Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 64.2. Wills, Trusts, and Fiduciaries
5/20/2019

Subtitle IV. Fiduciaries and Guardians.

Part A. Fiduciaries.

Chapter 12. Commissioners of Accounts.

§ 64.2-1200. Commissioners of accounts.

A. The judges of each circuit court shall appoint as many commissioners of accounts as may be necessary to carry out the duties of that office. The commissioner of accounts shall have general supervision of all fiduciaries admitted to qualify in the court or before the clerk of the circuit court and shall make all ex parte settlements of the fiduciaries' accounts. The person appointed as a commissioner of accounts shall be a discreet and competent attorney-at-law and shall be removable at the pleasure of the court.

B. In the event more than one commissioner of accounts is appointed, each commissioner of accounts shall maintain his own office and keep his own books, records, and accounts. Each commissioner of accounts shall retain the power of supervision over every account, matter, or thing referred to him until a final account is approved for such account, matter, or thing, unless he resigns, retires, or is removed from office, in which case his successor shall continue such duties.

C. For any given service performed, each commissioner of accounts shall have the authority to establish a lesser fee than that prescribed by the court or to waive one or more fees.

Code 1919, § 5401; 1946, p. 324; Code 1950, § 26-8; 1966, c. 329; 1973, c. 544; 2003, c. 194; 2005, c. 400; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1201. Appointment of assistant commissioners of accounts; duties and powers.

The judges of each circuit court may appoint, in addition to commissioners of accounts, assistant commissioners of accounts who shall perform all the duties and exercise all of the powers required of the commissioner of accounts in all cases in which the commissioner of accounts is so situated that he cannot perform the duties of his office or in which the commissioner of accounts is of the opinion that it is improper for him to act. Assistant commissioners of accounts may perform such duties and exercise such powers in any case except cases in which he is so situated that he cannot act or in which he is of the opinion it is improper for him to act. Assistant commissioners of accounts shall act only in such cases that the commissioner of accounts delegates to him. An assistant commissioner of accounts making a settlement of a fiduciary account under the provisions of this section shall, within 30 days, report the fact and date of the settlement to the commissioner of accounts, who shall make an entry of the settlement in his record books. The person appointed as an assistant commissioner of accounts shall be a discreet and competent attorney-at-law and shall be removable at the pleasure of the court.

Code 1919, § 5402; 1930, p. 86; Code 1950, § 26-10; 1966, c. 326; 1973, c. 544; 2001, c. 108; 2003, c. 194; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1202. Appointment of deputy commissioners of accounts in certain cities and counties; duties and powers.

In any city or county having a population in excess of 200,000, the commissioner of accounts, with the approval of the judges of the circuit court, may appoint a deputy commissioner of accounts who may discharge any of the official duties of the commissioner of accounts for such jurisdiction for so long as the commissioner of accounts continues to serve. The person appointed as a deputy commissioner of accounts shall be a discreet and competent attorney-at-law and shall be removable at the pleasure of the court.

Before entering upon the duties of his office, any deputy commissioner of accounts shall take and subscribe an oath similar to that provided for the commissioner of accounts. The oath shall be filed with the clerk of court and a record of the appointment and oath shall be entered in the order book of such court.

1954, c. 456, § 26-10.1; 1964, c. 458; 1966, c. 326; 1973, c. 544; 2003, c. 194; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1203. Subpoena powers of commissioners of accounts, assistants, and deputies; penalty.

Commissioners of accounts, assistant commissioners of accounts, and deputy commissioners of accounts shall have the power to issue subpoenas to require any person to appear before them and to issue subpoenas duces tecum to require the production of any documents or papers before them. Commissioners of accounts, assistants, and deputies shall not have the power to punish any person for contempt for failure to appear or to produce documents or papers, but may certify the fact of such nonappearance or failure to produce to the circuit court, which may impose penalties for civil contempt as if the court had issued the subpoena. Commissioners of accounts, assistants, and deputies may certify to the circuit court the fact of a fiduciary's failure to inform the clerk or commissioners of his nonresident status and new address pursuant to § 64.2-1409. The court, upon a finding of a violation of § 64.2-1409, may impose a $50 civil penalty. Such penalties shall be paid to the state treasurer for deposit into the general fund.

1974, c. 126, § 26-8.1; 1997, c. 842; 2005, c. 644. 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1204. Commissioners of accounts to examine and report on bonds and whether fiduciaries should be removed.

A. When any fiduciary, other than a sheriff or other officer, who is required to file an inventory or an account with the commissioner of accounts has made such a filing, the commissioner of accounts shall examine whether the fiduciary has given bond as the law requires and whether the penalty and surety stated in the bond are sufficient. At any time before a required filing is made by a fiduciary with the commissioner of accounts, upon the application of any interested person or the next friend of an interested infant, and after reasonable notice to the fiduciary, the commissioner of accounts for the circuit court wherein the fiduciary qualified shall investigate (i) the bond given and inquire whether security ought to be required of a fiduciary who may have been allowed to qualify without giving it and (ii) whether it is improper to permit the estate of the decedent, ward, or other person to remain under the fiduciary's control due to the incapacity or misconduct of the fiduciary, the removal of the fiduciary from the Commonwealth, or for any other cause. The commissioner of accounts shall report the result of every examination and inquiry to the court and to the clerk of court.

B. When any fiduciary of an estate has given a bond to the court and then absconds with or improperly disburses any or all of the assets of the estate, the commissioner of accounts may petition the court in which the order was made conferring his authority on the fiduciary and ask the court to order that such bond be forfeited.

Code 1919, § 5416; Code 1950, § 26-2; 1966, c. 340; 1974, c. 156; 1987, c. 489; 1997, c. 842; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1205. Commissioners of accounts to inspect and file inventories with clerks.

The commissioner shall inspect all inventories returned to him by fiduciaries and see that they are in proper form. Within 10 days after any inventory is received and approved by the commissioner of accounts, he shall deliver the inventory to the clerk of the circuit court to be recorded as required by law.

Code 1919, § 5403; 1932, p. 337; Code 1950, § 26-14; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1206. Settlement of fiduciaries' accounts.

Every fiduciary referred to in this part shall account before the commissioner of accounts of the jurisdiction wherein he qualified as provided in this part. Every account shall be signed by all fiduciaries. A statement in a separate document, signed by the fiduciary and attached to an account, that a fiduciary has received, read, and agrees with the account shall be treated as a signature to the account.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.3; 1997, c. 842; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1207. Settlement for year to include unsettled portion of preceding year.

When a commissioner of accounts has the account of a fiduciary for any year before him for settlement, the settlement shall also include any time prior to such year for which the fiduciary has not settled.

Code 1919, § 5424; Code 1950, § 26-28; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1208. Expenses and commissions allowed fiduciaries.

A. In stating and settling the account, the commissioner of accounts shall allow the fiduciary any reasonable expenses incurred by him and, except in cases in which it is otherwise provided, a reasonable compensation in the form of a commission on receipts or otherwise. Unless otherwise provided by the court, any guardian appointed pursuant to Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) or Chapter 21 (§ 64.2-2100 et seq.) shall also be allowed reasonable compensation for his services. If a committee or other fiduciary renders services with regard to real estate owned by the ward or beneficiary, compensation may also be allowed for the services rendered with regard to the real estate and the income from or the value of such real estate.

B. Notwithstanding subsection A or any provision under Chapter 7 (§ 64.2-700 et seq.), where the compensation of an institutional fiduciary is specified under the terms of the trust or will by reference to a standard published fee schedule, the commissioner of accounts shall not reduce the compensation below the amount specified unless there is sufficient proof that (i) the settlor or testator was not competent when the trust instrument or will was executed or (ii) such compensation is excessive in light of the compensation institutional fiduciaries generally receive in similar situations.

Code 1919, § 5425; Code 1950, § 26-30; 1985, c. 402; 1997, c. 921; 2005, c. 935; 2011, c. 518; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1209. Who may insist or object before commissioner of accounts.

Any interested person, or the next friend of an interested person, may, before the commissioner of accounts, insist upon or object to anything which could be insisted upon or objected to by such interested person if the commissioner of accounts were acting under an order of a circuit court for the settlement of a fiduciary's accounts made in a suit to which such interested person was a party.

Code 1919, § 5424; Code 1950, § 26-29; 2005, c. 681; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1210. Accounts and debts and demands to be reported.

The commissioner of accounts shall report every account stated under this part, including a statement of the cash on hand and in bank accounts and the investments held by the fiduciary at the terminal date of the account, and, where applicable, reports of debts and demands under § 64.2-551, along with any matters specially stated deemed pertinent by the commissioner of accounts or that an interested person may require.

Code 1919, § 5426; 1936, p. 250; Code 1950, § 26-31; 1989, c. 492; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1211. Where filed; notice to certain parties.

The commissioner of accounts shall file the report in the office of the circuit court by which he is appointed as soon as practicable after its completion. On or before the date of filing a report on a personal representative's account, the commissioner of accounts shall send a copy of the report and any attachments, excluding the account, by first-class mail to every person who (i) was entitled to request a copy of the account pursuant to § 64.2-1303 and (ii) submits a written request therefor to the commissioner of accounts. The copy of the report of the commissioner of accounts shall be accompanied by a statement advising the recipient that the report will stand confirmed by law 15 days after the report is filed with the court in the absence of any objections being filed thereto.

Code 1919, § 5427; Code 1950, § 26-32; 1997, c. 842; 2001, c. 265; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1212. Exceptions to report; examination, correction, and confirmation.

A. If no exceptions have been filed, the report shall stand confirmed on the day next following the expiration of the period of 15 days after the day on which the report was filed in the clerk's office.

B. If exceptions have been filed, the circuit court, after 15 days from the time the report has been filed in its office, shall examine such exceptions that have been timely filed. The court shall correct any errors that appear on the exceptions and to this end may (i) commit the report to the same or another commissioner of accounts, as often as it sees cause, (ii) cause a jury to be empaneled to inquire into any matter that in its opinion should be ascertained in that way, or (iii) confirm the report in whole or in a qualified manner. The court shall certify in the order that it has made a personal examination of the exceptions.

Code 1919, § 5428; 1922, p. 873; 1928, p. 23; 1940, p. 614; 1944, p. 107; Code 1950, § 26-33; 1966, c. 335; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1213. Effect of confirmation of report.

The report, to the extent to which it is confirmed by an order of the circuit court upon exceptions filed pursuant to subsection B of § 64.2-1212 or in whole when confirmed by lapse of time without exceptions pursuant to subsection A of § 64.2-1212, shall be taken to be correct, except so far as it may, in a suit, in proper time, be surcharged or falsified. However, no person who was a party to exceptions filed to the report shall bring a suit to surcharge or falsify the report, and in such case the action of the court on the report shall be final as to such party, except that it may be appealed from as in other suits.

Code 1919, § 5429; 1932, p. 554; 1944, p. 107; Code 1950, § 26-34; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1214. Recordation of report.

The clerk shall record every report so confirmed, whether by order of the circuit court upon exceptions filed or by the lapse of the time without exceptions filed, and note at the foot of it the order of confirmation or the clerk's certificate that no exceptions were filed, as the case may be, in the will book or the book in which the fiduciary accounts in the clerk's office are recorded and index it according to the provisions of § 17.1-249.

Code 1919, § 5428; 1922, p. 873; 1928, p. 23; 1940, p. 614; 1944, p. 107; Code 1950, § 26-35; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1215. Power of commissioner of accounts to enforce the filing of inventories.

A. If any fiduciary fails to make the return required by § 64.2-1300, the commissioner of accounts shall issue, through the sheriff or other proper officer, a summons to the fiduciary requiring him to make such return. If the fiduciary fails to make the required return within 30 days after the date of service of the summons, the commissioner of accounts shall report the fact to the circuit court. The court shall immediately issue a summons to the fiduciary requiring him to appear and shall, upon his appearance, assess a fine against the fiduciary in an amount not to exceed $500 unless excused for sufficient reason. If, after his appearance before the court, the fiduciary continues to fail to make the required return within such time as the court may prescribe, the fiduciary shall be punished for contempt of court.

B. Whenever the commissioner of accounts reports to the court that a fiduciary who is an attorney-at-law licensed to practice in the Commonwealth has failed to make the required return within 30 days after the date of service of a summons, the commissioner of accounts shall also mail a copy of his report to the Virginia State Bar.

Code 1919, § 5403; 1932, p. 337; Code 1950, § 26-13; 1956, c. 159; 2003, c. 193; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1216. Failure to account; enforcement.

A. If any fiduciary required to account fails to make a complete and proper account within the time allowed, the commissioner of accounts shall either (i) proceed against the fiduciary in accordance with the procedures set forth in § 64.2-1215 or (ii) file with the circuit court and the clerk at such times as the court shall order, but not less than twice a year, a list of all fiduciaries who have failed to make a complete and proper account within the time allowed, excepting those fiduciaries to whom the commissioner of accounts has granted additional time. Upon the filing of this list, the clerk shall issue a summons against each fiduciary on the list, returnable to the first day of the next term of court, and the court shall take action against the fiduciary in accordance with the procedures set forth in § 64.2-1215.

B. Every commissioner of accounts shall file with the court and the clerk at such times as the court shall order, but not less than quarterly, a list of all fiduciaries whose accounts for any reason have been before the commissioner of accounts for more than five months. The commissioner of accounts shall note on the list the fiduciaries who are deemed delinquent.

C. Whenever the commissioner of accounts reports to the court that a fiduciary who is an attorney-at-law licensed to practice in the Commonwealth has failed to make the required settlement within 30 days after the date of service of a summons, the commissioner of accounts shall also mail a copy of his report to the Virginia State Bar.

Code 1919, § 5408; 1936, p. 250; 1946, p. 325; Code 1950, § 26-18; 1995, c. 653; 1997, c. 842; 1999, c. 378; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1217. Forfeiture of fiduciary's commission.

If a fiduciary wholly fails to file an account before the commissioner of accounts containing a statement of all matters required in § 64.2-1206, together with all other statements and items therein required for any year, within four months after the year's expiration or, though the fiduciary files an account before the commissioner of accounts, if the commissioner of accounts finds the fiduciary is chargeable for that year with any money or other property not included in the statement, the fiduciary shall receive no compensation for his services during such year or any commission on such money or other property unless allowed by the commissioner of accounts for good cause shown. The circuit court shall review the commissioner of accounts' action in such case upon the filing of timely exceptions by any interested person. This section shall not apply to a fiduciary who has filed a statement of his accounts within such year before a commissioner in chancery who in a pending suit has been ordered to settle his account.

Code 1919, § 5409; 1946, p. 326; Code 1950, § 26-19; 1999, c. 378; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1218. When fiduciaries personally liable for costs.

The costs of all proceedings against a fiduciary who fails without good cause to make the returns and exhibits required shall be paid by him personally, and he shall receive no allowance for the costs in the settlement of his accounts.

Code 1919, § 5413; Code 1950, § 26-23; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1219. Fees of commissioners of accounts.

Except as otherwise provided, the circuit court appointing a commissioner of accounts shall prescribe the fees of such commissioner of accounts.

Code 1919, § 5414; 1938, p. 141; Code 1950, § 26-24; 1997, cc. 214, 842; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1220. Receipt for vouchers filed in settlement; effect thereof.

Any commissioner of accounts having before him the accounts of a fiduciary for settlement shall, on request, execute and deliver to the fiduciary a receipt for all vouchers filed with the commissioner of accounts. The receipt, if such vouchers are subsequently lost or destroyed, shall be evidence of the delivery to the commissioner of accounts of the vouchers mentioned in the receipt in any suit or proceeding against the fiduciary.

Code 1919, § 5415; Code 1950, § 26-26; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1221. Report on fiduciaries' bonds; "record of fiduciaries.".

A. The clerk of each circuit court shall furnish to the commissioner of accounts at the end of each month a list of the fiduciaries authorized to act as such under orders entered during that month and shall examine whether each fiduciary has given such bond as the law requires. If it appears that the fiduciary has given no bond or that his bond is defective, the clerk shall immediately report this fact to the circuit court.

B. The commissioner of accounts shall keep a book or other proper record called the "record of fiduciaries," in which the following shall be entered in separate columns:

1. The name of every fiduciary;

2. The name of the decedent whose estate the fiduciary represents or the name of the living person for whom he is acting in fiduciary capacity;

3. The penalty of his bond;

4. The names of his sureties;

5. The date of the order conferring his authority;

6. The date of any order revoking his authority;

7. The date of the return of every inventory of the estate; and

8. The date of each settlement of the accounts of the fiduciary.

The commissioner of accounts shall index the record of fiduciaries in the name of the decedent or person represented by the fiduciary.

C. The clerk shall certify to the commissioner of accounts the revocation of the authority of any fiduciary within 10 days of the revocation.

D. Any commissioner failing to make entries pursuant to subsection B or any clerk failing to certify the revocation of a fiduciary's authority pursuant to subsection C shall forfeit $20 for every such failure.

Code 1919, § 5401; 1946, p. 324; Code 1950, § 26-9; 1956, c. 59; 1973, c. 544; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1222. Commissioners of accounts to post list of fiduciaries whose accounts are before them for settlement.

Every commissioner of accounts shall, on the first day of the term of the circuit court that appointed him, or during the first week of each month, post at the front door of the courthouse of the circuit court a list of the fiduciaries whose accounts are before him for settlement. The list shall contain (i) the names of the fiduciaries; (ii) the nature of their accounts, whether as a personal representative, guardian, conservator, curator, committee, or trustee; and (iii) the name of their decedents or of the persons for whom they are guardians, conservators, curators, or committees or under whose deed or other trust instrument they are acting. The commissioner of accounts shall not settle and approve the account of any fiduciary until 10 days after posting the list containing the name of the fiduciary as provided by this section.

Code 1919, § 5423; 1924, p. 9; Code 1950, § 26-27; 1966, c. 324; 1991, c. 147; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

Chapter 13. Inventories and Accounts.

§ 64.2-1300. Inventories to be filed with commissioners of accounts.

A. Every personal representative or curator shall, within four months after the date of the order conferring his authority, return to the commissioner of accounts an inventory of all the personal estate under his supervision and control, the decedent's interest in any multiple party account in any financial institution, all real estate over which he has the power of sale, and any other real estate that is an asset of the decedent's estate, whether or not situated in the Commonwealth. Every personal representative or curator shall also return to the commissioner of accounts an inventory of any such assets discovered thereafter as provided in subsection E.

B. Every guardian of an estate, conservator, or committee shall, within four months after the date of the order conferring his authority, return to the commissioner of accounts an inventory of the ward's personal estate under his supervision and control, the ward's real estate, the ward's legal or equitable ownership interest in any real or personal property that will pass to another at the ward's death by a means other than testate or intestate succession, and any periodic payments of money to which the ward is entitled. Every guardian of an estate, conservator, or committee shall also return to the commissioner of accounts an inventory of any such assets discovered thereafter as provided in subsection E.

C. Every trustee who qualifies in the circuit court clerk's office shall, within four months after the first date that any assets are received, return to the commissioner of accounts an inventory of the real and personal estate which is under the trustee's supervision and control. Every such trustee shall also return to the commissioner of accounts an inventory of any such assets received thereafter as provided in subsection E. However, any trustee who is not required to account under the provisions of § 64.2-1307 shall be exempted from the duty to file an inventory for as long as there remains no duty to file annual accounts with the commissioner of accounts.

D. In listing property pursuant to subsection A, B, or C, the fiduciary shall place the market value on each item. The market value shall be determined as of (i) the date of death if a decedent's estate; (ii) the date assets are received by the trustee if a trust; or (iii) the date of qualification in all other cases. Any reasonable expense incurred in determining such values shall be allowable as a cost of the administration of the estate.

E. In the case of assets discovered or received by a fiduciary after filing an inventory, the further inventory required by subsections A, B, and C may be made by filing an amended inventory showing all assets of the estate or trust, by filing an additional inventory showing only the after-discovered assets or, with the permission of the commissioner of accounts, by showing the after-discovered assets on the estate's or trust's next regular accounting. The filing shall be made or the permission granted within four months after the discovery or receipt of the assets.

Code 1919, § 5403, § 26-12; 1932, p. 337; Code 1950, § 26-12; 1966, c. 337; 1973, c. 544; 1993, c. 581; 1997, c. 842; 1998, c. 610; 2001, c. 73; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1301. When inventory and settlement not required.

An inventory under § 64.2-1300 or a settlement under § 64.2-1206 shall not be required of a personal representative who qualifies for the sole purpose of bringing an action under § 8.01-50. However, if there is no surviving relative designated as a beneficiary under § 8.01-53 and the circuit court directs that the funds recovered in such action be paid to the personal representative for distribution according to law, the personal representative shall file the inventory required in § 64.2-1300 and the statement required under § 64.2-1206.

1966, c. 338, § 26-12.2; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1302. Waiver of inventory and settlement for certain estates.

When a decedent's personal estate passing by testate or intestate succession does not exceed $25,000 in value and an heir, beneficiary, or creditor whose claim exceeds the value of the estate seeks qualification, the clerk of the circuit court shall waive the inventory under § 64.2-1300 and the settlement under § 64.2-1206. This section shall not apply if the decedent died owning any real estate over which the person seeking qualification would have the power of sale.

1980, c. 563, § 26-12.3; 1987, c. 605; 1989, c. 387; 1998, c. 117; 2001, c. 598; 2002, cc. 220, 227; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-1303. Copies of inventories and accounts to be provided by personal representatives.

A. Every personal representative filing with the commissioner of accounts an inventory or account, including an affidavit of intent to file a statement in lieu of an account pursuant to § 64.2-1314, or any document making changes to either, shall, on or before the date of such filing, send a copy thereof by first-class mail to those persons to whom notice was given pursuant to subsections A and B of § 64.2-508 and who requested the same from the personal representative in writing. Copies sent pursuant to this subsection need not include copies of any supporting vouchers and such copies need not be given to (i) persons who would take only as heirs at law in a case where all of the decedent's probate estate is disposed of by will or (ii) beneficiaries whose gifts have been satisfied in full prior to such filing. A request for copies may be made to a personal representative at any time. The request may relate to one specific filing or to all filings to be made by the personal representative but it is not effective for filings made prior to its receipt by a personal representative.

B. No commissioner of accounts shall approve any personal representative's inventory or account (i) until 21 days have elapsed from the receipt of such inventory or account and (ii) unless the inventory or account contains a statement that any copies requested pursuant to this section have been mailed and shows the names and addresses of the persons to whom they were mailed and the date of such mailing.

2001, c. 265, § 26-12.4; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1304. Personal representatives.

A. Within 16 months from the date of the qualification, personal representatives shall exhibit before the commissioner of accounts a statement of all money and other property that the fiduciary has received, has become chargeable with, or has disbursed within 12 months from the date of qualification.

B. After the first account of the fiduciary has been filed and settled, the second and subsequent accounts for each succeeding 12-month period shall be due within four months from the last day of the 12-month period commencing on the terminal date of the preceding account unless the commissioner of accounts extends the period for filing upon reasonable cause.

C. Notwithstanding subsections A and B, a personal representative may file a first or subsequent account at an earlier date, and the commissioner of accounts or the circuit court may require the personal representative to file a first or subsequent account at an earlier date upon reasonable cause shown.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.5; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1305. Conservators, guardians of minors' estates, committees, trustees under § 64.2-2016, and receivers.

A. Within six months from the date of the qualification, conservators, guardians of minors' estates, committees, and trustees under § 64.2-2016 shall exhibit before the commissioner of accounts a statement of all money and other property that the fiduciary has received, has become chargeable with, or has disbursed within four months from the date of qualification.

B. After the first account of the fiduciary has been filed and settled, the second and subsequent accounts for each succeeding 12-month period shall be due within four months from the last day of the 12-month period commencing on the terminal date of the preceding account unless the commissioner of accounts extends the period for filing upon reasonable cause.

C. For fiduciaries acting on behalf of Medicaid recipients, the fees charged by the commissioners of accounts under subsection A or B shall not exceed $25.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.4; 1997, cc. 214, 921; 1999, cc. 16, 378; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1306. Testamentary trustees.

A. Except as provided in subsections B and C, testamentary trustees shall exhibit a statement of all money and other property that the fiduciary has received, has become chargeable with, or has disbursed for each calendar year before the commissioner of accounts of the circuit court where the order conferring his authority was entered on an annual basis commencing on or before May 1 of the calendar year following initial funding of the trust. Accounts for each calendar year thereafter shall be filed on or before May 1 of the following calendar year.

B. All testamentary trustees who qualify prior to July 1, 1993, and elect to file accounts on a fiscal year basis may continue to file such accounts on an annual basis within four months after the end of the fiscal year selected.

C. Accountings for trusts where one of the trustees is a corporation qualified under § 6.2-803, and by other testamentary trustees permitted by the Internal Revenue Code to file income tax returns on a fiscal year, may be filed on the basis of the trust fiscal year. The first account shall be filed within 16 months of the date on which the trust was initially funded.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.6; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1307. Testamentary trustees under a will waiving accounts; waiver where beneficiary also trustee.

A. For purposes of this section, the term "sole beneficiary" means a person who is (i) the only income beneficiary who is entitled to the principal, or the remaining principal goes to the trustee's estate or (ii) the only income beneficiary and has either a general power of appointment over the principal or has a special power of appointment that is not limited to a particular class of persons.

B. If (i) the will of a decedent probated on or after July 1, 1993, contains a waiver of the obligations of the testamentary trustee nominated therein to account or (ii) the sole beneficiary of the trust also is a trustee, the trustee will not be required to file accounts with the commissioner of accounts.

Where the waiver is contained in the decedent's will, the trustee shall within 90 days after qualification notify in writing all beneficiaries of the trust, other than the trustee, who are adults, whose addresses are known to the trustee, and to whom income or principal of the trust could be currently distributed; provide each such beneficiary with a copy of the applicable provisions of the will; advise each such beneficiary of his right to require an annual accounting; and provide each such beneficiary with a copy of this section and annually thereafter provide each such beneficiary an accounting upon request. The trustee shall send to the commissioner of accounts a copy of the notice given to each beneficiary or, in the alternative, file a writing with the commissioner of accounts stating that the requirements of this section have been met. For receiving and filing such notice or writing, the commissioner of accounts shall be allowed a fee not to exceed $25.

C. Language substantially in form and effect as follows shall be sufficient to constitute a waiver in the will of the decedent of the trustee's obligation to account: "I hereby direct that my trustee(s) shall not be required to file annual accounts with a court as otherwise required by Virginia law."

D. Notwithstanding a waiver in the will of the decedent or any prior consent of a beneficiary, any such adult beneficiary may, at any time during the administration of the trust, demand in a writing delivered to the trustee and to the commissioner of accounts that the trustee settle annually with the commissioner of accounts. Upon notice of such demand to the trustee and the commissioner of accounts, such trustee shall file an account with the commissioner of accounts for a period acceptable to the commissioner of accounts as though there were no waiver by the testator. The beneficiary making such demand may later revoke his demand by a writing delivered to the trustee and the commissioner of accounts. The demand for settlement of the trustee's account before the commissioner of accounts may also be made by the personal representative of a deceased beneficiary whose estate is a beneficiary, an attorney-in-fact for a beneficiary, a guardian of an incapacitated beneficiary, a committee of a convict or insane beneficiary, the duly qualified guardian of a minor, or if none exists, a custodial parent of a minor or by any minor who has attained 14 years of age.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, any trustee under a will of a decedent containing the requisite waiver, whenever probated, shall be relieved of the duty to file an inventory or annual accounts with the commissioner of accounts if the trustee (i) obtains the written consent of all adult beneficiaries, other than the trustee, to whom income or principal of the trust could be currently distributed, after providing those beneficiaries with the documents and information specified in subsection B, and (ii) files those consents with the commissioner of accounts on or before the date on which the inventory or next required accounting would otherwise be due. For receiving and filing such written consent, the commissioner of accounts shall be allowed a fee not to exceed $25.

F. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, any trustee under a will of a decedent probated on or after July 1, 2010, shall be relieved of the duty to file an inventory or annual accounts with the commissioner of accounts if the will of the decedent does not direct the filing of such inventory or accounts and the trustee (i) obtains the written consent of all adult beneficiaries, other than the trustee, to whom income or principal of the trust could be currently distributed, after providing those beneficiaries with the documents and information specified in subsection B; (ii) obtains the written consent of the representatives of all incapacitated beneficiaries, other than the trustee, to whom income or principal of the trust could be currently distributed, after providing those representatives with the documents and information specified in subsection B; and (iii) files those consents with the commissioner of accounts on or before the date on which the inventory or next required accounting would otherwise be due. For receiving and filing such written consent, the commissioner of accounts shall be allowed a fee not to exceed $25. The consent of an incapacitated beneficiary may be made by the personal representative of a deceased beneficiary whose estate is a beneficiary, an attorney-in-fact for a beneficiary, a guardian of an incapacitated beneficiary, a committee of a convict or insane beneficiary, the duly qualified guardian of a minor, or if none exists, a custodial parent of a minor who is not also the trustee. Language substantially in form and effect as follows shall be sufficient to constitute a direction in the will of the decedent of the trustee's obligation to account: "I hereby direct that my trustee(s) shall be required to file annual accounts with a court as otherwise required by Virginia law."

G. A circuit court having jurisdiction may order the filing of annual accounts if it deems such filings to be in the best interests of one or more beneficiaries of the trust.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.7; 2001, c. 73; 2005, c. 821; 2010, cc. 197, 651; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1308. Forms for inventories and accounts.

The Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court shall provide to each circuit court clerk forms and instructions for the inventories required by § 64.2-1300 and forms and instructions for accounts. The clerk shall provide the appropriate forms to every fiduciary who qualifies in the clerk's office. An inventory filed pursuant to § 64.2-1300 or an account filed pursuant to § 64.2-1206 may be made on the form provided to the fiduciary by the clerk of the court, on a computer-generated facsimile of the appropriate form, or in any other clear format.

1966, c. 336, §§ 26-12.1, 26-17.3; 1972, c. 411; 1993, cc. 581, 689, § 26-17.3; 1997, c. 842; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1309. Accounts of sales under deeds of trust.

A. Within six months after the date of a sale made under any recorded deed of trust, mortgage, or assignment for benefit of creditors, other than under a decree, the trustee shall return an account of the sale to the commissioner of accounts of the circuit court where the instrument was first recorded. After recording any trustee's deed, the trustee shall promptly deliver to the commissioner of accounts a copy of the deed. The date of sale is the date specified in the notice of sale, or any postponement thereof, as required by subsection A of § 55-59.1. The commissioner of accounts shall state, settle, and report to the court an account of the transactions of the trustee, which shall be recorded as other fiduciary reports. Any trustee failing to comply with this section shall forfeit his commissions on such sale, unless such commissions are allowed by the court.

B. If the commissioner of accounts of the court where an instrument was first recorded becomes aware that an account as required by this section has not been filed, the commissioner of accounts and the court shall proceed against the trustee and impose penalties in the same manner as set forth in § 64.2-1215, unless the trustee is excused for sufficient reason. If after a deed of trust is given on land located in a county, and before a sale under the deed of trust, the land is taken within the limits of the incorporated city, the returns of the trustee and settlement of his accounts shall be before the commissioner of accounts of such city.

C. Whenever the commissioner of accounts reports to the court that a fiduciary who is an attorney-at-law licensed to practice in the Commonwealth has failed to make the required return within 30 days after the date of service of a summons, the commissioner of accounts shall also mail a copy of his report to the Virginia State Bar.

Code 1919, § 5404; 1946, p. 325; Code 1950, § 26-15; 1966, c. 333; 1980, c. 148; 1996, c. 681; 1997, c. 842; 1998, c. 610; 2003, c. 193; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1310. Recordation of inventories and accounts of sales.

Every inventory and account of sales returned under §§ 64.2-1300 and 64.2-1309 shall be recorded by the clerk in the will book and indexed as required by § 17.1-223.

Code 1919, § 5405; Code 1950, § 26-16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1311. Vouchers and statement of assets on hand; direct payments to account; vouchers for IRS payments.

A. Vouchers for disbursements and a statement of cash on hand or in a bank and all investments held at the terminal date of the account shall also be exhibited with each account. A voucher shall not be required when a disbursement, not exceeding the value of $50, is made to a legatee under the authority of a will and such legatee refuses to take the possession or fails to present the disbursement check to a bank for payment. In such case the fiduciary shall file an affidavit stating that he has made a good faith effort to comply with the terms of the will and the provisions of this section.

B. A fiduciary may make payment to a beneficiary by transfer to the beneficiary's bank account with the fiduciary or by payment to an account with another bank through an automated clearinghouse, wire transfer, or similar mechanism, if the beneficiary has consented in writing to such method of payment. In either case, a record or statement of the bank making such payment shall be a sufficient voucher for the purpose of subsection A.

C. In the case of payments to the Internal Revenue Service for income tax estimates or any other payments required or permitted to be made by wire transfer or similar mechanism, a record or statement of the bank making such payment shall be a sufficient voucher for the purpose of subsection A.

D. In the case of payments of debts, taxes, and expenses, a corporate fiduciary's affidavit signed by an officer familiar with the facts that describes each payment by date, payee, purpose, and amount shall be a sufficient voucher for the purpose of subsection A. However, the commissioner of accounts may require that the corporate fiduciary exhibit a voucher for a specific payment.

E. In the event a fiduciary seeks to use a check as a voucher or receipt under this section, (i) a copy of both sides of the check shall be sufficient or (ii) a copy of the front side of the check and the periodic statement from the financial institution showing the check number and amount that coincides with the copy shall be sufficient, provided that (a) the copy was made in the regular course of business in accordance with the admissibility requirements of § 8.01-391 and (b) the commissioner of accounts may require a fiduciary to exhibit a proper voucher for a specific payment or for distributions to beneficiaries or distributees. However, the commissioner of accounts shall not require a fiduciary to exhibit an original check as a voucher under this subsection.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.9; 1999, c. 74; 2003, c. 201; 2005, cc. 261, 277; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-1312. Report to circuit court; death of fiduciary; fiduciary for recipient of federal benefits.

A. The commissioner of accounts shall state, settle, and report to the circuit court an account of the transactions of a fiduciary, as provided by law. Every fiduciary shall also, at the request of the commissioner of accounts, exhibit (i) the securities held by the fiduciary together with a statement from every bank in which cash is held at the terminal date of the account and (ii) proof that all premiums due upon any required surety bond have been paid.

B. If a personal representative of a decedent's estate, a testamentary trustee, a guardian, a conservator, or a committee dies prior to the filing and settlement of the fiduciary's account, the personal representative of the fiduciary's estate shall have the obligation to make the requisite filing and settlement through the date of death unless any successor fiduciary makes the requisite filing.

C. For fiduciaries acting on behalf of a recipient of social security, supplemental security income, or veteran's or other federal benefits, no accounting to the commissioner of accounts shall be required of benefits paid to a designated representative on behalf of the recipient if the representative is otherwise required to account for such benefits. However, any fiduciary otherwise required to make an accounting to the commissioner of accounts shall disclose in the account the total amount of such benefits received during the accounting period for which no incremental fee for such benefits shall be charged by the commissioner of accounts.

1993, c. 689, § 26-17.10; 1997, c. 801; 1999, c. 108; 2000, c. 324; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1313. Exhibition of accounts when sum does not exceed certain amount.

If the principal sum held by any fiduciary mentioned in § 64.2-1206 does not exceed $25,000, the fiduciary shall exhibit his accounts before the commissioner of accounts within the appropriate time period provided in §§ 64.2-1305, 64.2-1306, and 64.2-1307. Thereafter, the commissioner of accounts may permit the fiduciary to exhibit his accounts every three years, which permission may be revoked by the commissioner of accounts on his own motion or upon request of any interested person. The provisions of this section shall apply to any case in which the corpus of the estate in the hands of the fiduciary has been reduced to $25,000 or less although it formerly exceeded that amount. Any fiduciary exhibiting his accounts in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be entitled to compensation for his services.

1934, p. 80; Michie Code 1942, § 5409a; 1946, p. 326; Code 1950, § 26-20; 1962, c. 148; 1976, c. 435; 1999, c. 378; 2002, cc. 220, 227; 2003, c. 193; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-1314. Statement in lieu of settlement of accounts by personal representatives in certain circumstances.

A. For the purposes of this section, the term "residuary beneficiary" shall not include the trustee of a trust that receives a residuary gift under a decedent's will.

B. If all distributees of a decedent's estate or all residuary beneficiaries under a decedent's will are personal representatives of that decedent's estate, whether serving alone or with others who are not distributees or residuary beneficiaries, the personal representatives may, in lieu of the settlement of accounts required by § 64.2-1304, file with the commissioner of accounts a statement under oath that (i) all known charges against the estate have been paid, (ii) six months have elapsed since the personal representatives qualified in the clerk's office, and (iii) the residue of the estate has been delivered to the distributees or beneficiaries. In the case of a residuary beneficiary, the statement shall include an itemized listing, substantiated and accompanied by proper vouchers, showing satisfaction of all other bequests in the will. The statement shall be considered an account stated and subject to all the provisions of this chapter applicable to accounts stated.

C. If the statement authorized by this section cannot be filed with the commissioner of accounts within the time prescribed by § 64.2-1304, the personal representatives, within that time, shall file either (i) an interim account or (ii) a written notice under oath that the personal representatives intend to file a statement in lieu of the settlement of accounts when all requirements of this section have been met, which shall include an explanation of why such a statement cannot presently be filed. Second and subsequent interim accounts or notices of intent to file shall be filed annually until the statement in lieu of the settlement of accounts is filed. A commissioner of accounts who determines that the reasons offered for not presently filing a statement in lieu of settlement are not sufficient, whether in a first or subsequent written notice, may require the personal representatives to file an interim account in addition to the notice. The filing of an interim account shall not preclude the filing of a subsequent statement.

1960, c. 428, § 26-20.1; 1972, c. 326; 1975, c. 192; 1980, c. 199; 1981, c. 113; 1983, c. 328; 1984, c. 309; 1993, c. 525; 1998, c. 610; 2001, c. 107; 2012, c. 614; 2017, c. 638.

§ 64.2-1315. Certification and recording of accounts settled in a judicial proceeding.

When the account of any fiduciary is settled in a judicial proceeding, it shall be the duty of the clerk of the circuit court in which the judicial proceeding was held, as soon as may be practicable after entry of a final order, to certify to the clerk of the circuit court in which the fiduciary qualified a copy of the account so far as the account has been confirmed, with a memorandum at the foot of the copy stating the style of the suit and the date of the final order. The account and memorandum so certified shall be recorded by the clerk to whom it is certified in the book in which accounts of fiduciaries are required to be recorded under § 64.2-1214. If in a proceeding subsequent to the entry of the final order, the account is reformed or altered, a copy of such reformed or altered account shall be certified and recorded, together with a memorandum stating the style of the suit and the date of the order or decree of confirmation, in the same manner as the final order. When the judicial proceeding is conducted in the same court in which the fiduciary qualified, the clerk of such court shall make the memoranda and recordations required by this section, and shall for such purpose use the original papers. For making any copy under this section, the clerk shall be entitled to the fees prescribed in like cases, and for recording such account of the fiduciary he shall be entitled to the fees allowed for recording accounts settled ex parte. The fees for copying and recording shall be paid as the court in which the judicial proceeding was held shall direct.

Code 1919, § 5411; Code 1950, § 26-21; 2005, c. 681; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1316. Settlement of fiduciary's accounts by commissioner in chancery; report to commissioner of accounts.

On the motion of any fiduciary having charge of an estate or any interested person, the circuit court may require a commissioner in chancery to settle the accounts of the fiduciary. In addition, a court may require a commissioner in chancery to settle the accounts of any of the fiduciaries mentioned in this chapter. A commissioner in chancery making a settlement under such order of a court shall report the fact and date of the settlement to the commissioner of accounts within 30 days, who shall make an entry of the same in his record book.

Code 1919, § 5415; Code 1950, § 26-25; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1317. Disposition of papers relating to estates.

A. The circuit court or the clerk at the time of the confirmation of an account shall return all inventories and original accounts of sales filed with the clerk of the circuit court as required by §§ 64.2-1205 and 64.2-1310, all reports filed with the clerk under § 64.2-1214 when the reports have been actually recorded by the clerk, compared, indexed, and confirmed as required by law, and all vouchers or other evidence filed with the commissioner of accounts upon request made at the time of such filing, or in the discretion of the commissioner of accounts if no request is made, to the fiduciary or other person who filed such inventories, accounts, reports, vouchers, or other evidence, provided, however, that such inventories, accounts, reports, vouchers, or other evidence is not required as evidence of any further matter of inquiry pending before the court or the commissioner of accounts.

B. The clerk of court may destroy any papers mentioned in subsection A or any other papers relating to estates, when the matter concerned has been closed with a final settlement for more than three years and appropriate recordations have been made. However, nothing in this section shall apply to original documents recorded by binding. If recordation is done by facsimile or microfilm reproduction process, such papers may be destroyed if the return of such papers was not requested at the time of filing for recordation.

C. The commissioner of accounts may destroy any papers mentioned in subsection A or any other papers relating to estates when the matter concerned has been closed with a confirmed final accounting for more than one year.

Code 1919, § 5428; 1922, p. 873; 1928, p. 24; 1940, p. 614; 1944, p. 107; 1950, p. 818, § 26-37; 1962, c. 111; 1977, c. 96; 1997, c. 842; 2012, c. 614.

Chapter 14. Fiduciaries Generally.

Article 1. Appointment, Qualification, Resignation, and Removal of Fiduciaries.

§ 64.2-1400. Authority to qualify trustee; necessity for security; notice of qualification; qualification by less than all of trustees named.

A. Subject to the provisions of § 64.2-1406, the clerk of any circuit court or any duly qualified deputy of such clerk may qualify any trustee named in a will, deed, or other writing, and require and take from them the necessary bonds in the same manner and with like effect as the court.

B. Pursuant to the provisions of § 64.2-1426, the clerk or deputy may appoint and qualify an individual or a corporation authorized under § 6.2-803 as trustee. Such appointment may be made in the same manner and subject to the provisions of § 64.2-500.

C. The clerk shall not require security from a trustee if the will, deed, or other writing directs that a trustee shall not give security, unless, based on the application of any interested person or on the clerk's own knowledge, the clerk determines that security ought to be required. This section shall not be construed to require security where security is not required pursuant to § 6.2-1003 or 64.2-1401 or to affect the jurisdiction of the court to qualify trustees and to require security or not, as the court sees fit.

D. Qualification of a trustee under this section may be ex parte, and no prior notice to the beneficiaries of the qualification shall be required. If less than all the trustees named in the deed, will, or other writing desire to qualify, then the trustee shall only be qualified after reasonable notice is given to any other named trustees.

E. If less than all the trustees named in the will, deed, or other writing qualify, then the trust powers conferred by the trust instrument shall be exercisable only by the trustees who have qualified under this section or in any other manner permitted by law.

1964, c. 464, § 26-46.1; 1977, c. 256; 1981, c. 239; 1997, c. 220; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1401. Jurisdiction for qualification of testamentary trustee; qualification and bond; when surety not required.

A. In the case of a testamentary trust, the jurisdiction where the will has been admitted to probate in the Commonwealth shall be the exclusive jurisdiction for the qualification of the trustee under such will. In the case of a will of a nonresident that has not been admitted to probate in the Commonwealth, the trustee under such will shall be permitted to qualify in any jurisdiction in which such will could be probated or, if there is no such jurisdiction, then the trustee shall be permitted to qualify pursuant to § 64.2-1402.

B. Before proceeding to act as trustee, the trustee named in a will probated after July 1, 1968, shall qualify and give bond before the proper circuit court or clerk with surety as may be required by the court or clerk unless (i) the will waives surety on the bond, (ii) surety is not required under § 6.2-1003, or (iii) the will was executed prior to July 1, 1968, and the trustee offering to qualify as such was also named in the will as executor and qualifies as such, and the will waives surety upon the bond of such executor.

C. The provisions hereof shall not apply to a testamentary devise or bequest to a church or its trustees.

D. If real estate located in the Commonwealth constitutes any of the trust assets, the qualification of the trustee under this section shall not be in lieu of any other recordation required by law.

1964, c. 464, §§ 26-46.2, 26-46.3; 1966, c. 327; 1968, c. 514; 1981, c. 239, 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1402. Jurisdiction for qualification of certain testamentary trustees and trustees generally.

A. In the case of a testamentary trust for which there is no jurisdiction for probate as provided in § 64.2-1401 and in the case of any trust under any deed or other writing, other than a will, the trustee may qualify in any jurisdiction where the trustee resides, or if one trustee is a corporate trustee, then in the jurisdiction where the corporate trustee has its registered office.

B. If real estate located in the Commonwealth constitutes any of the trust assets, the qualification of the trustee under this section shall not be in lieu of any other recordation required by law.

1964, c. 464, § 26-46.3; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1403. Qualification of trustees.

A. For the purposes of this section, the phrase "deed or other writing" does not include a will.

B. Any trustee appointed by a deed or other writing where the deed or other writing requires that the trustee qualify shall not act as trustee until he has qualified before the circuit court or clerk by giving bond and taking oath that he will perform the duties of his office. The oath may be taken on behalf of a corporate trustee by its president or other officer.

C. Any trustee appointed by a deed or other writing where the deed or other writing does not require that the trustee qualify may voluntarily qualify. However, regardless of whether the deed or other writing does not require qualification, upon the request of any interested party, the administration of the trust shall be in the same manner as if qualification had been required by the terms of the deed or other writing creating it.

1968, c. 382, § 26-1.1; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1404. New fiduciary appointed when authority of former revoked.

If an order revoking and annulling the powers of any fiduciary is entered, the circuit court in which he qualified shall, at or after the date of the order, appoint an administrator de bonis non, a new guardian, or other fiduciary as if the fiduciary whose powers have been revoked and annulled had died at that date.

Code 1919, § 5148; Code 1950, § 26-47; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1405. Court may appoint trustee in place of one named in will, deed, or other writing; management by corporate trustee outside of the Commonwealth.

A. If a trustee named in a will, deed, or other writing (i) dies, (ii) becomes incapable of executing the trust on account of physical or mental disability or confinement in prison, (iii) if residency is statutorily required, is no longer a resident of the Commonwealth, (iv) declines to accept the trust, (v) resigns the trust after having accepted the trust, (vi) in the case of a corporate trustee, is adjudicated bankrupt or for any reason loses its charter, (vii) for any other reason ceases to be eligible to continue serving as trustee, or (viii) for any other good cause shown, the circuit court in which such will was admitted to probate or such deed or other writing is or might have been recorded, or if the trustee is a corporation, in which its principal office in the Commonwealth is located, or in which the trustee resides, may on motion of any interested party, and upon satisfactory evidence of any of the conditions in clauses (i) through (viii), appoint a trustee in place of the trustee named in the instrument.

B. The circuit court may appoint a substitute corporate trustee whenever a corporate trustee removes the management function over an existing trust which was previously managed in the Commonwealth to a jurisdiction outside of the Commonwealth if the court finds that the management of the trust after such removal results in good cause for the substitution of the trustee. A corporate trustee that maintains a place of business in the Commonwealth where one or more trust officers are available on a regular basis for personal contact with trust customers or beneficiaries shall not be deemed to have removed such management function.

Code 1919, § 6298; 1930, p. 350; 1934, p. 162; 1950, p. 457, § 26-48; 1998, cc. 392, 410; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1406. Notice required; certain substitutions validated.

A. Reasonable notice of a motion made pursuant to § 64.2-1405 for the appointment of a substitute trustee shall be provided to all persons interested in the execution of the trust other than the moving party. If any interested person is under 18 years of age, the circuit court or clerk shall appoint a discreet and competent attorney-at-law as guardian ad litem for such person on whom notice may be served. If any interested person is incapacitated or incarcerated, the notice shall be served on his committee, guardian, or conservator, if any, or if none exists, the court or clerk shall appoint a discreet and competent attorney-at-law as a guardian ad litem for such person on whom notice may be served. Notice does not need to be given to a trustee or, if one has previously been appointed, a substitute trustee who no longer resides the Commonwealth, declined to accept the trust, or resigned, or to the personal representative of a deceased trustee, or to a corporate trustee that has been adjudicated bankrupt or that has lost its charter.

B. In the case of the substitution of the trustee in a deed of trust securing the payment of indebtedness, notice of the motion made pursuant to § 64.2-1405 need only be given to the trustee or, if one has previously been appointed, to the substitute trustee unless notice to him is not required pursuant to subsection A; any beneficiaries appearing of record or known to the moving party; any debtors mentioned in the deed of trust; any persons who may be shown by the deed records to have assumed payment of the indebtedness in whole or in part; and the person in whom the equitable title to the property conveyed by the deed of trust is vested at the time of the motion as shown by the deed records. In such case when the written notice of motion has been filed in the clerk's office of the court having jurisdiction as defined in § 64.2-1405, service of the notice as to all parties mentioned in § 8.01-316 may be made in conformity with the provisions of §§ 8.01-316, 8.01-317, 8.01-318, 8.01-320, 8.01-322, and 8.01-323.

C. Any decree or order of substitution heretofore made by a court of competent jurisdiction is hereby validated.

D. Nothing in this section shall be construed as preventing a court from substituting a trustee in a suit instituted for that purpose.

Code 1919, § 6299; 1930, p. 350; 1932, p. 135; 1934, p. 156; 1944, p. 337; Code 1950, § 26-50; 1972, c. 825; 1997, c. 921; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1407. Who to execute the trust until new trustee appointed.

A. The personal representative of a deceased trustee, or the remaining trustee or trustees if there were more than one trustee and one or more but less than all of them have died, resigned, become incapable of executing the trust on account of physical or mental disability or confinement in prison, become ineligible to continue to serve as trustee because of no longer being a resident of the Commonwealth where residency is statutorily required, or otherwise become ineligible to continue serving as trustee, shall execute the trust, or so much of the trust as remained unexecuted at the time such lack of capacity to execute the trust or such ineligibility came into being until an appointment is made pursuant to this part, unless the instrument creating the trust directs otherwise or some other trustee is appointed for the purpose by a circuit court having jurisdiction of the case. In the case of removal of the trust management function by a corporate trustee, the corporate trustee shall continue to execute the trust until such time as an appointment is made pursuant to this part.

B. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any trust governed by the Uniform Trust Code (§ 64.2-700 et seq.).

Code 1919, § 6300; 1930, p. 350; 1940, p. 302; 1942, p. 168; Code 1950, § 26-51; 1998, cc. 392, 410; 2001, c. 38; 2005, c. 935; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1408. Circuit court may exercise same powers in suit to enforce or administer trust.

A circuit court may exercise all the powers conferred by §§ 64.2-1405, 64.2-1406, 64.2-1407, and 64.2-1412 in a suit pending to enforce or administer the trust.

Code 1919, § 6302; Code 1950, § 26-52; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1409. Information to be provided to clerk by fiduciary.

A. On and after July 1, 1998, every person seeking to qualify in any fiduciary capacity before the circuit court or clerk shall provide to the court or clerk the information required to make the qualification on forms provided to the proposed fiduciary by the clerk. The forms, with appropriate instructions concerning their use, shall be provided to each clerk by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court. In lieu of any form, a computer-generated facsimile of the form may be used by any person seeking to qualify.

B. Every qualified fiduciary who moves from the Commonwealth and becomes resident in another state shall inform the clerk and the commissioner of accounts of the court in which he was qualified of his new address within 30 days of the date of the change in residency. Any fiduciary who fails to so inform the clerk and commissioner of accounts shall be subject to a civil penalty of $50. For purposes of this section, a person becomes resident in another state when he can no longer satisfy the residency requirements specified in § 38.2-1800.1. This section shall not apply to any fiduciary whose cofiduciary is a resident of the Commonwealth.

1997, c. 842, § 26-1.2; 2005, c. 644; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1410. When court may require new bond or revoke authority; giving new bond upon motion of fiduciary, surety, or other party in interest.

A. Regardless of whether a fiduciary has given bond with or without sureties, at any time the circuit court under whose order or under the order of whose clerk any such fiduciary derives his authority shall, on the application of any surety or his personal representative, or may, (i) upon motion of the fiduciary or (ii) when it appears proper on report of the clerk or a commissioner of accounts or on evidence adduced before it by any interested party, order the fiduciary to give before the court or clerk a new bond or additional bond in a reasonable time as prescribed by the court and in such penalty and with or without sureties as the court deems proper. The new bond or additional bond shall have the effect provided by § 49-14. In all cases where the fiduciary qualified pursuant to an order issued by a clerk, the clerk shall have the same power as the court regarding bond and surety under this section. If the order of the court or clerk is not complied with, or whenever from any cause it appears proper, the court may revoke and annul the powers of any such fiduciary. However, no such order shall be made unless reasonable notice appears to have been given to the fiduciary by (a) the commissioner of accounts who made the report, (b) the surety or his representative making the application, or (c) the service of a rule or otherwise. No order or revocation shall invalidate any previous act of such fiduciary.

B. When the court or clerk orders a new bond, additional bond, or a reduction in bond, the court or clerk shall, in lieu of requiring a personal appearance by the fiduciary for the execution thereof, allow the fiduciary's execution to be made by the fiduciary's agent under a power of attorney expressly authorizing the same.

Code 1919, § 5417; Code 1950, § 26-3; 1966, c. 328; 1997, c. 842; 2001, c. 79; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1411. When fiduciary may qualify without security; requirements for issuance of certificates of qualification; payments.

A. Any circuit court or circuit court clerk, having jurisdiction to appoint personal representatives, guardians, conservators, and committees, may, in his discretion, when there are no assets or the asset or amount coming into the possession of the personal representative, guardian of a minor, conservator, or committee does not exceed $25,000, allow the personal representative, guardian, conservator, or committee to qualify by giving bond without surety.

B. Any personal representative or trustee serving jointly with a bank or trust company that is exempted from giving surety on its bond under § 6.2-1003 shall, unless the court directs otherwise, also be exempt from giving surety.

C. If a fiduciary qualifies pursuant to subsection A, the court or clerk shall issue one or more certificates of qualification pursuant to this section for administration of an estate, guardianship, conservatorship, or committeeship that does not exceed a cumulative total of $25,000. Each such certificate shall specify that the maximum amount of estate, guardianship, conservatorship, or committeeship assets that may be collected pursuant to that certificate shall not exceed $25,000. Each such certificate shall:

1. Be titled "Qualification Certificate for Small Asset Estate";

2. State in a prominent position on the front of such certificate that any person may pay or deliver to the fiduciary named in the certificate any asset belonging, owed, or distributable to the specified deceased person, incapacitated ward, or minor having a value, on the date of payment or delivery, of no more than $25,000. Assets held in a safe deposit box shall not be counted toward such $25,000 limit, and the lessor of a safe deposit box shall not be deemed to know of, and shall have no obligation to determine, the presence or value of any asset in a safe deposit box;

3. State that the certificate (i) may only be used once, (ii) is not effective if it does not have an impression seal of the court clerk and therefore photocopies of the certificate are not effective, and (iii) must be retained by the payor; and

4. Bear the impression seal of the court clerk.

D. Upon being presented with a certificate of qualification issued pursuant to subsection C, any person may pay or deliver to the fiduciary named in such certificate any asset belonging, owed, or distributable to the specified deceased person, incapacitated ward, or minor having a value, on the date of payment, of no more than $25,000. The payor shall retain possession of such certificate. Assets held in a safe deposit box shall not be counted toward such $25,000 limit, and the lessor of a safe deposit box shall not be deemed to know of, and shall have no obligation to determine, the presence or value of any asset in a safe deposit box. Any person that makes such payment or delivery upon presentation of a certificate of qualification issued pursuant to subsection C is discharged and released from any or all claims or liabilities for such payment or delivery. Such payor is not required to see the application of such payment or delivery or to inquire into the assets paid or delivered by other parties to a fiduciary that qualifies pursuant to subsection A. A person presented with a certificate of qualification issued pursuant to subsection C shall not be liable for, or subject to, any claims, damages, fines or penalties for paying or distributing assets the person believed in good faith to have a value of $25,000 or less or for the failure to pay or deliver assets the person believed in good faith to have a value of more than $25,000.

E. A court clerk shall not be liable for any misrepresentations of a personal representative, guardian, conservator, or committee with regard to whether the estate qualifies for the small asset estate exemption under this section or for the performance of any of the clerk's duties under this section, except in the case of the clerk's gross negligence or intentional misconduct.

1918, p. 469; 1934, p. 24; Michie Code 1942, § 5371a; 1946, p. 492; Code 1950, § 26-4; 1964, c. 172; 1976, c. 338; 1980, c. 653; 1994, c. 25; 1997, c. 801; 1998, c. 117; 2003, c. 195; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532; 2015, c. 610; 2018, c. 575.

§ 64.2-1412. How trustee required to give bond; when to be removed and another appointed.

After reasonable notice to a trustee, whether appointed by will, deed, or other writing, the circuit court that has jurisdiction to administer the trust may, on motion of any interested person, order the trustee to give bond with surety before the court, or before the clerk of the court, within a reasonable time and in a penalty to be prescribed by the court, for the faithful execution of the trust if the court deems the bond is proper for the security of the trust estate. If the order is not complied with, or whenever for any cause it appears proper, the court may remove the trustee and appoint another in his place.

Code 1919, § 6301; Code 1950, § 26-1; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1413. Placing certain trust assets in designated financial institutions; waiver or reduction of bond of fiduciary.

A. If the circuit court having jurisdiction of any estate in the process of administration by any guardian, conservator, curator, executor, administrator, trustee, receiver, or other fiduciary, determines that the size of the bond required of the fiduciary would be burdensome or for other cause, the court may order a portion or all of the personal assets of the estate, as the court deems proper, to be placed with a designated bank, trust company, or savings institution, insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or other federal insurance agency and doing business in the Commonwealth, with consideration being given to any bank, trust company, or savings institution proposed by the fiduciary. When the original assets are placed with a designated financial institution, the financial institution shall issue in the name of the estate and file with the court a receipt for such assets and shall give the fiduciary a copy of the receipt. The receipt shall acknowledge that:

1. The original assets received by the financial institution, or the duly collected proceeds from such assets, and all interest, dividends, principal, and other indebtedness subsequently collected by the financial institution on account thereof, are to be held by the financial institution in safekeeping, subject to such instructions of the fiduciary to the financial institution that have been authorized by orders of the court; and

2. Accountings therefor shall be made to the fiduciary at reasonably frequent intervals agreeable to the fiduciary. After the receipt of the financial institution for the original assets placed with the financial institution has been filed with the court, the court shall enter an order waiving the bond to be given or previously given by the fiduciary or reduce it so that the bond applies only to the estate remaining in the possession of the fiduciary, whichever the court deems best for the estate.

B. Whenever the court has ordered any assets of an estate be placed with a financial institution pursuant to subsection A, any person or corporation having possession or control of any of the assets, or owing interest, dividends, principal, or other indebtedness on account thereof, shall, on the due dates thereof, upon the demand of the financial institution whether the fiduciary has duly qualified or not, pay and deliver the assets, interest, dividends, principal, and other indebtedness to the financial institution. The receipt and acceptance thereof by the financial institution shall relieve the person or corporation from all further responsibility.

C. Any bank, trust company, or savings institution designated by the court pursuant to subsection A may accept or reject the designation in any particular instance. The financial institution shall evidence its acceptance or rejection by filing the same with the court or the clerk of the court making the designation within 15 days after actual knowledge of the designation shall have come to the attention of the financial institution. In the event of acceptance, the financial institution shall be allowed as a proper charge against the assets placed with it such reasonable amount for its services and expenses as the court making the designation may order.

1972, c. 321, § 26-45.2; 1990, c. 3; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1414. Effect of orders of qualification of bank as committee or guardian.

If a bank qualifies as committee or guardian and the order of qualification fails to specify that the bank is to be guardian or committee of the person, it shall be deemed a qualification solely as committee, conservator, or guardian of the estate.

2010, c. 794, § 26-7.5; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1415. Liability for losses by negligence or failure to make defense.

A. If any personal representative, guardian, conservator, curator, or committee, or any agent or attorney-at-law, by his negligence or improper conduct, loses any debt or other money, he shall be charged with the principal of what is so lost, and interest thereon, in like manner as if he had received such principal.

B. If any personal representative, guardian, conservator, curator, or committee pays any debt the recovery of which could be prevented by reason of illegality of consideration, lapse of time, or otherwise, knowing the facts by which the recovery could have been prevented, no credit shall be allowed to him for such payment.

Code 1919, § 5406; Code 1950, § 26-5; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1416. Liability of fiduciary for actions of cofiduciary.

A. As used in this section, "fiduciary" has the same meaning as provided in § 8.01-2, except that it shall not include trustees subject to the requirements and provisions of the Uniform Trust Code (§ 64.2-700 et seq.).

B. Any power vested in three or more fiduciaries may be exercised by a majority of the fiduciaries, but a fiduciary who has not joined in exercising a power is not liable to the beneficiaries or to others for the consequences of the exercise. A dissenting fiduciary is not liable for the consequences of an act in which he joins at the direction of the majority of the fiduciaries if he expressed his dissent in writing to any of his cofiduciaries, if the act is not of itself a patent breach of trust.

C. A fiduciary shall be answerable and accountable only for his own acts, receipts, neglects, or defaults, and not for those of any cofiduciary, or for those of any banker, broker, or other person with whom the trust money or securities may be lawfully deposited, or for any loss that does not result from his own default or negligence.

D. Whenever the instrument under which a fiduciary or fiduciaries are acting reserves the authority to direct the making or retention of any investment for the settlor, testator, or creator or vests such authority in an advisory or investment committee or any other person, including a cofiduciary, to the exclusion of the fiduciary or the exclusion of one or more of several fiduciaries,, the excluded fiduciary or cofiduciary shall be liable, if at all, only as a ministerial agent and shall not be liable as fiduciary or cofiduciary for any loss resulting from the making or retention of any investment pursuant to such authorized direction.

E. This section does not excuse a cofiduciary from liability for failing to (i) participate in the administration of trust, (ii) attempt to prevent a breach of trust, or (iii) seek advice and guidance from the circuit court in an apparently recurring situation unless otherwise expressly provided by the instrument under which the cofiduciary is acting.

1978, c. 327, § 26-5.2; 1980, c. 440; 2005, c. 935; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1417. How judgment may be entered against personal representative, conservator, or committee.

A judgment or decree against the personal representative of a decedent, committee of a convict, or conservator of an incapacitated person as defined in § 64.2-2000 for a debt due from the decedent, convict, or incapacitated person may, without taking an account of the transactions of the representative, conservator, or committee, be entered to be paid out of the estate of the decedent, convict, or incapacitated person in, or that shall come into, the possession of the representative, conservator, or committee to be administered. If the circuit court holds that the proceeding for the debt would not have been brought if the fiduciary had prudently discharged his duty, the amount of the judgment or decree for costs shall be paid out of the estate of the representative, conservator, or committee.

Code 1919, § 5407; 1950, p. 356, § 26-6; 1997, c. 921; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1418. Court order for payments due from fiduciaries; effect.

When a report of the accounts of any guardian, curator, conservator, committee, or trustee is confirmed, either in whole or in a qualified manner, the circuit court for the clerk's office where the report is filed may order payment of what appears due on such accounts to such persons as would be entitled to recover the same by suit. Any guardian, curator, conservator, committee, or trustee who has, in good faith and in compliance with the order of such court, paid and delivered the money and other estate in his possession to whomsoever the court has adjudged is entitled thereto, shall be fully protected against the demands of creditors and all other persons.

Code 1919, § 5433; 1942, p. 480; Code 1950, § 26-7; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1419. Execution of fiduciary bond or appointment of agent designates clerk as attorney for service of process.

A. Every person who qualifies in a circuit court or clerk's office as a personal representative of a decedent, guardian, conservator, committee, trustee, or receiver, and the surety upon any such fiduciary's bond, shall, by executing the bond required of the fiduciary, be deemed to have designated the clerk of the court in which the qualification is had, and his successor in office, as the true and lawful attorney of the fiduciary upon whom service of any notice, process, or rule issuing from a court of the Commonwealth or a commissioner of such court may be executed, whenever the fiduciary cannot be found and served within the Commonwealth after the exercise of due diligence. This section only applies if the proceeding relates to the proper administration or distribution of the fiduciary estate, including a proceeding to assert a claim against the estate or to remove the fiduciary or to obtain a personal judgment against him and his surety, either or both, for nonfeasance, misfeasance, or malfeasance in the performance of the fiduciary's duties. The designation shall terminate and no longer be in effect when the fiduciary's final account shall stand confirmed as provided in § 64.2-1212 or by order of court.

B. Every nonresident trustee who, pursuant to § 64.2-427 or 64.2-428, files a consent in writing with a clerk of a circuit court that any service of process or notice may be by service upon a resident of the Commonwealth at such address as the trustee may appoint in the written instrument filed with the clerk shall, by filing such consent, be deemed to have designated the clerk of the court in which the consent is filed, and his successor in office, as the true and lawful attorney of the nonresident trustee upon whom service of any notice, process, or rule issuing from a court of the Commonwealth may be executed, whenever the resident appointed to receive service cannot be found and served within the Commonwealth after the exercise of due diligence.

1954, c. 601, § 26-7.1; 1997, c. 801; 2000, c. 320; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1420. Clerk to mail notice, process, or rule to person served.

Whenever any notice, process, or rule is served on the clerk of a circuit court pursuant to § 64.2-1419, the clerk shall mail the notice, process, or rule forthwith by certified or registered mail, postage prepaid, to the person thus served, to his last known address as shown by the court papers, the cost thereof to be paid in advance by the person desiring the service. In lieu of using certified or registered mail, the clerk of court may also use overnight delivery, with the cost thereof to be paid in advance by the person desiring service.

1954, c. 601, § 26-7.2; 2004, c. 367; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1421. What judgment or decree based upon service upon clerk shall specifically adjudicate.

Any judgment or decree based upon service of notice, process, or rule upon the clerk of the circuit court shall specifically adjudicate that due diligence has been used and that the person thus served cannot be found and served within the Commonwealth, that the requirements of § 64.2-1420 have been complied with, and that the fiduciary's final account does not stand confirmed as provided in § 64.2-1212 or by order of court.

1954, c. 601, § 26-7.3; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1422. Environmental liability of fiduciaries.

A. As used in this section:

"Environmental law" means any federal, state, or local law, rule, regulation, or ordinance relating to protection of the environment or human health.

"Fiduciary" includes guardians, committees, conservators, trustees, executors, administrators and administrators with the will annexed, curators of decedents' wills, and attorneys-in-fact or agents acting for principals under written powers of attorney, and any combination of individuals, corporations, and other entities serving in those capacities.

"Individual capacity" means the nonfiduciary capacity of any individual, corporation, or other entity serving as a fiduciary.

B. As to any property held in trust or in an estate, a fiduciary shall not be considered in its individual capacity to be (i) the owner or operator of that property as defined under any applicable environmental law or (ii) a party otherwise liable under any environmental law unless the fiduciary's acts or omissions outside the scope of its fiduciary duties constitute conduct that independently would give rise to individual liability.

C. A fiduciary shall not be liable in its individual capacity to any beneficiary or other party for any decrease in value of assets in trust or in an estate by reason of the fiduciary's investigation or evaluation of potential contamination of property held in the trust or estate or the fiduciary's compliance with any environmental law, specifically including any reporting or disclosure requirement under such law.

D. Neither a fiduciary's acceptance of property nor its failure to inspect property shall be deemed to create any implication as to whether or not there is or may be any liability under any environmental law with respect to such property.

E. Nothing in this section shall affect or modify any defense to individual liability under any environmental law available to any fiduciary under any other provision of state or federal law, including the common law.

1994, c. 476, § 26-7.4; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1423. Trustee not disqualified due to status as stockholder, employee, or officer of corporate noteholder; sale of property by trustee not voidable.

A. The fact that a trustee in a deed of trust to secure a debt due to a corporation is a stockholder, member, employee, officer, or director of, or counsel to, the corporation does not disqualify the trustee from exercising the powers conferred by the deed of trust, nor does it render voidable a sale by the trustee in the exercise of the powers conferred on him by the deed of trust so long as the trustee did not participate in the corporation's decision as to the amount to be bid at the sale of the trust property.

B. In addition to the provisions of subsection A, if the lender secured by the deed of trust bids the amount secured, including interest through the date of sale and costs of foreclosure, the trustee's participation in fixing the bid price by the lender shall not be deemed improper and the sale shall not be rendered voidable solely by reason of the trustee's participation.

C. All sales made before July 1, 1990, by any trustee by virtue of a deed of trust and any deed made by the trustee in pursuance of such sales are hereby declared to be valid and effective in all respects, if otherwise valid according to laws then in force, the same as if the trustee had not been a stockholder, member, employee, officer, or director of, or counsel to, the corporation thereby secured.

1920, p. 502; 1932, p. 523; Michie Code 1942, § 6304b; Code 1950, § 26-58; 1990, c. 763; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1424. Resignation by fiduciary of his trust.

The circuit court in which or before the clerk of which a fiduciary qualified may allow any personal representative, guardian, conservator, or committee to resign his trust conditioned upon his accounts as the fiduciary being stated and settled in the mode prescribed by law. Such resignation shall not invalidate any act done or affect any liability incurred by him while holding such trust.

Code 1919, § 5419; 1938, p. 790; Code 1950, § 26-46; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1425. How securities transferred to successor.

When any securities for money loaned or invested shall be standing in the name of any fiduciary who has died or resigned or whose power has been revoked, and the fiduciary or his personal representative has not transferred the securities to his successor, the circuit court in which the fiduciary qualified, upon the petition of the successor or of any other interested person, may direct that the securities be transferred to the successor, a receiver of the court, or otherwise, and may direct that the dividends, interest, or proceeds of the securities be received or paid in such manner as the court deems proper.

Code 1919, § 5432; Code 1950, § 26-56; 2012, c. 614.

Article 2. Nonresident Trustees.

§ 64.2-1426. Nonresident fiduciaries.

A. A natural person who is not a resident of the Commonwealth may be appointed or allowed to qualify or act as the personal representative, or trustee under a will, of any decedent, or appointed as the guardian of an infant's estate or the guardian or conservator of the property of an incapacitated person under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) or Chapter 21 (§ 64.2-2100 et seq.).

Qualification of such person as a personal representative, or trustee under a will, of any decedent shall be subject to the provisions of Article 1 (§ 64.2-500 et seq.) of Chapter 5.

At the time of qualification or appointment, each such nonresident shall file with the clerk of the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the qualification is had or appointment is made his consent in writing that service of process in any action or proceeding against him as personal representative, trustee under a will, conservator, or guardian, or any other notice with respect to the administration of the estate, trust, or person in his charge in the Commonwealth may be by service upon the clerk of the court in which he is qualified or appointed, or upon such resident of the Commonwealth and at such address as the nonresident may appoint in the written instrument. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or absence from the Commonwealth of a resident agent or any successor named by a similar instrument filed with the clerk, or if a resident agent or any such successor cannot with due diligence be found for service at the address designated in such instrument, then any process or notice may be served on the clerk of the circuit court. Notwithstanding §§ 64.2-505 and 64.2-2011, where any nonresident qualifies, other than as a guardian of an incapacitated person, pursuant to this subsection, bond with surety shall be required in every case, unless a resident personal representative, trustee, or fiduciary qualifies at the same time or the court or clerk making the appointment waives surety under the provisions of § 64.2-1411.

B. A corporation shall not be appointed or allowed to qualify or act as personal representative, as trustee under a will, or as one of the personal representatives or trustees under a will of any decedent, or appointed or allowed to qualify or act as guardian of an infant, as one of the guardians of an infant, as guardian of the person or property of an incapacitated person under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) or Chapter 21 (§ 64.2-2100 et seq.), or as one of the guardians or conservators, unless the corporation is authorized to do business in the Commonwealth. Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair the validity of any appointment or qualification made prior to January 1, 1962, nor to affect in any way the other provisions of this chapter or of § 64.2-609. The provisions of this section shall not authorize or allow any appointment or qualification prohibited by § 6.2-803.

C. The fact that an individual nominated or appointed as the guardian of the person of an infant is not a resident of the Commonwealth shall not prevent the qualification of the individual to serve as the sole guardian of the person of the infant.

1924, p. 415; 1936, p. 760; Michie Code 1942, § 5400a; 1950, p. 724, § 26-59; 1962, c. 576; 1983, c. 467; 1984, c. 39; 1986, cc. 53, 543; 1989, c. 535; 1995, cc. 678, 684; 1996, c. 680; 1997, c. 921; 2001, c. 836; 2011, c. 518; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1427. How property of nonresident infant or incapacitated person transferred to foreign guardian, conservator, or committee.

When any nonresident infant or incapacitated person is entitled to property or money in the Commonwealth, a petition to remove the property or money to the domicile of the infant or incapacitated person may be filed by his guardian, conservator, committee, or other fiduciary lawfully appointed and qualified in the state or country of his residence, in the circuit court of the county or city in which the property or money, or some part thereof, is located. If entitlement to the property or money was acquired other than by a will or was acquired by a will that restricts the transfer out of the Commonwealth, the infant or incapacitated person, and the guardian of the infant or the conservator or other fiduciary of the incapacitated person appointed in the Commonwealth, if there is one, shall be made a party defendant to this petition. The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for the infant or incapacitated person who, as well as the conservator or other fiduciary, if there is one, shall answer the petition on oath. Upon a hearing of the case on its merits, or upon the petition without hearing if entitlement to the property or money was acquired by a will that does not restrict the transfer out of the Commonwealth, the court may order the fiduciary to pay and deliver to the foreign guardian, conservator, committee, or fiduciary, or his agent or attorney, all personal property and money in his possession belonging to the infant or incapacitated person, and authorize the foreign guardian, conservator, committee, or fiduciary to sue for, recover, and receive all money and personal property, including the accruing rents of his real estate, that belongs to the infant or incapacitated person in the same manner as if he were appointed a guardian, conservator, committee, or fiduciary of the infant or incapacitated person in the Commonwealth, and to remove the money and personal property to the state or country in which the foreign fiduciary was appointed and qualified.

Code 1919, § 5350; Code 1950, § 26-60; 1968, c. 399; 1983, c. 487; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1428. Transfer of proceeds of sale of real estate of nonresident beneficiary to foreign fiduciary.

When the proceeds of sale of the real estate of an infant, incapacitated person, or cestui que trust are invested, or required to be invested under the direction of the circuit court, and the infant, incapacitated person, or cestui que trust does not reside in the Commonwealth, on the petition of a guardian, committee, conservator, or trustee lawfully appointed or qualified in the state or country of residence of the infant, incapacitated person, or cestui que trust, the court under whose direction such proceeds are so invested, or required to be invested, may, with the consent of the persons residing in the Commonwealth who would be the heirs of the infant, incapacitated person, or cestui que trust, if he were dead, order such proceeds to be paid and delivered to the foreign guardian, committee, conservator, or trustee, or his agent or attorney, and removed by him to the state or country in which he was appointed and qualified. The court may refuse to permit the payment and delivery if the court determines that the removal of the trust subject will defeat or conflict with the provisions of the deed, will, or other instrument creating the trust.

Code 1919, § 5351; Code 1950, § 26-61; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1429. Notice and bond required prior to transfer.

No order shall be made pursuant to §§ 64.2-1427 and 64.2-1428 until (i) notice of the petition has been published once a week for four successive weeks in a newspaper published in the county or city in which the petition is filed, or if there is none, then in a newspaper published in an adjoining county; (ii) it is shown by authentic documentary evidence that the foreign guardian, conservator, or committee has, in the state or country where he qualified, given bond with surety sufficient to insure his accountability for the whole amount of the estate in his possession or that may be received by him; and (iii) the circuit court determines that the removal of such money or property from the Commonwealth will not impair the rights or be prejudicial to the interests either of the infant or incapacitated person or of any other person.

Code 1919, § 5352; 1930, p. 736; Code 1950, § 26-62; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1430. When bond may be dispensed with.

In any case in which the circuit court finds that the laws of the state or country in which the infant or incapacitated person resides and the foreign guardian, conservator, or committee was appointed and qualified do not provide for the giving of a bond by the guardian, conservator, or committee, the court, in its discretion, may permit the money and other estate of the infant or incapacitated person to be paid and delivered to the foreign fiduciary although he has not given the bond required by § 64.2-1429.

Code 1919, § 5352; 1930, p. 736; Code 1950, § 26-63; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1431. Sale of property and payment of proceeds to nonresident trustee.

If, in any proceeding under § 64.2-1427 or in case of an interest in property acquired by a will that does not restrict the transfer of property out of the Commonwealth upon petition under § 64.2-1427, the circuit court may order the property, or any part of it, to be sold, and the proceeds to be paid to the foreign guardian, conservator, committee, or nonresident trustee.

Code 1919, § 5355; Code 1950, § 26-66; 1968, c. 399; 1997, c. 801; 2005, c. 935; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1432. Discharge from liability of resident guardian, committee, conservator, or trustee.

When any guardian, committee, conservator, trustee, or other person in the Commonwealth shall pay over, transfer, or deliver any estate in his possession or vested in him, under any order or decree made in pursuance of this chapter, he shall be discharged from all responsibility therefor.

Code 1919, § 5356; Code 1950, § 26-67; 1997, c. 801; 2012, c. 614.

Chapter 15. Investments.

§ 64.2-1500. Court orders regarding money in possession of fiduciary.

If a report made pursuant to § 64.2-1210 or a special report of the commissioner of accounts shows that money is in the possession of a fiduciary, the circuit court in which the report is filed may order that the money be invested or loaned out, or make such other order respecting the money as the court deems proper.

Code 1919, § 5430; Code 1950, § 26-38; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1501. Time within which guardian of an estate, conservator, or other fiduciary to invest funds; reasonable diligence required.

A. Whenever a guardian of an estate, conservator, or other fiduciary charged with the investment of funds collects any principal, he shall have a reasonable time, not to exceed four months, to invest or loan the funds and shall not be charged with interest thereon until the expiration of such time. A guardian of an estate, conservator, or any other fiduciary shall only be required to invest in accordance with the provisions of §§ 64.2-1502 through 64.2-1506 and the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.) and, if he invests in accordance with these provisions, he shall be accountable only for such interest and profits as are earned. If any funds are otherwise invested without the previous consent of the court having jurisdiction of such trust funds, the burden shall be on the guardian of an estate, conservator, or other fiduciary before his settlement is approved by the commissioner of accounts to show to the satisfaction of the commissioner of accounts that, after exercising reasonable diligence, he was unable to invest the funds in accordance with these provisions and that the investment made was reasonable and proper under all of the circumstances and fair to the beneficiary of the funds.

B. This section shall not be construed as altering the provisions of any will, deed, or other instrument that give the fiduciary discretion as to the rate of interest, character of security, nature or investment under the trust, or time within which the trust funds are to be loaned or invested.

Code 1919, § 5325; 1938, p. 203; 1946, p. 223; Code 1950, § 26-39; 1997, c. 842; 1999, c. 772; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1502. In what securities fiduciaries may invest; definitions.

A. As used in this section:

"Fiduciary" has the same meaning as provided in § 8.01-2 and also includes an attorney-in-fact or agent acting for a principal under a written power of attorney, a custodian under § 64.2-1911, and a custodial trustee under § 64.2-906.

"National rating service" means Standard & Poor's Corporation, Moody's Investors Service, Inc., Duff and Phelps, Inc., Fitch Investors Corporation, and any successor to the rating business of any of them.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of law designating as legal investments for fiduciaries the bonds, notes, obligations, or other evidences of indebtedness issued by a governmental entity or political subdivision of the Commonwealth, including but not limited to agencies, authorities, commissions, districts, boards, or local governments, and except as specifically provided in § 2.2-4519, fiduciaries, whether individual or corporate, shall, except as limited in subsection E, be conclusively presumed to have been prudent in investing the funds held by them in a fiduciary capacity in only the following securities:

1. Obligations of the Commonwealth, its agencies and political subdivisions. The following obligations:

a. Bonds, notes, and other evidences of indebtedness of the Commonwealth and securities unconditionally guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by the Commonwealth;

b. Revenue bonds, revenue notes, or other evidences of revenue indebtedness issued by agencies or authorities of the Commonwealth upon which there is no default; and

c. Bonds, notes, and other evidences of indebtedness of any county, city, town, district, authority, or other public body in the Commonwealth upon which there is no default provided that such bonds, notes, and other evidences of indebtedness are (i) direct legal obligations of the public body, for the payment of which the public body has pledged its full faith and credit and unlimited taxing power, or (ii) unconditionally guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by the public body.

In every case referred to in this subdivision, such bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness shall be rated in one of the two highest rating categories of at least one national rating service and not rated in a category lower than the two highest rating categories of any national rating service. Determination of an obligation's rating in one of the two highest rating categories shall be made without regard to any refinement or gradation of such rating category by numerical or other modifier. In addition, the remaining maturity of such bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness shall not be greater than five years.

2. Obligations of the United States. Bonds, notes, and other obligations of the United States and securities unconditionally guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by the United States with a remaining maturity not greater than five years, except in the case of savings bonds, which may have a longer maturity. The obligations enumerated in this subdivision may be held directly or in the form of repurchase agreements collateralized by such obligations or in the form of securities of any open-end or closed-end management type investment company or investment trust registered under the federal Investment Company Act of 1940, provided that the portfolio of such investment company or investment trust is limited to such obligations or repurchase agreements collateralized by such obligations, or securities of other such investment companies or investment trusts whose portfolios are so restricted.

3. Savings accounts, time deposits, or certificates of deposit. Savings accounts, time deposits, or certificates of deposit in any bank, savings bank, trust company, savings and loan association, or credit union authorized to do business in the Commonwealth, but only to the extent that such accounts, deposits, or certificates are fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any successor federal agency or by the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund or any successor to it.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, investments listed in § 2.2-4519 as in effect prior to July 1, 1992, which continue to be held on July 1, 1992, shall be subject to § 64.2-781, and any reference to the Virginia "legal list" or to § 2.2-4519 or any predecessor statute contained in a will, trust, or other instrument that was irrevocable on June 30, 1992, shall be construed to refer to such section as in effect on June 30, 1992, or at such earlier time as may be specified in the controlling document, absent an expression of intent to the contrary contained in such document.

D. The permissible investments specified in subsection B are not exclusive and shall not be construed to limit a fiduciary's investments as permitted pursuant to the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.).

E. The presumption under subsection B shall apply to (i) a fiduciary only for a calendar year in which the value of the intangible personal property under the fiduciary's control or management does not exceed $100,000 at the beginning of such year or (ii) a fiduciary who, on motion for good cause shown, has obtained express authorization from the court having jurisdiction over the fiduciary for the presumption under subsection B to apply.

1992, c. 810, § 26-40.01; 1996, c. 508; 1999, c. 772; 2005, c. 62; 2007, c. 517; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1503. Investment in bonds or other obligations issued, guaranteed, or assured by Inter-American Development Bank.

Executors, administrators, trustees, and other fiduciaries, both individual and corporate, may invest the funds held by them in a fiduciary capacity in bonds and other obligations issued, guaranteed, or assured by the Inter-American Development Bank, which are and shall be considered lawful investments.

1968, c. 65, § 26-40.1; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1504. Investments in municipal bonds by banks or trust companies.

Subject to the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.) and the common law duties of a fiduciary, unless the governing instrument or a court order specifically directs otherwise, a bank or trust company serving as personal representative, trustee, guardian, agent, or in any other fiduciary capacity, may purchase during the existence of any underwriting or selling syndicate any state or municipal security otherwise authorized by this title in spite of the fact that the fiduciary, or an affiliate thereof under common ownership, participates or has participated as a member of a syndicate underwriting such security if the fiduciary purchases the security from another syndicate member or from an affiliate thereof and not from itself or any of its affiliates.

1988, c. 347, § 26-40.2; 1999, c. 772; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1505. Investments that cease to be eligible may be retained.

Investments made under the provisions of § 64.2-1502, if in conformity with the requirements of that section at the time the investments were made, may be retained even though they cease to be eligible for purchase under the provisions of that section, but shall be subject to the provisions of the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.).

Code 1919, § 5431; 1942, p. 662; Code 1950, § 26-44; 1992, c. 810; 1999, c. 772; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1506. Investment in mutual fund affiliated with fiduciary.

Unless prohibited or otherwise limited by the instrument under which a fiduciary is acting, including a fiduciary of an agency account, the fiduciary may invest in a mutual company, investment trust, or investment company sponsored, advised, or sold by the fiduciary or an affiliate if the investment is otherwise appropriate as an investment. In such case, the fiduciary shall not take a commission as fiduciary to the extent that the fiduciary, or its affiliate or division, receive compensation for services relating to advice or services to such mutual fund, investment trust, or investment company, unless (i) otherwise expressly agreed in writing by the creator of the trust or affected beneficiary or (ii) the fiduciary discloses by statement, prospectus, or otherwise to all current income beneficiaries of an account the rate, formula, or other method by which the compensation received or to be received by the fiduciary or affiliate or division of the fiduciary for such advice and services is determined. In such case, the compensation for such advice and services shall not exceed the customary or prevailing amount that is charged by a fiduciary, or its affiliate or division, for providing comparable advice and services for the benefit of nonfiduciary accounts.

1990, c. 66, § 26-44.1; 1992, c. 684; 2012, c. 614.

Part B. Powers of Attorney.

Chapter 16. Uniform Power of Attorney Act.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 64.2-1600. Definitions.

For the purposes of this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Agent" means a person granted authority to act for a principal under a power of attorney, whether denominated an agent, attorney-in-fact, or otherwise. The term includes an original agent, coagent, successor agent, and a person to which an agent's authority is delegated.

"Durable," with respect to a power of attorney, means not terminated by the principal's incapacity.

"Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

"Good faith" means honesty in fact.

"Incapacity" means inability of an individual to manage property or business affairs because the individual:

1. Has an impairment in the ability to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions even with the use of technological assistance; or

2. Is missing or outside the United States and unable to return.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Power of attorney" means a writing or other record that grants authority to an agent to act in the place of the principal, whether or not the term power of attorney is used.

"Presently exercisable general power of appointment," with respect to property or a property interest subject to a power of appointment, means power exercisable at the time in question to vest absolute ownership in the principal individually, the principal's estate, the principal's creditors, or the creditors of the principal's estate. The term includes a power of appointment not exercisable until the occurrence of a specified event, the satisfaction of an ascertainable standard, or the passage of a specified period only after the occurrence of the specified event, the satisfaction of the ascertainable standard, or the passage of the specified period. The term does not include a power exercisable in a fiduciary capacity or only by will.

"Principal" means an individual who grants authority to an agent in a power of attorney.

"Property" means anything that may be the subject of ownership, whether real or personal, or legal or equitable, or any interest or right therein.

"Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

"Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a record: (i) to execute or adopt a tangible symbol or (ii) to attach to or logically associate with the record an electronic sound, symbol, or process.

"State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

"Stocks and bonds" means stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and all other types of securities and financial instruments, whether held directly, indirectly, or in any other manner. The term does not include commodity futures contracts and call or put options on stocks or stock indexes.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-73; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1601. Applicability.

This chapter applies to all powers of attorney except:

1. A power to the extent it is coupled with an interest in the subject of the power, including a power given to or for the benefit of a creditor in connection with a credit transaction;

2. A power to make health care decisions;

3. A proxy or other delegation to exercise voting rights or management rights with respect to an entity;

4. A power created on a form prescribed by a government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality for a governmental purpose; and

5. A power to make arrangements for burial or disposition of remains pursuant to § 54.1-2825.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-74; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1602. Power of attorney is durable.

A power of attorney created under this chapter is durable unless it expressly provides that it is terminated by the incapacity of the principal.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-75; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1603. Execution of power of attorney.

A power of attorney shall be signed by the principal or in the principal's conscious presence by another individual directed by the principal to sign the principal's name on the power of attorney. A signature on a power of attorney is presumed to be genuine if the principal acknowledges the signature before a notary public or other individual authorized by law to take acknowledgments. A power of attorney in order to be recordable shall satisfy the requirements of § 55-106.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-76; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1604. Validity of power of attorney.

A. A power of attorney executed in the Commonwealth on or after July 1, 2010, is valid if its execution complies with § 64.2-1603.

B. A power of attorney executed in the Commonwealth before July 1, 2010, is valid if its execution complied with the law of the Commonwealth as it existed at the time of execution.

C. A power of attorney executed other than in the Commonwealth is valid in the Commonwealth if, when the power of attorney was executed, the execution complied with (i) the law of the jurisdiction that determines the meaning and effect of the power of attorney pursuant to § 64.2-1605; (ii) the requirements for a military power of attorney pursuant to 10 U.S.C. § 1044b, as amended; or (iii) the laws of the Commonwealth.

D. Except as otherwise provided by statute other than this chapter, a photocopy or electronically transmitted copy of an original power of attorney has the same effect as the original.

E. An agent in possession of a general, special, or limited power of attorney or other writing vesting any power or authority in him shall, where the instrument is otherwise valid, be deemed to possess the powers and authority granted by such instrument notwithstanding any failure of the principal to deliver the instrument to him, and persons dealing with such agent shall have no obligation to inquire into the manner or circumstances by which such possession was acquired, provided, however, that nothing herein shall preclude the court from considering such manner or circumstances as relevant factors in any proceeding brought to terminate, suspend, or limit the authority of the agent.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-77; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1605. Meaning and effect of power of attorney.

The meaning and effect of a power of attorney is determined by the law of the jurisdiction indicated in the power of attorney and, in the absence of an indication of jurisdiction, by the law of the jurisdiction in which the power of attorney was executed.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-78; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1606. Nomination of conservator or guardian; relation of agent to court-appointed fiduciary.

A. In a power of attorney, a principal may nominate a conservator or guardian of the principal's estate or guardian of the principal's person for consideration by the court if protective proceedings for the principal's estate or person are begun after the principal executes the power of attorney.

B. If, after a principal executes a power of attorney, a court appoints a conservator or guardian of the principal's estate or other fiduciary charged with the management of some or all of the principal's property, the agent is accountable to the fiduciary as well as to the principal. The power of attorney is not terminated and the agent's authority continues unless limited, suspended, or terminated by the court.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-79; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1607. When power of attorney effective.

A. A power of attorney is effective when executed unless the principal provides in the power of attorney that it becomes effective at a future date or upon the occurrence of a future event or contingency.

B. If a power of attorney becomes effective upon the occurrence of a future event or contingency, the principal, in the power of attorney, may authorize one or more persons to determine in a writing or other record that the event or contingency has occurred.

C. If a power of attorney becomes effective upon the principal's incapacity and the principal has not authorized a person to determine whether the principal is incapacitated, or the person authorized is unable or unwilling to make the determination, the power of attorney becomes effective upon a determination in a writing or other record by (i) the principal's attending physician and a second physician or licensed clinical psychologist after personal examination of the principal that the principal is incapacitated within the meaning of subdivision 1 of the definition of incapacity in § 64.2-1600 or (ii) an attorney-at-law, a judge, or an appropriate governmental official that the principal is incapacitated within the meaning of subdivision 1 of the definition of incapacity in § 64.2-1600.

D. A person authorized by the principal in the power of attorney to determine that the principal is incapacitated may act as the principal's personal representative pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, §§ 1171 through 1179 of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320d, as amended, and applicable regulations, to obtain access to the principal's health care information and communicate with the principal's health care provider.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-80; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1608. Termination of power of attorney or agent's authority.

A. A power of attorney terminates when:

1. The principal dies;

2. The principal becomes incapacitated, if the power of attorney is not durable;

3. The principal revokes the power of attorney;

4. The power of attorney provides that it terminates;

5. The purpose of the power of attorney is accomplished; or

6. The principal revokes the agent's authority or the agent dies, becomes incapacitated, or resigns, and the power of attorney does not provide for another agent to act under the power of attorney.

B. An agent's authority terminates when:

1. The principal revokes the authority;

2. The agent dies, becomes incapacitated, or resigns;

3. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an action is filed (i) for the divorce or annulment of the agent's marriage to the principal or their legal separation, (ii) by either the agent or principal for separate maintenance from the other, or (iii) by either the agent or principal for custody or visitation of a child in common with the other; or

4. The power of attorney terminates.

C. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an agent's authority is exercisable until the authority terminates under subsection B, notwithstanding a lapse of time since the execution of the power of attorney.

D. Termination of an agent's authority or of a power of attorney is not effective as to the agent or another person that, without actual knowledge of the termination, acts in good faith under the power of attorney. An act so performed, unless otherwise invalid or unenforceable, binds the principal and the principal's successors in interest.

E. Incapacity of the principal of a power of attorney that is not durable does not revoke or terminate the power of attorney as to an agent or other person that, without actual knowledge of the incapacity, acts in good faith under the power of attorney. An act so performed, unless otherwise invalid or unenforceable, binds the principal and the principal's successors in interest.

F. The execution of a power of attorney does not revoke a power of attorney previously executed by the principal unless the subsequent power of attorney provides that the previous power of attorney is revoked or that all other powers of attorney are revoked.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-81; 2012, cc. 57, 614.

§ 64.2-1609. Coagents and successor agents.

A. A principal may designate two or more persons to act as coagents. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, each coagent may exercise its authority independently.

B. A principal may designate one or more successor agents to act if an agent resigns, dies, becomes incapacitated, is not qualified to serve, or declines to serve. A principal may grant authority to designate one or more successor agents to an agent or other person designated by name, office, or function. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, a successor agent (i) has the same authority as that granted to the original agent; and (ii) may not act until all predecessor agents have resigned, died, become incapacitated, are no longer qualified to serve, or have declined to serve.

C. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney and subsection D, an agent that does not participate in or conceal a breach of fiduciary duty committed by another agent, including a predecessor agent, is not liable for the actions of the other agent.

D. An agent that has actual knowledge of a breach or imminent breach of fiduciary duty by another agent shall notify the principal and, if the principal is incapacitated, take any action reasonably appropriate in the circumstances to safeguard the principal's best interest. An agent that fails to notify the principal or take action as required by this subsection is liable for the reasonably foreseeable damages that could have been avoided if the agent had notified the principal or taken such action.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-82; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1610. Reimbursement and compensation of agent.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an agent is entitled to reimbursement of expenses reasonably incurred on behalf of the principal and to compensation that is reasonable under the circumstances.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-83; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1611. Agent's acceptance.

Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, a person accepts appointment as an agent under a power of attorney by exercising authority or performing duties as an agent or by any other assertion or conduct indicating acceptance.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-84; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1612. Agent's duties.

A. Notwithstanding provisions in the power of attorney, an agent that has accepted appointment shall:

1. Act in accordance with the principal's reasonable expectations to the extent actually known by the agent and, otherwise, in the principal's best interest;

2. Act in good faith; and

3. Act only within the scope of authority granted in the power of attorney.

B. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, an agent that has accepted appointment shall:

1. Act loyally for the principal's benefit;

2. Act so as not to create a conflict of interest that impairs the agent's ability to act impartially in the principal's best interest;

3. Act with the care, competence, and diligence ordinarily exercised by agents in similar circumstances;

4. Keep a record of all receipts, disbursements, and transactions made on behalf of the principal;

5. Cooperate with a person that has authority to make health care decisions for the principal to carry out the principal's reasonable expectations to the extent actually known by the agent and otherwise act in the principal's best interest; and

6. Attempt to preserve the principal's estate plan, to the extent actually known by the agent, if preserving the plan is consistent with the principal's best interest based on all relevant factors, including:

a. The value and nature of the principal's property;

b. The principal's foreseeable obligations and need for maintenance;

c. Minimization of taxes, including income, estate, inheritance, generation-skipping transfer, and gift taxes; and

d. Eligibility for a benefit, a program, or assistance under a statute or regulation.

C. An agent that acts in good faith is not liable to any beneficiary of the principal's estate plan for failure to preserve the plan.

D. An agent that acts with care, competence, and diligence for the best interest of the principal is not liable solely because the agent also benefits from the act or has an individual or conflicting interest in relation to the property or affairs of the principal.

E. If an agent is selected by the principal because of special skills or expertise possessed by the agent or in reliance on the agent's representation that the agent has special skills or expertise, the special skills or expertise shall be considered in determining whether the agent has acted with care, competence, and diligence under the circumstances.

F. Absent a breach of duty to the principal, an agent is not liable if the value of the principal's property declines.

G. An agent that exercises authority to delegate to another person the authority granted by the principal or that engages another person on behalf of the principal is not liable for an act, error of judgment, or default of that person if the agent exercises care, competence, and diligence in selecting and monitoring the person; however, nothing herein is intended to abrogate any duty of the agent under the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.).

H. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, an agent shall disclose receipts, disbursements, or transactions conducted on behalf of the principal if requested by the principal, a guardian, a conservator, another fiduciary acting for the principal, or, upon the death of the principal, by the personal representative or successor in interest of the principal's estate. If so requested, within 30 days the agent shall comply with the request or provide a writing or other record substantiating why additional time is needed and shall comply with the request within an additional 30 days.

I. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, an agent shall, on reasonable request made by a person listed in subdivisions A 3 through A 9 of § 64.2-1614 who has a good faith belief that the principal suffers an incapacity or, if deceased, suffered incapacity at the time the agent acted, disclose to such person the extent to which he has chosen to act and the actions taken on behalf of the principal within the five years prior to either (i) the date of the request or (ii) the date of the death of the principal, if the principal is deceased at the time such request is made, and shall permit reasonable inspection of records pertaining to such actions by such person. In all cases where the principal is deceased at the time such request is made, such request shall be made within one year after the date of the death of the principal. If so requested, within 30 days the agent shall comply with the request or provide a writing or other record substantiating why additional time is needed and shall comply with the request within an additional 30 days.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-85; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1613. Exoneration of agent.

A provision in a power of attorney relieving an agent of liability for breach of duty is binding on the principal and the principal's successors in interest except to the extent the provision:

1. Relieves the agent of liability for breach of duty committed dishonestly, with an improper motive, or with reckless indifference to the purposes of the power of attorney or the best interest of the principal; or

2. Was inserted as a result of an abuse of a confidential or fiduciary relationship with the principal.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-86; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1614. Judicial relief.

A. In addition to the remedies referenced in § 64.2-1621, the following persons may petition a court to construe a power of attorney or review the agent's conduct, and grant appropriate relief:

1. The principal or the agent;

2. A guardian, conservator, personal representative of the estate of a deceased principal, or other fiduciary acting for the principal;

3. A person authorized to make health care decisions for the principal;

4. The principal's spouse, parent, or descendant;

5. An adult who is a brother, sister, niece, or nephew of the principal;

6. A person named as a beneficiary to receive any property, benefit, or contractual right on the principal's death or as a beneficiary of a trust created by or for the principal that has a financial interest in the principal's estate;

7. The adult protective services unit of the local department of social services for the county or city where the principal resides or is located;

8. The principal's caregiver or another person that demonstrates sufficient interest in the principal's welfare; and

9. A person asked to accept the power of attorney.

B. 1. Whether or not supplemental relief is sought in the proceeding, where an agent has violated duties of disclosure imposed by § 64.2-1612, any person to whom such duties are owing may, for the purpose of obtaining information pertinent to the need or propriety of (i) instituting a proceeding under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.); (ii) terminating, suspending, or limiting the authority of the agent; or (iii) bringing a proceeding to hold the agent, or a transferee from such agent, liable for breach of duty or to recover particular assets or the value of such assets of a principal or deceased principal, petition a circuit court for discovery from the agent of information and records pertaining to actions taken pursuant to a power of attorney.

2. The petition may be filed in the circuit court of the county or city in which the agent resides or has his principal place of employment, or, if a nonresident, in any court in which a determination of incompetency or incapacity of the principal is proper under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.), or, if a conservator or guardian has been appointed for the principal, in the court that made the appointment. The court, after reasonable notice to the agent and to the principal, if no guardian or conservator has been appointed, or to the conservator or guardian, if one has been appointed, may conduct a hearing on the petition. The court, upon the hearing on the petition and upon consideration of the interest of the principal and his estate, may dismiss the petition or may enter such order or orders respecting discovery as it may deem appropriate, including an order that the agent respond to all discovery methods that the petitioner might employ in a civil action or suit subject to the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia. Upon the failure of the agent to make discovery, the court may make and enforce further orders respecting discovery that would be proper in a civil action subject to such Rules and may award expenses, including reasonable attorney fees, as therein provided. Furthermore, upon completion of discovery, the court, if satisfied that prior to filing the petition the petitioner had requested the information or records that are the subject of ordered discovery pursuant to § 64.2-1612, may, upon finding that the failure to comply with the request for information was unreasonable, order the agent to pay the petitioner's expenses in obtaining discovery, including reasonable attorney fees.

3. A determination to grant or deny in whole or in part discovery sought hereunder shall not be considered a finding regarding the competence, capacity, or impairment of the principal, nor shall the granting or denial of discovery hereunder preclude the availability of other remedies involving protection of the person or estate of the principal or the rights and duties of the agent.

C. The agent may, after reasonable notice to the principal, petition the circuit court for authority to make gifts of the principal's property to the extent not inconsistent with the express terms of the power of attorney or other writing. The court shall determine the amounts, recipients, and proportions of any gifts of the principal's property after considering all relevant factors including, without limitation, those contained in subsection C of § 64.2-1638.

D. Upon motion by the principal, the court shall dismiss a petition filed under this section, unless the court finds that the principal lacks capacity to revoke the agent's authority or the power of attorney.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-87; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1615. Agent's liability.

An agent that violates this chapter is liable to the principal or the principal's successors in interest for the amount required to:

1. Restore the value of the principal's property to what it would have been had the violation not occurred; and

2. Reimburse the principal or the principal's successors in interest for the attorney fees and costs paid on the agent's behalf.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-88; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1616. Agent's resignation; notice.

Unless the power of attorney provides a different method for an agent's resignation, an agent may resign by giving notice to the principal and, if the principal is incapacitated:

1. To the conservator or guardian, if one has been appointed for the principal, and a coagent or successor agent;

2. If there is no person described in subdivision 1, to an adult who is a spouse, child or other descendant, parent, brother, or sister of the principal;

3. If none of the foregoing persons is reasonably available, another person reasonably believed by the agent to have sufficient interest in the principal's welfare; or

4. If none of the foregoing persons is reasonably available, the adult protective services unit of the local department of social services for the county or city where the principal resides or is located.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-89; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1617. Acceptance of and reliance upon acknowledged power of attorney.

A. For purposes of this section and § 64.2-1618, "acknowledged" means verified before a notary public or other individual authorized to take acknowledgments.

B. A person that in good faith accepts an acknowledged power of attorney that has been signed in accordance with § 64.2-1603 without actual knowledge that the power of attorney is void, invalid, or terminated, that the purported agent's authority is void, invalid, or terminated, or that the agent is exceeding or improperly exercising the agent's authority may rely upon the power of attorney as if the power of attorney were genuine, valid, and still in effect, the agent's authority were genuine, valid, and still in effect, and the agent had not exceeded and had properly exercised the authority. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an acknowledged power of attorney that contains a forged signature of the principal.

C. A person that is asked to accept an acknowledged power of attorney may request, and rely upon, without further investigation, any or all of the following:

1. An agent's certification under oath of any factual matter concerning the principal, agent, or power of attorney;

2. An English translation of the power of attorney if the power of attorney contains, in whole or in part, language other than English; and

3. An opinion of the counsel for the principal or the agent, or the opinion of counsel for the person, as to any matter of law concerning the power of attorney if the person making the request provides in a writing or other record the reason for the request.

D. An English translation or an opinion of counsel for the principal or the agent requested under this section shall be provided at the principal's expense.

E. An agent's certification, an English translation, or an opinion of counsel shall be in recordable form if the exercise of the power requires recordation of any instrument under the laws of the Commonwealth.

F. For purposes of this section and § 64.2-1618, a person that conducts activities through employees and exercises commercially reasonable procedures to communicate information concerning powers of attorney among its employees is without actual knowledge of a fact relating to a power of attorney, a principal, or an agent if the employee conducting the transaction involving the power of attorney has followed such procedures and is nonetheless without actual knowledge of the fact.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-90; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1618. Liability for refusal to accept acknowledged power of attorney.

A. Except as otherwise provided in subsection B:

1. A person shall either accept an acknowledged power of attorney or request a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617 no later than seven business days after presentation of the power of attorney for acceptance;

2. If a person requests a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617, the person shall accept the power of attorney no later than five business days after receipt of the certification, translation, or opinion of counsel; and

3. A person may not require an additional or different form of power of attorney for authority granted in the power of attorney presented.

B. A person is not required to accept an acknowledged power of attorney for a transaction if:

1. The person is not otherwise required to engage in the transaction with the principal in the same circumstances, or the principal has otherwise relieved the person from an obligation to engage in the transaction with an agent representing the principal under a power of attorney;

2. Engaging in the transaction with the agent or the principal in the same circumstances would be inconsistent with federal law;

3. The person has actual knowledge of the termination of the agent's authority or of the power of attorney before exercise of the power;

4. A request for a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617 is refused;

5. The person in good faith believes that the power is not valid or that the agent does not have the authority to perform the act requested, whether or not a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617 has been requested or provided; or

6. The person makes, or has actual knowledge that another person has made, a report to the local adult protective services department or adult protective services hotline stating a good faith belief that the principal may be subject to physical or financial abuse, neglect, exploitation, or abandonment by the agent or a person acting for or with the agent.

C. A person that refuses in violation of this section to accept an acknowledged power of attorney is subject to:

1. A court order mandating acceptance of the power of attorney; and

2. Liability for reasonable attorney fees and costs incurred in any action or proceeding that confirms the validity of the power of attorney or mandates acceptance of the power of attorney.

D. For purposes of this section, "business day" shall refer to any day other than Saturday, Sunday, or any day designated as a holiday by the Commonwealth or the federal government.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-91; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1619. Principles of law and equity.

Unless displaced by a provision of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-92; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1620. Laws applicable to financial institutions and entities.

This chapter does not supersede any other law applicable to financial institutions or other entities, and the other law controls if inconsistent with this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-93; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1621. Remedies under other law.

The remedies under this chapter are not exclusive and do not abrogate any right or remedy, including a court-supervised accounting, under the laws of the Commonwealth other than this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-94; 2012, c. 614.

Article 2. Authority.

§ 64.2-1622. Authority that requires specific grant; grant of general authority.

A. Subject to the provisions of subsection H, an agent under a power of attorney may do the following on behalf of the principal or with the principal's property only if the power of attorney expressly grants the agent the authority and exercise of the authority is not otherwise prohibited or limited by another statute, agreement, or instrument to which the authority or property is subject:

1. Create, amend, revoke, or terminate an inter vivos trust;

2. Make a gift;

3. Create or change rights of survivorship;

4. Create or change a beneficiary designation;

5. Delegate authority granted under the power of attorney;

6. Waive the principal's right to be a beneficiary of a joint and survivor annuity, including a survivor benefit under a retirement plan;

7. Exercise fiduciary powers that the principal has authority to delegate; or

8. Have authority over the content of an electronic communication of the principal as provided by § 64.2-123.

B. Notwithstanding a grant of authority to do an act described in subsection A or H, unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an agent that is not an ancestor, spouse, or descendant of the principal may not exercise authority under a power of attorney to create in the agent, or in an individual to whom the agent owes a legal obligation of support, an interest in the principal's property, whether by gift, right of survivorship, beneficiary designation, disclaimer, or otherwise.

C. Subject to subsections A, B, D, and E, if a power of attorney grants to an agent authority to do all acts that a principal could do, the agent has the general authority described in § 64.2-124 and §§ 64.2-1625 through 64.2-1637.

D. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides and subject to subsection H, a grant of authority to make a gift is subject to § 64.2-1638.

E. Subject to subsections A, B, and D, if the subjects over which authority is granted in a power of attorney are similar or overlap, the broadest authority controls.

F. Authority granted in a power of attorney is exercisable with respect to property that the principal has when the power of attorney is executed or acquires later, whether or not the property is located in the Commonwealth and whether or not the authority is exercised or the power of attorney is executed in the Commonwealth.

G. An act performed by an agent pursuant to a power of attorney has the same effect and inures to the benefit of and binds the principal and the principal's successors in interest as if the principal had performed the act.

H. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, if a power of attorney grants to an agent authority to do all acts that a principal could do, the agent shall have the authority to make gifts in any amount of any of the principal's property to any individuals or to organizations described in §§ 170(c) and 2522(a) of the Internal Revenue Code or corresponding future provisions of federal tax law, or both, in accordance with the principal's personal history of making or joining in the making of lifetime gifts. This subsection shall not in any way impair the right or power of any principal, by express words in the power of attorney, to authorize, or limit the authority of, an agent to make gifts of the principal's property.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-95; 2012, c. 614; 2017, cc. 33, 80.

§ 64.2-1623. Incorporation of authority.

A. An agent has authority described in this article if the power of attorney refers to general authority with respect to the descriptive term for the subjects stated in §§ 64.2-1625 through 64.2-1638, or cites the section in which the authority is described.

B. A reference in a power of attorney to general authority with respect to the descriptive term for a subject in §§ 64.2-1625 through 64.2-1638 or a citation to a section of §§ 64.2-1625 through 64.2-1638 incorporates the entire section as if it were set out in full in the power of attorney.

C. A principal may modify authority incorporated by reference.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-96; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1624. Construction of authority generally.

Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, by executing a power of attorney that incorporates by reference a subject described in §§ 64.2-1625 through 64.2-1638 or that grants to an agent authority to do all acts that a principal could do pursuant to subsection C of § 64.2-1622, a principal authorizes the agent, with respect to that subject, to:

1. Demand, receive, and obtain by litigation or otherwise, money or another thing of value to which the principal is, may become, or claims to be entitled, and conserve, invest, disburse, or use anything so received or obtained for the purposes intended;

2. Contract in any manner with any person, on terms agreeable to the agent, to accomplish a purpose of a transaction and perform, rescind, cancel, terminate, reform, restate, release, or modify the contract or another contract made by or on behalf of the principal;

3. Execute, acknowledge, seal, deliver, file, or record any instrument or communication the agent considers desirable to accomplish a purpose of a transaction, including creating at any time a schedule listing some or all of the principal's property and attaching it to the power of attorney;

4. Initiate, participate in, submit to alternative dispute resolution, settle, oppose, or propose or accept a compromise with respect to a claim existing in favor of or against the principal or intervene in litigation relating to the claim;

5. Seek on the principal's behalf the assistance of a court or other governmental agency to carry out an act authorized in the power of attorney;

6. Engage, compensate, and discharge an attorney, accountant, discretionary investment manager, expert witness, or other advisor;

7. Prepare, execute, and file a record, report, or other document to safeguard or promote the principal's interest under a statute or regulation;

8. Communicate with any representative or employee of a government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, on behalf of the principal;

9. Access communications intended for, and communicate on behalf of the principal, whether by mail, electronic transmission, telephone, or other means; and

10. Do any lawful act with respect to the subject and all property related to the subject.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-97; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1625. Real property.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to real property authorizes the agent to:

1. Demand, buy, lease, receive, accept as a gift or as security for an extension of credit, or otherwise acquire or reject an interest in real property or a right incident to real property;

2. Sell; exchange; convey with or without covenants, representations, or warranties; quitclaim; release; surrender; retain title for security; encumber; partition; consent to partitioning; subject to an easement or covenant; subdivide; apply for zoning or other governmental permits; plat or consent to platting; develop; grant an option concerning; lease; sublease; contribute to an entity in exchange for an interest in that entity; or otherwise grant or dispose of an interest in real property or a right incident to real property;

3. Pledge or mortgage an interest in real property or right incident to real property as security to borrow money or pay, renew, or extend the time of payment of a debt of the principal or a debt guaranteed by the principal;

4. Release, assign, satisfy, or enforce by litigation or otherwise a mortgage, deed of trust, conditional sale contract, encumbrance, lien, or other claim to real property that exists or is asserted;

5. Manage or conserve an interest in real property or a right incident to real property owned or claimed to be owned by the principal, including:

a. Insuring against liability or casualty or other loss;

b. Obtaining or regaining possession of or protecting the interest or right by litigation or otherwise;

c. Paying, assessing, compromising, or contesting taxes or assessments or applying for and receiving refunds in connection with them; and

d. Purchasing supplies, hiring assistance or labor, and making repairs or alterations to the real property;

6. Use, develop, alter, replace, remove, erect, or install structures or other improvements upon real property in or incident to which the principal has, or claims to have, an interest or right;

7. Participate in a reorganization with respect to real property or an entity that owns an interest in or right incident to real property and receive, hold, and act with respect to stocks and bonds or other property received in a plan of reorganization, including:

a. Selling or otherwise disposing of them;

b. Exercising or selling an option, right of conversion, or similar right with respect to them; and

c. Exercising any voting rights in person or by proxy;

8. Change the form of title of an interest in or right incident to real property; and

9. Dedicate to public use, with or without consideration, easements or other real property in which the principal has, or claims to have, an interest.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-98; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1626. Tangible personal property.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to tangible personal property authorizes the agent to:

1. Demand, buy, receive, accept as a gift or as security for an extension of credit, or otherwise acquire or reject ownership or possession of tangible personal property or an interest in tangible personal property;

2. Sell; exchange; convey with or without covenants, representations, or warranties; quitclaim; release; surrender; create a security interest in; grant options concerning; lease; sublease; or otherwise dispose of tangible personal property or an interest in tangible personal property;

3. Grant a security interest in tangible personal property or an interest in tangible personal property as security to borrow money or pay, renew, or extend the time of payment of a debt of the principal or a debt guaranteed by the principal;

4. Release, assign, satisfy, or enforce by litigation or otherwise, a security interest, lien, or other claim on behalf of the principal, with respect to tangible personal property or an interest in tangible personal property;

5. Manage or conserve tangible personal property or an interest in tangible personal property on behalf of the principal, including:

a. Insuring against liability or casualty or other loss;

b. Obtaining or regaining possession of or protecting the property or interest, by litigation or otherwise;

c. Paying, assessing, compromising, or contesting taxes or assessments or applying for and receiving refunds in connection with taxes or assessments;

d. Moving the property from place to place;

e. Storing the property for hire or on a gratuitous bailment; and

f. Using and making repairs, alterations, or improvements to the property; and

6. Change the form of title of an interest in tangible personal property.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-99; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1627. Stocks and bonds.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to stocks and bonds authorizes the agent to:

1. Buy, sell, and exchange stocks and bonds;

2. Establish, continue, modify, or terminate an account with respect to stocks and bonds;

3. Pledge stocks and bonds as security to borrow, pay, renew, or extend the time of payment of a debt of the principal;

4. Receive certificates and other evidences of ownership with respect to stocks and bonds; and

5. Exercise voting rights with respect to stocks and bonds in person or by proxy, enter into voting trusts, and consent to limitations on the right to vote.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-100; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1628. Commodities and options.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to commodities and options authorizes the agent to:

1. Buy, sell, exchange, assign, settle, and exercise commodity futures contracts and call or put options on stocks or stock indexes traded on a regulated option exchange; and

2. Establish, continue, modify, and terminate option accounts.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-101; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1629. Banks and other financial institutions.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to banks and other financial institutions authorizes the agent to:

1. Continue, modify, and terminate an account or other banking arrangement made by or on behalf of the principal;

2. Establish, modify, and terminate an account or other banking arrangement with a bank, trust company, savings and loan association, credit union, thrift company, brokerage firm, or other financial institution selected by the agent;

3. Contract for services available from a financial institution, including renting a safe deposit box or space in a vault;

4. Withdraw, by check, order, electronic funds transfer, or otherwise, money or property of the principal deposited with or left in the custody of a financial institution;

5. Receive statements of account, vouchers, notices, and similar documents from a financial institution and act with respect to them;

6. Enter a safe deposit box or vault and withdraw or add to the contents;

7. Borrow money and pledge as security personal property of the principal necessary to borrow money or pay, renew, or extend the time of payment of a debt of the principal or a debt guaranteed by the principal;

8. Make, assign, draw, endorse, discount, guarantee, and negotiate promissory notes, checks, drafts, and other negotiable or nonnegotiable paper of the principal or payable to the principal or the principal's order, transfer money, receive the cash or other proceeds of those transactions, and accept a draft drawn by a person upon the principal and pay it when due;

9. Receive for the principal and act upon a sight draft, warehouse receipt, or other document of title whether tangible or electronic, or other negotiable or nonnegotiable instrument;

10. Apply for, receive, and use letters of credit, credit and debit cards, electronic transaction authorizations, and traveler's checks from a financial institution and give an indemnity or other agreement in connection with letters of credit; and

11. Consent to an extension of the time of payment with respect to commercial paper or a financial transaction with a financial institution.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-102; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1630. Operation of entity or business.

Subject to the terms of a document or an agreement governing an entity or an entity ownership interest, and unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to operation of an entity or business authorizes the agent to:

1. Operate, buy, sell, enlarge, reduce, or terminate an ownership interest;

2. Perform a duty or discharge a liability and exercise in person or by proxy a right, power, privilege, or option that the principal has, may have, or claims to have;

3. Enforce the terms of an ownership agreement;

4. Initiate, participate in, submit to alternative dispute resolution of, settle, oppose, or propose or accept a compromise with respect to litigation to which the principal is a party because of an ownership interest;

5. Exercise in person or by proxy, or enforce by litigation or otherwise, a right, power, privilege, or option the principal has or claims to have as the holder of stocks and bonds;

6. Initiate, participate in, submit to alternative dispute resolution of, settle, oppose, or propose or accept a compromise with respect to litigation to which the principal is a party concerning stocks and bonds;

7. With respect to an entity or business owned solely by the principal:

a. Continue, modify, renegotiate, extend, and terminate a contract made by or on behalf of the principal with respect to the entity or business before execution of the power of attorney;

b. Determine (i) the location of its operation; (ii) the nature and extent of its business; (iii) the methods of manufacturing, selling, merchandising, financing, accounting, and advertising employed in its operation; (iv) the amount and types of insurance carried; and (v) the mode of engaging, compensating, and dealing with its employees and accountants, attorneys, or other advisors;

c. Change the name or form of organization under which the entity or business is operated and enter into an ownership agreement with other persons to take over all or part of the operation of the entity or business; and

d. Demand and receive money due or claimed by the principal or on the principal's behalf in the operation of the entity or business and control and disburse the money in the operation of the entity or business;

8. Put additional capital into an entity or business in which the principal has an interest;

9. Join in a plan of reorganization, consolidation, conversion, domestication, or merger of the entity or business;

10. Sell or liquidate all or part of an entity or business;

11. Establish the value of an entity or business under a buyout agreement to which the principal is a party;

12. Prepare, sign, file, and deliver reports, compilations of information, returns, or other papers with respect to an entity or business and make related payments; and

13. Pay, compromise, or contest taxes, assessments, fines, or penalties and perform any other act to protect the principal from illegal or unnecessary taxation, assessments, fines, or penalties, with respect to an entity or business, including attempts to recover, in any manner permitted by law, money paid before or after the execution of the power of attorney.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-103; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1631. Insurance and annuities.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to insurance and annuities authorizes the agent to:

1. Continue, pay the premium or make a contribution on, modify, exchange, rescind, release, or terminate a contract procured by or on behalf of the principal that insures or provides an annuity to either the principal or another person, whether or not the principal is a beneficiary under the contract;

2. Procure new, different, and additional contracts of insurance and annuities for the principal and the principal's spouse, children, and other dependents and select the amount, type of insurance or annuity, and mode of payment;

3. Pay the premium or make a contribution on, modify, exchange, rescind, release, or terminate a contract of insurance or annuity procured by the agent;

4. Apply for and receive a loan secured by a contract of insurance or annuity;

5. Surrender and receive the cash surrender value on a contract of insurance or annuity;

6. Exercise an election;

7. Exercise investment powers available under a contract of insurance or annuity;

8. Change the manner of paying premiums on a contract of insurance or annuity;

9. Change or convert the type of insurance or annuity with respect to which the principal has or claims to have authority described in this section;

10. Apply for and procure a benefit or assistance under a statute or regulation to guarantee or pay premiums of a contract of insurance on the life of the principal;

11. Collect, sell, assign, hypothecate, borrow against, or pledge the interest of the principal in a contract of insurance or annuity;

12. Select the form and timing of the payment of proceeds from a contract of insurance or annuity; and

13. Pay, from proceeds or otherwise, compromise or contest, and apply for refunds in connection with a tax or assessment levied by a taxing authority with respect to a contract of insurance or annuity or its proceeds or liability accruing by reason of the tax or assessment.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-104; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1632. Estates, trusts, and other beneficial interests.

A. In this section, "estate, trust, or other beneficial interest" means a trust, probate estate, guardianship, conservatorship, escrow, or custodianship or a fund from which the principal is, may become, or claims to be entitled to a share or payment.

B. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to estates, trusts, and other beneficial interests authorizes the agent to:

1. Accept, receive, receipt for, sell, assign, pledge, or exchange a share in or payment from an estate, trust, or other beneficial interest;

2. Demand or obtain money or another thing of value to which the principal is, may become, or claims to be entitled by reason of an estate, trust, or other beneficial interest, by litigation or otherwise;

3. Exercise for the benefit of the principal a presently exercisable general power of appointment held by the principal;

4. Initiate, participate in, submit to alternative dispute resolution of, settle, oppose, or propose or accept a compromise with respect to litigation to ascertain the meaning, validity, or effect of a deed, will, declaration of trust, or other instrument or transaction affecting the interest of the principal;

5. Initiate, participate in, submit to alternative dispute resolution of, settle, oppose, or propose or accept a compromise with respect to litigation to remove, substitute, or surcharge a fiduciary;

6. Conserve, invest, disburse, or use anything received for an authorized purpose;

7. Transfer an interest of the principal in real property, stocks and bonds, accounts with financial institutions or securities intermediaries, insurance, annuities, and other property to the trustee of a revocable trust created by the principal as settlor; and

8. Reject, renounce, disclaim, release, or consent to a reduction in or modification of a share in or payment from an estate, trust, or other beneficial interest.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-105; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1633. Claims and litigation.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to claims and litigation authorizes the agent to:

1. Assert and maintain before a court or administrative agency a claim, claim for relief, cause of action, counterclaim, offset, recoupment, or defense, including an action to recover property or other thing of value, recover damages sustained by the principal, eliminate or modify tax liability, or seek an injunction, specific performance, or other relief;

2. Bring an action to determine adverse claims or intervene or otherwise participate in litigation;

3. Seek an attachment, garnishment, order of arrest, or other preliminary, provisional, or intermediate relief and use an available procedure to effect or satisfy a judgment, order, or decree;

4. Make or accept a tender, offer of judgment, or admission of facts; submit a controversy on an agreed statement of facts; consent to examination; and bind the principal in litigation;

5. Submit to alternative dispute resolution, settle, and propose or accept a compromise;

6. Waive the issuance and service of process upon the principal, accept service of process, appear for the principal, designate persons upon which process directed to the principal may be served, execute and file or deliver stipulations on the principal's behalf, verify pleadings, seek appellate review, procure and give surety and indemnity bonds, contract and pay for the preparation and printing of records and briefs, and receive, execute, and file or deliver a consent, waiver, release, confession of judgment, satisfaction of judgment, notice, agreement, or other instrument in connection with the prosecution, settlement, or defense of a claim or litigation;

7. Act for the principal with respect to bankruptcy or insolvency, whether voluntary or involuntary, concerning the principal or some other person, or with respect to a reorganization, receivership, or application for the appointment of a receiver or trustee that affects an interest of the principal in property or other thing of value;

8. Pay a judgment, award, or order against the principal or a settlement made in connection with a claim or litigation; and

9. Receive money or other thing of value paid in settlement of or as proceeds of a claim or litigation.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-106; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1634. Personal and family maintenance.

A. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to personal and family maintenance authorizes the agent to:

1. Perform the acts necessary to maintain the customary standard of living of the principal, the principal's spouse, and the following individuals, whether living when the power of attorney is executed or later born:

a. The individuals legally entitled to be supported by the principal; and

b. The individuals whom the principal has customarily supported or indicated the intent to support;

2. Make periodic payments of child support and other family maintenance required by a court or governmental agency or an agreement to which the principal is a party;

3. Provide living quarters for the individuals described in subdivision 1 by:

a. Purchase, lease, or other contract; or

b. Paying the operating costs, including interest, amortization payments, repairs, improvements, and taxes, for premises owned by the principal or occupied by those individuals;

4. Provide normal domestic help, usual vacations and travel expenses, and funds for shelter, clothing, food, appropriate education, including postsecondary and vocational education, and other current living costs for the individuals described in subdivision 1;

5. Pay expenses for necessary health care and custodial care on behalf of the individuals described in subdivision 1;

6. Act as the principal's personal representative pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, §§ 1171 through 1179 of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320d, as amended, and applicable regulations, in making decisions related to the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care consented to by the principal or anyone authorized under the law of the Commonwealth to consent to health care on behalf of the principal;

7. Continue any provision made by the principal for automobiles or other means of transportation, including registering, licensing, insuring, and replacing them, for the individuals described in subdivision 1;

8. Maintain credit and debit accounts for the convenience of the individuals described in subdivision 1 and open new accounts; and

9. Continue payments incidental to the membership or affiliation of the principal in a religious institution, club, society, order, or other organization or to continue contributions to those organizations.

B. Authority with respect to personal and family maintenance is neither dependent upon, nor limited by, authority that an agent may or may not have with respect to gifts under this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-107; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1635. Benefits from governmental programs or civil or military service.

A. In this section, "benefits from governmental programs or civil or military service" means any benefit, program, or assistance provided under a statute or regulation including, but not limited to, Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and the Department of Veterans Affairs.

B. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to benefits from governmental programs or civil or military service authorizes the agent to:

1. Execute vouchers in the name of the principal for allowances and reimbursements payable by the United States or a foreign government or by a state or subdivision of a state to the principal, including allowances and reimbursements for transportation of the individuals described in subdivision A 1 of § 64.2-1634 and for shipment of their household effects;

2. Take possession and order the removal and shipment of property of the principal from a post, warehouse, depot, dock, or other place of storage or safekeeping, either governmental or private, and execute and deliver a release, voucher, receipt, bill of lading, shipping ticket, certificate, or other instrument for that purpose;

3. Enroll in, apply for, select, reject, change, amend, or discontinue, on the principal's behalf, a benefit or program;

4. Prepare, file, and maintain a claim of the principal for a benefit or assistance, financial or otherwise, to which the principal may be entitled under a statute or regulation;

5. Initiate, participate in, submit to alternative dispute resolution of, settle, oppose, or propose or accept a compromise with respect to litigation concerning any benefit or assistance the principal may be entitled to receive under a statute or regulation; and

6. Receive the financial proceeds of a claim described in subdivision 4 and conserve, invest, disburse, or use for a lawful purpose anything so received.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-108; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1636. Retirement plans.

A. In this section, "retirement plan" means a plan or account created by an employer, the principal, or another individual to provide retirement benefits or deferred compensation of which the principal is a participant, beneficiary, or owner, including a plan or account under the following sections of the Internal Revenue Code:

1. An individual retirement account under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 408, as amended;

2. A Roth individual retirement account under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 408A, as amended;

3. A deemed individual retirement account under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 408 (q), as amended;

4. An annuity or mutual fund custodial account under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 403 (b), as amended;

5. A pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus, or other retirement plan qualified under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 401 (a), as amended;

6. A plan under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 457 (b), as amended; and

7. A nonqualified deferred compensation plan under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 409A, as amended.

B. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to retirement plans authorizes the agent to:

1. Select the form and timing of payments under a retirement plan and withdraw benefits from a plan;

2. Make a rollover, including a direct trustee-to-trustee rollover, of benefits from one retirement plan to another;

3. Establish a retirement plan in the principal's name;

4. Make contributions to a retirement plan;

5. Exercise investment powers available under a retirement plan; and

6. Borrow from, sell assets to, or purchase assets from a retirement plan.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-109; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1637. Taxes.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to taxes authorizes the agent to:

1. Prepare, sign, and file federal, state, local, and foreign income, gift, payroll, property, Federal Insurance Contributions Act, and other tax returns, claims for refunds, requests for extension of time, petitions regarding tax matters, and any other tax-related documents, including receipts, offers, waivers, consents, including consents and agreements under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 2032A, as amended, closing agreements, and any power of attorney required by the Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authority with respect to a tax year upon which the statute of limitations has not run and the following 25 tax years;

2. Pay taxes due, collect refunds, post bonds, receive confidential information, and contest deficiencies determined by the Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authority;

3. Exercise any election available to the principal under federal, state, local, or foreign tax law; and

4. Act for the principal in all tax matters for all periods before the Internal Revenue Service or other taxing authority.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-110; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1638. Gifts.

A. In this section, a gift "for the benefit of" a person includes a gift to a trust, a custodial trust under the Uniform Custodial Trust Act (§ 64.2-900 et seq.), an account under the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (§ 64.2-1900 et seq.), and a tuition savings account or prepaid tuition plan as defined under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 529, as amended.

B. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, language in a power of attorney granting general authority with respect to gifts authorizes the agent only to:

1. Make outright to, or for the benefit of, a person a gift of any of the principal's property, including by the exercise of a presently exercisable general power of appointment held by the principal, in an amount per donee not to exceed the annual dollar limits of the federal gift tax exclusion under Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 2503 (b), as amended, without regard to whether the federal gift tax exclusion applies to the gift, or if the principal's spouse agrees to consent to a split gift pursuant to Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 2513, as amended, in an amount per donee not to exceed twice the annual federal gift tax exclusion limit; and

2. Consent, pursuant to Internal Revenue Code 26 U.S.C. § 2513, as amended, to the splitting of a gift made by the principal's spouse in an amount per donee not to exceed the aggregate annual gift tax exclusions for both spouses.

C. An agent may make a gift of the principal's property only as the agent determines is consistent with the principal's objectives if actually known by the agent and, if unknown, as the agent determines is consistent with the principal's best interest based on all relevant factors, including:

1. The value and nature of the principal's property;

2. The principal's foreseeable obligations and need for maintenance;

3. Minimization of taxes, including income, estate, inheritance, generation-skipping transfer, and gift taxes;

4. Eligibility for a benefit, a program, or assistance under a statute or regulation; and

5. The principal's personal history of making or joining in making gifts.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-111; 2012, c. 614.

Article 3. Statutory Forms.

§ 64.2-1639. Agent's certification.

The following optional form may be used by an agent to certify facts concerning a power of attorney.

AGENT'S CERTIFICATION AS TO THE VALIDITY OF POWER OF ATTORNEY AND AGENT'S AUTHORITY

State of ____________________

County/City of ____________________

I, ____________________ (Name of Agent), certify under penalty of perjury that ____________________ (Name of Principal) granted me authority as an agent or successor agent in a power of attorney dated ____________________.

I further certify that to my knowledge:

(1) The Principal is alive and has not revoked the power of attorney or my authority to act under the power of attorney and the power of attorney and my authority to act under the power of attorney have not terminated;

(2) If the power of attorney was drafted to become effective upon the happening of an event or contingency, the event or contingency has occurred;

(3) If I was named as a successor agent, the prior agent is no longer able or willing to serve; and

(4) ____________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________
(Insert other relevant statements)

SIGNATURE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT
________________________________________
Agent's Signature

____________________
Date

Agent's Name Printed
________________________________________

________________________________________
Agent's Address

________________________________________
Agent's Telephone Number

This document was acknowledged before me on ____________________ (Date), by ____________________ (Name of Agent).
________________________________________
Signature of Notary

My commission expires: ____________________ (Seal, if any)

Notary Registration Number: ____________________

This document prepared by:

________________________________________

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-113; 2012, c. 614.

Article 4. Miscellaneous Provisions.

§ 64.2-1640. Uniformity of application and construction.

In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration shall be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among the states that enact it.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-114; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1641. Relation to Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.

This chapter modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. § 7001 et seq.), but does not modify, limit, or supersede § 101(c) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7001(c)) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in § 103(b) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7003 (b)).

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-115; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1642. Effect on existing powers of attorney.

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, on July 1, 2010:

1. This chapter applies to a power of attorney created before, on, or after July 1, 2010;

2. This chapter applies to a judicial proceeding concerning a power of attorney commenced on or after July 1, 2010;

3. This chapter applies to a judicial proceeding concerning a power of attorney commenced before July 1, 2010, unless the court finds that application of a provision of this chapter would substantially interfere with the effective conduct of the judicial proceeding or prejudice the rights of a party, in which case that provision does not apply and the superseded law applies; and

4. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, an act done before July 1, 2010, is not affected by this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-116; 2012, c. 614.

Part C. Guardianship of Minor.

Chapter 17. Appointment of Guardian.

§ 64.2-1700. Natural guardians.

The parents of an unmarried minor child are the joint natural guardians of the person of such child with equal legal powers and legal rights with regard to such child, provided that the parents are living together, are respectively competent to transact their own business, and are not otherwise unsuitable. Upon the death of either parent, the survivor shall be the natural guardian of the person of such child. If either parent has abandoned the family, the other parent shall be the natural guardian of the person of such child.

Code 1919, § 5320; 1930, p. 687; Code 1950, § 31-1; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1701. Testamentary guardians.

A. Every parent may by will appoint (i) a guardian of the person of his minor child and (ii) a guardian for the estate bequeathed or devised by the parent to his minor child for such time during the minor's infancy as the parent directs. A guardian of a minor's estate shall have custody and control of the estate committed to his care. A guardian of the person of a minor other than a parent is not entitled to custody of the person of the minor so long as either of the minor's parents is living and such parent is a fit and proper person to have custody of the minor.

B. The appointment of any guardian pursuant to subsection A shall be void if the guardian (i) renounces the guardianship or (ii) fails to appear in the court in which the will is admitted to probate within six months after the probate to accept the guardianship and give any bond required under § 64.2-1704.

Code 1919, §§ 5314, 5315; 1930, p. 686; Code 1950, §§ 31-2, 31-3; 1989, c. 535; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1702. Appointment of guardians.

The circuit court or the circuit court clerk of any county or city in which a minor resides or, if the minor is an out-of-state resident, in which the minor has any estate may appoint a guardian for the estate of the minor and may appoint a guardian for the person of the minor unless a guardian has been appointed for the minor pursuant to § 64.2-1701.

Code 1919, § 5316; 1926, p. 588; 1928, pp. 25, 1085; 1930, p. 686; 1938, p. 4; 1942, p. 205; 1944, p. 28; Code 1950, § 31-4; 1989, c. 55; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1703. Nomination of guardians.

A. A minor who is at least 14 years old may, in the presence of the court or clerk, or in writing acknowledged before any officer qualified to take acknowledgments, nominate his own guardian for the estate or person of the minor, who shall be appointed if the court or clerk find that the guardian nominated is suitable and competent. If the guardian nominated by the minor is not appointed, if the minor resides without the Commonwealth, or if the court or clerk finds that the guardian nominated is not suitable and competent, the court or clerk may nominate and appoint a guardian for the minor in the same manner as if the minor were less than 14 years old.

B. In no case shall any person not related to the minor be appointed guardian until 30 days have elapsed since the death or disqualification of any natural or testamentary guardians and the minor's next of kin have had an opportunity to petition the court for appointment and unless the court or clerk is satisfied that such nonrelated person is competent to perform the duties of his office.

Code 1919, § 5317; 1926, p. 589; 1928, p. 1085; 1946, p. 223; Code 1950, § 31-5; 1954, c. 468; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1704. Guardian's bond.

A. Before any person may be appointed the guardian for the estate of a minor, the person, in the circuit court or before the circuit court clerk, shall take an oath that he will faithfully perform the duties of his office to the best of his judgment and give his bond in an amount at least equal to the value of the minor's personal estate coming under his control.

B. Every guardian for the estate of a minor shall provide surety upon his bond unless it is waived pursuant to § 64.2-1411 or, in the case of a testamentary guardian, it is waived by the testator's will. However, upon the motion of the court or clerk or upon the motion of another interested person, the court or clerk may at any time require surety upon a guardian's bond. Every order appointing a guardian shall state whether or not surety is required.

C. If the same guardian qualifies upon the estate of two or more minors who are members of the same family, such guardian shall only be required to give one guardianship bond.

Code 1919, § 5318; 1926, p. 589; 1928, p. 1085; Code 1950, § 31-6; 1954, c. 398; 1995, c. 225; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1705. Redetermination of guardian's bond.

Upon a guardian's request, the clerk shall redetermine the penalty of the guardian's bond in light of any reduction in the current market value of the estate under the guardian's control, whether such reduction is due to disbursements, distributions, valuation of assets, or disclaimer of fiduciary power, if such reduction is reflected in an accounting that has been confirmed by the circuit court or an inventory that has been approved by the commissioner of accounts. This provision shall not apply to any bond set by the court.

1999, c. 16, § 31-6.1; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1706. When court may appoint temporary guardians; bond; powers and duties.

Until a guardian appointed by the circuit court or clerk has given his bond, or while there is no guardian, the court or clerk may appoint a temporary guardian, who shall give his bond pursuant to § 64.2-1704. Any temporary guardian during the period of his guardianship shall have all the powers and responsibilities of and shall perform all the duties of a guardian.

Code 1919, § 5319; Code 1950, § 31-7; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

Chapter 18. Custody and Care of Ward and Estate.

§ 64.2-1800. Custody, care, and education of ward; ward's estate.

Unless a guardian of the person of a minor is appointed by a parent, the circuit court, or the circuit court clerk, and except as otherwise provided in §§ 64.2-1700 and 64.2-1701, a guardian of a minor's estate who is appointed pursuant to Chapter 17 (§ 64.2-1700 et seq.) shall have custody of his ward. The guardian of a minor's estate shall have the possession, care, and management of the minor's estate, real and personal, and, after first taking into account the minor's other sources of income, support rights, and other reasonably available resources of which the guardian is aware, shall provide for the minor's health, education, maintenance, and support from the income of the minor's estate and, if income is not sufficient, from the corpus of the minor's estate.

Code 1919, § 5320; 1930, p. 686; Code 1950, § 31-8; 1989, c. 535; 1999, c. 16; 2011, c. 113; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1801. Parental duty of support.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 64.2-1800, a guardian of a minor's estate shall not make any distribution of income or corpus of the minor's estate to or for the benefit of a ward who has a living parent, whether or not the guardian is such parent, except to the extent that the distribution is authorized by (i) the deed, will, or other instrument under which the estate is derived or (ii) the circuit court, upon a finding that (a) the parent is unable to completely fulfill the parental duty of supporting the minor, (b) the parent cannot for some reason be required to provide such support, or (c) a proposed distribution is beyond the scope of parental duty of support in the circumstances of a specific case. The existence of a parent-child relationship shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of § 64.2-102. The circuit court's authorization may be contained in the order appointing the guardian or it may be obtained at any time prior to the distribution in question; however, in extenuating circumstances where the interests of equity so require, the court's authorization may be obtained after the distribution in question.

B. A guardian who desires to make any distribution specified in subsection A that is not authorized by an existing court order or a deed, will, or other instrument under which the estate is derived shall file a petition in the circuit court wherein his accounts may be settled. The petition shall name the ward as a defendant and set forth the reasons why such distribution is appropriate. If the ward is 14 years of age or older, the guardian shall give notice of the petition to the ward at least five days before filing the petition. The court or clerk shall appoint an attorney-at-law as guardian ad litem to represent the ward. Proceedings on the petition shall conform to the procedures governing a civil action and the evidence may be taken orally. No attorney fees shall be taxed in the costs and no writ tax shall be required upon the petition. The court may fix reasonable attorney fees for services in connection with the filing of the petition, and the court shall fix the guardian ad litem's fee. Such fees shall be paid out of the estate unless the court directs that they be paid personally by the guardian. The clerk shall receive a fee as provided in subdivision A 18 of § 17.1-275 for all services rendered thereon, to be paid by the guardian out of the estate. Any notice required to be served under this section may be served by any person other than the guardian.

C. Notwithstanding subsection B, if the court determines that an emergency exists, an order authorizing a distribution may be entered without the appointment of a guardian ad litem, provided that the court makes such further provisions in its order for the protection of the ward's estate as it may deem proper in each case.

1999, c. 16, § 31-8.1; 2002, c. 832; 2005, c. 681; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1802. Parental duty of support; limited authority of commissioner of accounts.

A commissioner of accounts for the jurisdiction where a guardian qualifies may authorize the same distributions under the same circumstances as the circuit court may authorize under subsection A of § 64.2-1801, except that (i) the total distributions authorized in any one year shall not exceed $5,000 and (ii) the commissioner of accounts shall, in his report to the court on the guardian's next accounting, explain the necessity for the distributions so authorized. The provisions of subsection B of § 64.2-1801 shall not apply to proceedings under this section, but the commissioner shall give five days' written notice of the scheduled hearing date to any minor who is 14 years of age or older. The commissioner of accounts shall not charge a fee in excess of $100 for such hearing.

1999, c. 16, § 31-8.2; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-1803. Termination of guardianship.

Unless the guardian of a minor's estate dies, is removed, or resigns the guardianship, the guardian shall continue in office until the minor attains the age of majority or, in the case of testamentary guardianship, until the termination of the period set forth in the testator's will. At the expiration of the guardianship, the guardian shall deliver and pay all the estate and money in his possession, or with which he is chargeable, to the person entitled to receive such estate and money.

Code 1919, § 5320; 1930, p. 687; Code 1950, § 31-9; 1972, c. 825; 1973, c. 401; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1804. Powers of courts over guardians.

The circuit courts may hear and determine all matters between guardians and their wards, require settlements of guardianship accounts, remove any guardian for neglect or breach of trust and appoint another guardian for the ward, and make any order for the custody, health, maintenance, education, and support of a ward and the management, disbursement, preservation, and investment of the ward's estate.

Code 1919, § 5326; Code 1950, § 31-14; 1999, c. 16; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1805. Powers of guardian.

A. Whether appointed by a parent, the circuit court, or the circuit court clerk, a guardian of a ward's estate shall have the powers set forth in § 64.2-105 as of the date the guardian acts. A guardian of a ward's estate shall also have the following powers:

1. To ratify or reject a contract entered into by the ward;

2. To pay any sum distributable for the benefit of the ward by paying the sum directly to the ward, to the provider of goods and services that have been furnished to the ward, to any individual or facility that is responsible for or has assumed responsibility for care and custody of the ward, or to a ward's custodian under a Uniform Transfers to Minors Act, Uniform Gifts to Minors Act, or comparable law of any applicable jurisdiction;

3. To maintain life, health, casualty, and liability insurance for the benefit of the ward;

4. To manage the estate following the termination of the guardianship until its delivery to the ward or successors in interest;

5. To execute and deliver all instruments and to take all other actions that will serve the best interests of the ward;

6. To initiate a proceeding to seek a divorce or to make an augmented estate election under § 64.2-302 or 64.2-308.13, as applicable; and

7. To borrow money for such periods of time and upon such terms and conditions as to rates, maturities, renewals, and security as the guardian deems advisable, including the power to borrow from the guardian, if the guardian is a bank, for any purpose; to mortgage or pledge such portion of the ward's personal estate, and real estate subject to subsection B, as may be required to secure such loan or loans; and, as maker or endorser, to renew existing loans.

B. A guardian may exercise the powers set forth in subsection A without prior authorization, except that the court or the commissioner of accounts, if a guardian is appointed other than by the court, may impose requirements to be satisfied by the guardian prior to the conveyance of any interest in real estate, including (i) increasing the amount of the guardian's bond, (ii) securing an appraisal of the real estate or interest, (iii) giving notice to interested parties as the court or commissioner deems proper, and (iv) consulting with the commissioner of accounts.

1. If the court or commissioner of accounts imposes any requirements under this subsection, the guardian shall make a report of his compliance with each requirement, which shall be filed with the commissioner of accounts. Upon receipt of the guardian's report, the commissioner of accounts shall file promptly a report with the court stating whether the requirements imposed have been met and whether the conveyance is otherwise consistent with the guardian's duties. The conveyance shall not be closed until a report by the commissioner of accounts is filed with the court and confirmed as provided in §§ 64.2-1212, 64.2-1213, and 64.2-1214.

2. If the commissioner of accounts does not impose any requirements under this subsection, he shall, upon request of the guardian of the minor, issue a notarized statement providing that "The Commissioner of Accounts has declined to impose any requirements upon the power of (name of guardian), Guardian of (name of minor), to convey the following real estate of the minor: (property identification)." The conveyance shall not be closed until the guardian has furnished such a statement to the proposed grantee.

C. Any guardian may at any time irrevocably disclaim the right to exercise any of the powers conferred by this section by filing a written disclaimer with the clerk of the circuit court wherein his accounts may be settled. Such disclaimer shall relate back to the time when the guardian assumed the guardianship and shall be binding upon any successor guardian.

1999, c. 16, § 31-14.1; 2012, c. 614; 2016, cc. 187, 269.

§ 64.2-1806. Powers of guardian; transition rule.

The provisions of Chapter 17 (§ 64.2-1700 et seq.) and this chapter are applicable to all guardianships, whenever created, except that a guardian who qualifies prior to July 1, 1999, shall have the power to make conveyances of his ward's estate only in accordance with the laws in effect on June 30, 1999, unless the guardian in office on June 30, 1999, has requalified on or after July 1, 1999.

1999, c. 16, § 31-18.1; 2012, c. 614.

Chapter 19. Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act.

§ 64.2-1900. Definitions.

In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

"Adult" means an individual who attained the age of 18 years.

"Benefit plan" means an employer's plan for the benefit of an employee or partner.

"Broker" means a person lawfully engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities or commodities for the person's own account or for the account of others.

"Conservator" means a person appointed or qualified by a court to act as general, limited, or temporary guardian of a minor's property or a person legally authorized to perform substantially the same functions.

"Court" means the circuit court having appropriate jurisdiction.

"Custodial property" means (i) any interest in property transferred to a custodian under this chapter and (ii) the income from and proceeds of that interest in property.

"Custodian" means a person so designated under § 64.2-1908 or a successor or substitute custodian designated under § 64.2-1917.

"Financial institution" means a bank, trust company, savings institution, or credit union chartered and supervised under state or federal law.

"Legal representative" means an individual's personal representative or conservator.

"Member of the minor's family" means the minor's parent, stepparent, spouse, grandparent, brother, sister, uncle, or aunt, whether of the whole or half blood or by adoption.

"Minor" means an individual who has not attained the age of 18 years.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, organization, or other legal entity.

"Personal representative" means an executor, administrator, successor personal representative, or special administrator of a decedent's estate or a person legally authorized to perform substantially the same functions.

"Qualified minor's trust" means any trust, including a trust created by a custodian, that meets the requirements of § 2503(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and the regulations implementing that section.

"State" includes any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession subject to the legislative authority of the United States.

"Transfer" means a transaction that creates custodial property under § 64.2-1908.

"Transferor" means a person who makes a transfer under this chapter.

"Trust company" means a financial institution, corporation, or other legal entity authorized to exercise general trust powers.

1988, c. 516, § 31-37; 2007, c. 307; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1901. Scope and jurisdiction.

A. This chapter applies to any transfer that refers to the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act or this chapter in the designation under subsection A of § 64.2-1908 by which the transfer is made if, at the time of the transfer, the transferor, the minor, or the custodian is a resident of the Commonwealth or the custodial property is located in the Commonwealth. The custodianship so created remains subject to this chapter despite a subsequent change in residence of a transferor, the minor, or the custodian or the removal of custodial property from the Commonwealth.

B. A person designated as custodian under this chapter is subject to personal jurisdiction in the Commonwealth with respect to any matter relating to the custodianship.

C. A transfer that purports to be made and that is valid under the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act, the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act, or a substantially similar act of another state is governed by the law of the designated state and may be executed and is enforceable in the Commonwealth if, at the time of the transfer, the transferor, the minor, or the custodian is a resident of the designated state or the custodial property is located in the designated state.

1988, c. 516, § 31-38; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1902. Nomination of custodian.

A. A person having the right to designate the recipient of property
transferable upon the occurrence of a future event may revocably nominate a
custodian to receive the property for a minor beneficiary upon the occurrence
of the event by naming the custodian followed in substance by the words: "as
custodian for............… (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform
Transfers to Minors Act." The nomination may name one or more persons as
substitute custodians to whom the property shall be transferred, in the order
named, if the first nominated custodian dies before the transfer or is unable,
declines, or is ineligible to serve. The nomination may be made in a will, a
trust, a deed, an instrument exercising a power of appointment, or a writing
designating a beneficiary of contractual rights that is registered with or
delivered to the payor, issuer, or other obligor of the contractual rights.

B. A custodian nominated under this section shall be a person to whom a transfer of property of that kind may be made under subsection A of § 64.2-1908.

C. The nomination of a custodian under this section does not create custodial property until the nominating instrument becomes irrevocable or a transfer to the nominated custodian is completed under § 64.2-1908. Unless the nomination of custodian has been revoked, upon the occurrence of the future event the custodianship becomes effective and the custodian shall enforce a transfer of the custodial property pursuant to § 64.2-1908.

1988, c. 516, § 31-39; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1903. Transfer by gift or exercise of power of appointment.

A person may make a transfer by irrevocable gift to, or the irrevocable exercise of a power of appointment in favor of, a custodian for the benefit of a minor pursuant to § 64.2-1908.

1988, c. 516, § 31-40; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1904. Transfer authorized by will or trust.

A personal representative or trustee may make an irrevocable transfer pursuant to § 64.2-1908 to a custodian for the benefit of a minor as authorized in the governing will or trust. If the testator or settlor has nominated a custodian under § 64.2-1902 to receive the custodial property, the transfer shall be made to that person.

If the testator or settlor has not nominated a custodian under § 64.2-1902 or all persons so nominated as custodian die before the transfer or are unable, decline, or are ineligible to serve, the personal representative or the trustee shall designate the custodian from among those eligible to serve as custodian for property of that kind under subsection A of § 64.2-1908.

1988, c. 516, § 31-41; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1905. Other transfer by fiduciary.

A. Subject to subsection C, a personal representative or trustee may make an irrevocable transfer to an adult or trust company as custodian for the benefit of a minor pursuant to § 64.2-1908 in the absence of a will or under a will or trust that does not contain an authorization to do so.

B. Subject to subsection C, a conservator may make an irrevocable transfer to an adult or trust company as custodian for the benefit of the minor pursuant to § 64.2-1908.

C. A transfer under either subsection A or B may be made only if (i) the personal representative, trustee, or conservator considers the transfer to be in the best interest of the minor, (ii) the transfer is not prohibited by or inconsistent with provisions of the applicable will, trust agreement, or other governing instrument, and (iii) the transfer is authorized by the court if it exceeds $25,000 in value or is made by a conservator.

1988, c. 516, § 31-42; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-1906. Transfer by obligor.

A. Subject to subsections B and C, a person not subject to § 64.2-1904 or who holds property of or owes a liquidated debt to a minor not having a conservator may make an irrevocable transfer to a custodian for the benefit of the minor pursuant to § 64.2-1908.

B. If a person having the right to do so under § 64.2-1902 has nominated a custodian under that section to receive the custodial property, the transfer shall be made to that person.

C. If no custodian has been nominated under § 64.2-1902, or all persons so nominated as custodian die before the transfer or are unable, decline, or are ineligible to serve, a transfer under this section may be made to an adult member of the minor's family or to a trust company unless the property exceeds $25,000 in value, in which event the transfer may be made if authorized by the court.

1988, c. 516, § 31-43; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-1907. Receipt for custodial property.

A written acknowledgment of delivery by a custodian constitutes a sufficient receipt and discharge for custodial property transferred to the custodian pursuant to this chapter.

1988, c. 516, § 31-44; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1908. Manner of creating custodial property and effecting transfer; designation of initial custodian; control.

A. Custodial property is created and a transfer is made whenever:

1. An uncertificated security or a certificated security in registered form is either:

a. Registered in the name of the transferor, an adult other than the transferor, or a trust company, followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act"; or

b. Delivered if in certificated form, or any document necessary for the transfer of an uncertificated security is delivered, together with any necessary endorsement to an adult other than the transferor or to a trust company as custodian, accompanied by an instrument in substantially the form set forth in subsection B.

2. Money is paid or delivered, or a security held in the name of a broker, financial institution, or its nominee is transferred, to a broker or financial institution for credit to an account in the name of the transferor, an adult other than the transferor, or a trust company, followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act."

3. The ownership of a life or endowment insurance policy or annuity contract is either:

a. Registered with the issuer in the name of the transferor, an adult other than the transferor, or a trust company, followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act"; or

b. Assigned in a writing delivered to an adult other than the transferor or to a trust company whose name in the assignment is followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act."

4. An irrevocable exercise of a power of appointment or an irrevocable present right to future payment under a contract is the subject of a written notification delivered to the payor, issuer, or other obligor that the right is transferred to the transferor, an adult other than the transferor, or a trust company, whose name in the notification is followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act."

5. An interest in real property is recorded in the name of the transferor, an adult other than the transferor, or a trust company, followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act."

6. A certificate of title issued by a department or agency of a state or of the United States which evidences title to tangible personal property is either:

a. Issued in the name of the transferor, an adult other than the transferor, or a trust company, followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act"; or

b. Delivered to an adult other than the transferor or to a trust company, endorsed to that person followed in substance by the words: "as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act."

7. An interest in any property not described in subdivisions 1 through 6 is transferred to an adult other than the transferor or to a trust company by a written instrument in substantially the form set forth in subsection B.

Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the creation or transfer of custodial property from a personal representative, trustee, or conservator to himself as custodian pursuant to §§ 64.2-1904, 64.2-1905, and 64.2-1906.

B. An instrument in the following form satisfies the requirements of subdivisions A 1 b and A 7.

TRANSFER UNDER THE VIRGINIA UNIFORM TRANSFERS TO MINORS ACT

I, ____________________ (name of transferor or name and representative capacity if a fiduciary) hereby transfer to ____________________ (name of custodian), as custodian for ____________________ (name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act, the following: (insert a description of the custodial property sufficient to identify it).

Dated: _______________

________________________________________
(Signature)

____________________ (name of custodian) acknowledges receipt of the property described above as custodian for the minor named above under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act.

Dated: _______________

________________________________________
Signature of Custodian)

C. A transferor shall place the custodian in control of the custodial property as soon as practicable.

D. A transferor who transfers property to an individual under the age of 21 years pursuant to § 64.2-1903 or 64.2-1904 may expressly provide that the custodian shall deliver, convey, or pay the property to the individual on the individual's attaining the age of 21 by inclusion of the parenthetical "(21)" after the words "Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act" or substantially similar language. In such case, the word "minor" as used in this chapter shall mean an individual who has not attained the age of 21 years.

1988, c. 516, § 31-45; 1989, c. 548; 1990, c. 831; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1909. Single and joint custodians.

A transfer may be made only for one minor, and up to two persons may be joint custodians. All custodial property held under this chapter by the same custodian or joint custodians for the benefit of the same minor constitutes a single custodianship. Unless otherwise specified in any document creating the custodial property, each joint custodian shall have full power and authority to act alone with respect to the custodial property. If either joint custodian resigns, dies, becomes incapacitated, or is removed, then the remaining joint custodian shall become sole custodian.

1988, c. 516, § 31-46; 2006, c. 657; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1910. Validity and effect of transfer.

A. The validity of a transfer made in a manner prescribed in this chapter is not affected by:

1. Failure of the transferor to comply with subsection C of § 64.2-1908 concerning possession and control;

2. Designation of an ineligible custodian, except designation of the transferor in the case of property for which the transferor is ineligible to serve as custodian under subsection A of § 64.2-1908; or

3. Death or incapacity of a person nominated under § 64.2-1902 or designated under § 64.2-1908 as custodian or the disclaimer of the office by that person.

B. A transfer made pursuant to § 64.2-1908 is irrevocable, and the custodial property is indefeasibly vested in the minor, but the custodian has all the rights, powers, duties, and authority provided in this chapter and neither the minor nor the minor's legal representative has any right, power, duty, or authority with respect to the custodial property except as provided in this chapter.

C. By making a transfer, the transferor incorporates in the disposition all the provisions of this chapter and grants to the custodian, and to any third person dealing with a person designated as custodian, the respective powers, rights, and immunities provided in this chapter.

1988, c. 516, § 31-47; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1911. Care of custodial property; duties of custodian.

A. A custodian shall take control of custodial property, register or record title to custodial property, if appropriate, and collect, hold, manage, invest, and reinvest custodial property.

B. In dealing with custodial property, a custodian shall observe the standard of care set forth in the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.), except to the extent provided by § 64.2-1502. However, a custodian, in the custodian's discretion and without liability to the minor or the minor's estate, may retain any custodial property received from a transferor.

C. A custodian may invest in or pay premiums on life insurance or endowment policies on (i) the life of the minor only if the minor or the minor's estate is the sole beneficiary or (ii) the life of another person in whom the minor has an insurable interest only to the extent that the minor, the minor's estate, or the custodian in the capacity of custodian is the beneficiary during the period of custodianship.

D. A custodian at all times shall keep custodial property separate and
distinct from all other property in a manner sufficient to identify it clearly
as custodial property of the minor. Custodial property consisting of an
undivided interest is so identified if the minor's interest is held as a
tenant in common and is fixed. Custodial property subject to recordation is so
identified if it is recorded, and custodial property subject to registration
is so identified if it is either registered, or held in an account designated,
in the name of the custodian, followed in substance by the words: "as a
custodian for......…(name of minor) under the Virginia Uniform
Transfers to Minors Act."

E. A custodian shall keep records of all transactions with respect to custodial property, including the information necessary for the preparation of the minor's tax returns, and shall make them available for inspection at reasonable intervals by a parent or legal representative of the minor or by the minor if the minor has attained the age of 14 years.

1988, c. 516, § 31-48; 2007, c. 517; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1912. Powers of custodian.

A custodian, acting in a custodial capacity, has all the rights, powers, and authority over custodial property that unmarried adult owners have over their own property, which shall include but not be limited to those powers set forth in § 64.2-105 as of the date the custodian acts, but a custodian may exercise such rights, powers, and authority in that capacity only. However, this section does not relieve a custodian from liability for breach of a duty imposed under § 64.2-1911.

1988, c. 516, § 31-49; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1913. Use of custodial property.

A. A custodian may deliver or pay to the minor or expend for the minor's benefit so much of the custodial property as the custodian considers advisable for the use and benefit of the minor, without court order and without regard to (i) the duty or ability of the custodian personally or of any other person to support the minor or (ii) any other income or property of the minor which may be applicable or available for that purpose.

B. At any time a custodian may, without court order, transfer all or part of the custodial property to a qualified minor's trust. Such a transfer terminates the custodianship to the extent of the custodial property transferred.

C. On petition of an interested person or the minor if the minor has attained the age of 14 years, the court may order the custodian to deliver or pay to the minor or expend for the minor's benefit so much of the custodial property as the court considers advisable for the use and benefit of the minor.

D. A delivery, payment, or expenditure under this section is in addition to, not in substitution for, and does not affect any obligation of a person to support the minor.

1988, c. 516, § 31-50; 2007, c. 307; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1914. Custodian's expenses, compensation, and bond.

A. A custodian is entitled to reimbursement from custodial property for reasonable expenses incurred in the performance of the custodian's duties.

B. A custodian, other than one who is a transferor under § 64.2-1903, has a noncumulative election during each calendar year to charge reasonable compensation for services performed during that year.

C. Except upon petition as provided in subsection F of § 64.2-1917, a custodian need not give a bond.

1988, c. 516, § 31-51; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1915. Exemption of third person from liability.

A third person may act in good faith and without court order on the instruction of or otherwise deal with any person purporting to make a transfer or purporting to act in the capacity of a custodian and, in the absence of knowledge, is not responsible for determining (i) the validity of the purported custodian's designation, (ii) the propriety of, or the authority under this chapter for, any act of the purported custodian, (iii) the validity or propriety under this chapter of any instrument or instructions executed or given either by the person purporting to make a transfer or by the purported custodian, or (iv) the propriety of the application of any property of the minor delivered to the purported custodian.

1988, c. 516, § 31-52; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1916. Liability to third persons.

A claim based on (i) a contract entered into by a custodian acting in a custodial capacity, (ii) an obligation arising from the ownership or control of custodial property, or (iii) a tort committed during the custodianship may be asserted against the custodial property by proceeding against the custodian in a custodial capacity, whether or not the custodian or the minor is personally liable therefor.

A custodian is not personally liable on a contract properly entered into in the custodial capacity, unless the custodian fails to reveal that capacity and to identify the custodianship in the contract, or for an obligation arising from control of custodial property or for a tort committed during the custodianship, unless the custodian is personally at fault.

A minor is not personally liable for an obligation arising from ownership of custodial property or for a tort committed during the custodianship unless the minor is personally at fault.

1988, c. 516, § 31-53; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1917. Renunciation, resignation, death, or removal of custodian; designation of successor custodian.

A. A person nominated under § 64.2-1902 or designated under § 64.2-1908 as custodian may decline to serve by delivering written notice to the person who made the nomination or to the transferor or the transferor's legal representative. If the event giving rise to a transfer has not occurred and no substitute custodian able, willing, and eligible to serve was nominated under § 64.2-1902, the person who made the nomination may nominate a substitute custodian under § 64.2-1902. Otherwise, the transferor or the transferor's legal representative shall designate a substitute custodian at the time of the transfer. In either case the nomination or designation shall be made from among the persons eligible to serve as custodian for that kind of property under subsection A of § 64.2-1908. The custodian so designated has the rights of a successor custodian.

B. A custodian at any time may designate a trust company or an adult other than a transferor under § 64.2-1903 as successor custodian by executing and dating an instrument of designation before a subscribing witness other than the successor. If the instrument of designation does not contain or is not accompanied by the resignation of the custodian, the designation of the successor does not take effect until the custodian resigns, dies, or becomes incapacitated.

C. A custodian may resign at any time by (i) delivering written notice to the minor, if the minor has attained the age of 14 years, and to the successor custodian and (ii) delivering the custodial property to the successor custodian.

D. If a custodian is ineligible, dies, or becomes incapacitated without having effectively designated a successor and the minor has attained the age of 14 years, the minor may designate as successor custodian, in the manner prescribed in subsection B, an adult member of the minor's family, a conservator of the minor, or a trust company. If the minor has not attained the age of 14 years or fails to act within 60 days after the ineligibility, death, or incapacity, the conservator of the minor becomes successor custodian. If the minor has no conservator or the conservator declines to act, the transferor, the legal representative of the transferor or of the custodian, an adult member of the minor's family, or any other interested person may petition the court to designate a successor custodian.

E. A custodian who declines to serve under subsection A or resigns under subsection C or the legal representative of a deceased or incapacitated custodian shall, as soon as practicable, put the custodial property and records in the possession and control of the successor custodian. The successor custodian by action may enforce the obligation to deliver custodial property and records and becomes responsible for each item as received.

F. A transferor, the legal representative of a transferor, an adult member of the minor's family, a guardian of the person of the minor, the conservator of the minor, or the minor, if the minor has attained the age of 14 years, may petition the court to (i) remove the custodian for cause and to designate a successor custodian other than a transferor under § 64.2-1903 or (ii) require the custodian to give appropriate bond.

1988, c. 516, § 31-54; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1918. Accounting by and determination of liability of custodian.

A. A transferor, the legal representative of a transferor, an adult member of the minor's family, a guardian of the person of the minor, the conservator of the minor, or the minor, if the minor has attained the age of 14 years, may petition the court (i) for an accounting by the custodian or the custodian's legal representative or (ii) for a determination of responsibility, as between the custodial property and the custodian personally, for claims against the custodial property unless the responsibility has been adjudicated in an action under § 64.2-1916 to which the minor or the minor's legal representative was a party.

B. A successor custodian may petition the court for an accounting by the predecessor custodian.

C. The court, in a proceeding under this chapter or in any other proceeding, may require or permit the custodian or the custodian's legal representative to account.

D. If a custodian is removed under subsection F of § 64.2-1917, the court shall require an accounting and order delivery of the custodial property and records to the successor custodian and the execution of all instruments required for transfer of the custodial property.

1988, c. 516, § 31-55; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1919. Termination of custodianship.

The custodian shall transfer the custodial property to the minor or to the minor's estate in an appropriate manner upon the earlier of:

1. The minor's attainment of 18 years of age or if the transfer was made as provided in subsection D of § 64.2-1908, the minor's attainment of 21 years of age; or

2. The minor's death.

1988, c. 516, § 31-56; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1920. Applicability.

This chapter applies to a transfer within the scope of § 64.2-1901 made after July 1, 1988, if:

1. The transfer purports to have been made under the provisions of the Virginia Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (former §§ 31-26 through 31-36); or

2. The instrument by which the transfer purports to have been made uses in substance the designation "as custodian under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act" or "as custodian under the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act" of any other state, and the application of this chapter is necessary to validate the transfer.

1988, c. 516, § 31-57; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1921. Effect on existing custodianships.

A. Any transfer of custodial property as now defined in this chapter made before July 1, 1988, is validated notwithstanding that there was no specific authority in the Virginia Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (former §§ 31-26 through 31-36) for the coverage of custodial property of that kind or for a transfer from that source at the time the transfer was made.

B. This chapter applies to all transfers made before July 1, 1988, in a manner and form prescribed in the Virginia Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (former §§ 31-26 through 31-36) except insofar as the application impairs constitutionally vested rights.

1988, c. 516, § 31-58; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1922. Uniformity of application and construction.

This chapter shall be applied and construed to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of this chapter among states enacting it.

1988, c. 516, § 31-59; 2012, c. 614.

Part D. Guardianship of Incapacitated Persons.

Chapter 20. Guardianship and Conservatorship.

Article 1. Appointment.

§ 64.2-2000. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Advance directive" shall have the same meaning as provided in the Health Care Decisions Act (§ 54.1-2981 et seq.).

"Conservator" means a person appointed by the court who is responsible for managing the estate and financial affairs of an incapacitated person and, where the context plainly indicates, includes a "limited conservator" or a "temporary conservator." The term includes (i) a local or regional program designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public conservator pursuant to Article 6 (§ 51.5-149 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 or (ii) any local or regional tax-exempt charitable organization established pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code to provide conservatorial services to incapacitated persons. Such tax-exempt charitable organization shall not be a provider of direct services to the incapacitated person. If a tax-exempt charitable organization has been designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public conservator, it may also serve as a conservator for other individuals.

"Estate" includes both real and personal property.

"Facility" means a state or licensed hospital, training center, psychiatric hospital, or other type of residential or outpatient mental health or mental retardation facility. When modified by the word "state," "facility" means a state hospital or training center operated by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, including the buildings and land associated with it.

"Guardian" means a person appointed by the court who is responsible for the personal affairs of an incapacitated person, including responsibility for making decisions regarding the person's support, care, health, safety, habilitation, education, therapeutic treatment, and, if not inconsistent with an order of involuntary admission, residence. Where the context plainly indicates, the term includes a "limited guardian" or a "temporary guardian." The term includes (i) a local or regional program designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public guardian pursuant to Article 6 (§ 51.5-149 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 or (ii) any local or regional tax-exempt charitable organization established pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code to provide guardian services to incapacitated persons. Such tax-exempt charitable organization shall not be a provider of direct services to the incapacitated person. If a tax-exempt charitable organization has been designated by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services as a public guardian, it may also serve as a guardian for other individuals.

"Incapacitated person" means an adult who has been found by a court to be incapable of receiving and evaluating information effectively or responding to people, events, or environments to such an extent that the individual lacks the capacity to (i) meet the essential requirements for his health, care, safety, or therapeutic needs without the assistance or protection of a guardian or (ii) manage property or financial affairs or provide for his support or for the support of his legal dependents without the assistance or protection of a conservator. A finding that the individual displays poor judgment alone shall not be considered sufficient evidence that the individual is an incapacitated person within the meaning of this definition. A finding that a person is incapacitated shall be construed as a finding that the person is "mentally incompetent" as that term is used in Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution of Virginia and Title 24.2 unless the court order entered pursuant to this chapter specifically provides otherwise.

"Individual receiving services" or "individual" means a current direct recipient of public or private mental health, developmental, or substance abuse treatment, rehabilitation, or habilitation services and includes the terms "consumer," "patient," "resident," "recipient," or "client."

"Limited conservator" means a person appointed by the court who has only those responsibilities for managing the estate and financial affairs of an incapacitated person as specified in the order of appointment.

"Limited guardian" means a person appointed by the court who has only those responsibilities for the personal affairs of an incapacitated person as specified in the order of appointment.

"Mental illness" means a disorder of thought, mood, emotion, perception, or orientation that significantly impairs judgment, behavior, capacity to recognize reality, or ability to address basic life necessities and requires care and treatment for the health, safety, or recovery of the individual or for the safety of others.

"Property" includes both real and personal property.

"Respondent" means an allegedly incapacitated person for whom a petition for guardianship or conservatorship has been filed.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.6; 1998, cc. 582, 787; 2004, c. 858; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1000; 2006, c. 724; 2012, cc. 614, 803, 835.

§ 64.2-2001. Filing of petition; jurisdiction; instructions to be provided.

A. A petition for the appointment of a guardian or conservator shall be filed with the circuit court of the county or city in which the respondent is a resident or is located or in which the respondent resided immediately prior to becoming a patient, voluntarily or involuntarily, in a hospital, including a hospital licensed by the Department of Health pursuant to § 32.1-123, or a resident in a nursing facility or nursing home, convalescent home, assisted living facility as defined in § 63.2-100, or any other similar institution or, if the petition is for the appointment of a conservator for a nonresident with property in the state, in the city or county in which the respondent's property is located.

B. Article 2 (§ 64.2-2105 et seq.) of the Uniform Adult Guardianship and Protective Proceedings Jurisdiction Act provides the exclusive jurisdictional basis for a court of the Commonwealth to appoint a guardian or conservator for an adult.

C. Where the petition is brought by a parent or guardian of a respondent who is under the age of 18, or by any other person and there is no living parent or guardian of a respondent who is under the age of 18, the petition may be filed no earlier than six months prior to the respondent's eighteenth birthday. Where such a petition is brought, a court may enter an order appointing the parent or guardian of the respondent, or other person if there is no living parent or guardian, as guardian or conservator prior to the respondent's eighteenth birthday. Such order shall specify whether it takes effect immediately upon entry or on the respondent's eighteenth birthday. Where the petition is brought by any other person and there is a living parent or guardian of a respondent who is under the age of 18, the petition may be filed no earlier than the respondent's eighteenth birthday.

D. Instructions regarding the duties, powers, and liabilities of guardians and conservators shall be provided to each clerk of court by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court, and the clerk shall provide such information to each guardian and conservator upon notice of appointment.

E. The circuit court in which the proceeding is first commenced may order a transfer of venue if it would be in the best interest of the respondent.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.7; 2001, c. 274; 2002, c. 736; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1001; 2006, c. 552; 2011, c. 518; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 523; 2016, c. 31.

§ 64.2-2002. Who may file petition; contents.

A. Any person may file a petition for the appointment of a guardian, a conservator, or both.

B. A petition for the appointment of a guardian, a conservator, or both, shall state the petitioner's name, place of residence, post office address, and relationship, if any, to the respondent and, to the extent known as of the date of filing, shall include the following:

1. The respondent's name, date of birth, place of residence or location, post office address, and the sealed filing of the social security number;

2. The basis for the court's jurisdiction under the provisions of Article 2 (§ 64.2-2105 et seq.) of Chapter 21;

3. The names and post office addresses of the respondent's spouse, adult children, parents, and adult siblings or, if no such relatives are known to the petitioner, at least three other known relatives of the respondent, including stepchildren. If a total of three such persons cannot be identified and located, the petitioner shall certify that fact in the petition, and the court shall set forth such finding in the final order;

4. The name, place of residence or location, and post office address of the individual or facility, if any, that is responsible for or has assumed responsibility for the respondent's care or custody;

5. The name, place of residence or location, and post office address of any agent designated under a durable power of attorney or an advance directive of which the respondent is the principal, and any guardian, committee, or conservator currently acting, whether in this state or elsewhere, and the petitioner shall attach a copy of any such durable power of attorney, advance directive, or order appointing the guardian, committee, or conservator, if available;

6. The type of guardianship or conservatorship requested and a brief description of the nature and extent of the respondent's alleged incapacity;

7. When the petition requests appointment of a guardian, a brief description of the services currently being provided for the respondent's health, care, safety, or rehabilitation and, where appropriate, a recommendation as to living arrangements and treatment plan;

8. If the appointment of a limited guardian is requested, the specific areas of protection and assistance to be included in the order of appointment and, if the appointment of a limited conservator is requested, the specific areas of management and assistance to be included in the order of appointment;

9. The name and post office address of any proposed guardian or conservator or any guardian or conservator nominated by the respondent and that person's relationship to the respondent;

10. The native language of the respondent and any necessary alternative mode of communication;

11. A statement of the financial resources of the respondent that shall, to the extent known, list the approximate value of the respondent's property and the respondent's anticipated annual gross income, other receipts, and debts;

12. A statement of whether the petitioner believes that the respondent's attendance at the hearing would be detrimental to the respondent's health, care, or safety; and

13. A request for appointment of a guardian ad litem.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.8; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1002; 2006, c. 471; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 523.

§ 64.2-2003. Appointment of guardian ad litem.

A. On the filing of every petition for guardianship or conservatorship, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the interests of the respondent. The guardian ad litem shall be paid a fee that is fixed by the court to be paid by the petitioner or taxed as costs, as the court directs.

B. Duties of the guardian ad litem include (i) personally visiting the respondent; (ii) advising the respondent of rights pursuant to §§ 64.2-2006 and 64.2-2007 and certifying to the court that the respondent has been so advised; (iii) recommending that legal counsel be appointed for the respondent, pursuant to § 64.2-2006, if the guardian ad litem believes that counsel for the respondent is necessary; (iv) investigating the petition and evidence, requesting additional evaluation if necessary, and filing a report pursuant to subsection C; and (v) personally appearing at all court proceedings and conferences.

C. In the report required by clause (iv) of subsection B, the guardian ad litem shall address the following major areas of concern: (i) whether the court has jurisdiction; (ii) whether a guardian or conservator is needed; (iii) the extent of the duties and powers of the guardian or conservator; (iv) the propriety and suitability of the person selected as guardian or conservator after consideration of the person's geographic location, familial or other relationship with the respondent, ability to carry out the powers and duties of the office, commitment to promoting the respondent's welfare, any potential conflicts of interests, wishes of the respondent, and recommendations of relatives; (v) a recommendation as to the amount of surety on the conservator's bond, if any; and (vi) consideration of proper residential placement of the respondent.

D. A health care provider shall disclose or make available to the guardian ad litem, upon request, any information, records, and reports concerning the respondent that the guardian ad litem determines necessary to perform his duties under this section.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.9; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1003; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2004. Notice of hearing; jurisdictional.

A. Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall promptly set a date, time, and location for a hearing. The respondent shall be given reasonable notice of the hearing. The respondent may not waive notice, and a failure to properly notify the respondent shall be jurisdictional.

B. A respondent, whether or not he resides in the Commonwealth, shall be personally served with the notice of the hearing, a copy of the petition, and a copy of the order appointing a guardian ad litem pursuant to § 64.2-2003. A certification, in the guardian ad litem's report required by subsection B of § 64.2-2003, that the guardian ad litem personally served the respondent with the notice, a copy of the petition, and a copy of the order appointing a guardian ad litem shall constitute valid personal service for purposes of this section.

C. A copy of the notice, together with a copy of the petition, shall be mailed by first-class mail by the petitioner at least seven days before the hearing to all adult individuals and to all entities whose names and post office addresses appear in the petition. The court, for good cause shown, may waive the advance notice required by this subsection. If the advance notice is waived, the petitioner shall promptly mail by first-class mail a copy of the petition and any order entered to those individuals and entities.

D. The notice to the respondent shall include a brief statement in at least 14-point type of the purpose of the proceedings and shall inform the respondent of the right to be represented by counsel pursuant to § 64.2-2006 and to a hearing pursuant to § 64.2-2007. Additionally, the notice shall include the following statement in conspicuous, bold print.

WARNING

AT THE HEARING YOU MAY LOSE MANY OF YOUR RIGHTS. A GUARDIAN MAY BE APPOINTED TO MAKE PERSONAL DECISIONS FOR YOU. A CONSERVATOR MAY BE APPOINTED TO MAKE DECISIONS CONCERNING YOUR PROPERTY AND FINANCES. THE APPOINTMENT MAY AFFECT CONTROL OF HOW YOU SPEND YOUR MONEY, HOW YOUR PROPERTY IS MANAGED AND CONTROLLED, WHO MAKES YOUR MEDICAL DECISIONS, WHERE YOU LIVE, WHETHER YOU ARE ALLOWED TO VOTE, AND OTHER IMPORTANT RIGHTS.

E. The petitioner shall file with the clerk of the circuit court a statement of compliance with subsections B, C, and D.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.10; 2001, c. 30; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1004; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2005. Evaluation report.

A. A report evaluating the condition of the respondent shall be filed, under seal, with the court and provided to the guardian ad litem, the respondent, and all adult individuals and all entities to whom notice is required under subsection C of § 64.2-2004 within a reasonable time prior to the hearing on the petition. The report shall be prepared by one or more licensed physicians or psychologists or licensed professionals skilled in the assessment and treatment of the physical or mental conditions of the respondent as alleged in the petition. If a report is not available, the court may proceed to hold the hearing without the report for good cause shown, absent any objection by the guardian ad litem, or may order a report and delay the hearing until the report is prepared, filed, and provided.

B. The report shall evaluate the condition of the respondent and shall contain, to the best information and belief of its signatory:

1. A description of the nature, type, and extent of the respondent's incapacity, including the respondent's specific functional impairments;

2. A diagnosis or assessment of the respondent's mental and physical condition, including a statement as to whether the individual is on any medications that may affect his actions or demeanor, and, where appropriate and consistent with the scope of the evaluator's license, an evaluation of the respondent's ability to learn self-care skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills and a prognosis for improvement;

3. The date or dates of the examinations, evaluations, and assessments upon which the report is based; and

4. The signature of the person conducting the evaluation and the nature of the professional license held by that person.

C. In the absence of bad faith or malicious intent, a person performing the evaluation shall be immune from civil liability for any breach of patient confidentiality made in furtherance of his duties under this section.

D. A report prepared pursuant to this section shall be admissible as evidence in open court of the facts stated in the report and the results of the examination or evaluation referred to in the report, unless counsel for the respondent or the guardian ad litem objects.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.11; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1005; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 402.

§ 64.2-2006. Counsel for respondent.

The respondent has the right to be represented by counsel of the respondent's choice. If the respondent is not represented by counsel, the court may appoint legal counsel upon the filing of the petition or at any time prior to the entry of the order upon request of the respondent or the guardian ad litem, if the court determines that counsel is needed to protect the respondent's interest. Counsel appointed by the court shall be paid a fee that is fixed by the court to be taxed as part of the costs of the proceeding.

A health care provider shall disclose or make available to the attorney, upon request, any information, records, and reports concerning the respondent that the attorney determines necessary to perform his duties under this section, including a copy of the evaluation report required under § 64.2-2005.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.12; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1006; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2007. Hearing on petition to appoint.

A. The respondent is entitled to a jury trial upon request, and may compel the attendance of witnesses, present evidence on his own behalf, and confront and cross-examine witnesses.

B. The court or the jury, if a jury is requested, shall hear the petition for the appointment of a guardian or conservator. The hearing may be held at such convenient place as the court directs, including the place where the respondent is located. The hearing shall be conducted within 120 days from the filing of the petition unless the court postpones it for cause. The proposed guardian or conservator shall attend the hearing except for good cause shown and, where appropriate, shall provide the court with a recommendation as to living arrangements and a treatment plan for the respondent. The respondent is entitled to be present at the hearing and all other stages of the proceedings. The respondent shall be present if he so requests or if his presence is requested by the guardian ad litem. Whether or not present, the respondent shall be regarded as having denied the allegations in the petition.

C. In determining the need for a guardian or a conservator and the powers and duties of any guardian or conservator, if needed, consideration shall be given to the following factors: (i) the limitations of the respondent; (ii) the development of the respondent's maximum self-reliance and independence; (iii) the availability of less restrictive alternatives, including advance directives and durable powers of attorney; (iv) the extent to which it is necessary to protect the respondent from neglect, exploitation, or abuse; (v) the actions needed to be taken by the guardian or conservator; (vi) the suitability of the proposed guardian or conservator; and (vii) the best interests of the respondent.

D. If, after considering the evidence presented at the hearing, the court or jury determines on the basis of clear and convincing evidence that the respondent is incapacitated and in need of a guardian or conservator, the court shall appoint a suitable person, who may be the spouse of the respondent, to be the guardian or the conservator or both, giving due deference to the wishes of the respondent.

The court in its order shall make specific findings of fact and conclusions of law in support of each provision of any orders entered.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.13; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1007; 2009, c. 433; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 523.

§ 64.2-2008. Fees and costs.

A. The petitioner shall pay the filing fee set forth in subdivision A 43 of § 17.1-275 and costs. Service fees and court costs may be waived by the court if it is alleged under oath that the estate of the respondent is unavailable or insufficient. If a guardian or conservator is appointed and the court finds that the petition is brought in good faith and for the benefit of the respondent, the court shall order that the petitioner be reimbursed from the estate for all reasonable costs and fees if the estate of the incapacitated person is available and sufficient to reimburse the petitioner. If a guardian or conservator is not appointed and the court nonetheless finds that the petition is brought in good faith and for the benefit of the respondent, the court may direct the respondent's estate, if available and sufficient, to reimburse the petitioner for all reasonable costs and fees. The court may require the petitioner to pay or reimburse all or some of the respondent's reasonable costs and fees and any other costs incurred under this chapter if the court finds that the petitioner initiated a proceeding under this chapter that was in bad faith or not for the benefit of the respondent.

B. In any proceeding filed pursuant to this article, if the adult subject of the petition is determined to be indigent, any fees and costs of the proceeding that are fixed by the court or taxed as costs shall be borne by the Commonwealth.

1998, c. 76, § 37.1-134.13:1; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1008; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 523.

§ 64.2-2009. Court order of appointment; limited guardianships and conservatorships.

A. The court's order appointing a guardian or conservator shall (i) state the nature and extent of the person's incapacity; (ii) define the powers and duties of the guardian or conservator so as to permit the incapacitated person to care for himself and manage property to the extent he is capable; (iii) specify whether the appointment of a guardian or conservator is limited to a specified length of time, as the court in its discretion may determine; (iv) specify the legal disabilities, if any, of the person in connection with the finding of incapacity, including but not limited to mental competency for purposes of Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution of Virginia or Title 24.2; (v) include any limitations deemed appropriate following consideration of the factors specified in § 64.2-2007; (vi) set the bond of the guardian and the bond and surety, if any, of the conservator; and (vii) where a petition is brought prior to the incapacitated person's eighteenth birthday, pursuant to subsection C of § 64.2-2001, whether the order shall take effect immediately upon entry or on the incapacitated person's eighteenth birthday.

B. The court may appoint a limited guardian for an incapacitated person who is capable of addressing some of the essential requirements for his care for the limited purpose of medical decision making, decisions about place of residency, or other specific decisions regarding his personal affairs. The court may appoint a limited conservator for an incapacitated person who is capable of managing some of his property and financial affairs for limited purposes that are specified in the order.

C. Unless the guardian has a professional relationship with the incapacitated person or is employed by or affiliated with a facility where the person resides, the court's order may authorize the guardian to consent to the admission of the person to a facility pursuant to § 37.2-805.1, upon finding by clear and convincing evidence that (i) the person has severe and persistent mental illness that significantly impairs the person's capacity to exercise judgment or self-control, as confirmed by the evaluation of a licensed psychiatrist; (ii) such condition is unlikely to improve in the foreseeable future; and (iii) the guardian has formulated a plan for providing ongoing treatment of the person's illness in the least restrictive setting suitable for the person's condition.

D. A guardian need not be appointed for a person who has appointed an agent under an advance directive executed in accordance with the provisions of Article 8 (§ 54.1-2981 et seq.) of Chapter 29 of Title 54.1, unless the court determines that the agent is not acting in accordance with the wishes of the principal or there is a need for decision making outside the purview of the advance directive.

A conservator need not be appointed for a person (i) who has appointed an agent under a durable power of attorney, unless the court determines pursuant to the Uniform Power of Attorney Act (§ 64.2-1600 et seq.) that the agent is not acting in the best interests of the principal or there is a need for decision making outside the purview of the durable power of attorney or (ii) whose only or major source of income is from the Social Security Administration or other government program and who has a representative payee.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.14; 1998, c. 582; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1009; 2009, cc. 211, 268; 2010, cc. 455, 632; 2012, c. 614; 2016, c. 31.

§ 64.2-2010. Eligibility for public guardian or conservator.

The circuit court may appoint a local or regional program authorized by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services pursuant to Article 6 (§ 51.5-149 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 as the guardian or conservator for any resident of the Commonwealth who is found to be incapacitated if the court finds that (i) the incapacitated person's resources are insufficient to fully compensate a private guardian and pay court costs and fees associated with the appointment proceeding and (ii) there is no other proper and suitable person willing and able to serve in such capacity or there is no guardian or conservator appointed within one month of adjudication pursuant to § 64.2-2015. The court shall use the guidelines for determining indigency set forth in § 19.2-159 in determining the sufficiency of the respondent's estate. If the respondent would be eligible for the appointment of counsel pursuant to § 19.2-159, he shall be eligible for the appointment of a public guardian or conservator pursuant to this section.

1998, c. 787, § 37.1-134.14:1; 2005, cc. 712, 716, § 37.2-1010; 2012, cc. 614, 803, 835.

§ 64.2-2011. Qualification of guardian or conservator; clerk to record order and issue certificate; reliance on certificate.

A. A guardian or conservator appointed in the court order shall qualify before the clerk upon the following:

1. Subscribing to an oath promising to faithfully perform the duties of the office in accordance with all provisions of this chapter;

2. Posting of bond, but no surety shall be required on the bond of the guardian, and the conservator's bond may be with or without surety, as ordered by the court; and

3. Acceptance in writing by the guardian or conservator of any educational materials provided by the court.

B. Upon qualification, the clerk shall issue to the guardian or conservator a certificate with a copy of the order appended thereto. The clerk shall record the order in the same manner as a power of attorney would be recorded and shall, in addition to the requirements of § 64.2-2014, provide a copy of the order to the commissioner of accounts. It shall be the duty of a conservator having the power to sell real estate to record the order in the office of the clerk of any jurisdiction where the respondent owns real property. If the order appoints a guardian, the clerk shall promptly forward a copy of the order to the local department of social services in the jurisdiction where the respondent then resides and to the Department of Medical Assistance Services.

C. A conservator shall have all powers granted pursuant to § 64.2-2021 as are necessary and proper for the performance of his duties in accordance with this chapter, subject to the limitations that are prescribed in the order. The powers granted to a guardian shall only be those powers enumerated in the court order.

D. Any individual or entity conducting business in good faith with a guardian or conservator who presents a currently effective certificate of qualification may presume that the guardian or conservator is properly authorized to act as to any matter or transaction, except to the extent of any limitations upon the fiduciary's powers contained in the court's order of appointment.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.15; 1998, c. 582; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1011; 2012, c. 614; 2016, c. 30.

§ 64.2-2012. Petition for restoration, modification, or termination; effects.

A. Upon petition by the incapacitated person, the guardian or conservator, or any other person or upon motion of the court, the court may (i) declare the incapacitated person restored to capacity; (ii) modify the type of appointment or the areas of protection, management, or assistance previously granted or require a new bond; (iii) terminate the guardianship or conservatorship; (iv) order removal of the guardian or conservator as provided in § 64.2-1410; or (v) order other appropriate relief. The fee for filing the petition shall be as provided in subdivision A 43 of § 17.1-275.

B. In the case of a petition for modification to expand the scope of a guardianship or conservatorship, the incapacitated person shall be entitled to a jury, upon request. Notice of the hearing and a copy of the petition shall be personally served on the incapacitated person and mailed to other persons entitled to notice pursuant to § 64.2-2004. The court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for the incapacitated person and may appoint one or more licensed physicians or psychologists or licensed professionals skilled in the assessment and treatment of the physical or mental conditions of the incapacitated person, as alleged in the petition, to conduct an evaluation. Upon the filing of any other such petition or upon the motion of the court, and after reasonable notice to the incapacitated person, any guardian or conservator, any attorney of record, any person entitled to notice of the filing of an original petition as provided in § 64.2-2004, and any other person or entity as the court may require, the court shall hold a hearing.

C. An order appointing a guardian or conservator may be revoked, modified, or terminated upon a finding that it is in the best interests of the incapacitated person and that:

1. The incapacitated person is no longer in need of the assistance or protection of a guardian or conservator;

2. The extent of protection, management, or assistance previously granted is either excessive or insufficient considering the current need of the incapacitated person;

3. The incapacitated person's understanding or capacity to manage his estate and financial affairs or to provide for his health, care, or safety has so changed as to warrant such action; or

4. Circumstances are such that the guardianship or conservatorship is no longer necessary or is insufficient.

D. The court shall declare the person restored to capacity and discharge the guardian or conservator if, on the basis of evidence offered at the hearing, the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the incapacitated person has substantially regained his ability to (i) care for his person in the case of a guardianship or (ii) manage and handle his estate in the case of a conservatorship.

In the case of a petition for modification of a guardianship or conservatorship, the court shall order (a) limiting or reducing the powers of the guardian or conservator if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that it is in the best interests of the incapacitated person to do so, or (b) increasing or expanding the powers of the guardian or conservator if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that it is in the best interests of the incapacitated person to do so.

The court may order a new bond or other appropriate relief upon finding by a preponderance of the evidence that the guardian or conservator is not acting in the best interests of the incapacitated person or of the estate.

E. The powers of a guardian or conservator shall terminate upon the death, resignation, or removal of the guardian or conservator or upon the termination of the guardianship or conservatorship.

A guardianship or conservatorship shall terminate upon the death of the incapacitated person or, if ordered by the court, following a hearing on the petition of any interested person.

F. The court may allow reasonable compensation from the estate of the incapacitated person to any guardian ad litem, attorney, or evaluator appointed pursuant to this section. Any compensation allowed shall be taxed as costs of the proceeding.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.16; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1012; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2013. Standby guardianship or conservatorship for incapacitated persons.

A. For purposes of this section, the term "person" includes a child or a parent sharing a biological relationship with one another or having a relationship established by adoption, a relationship established pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 20-156 et seq.) of Title 20, or a relationship established by a judicial proceeding that establishes parentage or orders legal guardianship. The term includes persons 18 years of age and over.

B. On petition of one or both parents, one or more children, or the legal guardian of an incapacitated person made to the circuit court for the jurisdiction where the parent, parents, child, children, or legal guardian resides, the court may appoint a standby guardian or a standby conservator, or both, of the incapacitated person. The appointment of the standby fiduciary shall be affirmed biennially by the parent, parents, child, children, or legal guardian of the person and by the standby fiduciary prior to his assuming his position as fiduciary by filing with the court an affidavit that states that the standby fiduciary remains available and capable to fulfill his duties.

C. The standby fiduciary shall be authorized without further proceedings to assume the duties of his office immediately upon the death or adjudication of incapacity of the last surviving of the parents or children of the incapacitated person or of his legal guardian, subject to confirmation of his appointment by the circuit court within 60 days following assumption of his duties. If the incapacitated person is 18 years of age or older, the court, before confirming the appointment of the standby fiduciary, shall conduct a hearing pursuant to this article. The requirements of the court and the powers, duties, and liabilities that pertain to guardians and conservators govern the confirmation of the standby fiduciary and shall apply to the standby fiduciary upon the assumption of his duties.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.17; 2004, c. 135; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1013; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2014. Clerk to index findings of incapacity or restoration; notice of findings.

A. A copy of the court's findings that a person is incapacitated or has been restored to capacity, or a copy of any order appointing a conservator or guardian pursuant to § 64.2-2115, shall be filed by the judge with the clerk of the circuit court for the county or city where the hearing took place as soon as practicable, but no later than the close of business on the next business day following the completion of the hearing. The clerk shall properly index the findings in the index to deed books by reference to the order book and page whereon the order is spread and shall immediately notify the Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services in accordance with § 64.2-2028, the commissioner of accounts in order to ensure compliance by a conservator with the duties imposed pursuant to §§ 64.2-2021, 64.2-2022, 64.2-2023, and 64.2-2026, and the Commissioner of Elections with the information required by § 24.2-410. If a guardian is appointed, the clerk shall forward a copy of the court order to the local department of social services of the jurisdiction where the person then resides and to the Department of Medical Assistance Services. If a guardianship is terminated or otherwise modified, the clerk shall forward a copy of the court order to the local department of social services to which the original order of appointment was forwarded, to the local department of social services in the jurisdiction where the person then resides, if different from the department to which the original order was forwarded, and to the Department of Medical Assistance Services.

B. The clerk shall, as soon as practicable, but no later than the close of business on the following business day, certify and forward upon receipt to the Central Criminal Records Exchange, on a form provided by the Exchange, a copy of any order adjudicating a person incapacitated under this article, any order appointing a conservator or guardian pursuant to § 64.2-2115, and any order of restoration of capacity under § 64.2-2012. Except as provided in subdivision A 1 of § 19.2-389, the copy of the form and the order shall be kept confidential in a separate file and used only to determine a person's eligibility to possess, purchase, or transfer a firearm.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.18; 1998, c. 582; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1014; 2011, c. 518; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 542; 2014, cc. 336, 374; 2015, c. 540; 2016, c. 30.

§ 64.2-2015. When no guardian or conservator appointed within one month of adjudication.

A. If a person is adjudicated incapacitated and in need of a guardian or conservator and the court has not identified any person to serve as guardian or conservator within one month from the adjudication, the court may appoint a local or regional program of the Virginia Public Guardian and Conservator Program authorized by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services pursuant to Article 6 (§ 51.5-149 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5. If there is no such local or regional program within the court's jurisdiction, the court may appoint any local or regional program within 60 miles of the residence of the incapacitated person as identified by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services. However, the court shall not appoint any such local or regional program that has reached or exceeded its ideal ratio of clients to staff pursuant to regulations adopted by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services under § 51.5-150.

B. If any person appointed as a fiduciary under this title refuses the trust or fails to give bond as required within one month from the date of his appointment, the court, on motion of any interested person, may appoint some other person as fiduciary, taking from the fiduciary the bond required, or shall commit the estate of the respondent to the sheriff of the county or city where the respondent is an inhabitant; and the sheriff shall be the fiduciary, and he and the sureties in his official bond shall be bound for the faithful performance of the trust.

Code 1950, § 37-145; 1950, p. 923; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-137; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 1976, c. 671; 1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.19; 1998, c. 787; 2005, cc. 712, 716, § 37.2-1015; 2012, cc. 614, 803, 835.

§ 64.2-2016. Trustees for incapacitated veterans and their beneficiaries.

A. Whenever any veteran of the armed forces of the United States or the beneficiary of any veteran is found to be incapacitated by the medical authorities of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, on motion of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or any interested person, and after reasonable notice to the veteran or beneficiary, the circuit court of the county or the city in which the veteran or beneficiary resides, in lieu of appointing a conservator or finding him to be incapacitated, shall appoint a trustee for the veteran or the beneficiary of the veteran where it appears to the court that a trustee is needed for the purpose of receiving and administering pension, compensation, insurance, or other benefits that might be paid by the United States government. Any motion shall be accompanied by a certificate of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs or his duly authorized representative certifying that the veteran or beneficiary has been rated incapacitated by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and that the appointment of a trustee is a condition precedent to the payment of any moneys due the veteran or the beneficiary.

B. Upon his qualification, the trustee, in addition to administering the funds payable through the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, shall administer the entire estate of the veteran or the beneficiary regardless of the source from which it is derived and, in such administration, shall have the same powers and duties and be subject to the same liabilities as are vested in or imposed upon a conservator pursuant to this chapter. The trustee, in addition to the duties and obligations imposed upon him under his trust by the federal government, shall be subject to the state laws that are applicable to the appointment and administration of conservators for incapacitated persons.

C. The court that appointed the trustee for a veteran or beneficiary pursuant to this section may subsequently find that the veteran or beneficiary has been restored to capacity.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-134.20; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1016; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2017. Payments from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

Monthly payments of pension, compensation, insurance, or other benefits from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs made to a trustee or other fiduciary shall be considered as income and not principal, but the accumulation of such monthly payments received by a trustee or other fiduciary and in his possession at the end of the accounting year may be carried over as principal and converted into the corpus of the estate when the accumulation amounts to $2,000 or more.

Code 1950, § 37-150.1; 1966, c. 310; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-143; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1017; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-2018. Taking of bond by clerk of court.

Whenever this title provides for the appointment of a fiduciary by a circuit court, the clerk of the court also shall have the authority to take the required bond, set the penalty thereof, and pass upon the sufficiency of the surety thereon.

Code 1950, § 37-144.1; 1958, c. 277; 1968, cc. 383, 477, § 37.1-136; 1976, c. 671; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1019; 2012, c. 614.

Article 2. Powers, Duties, and Liabilities.

§ 64.2-2019. Duties and powers of guardian.

A. A guardian stands in a fiduciary relationship to the incapacitated person for whom he was appointed guardian and may be held personally liable for a breach of any fiduciary duty to the incapacitated person. A guardian shall not be liable for the acts of the incapacitated person unless the guardian is personally negligent. A guardian shall not be required to expend personal funds on behalf of the incapacitated person.

B. A guardian's duties and authority shall not extend to decisions addressed in a valid advance directive or durable power of attorney previously executed by the incapacitated person. A guardian may seek court authorization to revoke, suspend, or otherwise modify a durable power of attorney, as provided by the Uniform Power of Attorney Act (§ 64.2-1600 et seq.). Notwithstanding the provisions of the Health Care Decisions Act (§ 54.1-2981 et seq.) and in accordance with the procedures of § 64.2-2012, a guardian may seek court authorization to modify the designation of an agent under an advance directive, but the modification shall not in any way affect the incapacitated person's directives concerning the provision or refusal of specific medical treatments or procedures.

C. A guardian shall maintain sufficient contact with the incapacitated person to know of his capabilities, limitations, needs, and opportunities. The guardian shall visit the incapacitated person as often as necessary.

D. A guardian shall be required to seek prior court authorization to change the incapacitated person's residence to another state, to terminate or consent to a termination of the person's parental rights, or to initiate a change in the person's marital status.

E. A guardian shall, to the extent feasible, encourage the incapacitated person to participate in decisions, to act on his own behalf, and to develop or regain the capacity to manage personal affairs. A guardian, in making decisions, shall consider the expressed desires and personal values of the incapacitated person to the extent known and shall otherwise act in the incapacitated person's best interest and exercise reasonable care, diligence, and prudence. A guardian shall not unreasonably restrict an incapacitated person's ability to communicate with, visit, or interact with other persons with whom the incapacitated person has an established relationship.

F. A guardian shall have authority to make arrangements for the funeral and disposition of remains, including cremation, interment, entombment, memorialization, inurnment, or scattering of the cremains, or some combination thereof, if the guardian is not aware of any person that has been otherwise designated to make such arrangements as set forth in § 54.1-2825. A guardian shall have authority to make arrangements for the funeral and disposition of remains after the death of an incapacitated person if, after the guardian has made a good faith effort to locate the next of kin of the incapacitated person to determine if the next of kin wishes to make such arrangements, the next of kin does not wish to make the arrangements or the next of kin cannot be located. Good faith effort shall include contacting the next of kin identified in the petition for appointment of a guardian. The funeral service licensee, funeral service establishment, registered crematory, cemetery, cemetery operator, or guardian shall be immune from civil liability for any act, decision, or omission resulting from acceptance of any dead body for burial, cremation, or other disposition when the provisions of this section are met, unless such acts, decisions, or omissions resulted from bad faith or malicious intent.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-137.1; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1020; 2010, cc. 455, 632; 2012, cc. 463, 614; 2016, cc. 404, 405.

§ 64.2-2020. Annual reports by guardians.

A. A guardian shall file an annual report in compliance with the filing deadlines in § 64.2-1305 with the local department of social services for the jurisdiction where the incapacitated person then resides. The report shall be on a form prepared by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and shall be accompanied by a filing fee of $5. The local department shall retain the fee in the jurisdiction where the fee is collected for use in the provision of services to adults in need of protection. Within 60 days of receipt of the annual report, the local department shall file a copy of the report with the clerk of the circuit court that appointed the guardian, to be placed with the court papers pertaining to the guardianship case. Twice each year the local department shall file with the clerk of the circuit court a list of all guardians who are more than 90 days delinquent in filing an annual report as required by this section. If the guardian is also a conservator, a settlement of accounts shall also be filed with the commissioner of accounts as provided in § 64.2-1305.

B. The report to the local department of social services shall include:

1. A description of the current mental, physical, and social condition of the incapacitated person;

2. A description of the person's living arrangements during the reported period;

3. The medical, educational, vocational, and other professional services provided to the person and the guardian's opinion as to the adequacy of the person's care;

4. A statement of the frequency and nature of the guardian's visits with and activities on behalf of the person;

5. A statement of whether the guardian agrees with the current treatment or habilitation plan;

6. A recommendation as to the need for continued guardianship, any recommended changes in the scope of the guardianship, and any other information useful in the opinion of the guardian; and

7. The compensation requested and the reasonable and necessary expenses incurred by the guardian.

The guardian shall certify that the information contained in the report is true and correct to the best of his knowledge.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-137.2; 1998, c. 582; 2000, c. 198; 2003, c. 527; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1021; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 133.

§ 64.2-2021. General duties and liabilities of conservator.

A. At all times the conservator shall exercise reasonable care, diligence, and prudence and shall act in the best interest of the incapacitated person. To the extent known to him, a conservator shall consider the expressed desires and personal values of the incapacitated person.

B. Subject to any conditions or limitations set forth in the conservatorship order, the conservator shall take care of and preserve the estate of the incapacitated person and manage it to the best advantage. The conservator shall apply the income from the estate, or so much as may be necessary, to the payment of the debts of the incapacitated person, including payment of reasonable compensation to himself and to any guardian appointed, and to the maintenance of the person and of his legal dependents, if any, and, to the extent that the income is not sufficient, he shall so apply the corpus of the estate.

C. A conservator shall, to the extent feasible, encourage the incapacitated person to participate in decisions, to act on his own behalf, and to develop or regain the capacity to manage the estate and his financial affairs. A conservator also shall consider the size of the estate, the probable duration of the conservatorship, the incapacitated person's accustomed manner of living, other resources known to the conservator to be available, and the recommendations of the guardian.

D. A conservator stands in a fiduciary relationship to the incapacitated person for whom he was appointed conservator and may be held personally liable for a breach of any fiduciary duty. Unless otherwise provided in the contract, a conservator is personally liable on a contract entered into in a fiduciary capacity in the course of administration of the estate, unless he reveals the representative capacity and identifies the estate in the contract. Claims based upon contracts entered into by a conservator in a fiduciary capacity, obligations arising from ownership or control of the estate, or torts committed in the course of administration of the estate may be asserted against the estate by proceeding against the conservator in a fiduciary capacity, whether or not the conservator is personally liable therefor. A successor conservator is not personally liable for the contracts or actions of a predecessor.

E. A conservator shall comply with and be subject to the requirements imposed upon fiduciaries generally under Part A (§ 64.2-1200 et seq.) of this subtitle, specifically including the duty to account set forth in § 64.2-1305.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-137.3; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1022; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2022. Management powers and duties of conservator.

A. A conservator, in managing the estate, shall have the powers set forth in § 64.2-105 as of the date the conservator acts as well as the following powers, which may be exercised without prior court authorization except as otherwise specifically provided in the court's order of appointment:

1. To ratify or reject a contract entered into by an incapacitated person;

2. To pay any sum distributable for the benefit of the incapacitated person or for the benefit of a legal dependent by paying the sum directly to the distributee, to the provider of goods and services, to any individual or facility that is responsible for or has assumed responsibility for care and custody, or to a distributee's custodian under a Uniform Gifts or Transfers to Minors Act of any applicable jurisdiction or by paying the sum to the guardian of the incapacitated person or, in the case of a dependent, to the dependent's guardian or conservator;

3. To maintain life, health, casualty, and liability insurance for the benefit of the incapacitated person or his legal dependents;

4. To manage the estate following the termination of the conservatorship until its delivery to the incapacitated person or successors in interest;

5. To execute and deliver all instruments and to take all other actions that will serve in the best interests of the incapacitated person;

6. To initiate a proceeding (i) to revoke a power of attorney under the provisions of the Uniform Power of Attorney Act (§ 64.2-1600 et seq.), (ii) to make an augmented estate election under § 64.2-302 or 64.2-308.13, as applicable, or (iii) to make an election to take a family allowance, exempt property, or a homestead allowance under § 64.2-313; and

7. To borrow money for periods of time and upon terms and conditions for rates, maturities, renewals, and security that to the conservator shall seem advisable, including the power to borrow from the conservator, if the conservator is a bank, for any purpose; to mortgage or pledge the portion of the incapacitated person's estate that may be required to secure the loan or loans; and, as maker or endorser, to renew existing loans.

B. The court may impose requirements to be satisfied by the conservator prior to the conveyance of any interest in real estate, including (i) increasing the amount of the conservator's bond, (ii) securing an appraisal of the real estate or interest, (iii) giving notice to interested parties as the court deems proper, (iv) consulting by the conservator with the commissioner of accounts and, if one has been appointed, with the guardian, and (v) requiring the use of a common source information company, as defined in § 54.1-2130, when listing the property. If the court imposes any such requirements, the conservator shall make a report of his compliance with each requirement, to be filed with the commissioner of accounts. Promptly following receipt of the conservator's report, the commissioner of accounts shall file a report with the court indicating whether the requirements imposed have been met and whether the sale is otherwise consistent with the conservator's duties. The conveyance shall not be closed until a report by the commissioner of accounts is filed with the court and confirmed as provided in §§ 64.2-1212, 64.2-1213, and 64.2-1214.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-137.4; 2004, cc. 652, 756; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1023; 2007, c. 694; 2010, cc. 455, 632; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 523; 2016, cc. 187, 269.

§ 64.2-2023. Estate planning.

A. In the order appointing a conservator entered pursuant to § 64.2-2009 or in a separate proceeding brought on petition, the court may for good cause shown authorize a conservator to (i) make gifts from income and principal of the incapacitated person's estate not necessary for the incapacitated person's maintenance to those persons to whom the incapacitated person would, in the judgment of the court, have made gifts if he had been of sound mind, (ii) disclaim property as provided in Chapter 26 (§ 64.2-2600 et seq.), or (iii) create a revocable or irrevocable trust on behalf of an incapacitated person with terms approved by the court or transfer assets of an incapacitated person or an incapacitated person's estate to a trust.

B. In a proceeding under this section, a guardian ad litem shall be appointed to represent the interest of the incapacitated person. Notice of a proceeding under this section shall be given pursuant to Chapter 8 (§ 8.01-285 et seq.) of Title 8.01 and the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia to: (i) the incapacitated person and the incapacitated person's spouse and children, (ii) all beneficiaries named in any known will of the incapacitated person, (iii) the incapacitated person's intestate heirs determined as if the incapacitated person had died intestate on the date of the filing of the petition, and (iv) all other interested persons. The court may authorize the hearing to proceed without notice to any person who would not be substantially affected by the proceedings. For the purposes of this section, the beneficiaries and intestate heirs shall be deemed possessed of inchoate property rights. Unless otherwise represented, a minor, incapacitated, or unborn individual, or a person whose identity or location is unknown and not reasonably ascertainable, may with the approval of the court be represented and bound by another having a substantially identical interest with respect to the will proceeding under this section, but only to the extent that there is no conflict of interest between the representative and the person represented.

C. The court shall determine the amounts, recipients, and proportions of any gifts of the estate, the advisability of any disclaimer, whether good cause exists to create a trust or transfer assets, and whether to approve the trust terms after considering (i) the size and composition of the estate; (ii) the nature and probable duration of the incapacity; (iii) the effect of the gifts, disclaimers, trusts, or transfers on the estate's financial ability to meet the incapacitated person's foreseeable health, medical care, and maintenance needs; (iv) the incapacitated person's estate plan and the effect of the gifts, disclaimers, trusts, or transfers on the estate plan; (v) prior patterns of assistance or gifts to the proposed donees; (vi) the tax effect of the proposed gifts, disclaimers, trusts, or transfers; (vii) the effect of any transfer of assets or disclaimer on the establishment or retention of eligibility for medical assistance services; (viii) whether to require, during the lifetime of the incapacitated person, that the trustee of any trust created or funded pursuant to this section post bond, with or without surety, or provide an accounting as set forth in § 64.2-1305; and (ix) other factors that the court may deem relevant.

D. A commissioner of accounts for the jurisdiction where a conservator qualifies may authorize the same gifts under the same circumstances as the circuit court may authorize under subsection C, except that (i) the total gifts authorized in a calendar year shall not exceed $25,000 and (ii) the commissioner shall report to the court his determination based upon consideration of clauses (i) through (ix) set forth in subsection C. The provisions of subsection B shall not apply to proceedings before the commissioner, but the commissioner shall give reasonable written notice of the scheduled hearing date to any person who would be substantially affected by the proceedings. The commissioner may provide notice to a minor by mail to the duly qualified guardian of the minor or, if none exists, a custodial parent of the minor who is also not the conservator.

E. If the gifts by the conservator under clause (i) of subsection A do not exceed $150 to each donee in a calendar year and do not exceed a total of $750 in a calendar year, the conservator may make such gifts without a hearing under this section, the appointment of a guardian ad litem, or giving notice to any person. Prior to the making of such a gift, the conservator shall consider clauses (i) through (ix) set forth in subsection C and shall also find that the incapacitated person has shown a history of giving the same or a similar gift to a specific donee for the previous three years prior to the appointment of the conservator.

F. The conservator may transfer assets of an incapacitated person or an incapacitated person's estate into an irrevocable trust where the transfer has been designated solely for burial of the incapacitated person or spouse of the incapacitated person in accordance with conditions set forth in subdivision A 2 of § 32.1-325. The conservator also may contractually bind an incapacitated person or an incapacitated person's estate by executing a preneed funeral contract, described in Chapter 28 (§ 54.1-2800 et seq.) of Title 54.1, for the benefit of the incapacitated person.

G. A conservator may exercise the incapacitated person's power to revoke or amend a trust or to withdraw or demand distribution of trust assets only with the approval of the court for good cause shown, unless the trust instrument expressly provides otherwise.

1997, c. 921, § 37.1-137.5; 2003, cc. 253, 528; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1024; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 523; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-2024. Fiduciary to take possession of incapacitated person's estate; suits relative to estate; retaining estate for fiduciary's own debt.

Subject to any conditions or limitations set forth in the order appointing him, the fiduciary shall take possession of the incapacitated person's estate and may sue and be sued in respect to all claims or demands of every nature in favor of or against the incapacitated person and the incapacitated person's estate. The fiduciary shall have the same right of retaining for his own debt as an administrator would have.

Code 1950, § 37-147; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-139; 1980, c. 582; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1025; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2025. Fiduciary to prosecute and defend actions involving incapacitated person.

Subject to any conditions or limitations set forth in the order appointing the fiduciary, the fiduciary shall prosecute or defend all actions or suits to which the incapacitated person is a party at the time of qualification of the fiduciary and all such actions or suits subsequently instituted after 10 days' notice of the pendency of the action or suit. Such notice shall be given by the clerk of the court in which the action or suit is pending.

Code 1950, § 37-149; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-141; 1976, c. 671; 1980, c. 582; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1026; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2026. Surrender of incapacitated person's estate.

A. If the incapacitated person is restored to capacity, the fiduciary shall surrender the incapacitated person's estate or that portion for which he is accountable to the incapacitated person.

B. If the incapacitated person dies prior to being restored to capacity, the fiduciary shall surrender the real estate to the incapacitated person's heirs or devisees and the personal estate to his executors or administrators. If, at the time of the death of the incapacitated person, (i) the value of the personal estate in the custody of the fiduciary is $25,000 or less, (ii) a personal representative has not qualified within 60 days of the incapacitated person's death, and (iii) the fiduciary does not anticipate that anyone will qualify, the fiduciary may pay the balance of the incapacitated person's estate to the incapacitated person's surviving spouse or, if there is no surviving spouse, to the distributees of the incapacitated person or other persons entitled thereto, including any person or entity entitled to payment for funeral or burial services provided. The distribution shall be noted in the fiduciary's final accounting submitted to the commissioner of accounts.

Code 1950, § 37-151; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-144; 1995, c. 344; 1997, c. 921; 2003, c. 195; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1027; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-2027. Use of estate of incapacitated person in a state facility not limited by provisions relating to expenses.

Nothing in Article 2 (§ 37.2-715 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 37.2 shall be construed to relieve the fiduciary of any individual receiving services in a state facility from paying to the state facility a sum for extra comforts or to make it unlawful for the fiduciary to make voluntary gifts that the fiduciary may deem conducive to the happiness and comfort of the individual.

Code 1950, § 37-153; 1950, p. 924; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-146; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1028; 2012, cc. 476, 507, 614.

§ 64.2-2028. Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services to be notified in certain cases.

In any suit or action for the appointment of a fiduciary who is to have the management and control of funds belonging to any person who has been admitted to any state facility, the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall receive notice of the suit or action, and the clerk of any court in which the suit or action is pending shall notify the Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services of that fact.

Code 1950, § 37-153.1; 1950, p. 924; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-147; 2005, c. 716, § 37.2-1029; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2029. Application to guardians and conservators appointed pursuant to § 64.2-2115.

Except as otherwise provided in an order entered pursuant to § 64.2-2115, a guardian or conservator appointed pursuant to § 64.2-2115 shall be subject to the provisions of §§ 64.2-2011 and 64.2-2012 and this article.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1030; 2012, c. 614.

Chapter 21. Uniform Adult Guardianship and Protective Proceedings Jurisdiction Act.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 64.2-2100. Definitions.

In this chapter:

"Adult" means an individual who has attained 18 years of age.

"Conservator" means a person appointed by the court to administer the property of an adult, including a person appointed under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.).

"Conservatorship order" means an order appointing a conservator.

"Court" means a court of competent jurisdiction as determined by otherwise applicable Virginia law to establish, enforce, or modify a guardianship or conservatorship order or an entity authorized under the law of another state to establish, enforce, or modify a guardianship or conservatorship order.

"Guardian" means a person appointed by the court to make decisions regarding the person of an adult, including a person appointed under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.).

"Guardianship order" means an order appointing a guardian.

"Guardianship proceeding" means a judicial proceeding in which an order for the appointment of a guardian is sought or has been issued.

"Incapacitated person" means an adult for whom a guardian has been appointed.

"Individually identifiable health information" means health information, including demographic information, collected from an individual that (i) is created or received by a health care provider, health plan, employer, or health care clearinghouse and (ii) identifies the individual, or there is a reasonable basis to believe that the information can be used to identify the individual, and relates to (a) the past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of the individual, (b) the provision of health care to the individual, or (c) the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to the individual.

"Party" means the respondent, petitioner, guardian, conservator, or any other person allowed by the court to participate in a guardianship or protective proceeding.

"Person," except in the term "incapacitated person" or "protected person," means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Protected health information" means individually identifiable health information that is (i) transmitted in electronic media, (ii) maintained in electronic media, or (iii) transmitted or maintained in any other form or medium. Protected health information excludes individually identifiable health information in (a) education records covered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. § 1232g); (b) records of any student who is 18 years of age or older, or is attending a postsecondary school, that are made or maintained by a physician, psychiatrist, psychologist, or other recognized professional or paraprofessional acting in his professional or paraprofessional capacity, or assisting in that capacity, and that are made, maintained, or used only in connection with the provision of treatment to the student and are not available to anyone other than persons providing such treatment, except that such records may be personally reviewed by a physician or other appropriate professional of the student's choice; and (c) employment records held, in its role as employer, by a health plan, health care clearinghouse, or health care provider that transmits health information in electronic form.

"Protected person" means an adult for whom a conservatorship order has been issued.

"Protective proceeding" means a judicial proceeding in which a conservatorship order is sought or has been issued.

"Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

"Respondent" means an adult for whom a conservatorship order or the appointment of a guardian is sought.

"State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, a federally recognized Indian tribe, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1032; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2101. International application of chapter.

A court of the Commonwealth may treat a foreign country as if it were a state for the purpose of applying this article and Articles 2 (§ 64.2-2105 et seq.), 3 (§ 64.2-2114 et seq.), and 5 (§ 64.2-2119 et seq.).

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1033; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2102. Communication between courts.

A. A court of the Commonwealth may communicate with a court in another state concerning a proceeding arising under this chapter. The court may allow the parties to participate in the communication. Except as otherwise provided in subsection B, the court shall make a record of the communication. The record may be limited to the fact that the communication occurred.

B. Courts may communicate concerning schedules, calendars, court records, and other administrative matters without making a record.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1034; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2103. Cooperation between courts.

A. In a guardianship or protective proceeding in the Commonwealth, a court in the Commonwealth may request the appropriate court of another state to do any of the following:

1. Hold an evidentiary hearing;

2. Order a person in that state to produce evidence or give testimony pursuant to procedures of that state;

3. Order that an evaluation or assessment be made of the respondent;

4. Order any appropriate investigation of a person involved in a proceeding;

5. Forward to the court of the Commonwealth a certified copy of the transcript or other record of a hearing under subdivision 1 or any other proceeding, any evidence otherwise produced under subdivision 2, and any evaluation or assessment prepared in compliance with an order under subdivision 3 or 4;

6. Issue any order necessary to assure the appearance in the proceeding of a person whose presence is necessary for either court to make a determination, including the respondent or the incapacitated or protected person; and

7. Issue an order authorizing the release of medical, financial, criminal, or other relevant information in that state, including protected health information.

B. If a court of another state in which a guardianship or protective proceeding is pending requests assistance of the kind provided in subsection A, a court of the Commonwealth has jurisdiction for the limited purpose of granting the request or making reasonable efforts to comply with the request.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1035; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2104. Taking testimony in another state.

A. In a guardianship or protective proceeding, in addition to other procedures that may be available, testimony of a witness who is located in another state may be offered by deposition or other means allowable in the Commonwealth for testimony taken in another state. The court on its own motion may order that the testimony of a witness be taken in another state and may prescribe the manner in which and the terms upon which the testimony is to be taken.

B. In a guardianship or protective proceeding, a court in the Commonwealth may permit a witness located in another state to be deposed or to testify by telephone or audiovisual or other electronic means. A court in the Commonwealth shall cooperate with the court of the other state in designating an appropriate location for the deposition or testimony.

C. Documentary evidence transmitted from another state to a court of the Commonwealth by technological means that do not produce an original writing may not be excluded from evidence on an objection based on the best evidence rule.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1036; 2012, c. 614.

Article 2. Jurisdiction.

§ 64.2-2105. Definitions; significant connection factors.

A. In this article:

"Emergency" means a circumstance that likely will result in substantial harm to a respondent's health, safety, or welfare, and for which the appointment of a guardian is necessary because no other person has authority and is willing to act on the respondent's behalf.

"Home state" means the state in which the respondent was physically present, including any period of temporary absence, for at least six consecutive months immediately before the filing of a petition for a conservatorship order or the appointment of a guardian, or if none, the state in which the respondent was physically present, including any period of temporary absence, for at least six consecutive months ending within the six months prior to the filing of the petition.

"Significant-connection state" means a state, other than the home state, with which a respondent has a significant connection other than mere physical presence and in which substantial evidence concerning the respondent is available.

B. In determining under § 64.2-2107 and subsection E of § 64.2-2114 whether a respondent has a significant connection with a particular state, the court shall consider:

1. The location of the respondent's family and other persons required to be notified of the guardianship or protective proceeding;

2. The length of time the respondent at any time was physically present in the state and the duration of any absence;

3. The location of the respondent's property; and

4. The extent to which the respondent has ties to the state such as voting registration, state or local tax return filing, vehicle registration, driver's license, social relationship, and receipt of services.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1037; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2106. Exclusive basis.

This article provides the exclusive jurisdictional basis for a court of the Commonwealth to appoint a guardian or issue a conservatorship order for an adult.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1038; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2107. Jurisdiction.

A court of the Commonwealth has jurisdiction to appoint a guardian or issue a conservatorship order for a respondent if:

1. The Commonwealth is the respondent's home state;

2. On the date the petition is filed, the Commonwealth is a significant-connection state and:

a. The respondent does not have a home state or a court of the respondent's home state has declined to exercise jurisdiction because the Commonwealth is a more appropriate forum; or

b. The respondent has a home state, a petition for an appointment or order is not pending in a court of that state or another significant-connection state, and, before the court makes the appointment or issues the order:

(1) A petition for an appointment or order is not filed in the respondent's home state;

(2) An objection to the court's jurisdiction is not filed by a person required to be notified of the proceeding; and

(3) The court in the Commonwealth concludes that it is an appropriate forum under the factors set forth in § 64.2-2110;

3. The Commonwealth does not have jurisdiction under either subdivision 1 or 2, the respondent's home state and all significant-connection states have declined to exercise jurisdiction because the Commonwealth is the more appropriate forum, and jurisdiction in the Commonwealth is consistent with the Constitutions of Virginia and the United States; or

4. The requirements for special jurisdiction under § 64.2-2108 are met.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1039; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2108. Special jurisdiction.

A. A court of the Commonwealth lacking jurisdiction under the provisions of § 64.2-2107 has special jurisdiction to do any of the following:

1. Appoint a guardian in an emergency for a term not exceeding 90 days for a respondent who is physically present in the Commonwealth;

2. Issue a conservatorship order with respect to real or tangible personal property located in the Commonwealth; or

3. Appoint a guardian or conservator for an incapacitated or protected person for whom a provisional order to transfer the proceeding from another state has been issued under procedures similar to § 64.2-2114.

B. If a petition for the appointment of a guardian in an emergency is brought in the Commonwealth and the Commonwealth was not the respondent's home state on the date the petition was filed, the court shall dismiss the proceeding at the request of the court of the home state, if any, whether dismissal is requested before or after the emergency appointment.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1040; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2109. Exclusive and continuing jurisdiction.

Except as otherwise provided in § 64.2-2108, a court that has appointed a guardian or issued a conservatorship order consistent with this chapter has exclusive and continuing jurisdiction over the proceeding until it is terminated by the court or the appointment or order expires by its own terms.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1041; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2110. Appropriate forum.

A. A court of the Commonwealth having jurisdiction under § 64.2-2107 to appoint a guardian or issue a conservatorship order may decline to exercise its jurisdiction if it determines at any time that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum.

B. If a court of the Commonwealth declines to exercise its jurisdiction under subsection A, it shall either dismiss or stay the proceeding. The court may impose any condition the court considers just and proper, including the condition that a petition for the appointment of a guardian or issuance of a conservatorship order be filed promptly in another state.

C. In determining whether it is an appropriate forum, the court shall consider all relevant factors, including:

1. Any expressed preference of the respondent;

2. Whether abuse, neglect, or exploitation of the respondent has occurred or is likely to occur and which state could best protect the respondent from the abuse, neglect, or exploitation;

3. The length of time the respondent was physically present in or was a legal resident of the Commonwealth or another state;

4. The distance of the respondent from the court in each state;

5. The financial circumstances of the respondent's estate;

6. The nature and location of the evidence;

7. The ability of the court in each state to decide the issue expeditiously and the procedures necessary to present evidence;

8. The familiarity of the court of each state with the facts and issues in the proceeding; and

9. If an appointment were made, the court's ability to monitor the conduct of the guardian or conservator.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1042; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2111. Jurisdiction declined by reason of conduct.

A. If at any time a court of the Commonwealth determines that it acquired jurisdiction to appoint a guardian or issue a conservatorship order because a person seeking to invoke its jurisdiction has engaged in unjustifiable conduct, the court may:

1. Decline to exercise jurisdiction;

2. Exercise jurisdiction for the limited purpose of fashioning an appropriate remedy to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of the respondent or the protection of the respondent's property or to prevent a repetition of the unjustifiable conduct, including staying the proceeding until a petition for the appointment of a guardian or issuance of a conservatorship order is filed in a court of another state having jurisdiction; or

3. Continue to exercise jurisdiction after considering:

a. The extent to which the respondent and all persons required to be notified of the proceedings have acquiesced in the exercise of the court's jurisdiction;

b. Whether it is a more appropriate forum than the court of any other state under the factors set forth in subsection C of § 64.2-2110; and

c. Whether the court of any other state would have jurisdiction under factual circumstances in substantial conformity with the jurisdictional standards of § 64.2-2107.

B. If a court of the Commonwealth determines that it acquired jurisdiction to appoint a guardian or issue a conservatorship order because a party seeking to invoke its jurisdiction engaged in unjustifiable conduct, it may assess against that party necessary and reasonable expenses, including attorney fees, investigative fees, court costs, communication expenses, witness fees and expenses, and travel expenses. The court may not assess fees, costs, or expenses of any kind against the Commonwealth or a governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality of the Commonwealth unless authorized by law other than this chapter.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1043; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2112. Notice of proceeding.

If a petition for the appointment of a guardian or issuance of a conservatorship order is brought in the Commonwealth and the Commonwealth was not the respondent's home state on the date the petition was filed, in addition to complying with the notice requirements of the Commonwealth, notice of the petition shall be given to those persons who would be entitled to notice of the petition if a proceeding were brought in the respondent's home state. The notice shall be given in the same manner as notice is required to be given in the Commonwealth.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1044; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2113. Proceedings in more than one state.

Except for a petition for the appointment of a guardian in an emergency or issuance of a conservatorship order limited to property located in the Commonwealth under subdivision A 1 or A 2 of § 64.2-2108, if a petition for the appointment of a guardian or issuance of a conservatorship order is filed in the Commonwealth and in another state and neither petition has been dismissed or withdrawn, the following rules apply:

1. If the court in the Commonwealth has jurisdiction under § 64.2-2107, it may proceed with the case unless a court in another state acquires jurisdiction under provisions similar to § 64.2-2107 before the appointment or issuance of the order.

2. If the court in the Commonwealth does not have jurisdiction under § 64.2-2107, whether at the time the petition is filed or at any time before the appointment or issuance of the order, the court shall stay the proceeding and communicate with the court in the other state. If the court in the other state has jurisdiction, the court in the Commonwealth shall dismiss the petition unless the court in the other state determines that the court in the Commonwealth is a more appropriate forum.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1045; 2012, c. 614.

Article 3. Transfer of Guardianship or Conservatorship.

§ 64.2-2114. Transfer of guardianship or conservatorship to another state.

A. A guardian or conservator appointed in the Commonwealth may petition the court to transfer the guardianship or conservatorship to another state.

B. Notice of a petition under subsection A shall be given to the persons that would be entitled to notice of a petition in the Commonwealth for the appointment of a guardian or conservator.

C. On the court's own motion or on request of the guardian or conservator, the incapacitated or protected person, or other person required to be notified of the petition, the court shall hold a hearing on a petition filed pursuant to subsection A.

D. The court shall issue an order provisionally granting a petition to transfer a guardianship and shall direct the guardian to petition for guardianship in the other state if the court is satisfied that the guardianship will be accepted by the court in the other state and the court finds that:

1. The incapacitated person is physically present in or is reasonably expected to move permanently to the other state;

2. An objection to the transfer has not been made or, if an objection has been made, the objector has not established that the transfer would be contrary to the interests of the incapacitated person; and

3. Plans for care and services for the incapacitated person in the other state are reasonable and sufficient.

E. The court shall issue a provisional order granting a petition to transfer a conservatorship and shall direct the conservator to petition for conservatorship in the other state if the court is satisfied that the conservatorship will be accepted by the court of the other state and the court finds that:

1. The protected person is physically present in or is reasonably expected to move permanently to the other state, or the protected person has a significant connection to the other state considering the factors in subsection B of § 64.2-2105;

2. An objection to the transfer has not been made or, if an objection has been made, the objector has not established that the transfer would be contrary to the interests of the protected person; and

3. Adequate arrangements will be made for management of the protected person's property.

F. The court shall issue a final order confirming the transfer and terminating the guardianship or conservatorship upon its receipt of:

1. A provisional order accepting the proceeding from the court to which the proceeding is to be transferred which is issued under provisions similar to § 64.2-2115; and

2. The documents required to terminate a guardianship or conservatorship in the Commonwealth.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1046; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2115. Accepting guardianship or conservatorship transferred from another state.

A. To confirm transfer of a guardianship or conservatorship transferred to the Commonwealth under provisions similar to § 64.2-2114, the guardian or conservator shall petition the court in the Commonwealth to accept the guardianship or conservatorship. The petition shall include a certified copy of the other state's provisional order of transfer.

B. Notice of a petition under subsection A shall be given to those persons that would be entitled to notice if the petition were a petition for the appointment of a guardian or issuance of a conservatorship order in both the transferring state and the Commonwealth. The notice shall be given in the same manner as notice is required to be given in the Commonwealth.

C. On the court's own motion or on request of the guardian or conservator, the incapacitated or protected person, or other person required to be notified of the proceeding, the court shall hold a hearing on a petition filed pursuant to subsection A.

D. The court shall issue an order provisionally granting a petition filed under subsection A unless:

1. An objection is made and the objector establishes that transfer of the proceeding would be contrary to the interests of the incapacitated or protected person; or

2. The guardian or conservator is ineligible for appointment in the Commonwealth.

E. The court shall issue a final order accepting the proceeding and appointing the guardian or conservator as guardian or conservator in the Commonwealth upon its receipt from the court from which the proceeding is being transferred of a final order issued under provisions similar to § 64.2-2114 transferring the proceeding to the Commonwealth.

The final order accepting transfer of a guardianship or conservatorship shall contain a determination of whether the guardianship or conservatorship needs to be modified to conform to the laws of the Commonwealth.

F. In granting a petition under this section, the court shall recognize a guardianship or conservatorship order from the other state, including the determination of the incapacitated or protected person's incapacity and the appointment of the guardian or conservator.

G. The denial by a court of the Commonwealth of a petition to accept a guardianship or conservatorship transferred from another state does not affect the ability of the guardian or conservator to seek appointment as guardian or conservator in the Commonwealth under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) if the court has jurisdiction to make an appointment other than by reason of the provisional order of transfer.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1047; 2012, c. 614.

Article 4. Registration and Recognition of Orders From Other States.

§ 64.2-2116. Registration of guardianship orders.

If a guardian has been appointed in another state and a petition for the appointment of a guardian is not pending in the Commonwealth, the guardian appointed in the other state, after giving notice to the appointing court of an intent to register, may register the guardianship order in the Commonwealth by filing as a foreign judgment in a court, in any appropriate county or city of the Commonwealth, certified copies of the order and letters of office.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1048; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2117. Registration of conservatorship orders.

If a conservator has been appointed in another state and a petition for a conservatorship order is not pending in the Commonwealth, the conservator appointed in the other state, after giving notice to the appointing court of an intent to register, may register the conservatorship order in the Commonwealth by filing as a foreign judgment in a court of the Commonwealth, in any county or city in which property belonging to the protected person is located, certified copies of the order and letters of office and of any bond.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1049; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2118. Effect of registration.

A. Upon registration of a guardianship or conservatorship order from another state, the guardian or conservator may exercise in the Commonwealth all powers authorized in the order of appointment except as prohibited under the laws of the Commonwealth, including maintaining actions and proceedings in the Commonwealth and, if the guardian or conservator is not a resident of the Commonwealth, subject to any conditions imposed upon nonresident parties.

B. A court of the Commonwealth may grant any relief available under this chapter and other laws of the Commonwealth to enforce a registered order.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1050; 2012, c. 614.

Article 5. Miscellaneous Provisions.

§ 64.2-2119. Uniformity of application and construction.

In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration shall be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1051; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-2120. Relation to electronic signatures in global and national commerce act.

This chapter modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. § 7001 et seq.), but does not modify, limit, or supersede § 101(c) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7001(c)) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in § 103(b) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7003(b)).

2011, c. 518, § 37.2-1052; 2012, c. 614.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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