissioner in writing. A pass-through entity that has fewer than the established minimum number of owners may, at such pass-through entity's option, file such annual return on such prescribed electronic medium in lieu of filing the annual return on paper.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.078, 58-151.084; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 465; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 249; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-393. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 249.

§ 58.1-393.1. Extension of time for filing return by pass-through entity.

A. In accordance with procedures established by the Tax Commissioner, any pass-through entity may elect an extension of time within which to file the report or return required by this article to the date six months after such due date, or 30 days after the extended date for filing the federal report, whichever is later.

B. If the return is not filed on or before the extended due date elected under subsection A, the penalty imposed by § 58.1-394.1 shall apply as if no extension had been granted.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2005, c. 100.

§ 58.1-394. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3, effective September 1, 2004.

§ 58.1-394.1. Failure of pass-through entity to make a return.

A. Any pass-through entity that fails to file a return required by this article within the time required shall be liable for a penalty of $200 if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional $200 for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate. In no case, however, shall the penalty be less than $200.

B. If any pass-through entity's failure to file a return required by this article exceeds six months, the Department shall assess a penalty of six percent of the total amount of Virginia taxable income derived by its owners from the pass-through entity for the taxable year. The Department may determine such penalty from any information in its possession. The penalty assessed pursuant to this subsection shall be reduced by the penalty assessed pursuant to subsection A and any tax paid by the owners on their share of income from the pass-through entity for the taxable year.

C. The penalties set forth in this subsection shall be assessed and collected by the Department in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department. In addition, such pass-through entity shall be compellable by mandamus to file such return.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-394.2. Fraudulent returns, etc., of pass-through entities; penalty.

A. Any officer or owner of any pass-through entity who makes a fraudulent return or statement with the intent of assisting or facilitating the evasion of the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter by the pass-through entity or an owner shall be liable for a penalty of not more than $1,000, to be assessed and collected in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department.

B. In addition to other penalties provided by law, any officer or owner of a pass-through entity who makes a fraudulent return or statement with the intent of assisting or facilitating the evasion of the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter by the pass-through entity or an owner, or who willfully fails or refuses to make a return required by this chapter at the time or times required by law shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. A prosecution under this section shall be commenced within five years next after the commission of the offense.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-394.3. Pass-through entity items.

A. The period for assessing any tax imposed by this chapter that is attributable to any pass-through entity item with respect to any owner of a pass-through entity shall not expire before the date that is three years after the later of (i) the last day for filing the pass-through entity return for the taxable year of the pass-through entity, as extended, or (ii) the date on which the pass-through entity return for such taxable year was filed.

B. The period for assessing any tax, as provided in subsection A, may be extended pursuant to agreement under § 58.1-101 or 58.1-220 between the Department and the owner who signed the pass-through entity return or any other owner or person authorized to sign the pass-through entity return.

C. The Tax Commissioner shall mail to each owner whose name and address have been provided by the pass-through entity notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding at the pass-through entity level with respect to a pass-through entity item, and the final pass-through entity administrative adjustment resulting from any such proceeding. The Tax Commissioner shall not be required to mail notices to any owner with less than a one-percent interest in the profits of the pass-through entity if such entity has more than 100 owners.

D. In any administrative proceeding under § 58.1-1821 in which the taxation of pass-through entity items is an issue, the pass-through entity shall be permitted to participate in the proceeding. In addition, the Department may consolidate proceedings involving more than one taxpayer when the same pass-through items are in issue.

E. The provisions of this section shall apply to any tax attributable to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, credit, or other tax attribute that is recognized or reportable by the pass-through entity and that is required to be reported by the owner of the pass-through entity pursuant to § 58.1-391 or other sections of this chapter.

2008, c. 549.

§ 58.1-395. Nonresident owners.

Pass-through entities may make written application to the Tax Commissioner for permission to file a statement of combined pass-through entity income attributable to nonresident owners and thereby relieve nonresident owners from filing individual nonresident returns. The application must state the reasons for seeking such permission. The Tax Commissioner, in his sole discretion, may, for good cause, grant permission to file a combined nonresident return upon such terms as he may determine.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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