Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 22. Receivers, General and Special
6/13/2021

Chapter 22. Receivers, General and Special.

Article 1. General Receivers.

§ 8.01-582. Appointment of general receivers; their duties; audit of funds.

Any circuit court may appoint a general receiver of the court, who may be the clerk of the court, and who shall hold his office at its pleasure. The general receiver's duty shall be, unless it is otherwise specially ordered, to receive, take charge of and hold all moneys paid under any judgment, order or decree of the court, and also to pay out or dispose of same as the court orders or decrees. Moneys held pursuant to this section shall be deemed public deposits as set forth in Chapter 44 (§ 2.2-4400 et seq.) of Title 2.2 and shall be invested in certificates of deposit or time deposits, and in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 45 (§ 2.2-4500 et seq.) of Title 2.2, as ordered by the court. Prior to or at the time of entry of any judgment, order or decree placing moneys under the control of the general receiver for the benefit of any specifically identified beneficiary, the general receiver shall file an affidavit with the court providing the beneficiary's name, date of birth, and social security number, as well as the proposed dates of final and periodic disbursements. Such affidavit shall be maintained under seal by the clerk unless otherwise ordered by the court, and the information therein shall be used solely for the purposes of financial management and reporting. Orders creating funds pursuant to this section shall include information necessary to make prudent investment and disbursement decisions but shall not include the personal identifying information set forth in the general receiver's affidavit.

Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the provisions of this section shall not apply to:

1. Cash or other money received in lieu of surety on any bond posted in any civil or criminal case, including but not limited to, bail bonds, appeal bonds in appeals from a district court or circuit court, bonds posted in connection with the filing of an attachment, detinue seizure or distress, suspending bonds, and performance bonds;

2. Cash or other money paid or deposited in the clerk's office prior to final disposition of the case, including but not limited to interpleaders or eminent domain; or

3. Cash or other money deposits in lieu of surety on any bond posted in the clerk's office which is not posted in connection with any civil or criminal case, including bonds posted by executors or administrators.

To this end, the general receiver is authorized to verify, receive, and give acquittances for all such moneys, as the court may direct. Any interest which accrues on the funds, minus allowable fees and bond costs, shall be credited and payable to the person or persons entitled to receive such funds.

All moneys received under this section are subject to audit by the Auditor of Public Accounts. The Auditor of Public Accounts shall prescribe mandatory record keeping and accounting standards for general receivers.

Code 1950, § 8-725; 1973, c. 354; 1977, c. 617; 1979, c. 498; 1988, c. 553; 1990, c. 414; 1991, c. 635; 1999, c. 198; 2003, c. 97.

§ 8.01-583. How securities taken and kept; power of receivers over same.

The securities in which under the orders of the court such investments may be made shall be taken in the name of the general receiver and be kept by him, unless otherwise specially ordered. He shall have power to sell, transfer or collect the same, only upon order of the court; and in case of his death, resignation or removal his successor, or any person specially appointed by the court for that purpose, shall have like power.

Notwithstanding the foregoing paragraph, when a general receiver places funds in a security or investment which is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or other federal insurance agency, the general receiver shall to the extent practicable invest these funds so that insurance coverage is provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or other federal insurance agency.

Code 1950, § 8-726; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 553; 1990, c. 3.

§ 8.01-584. How dividends and interest collected and invested.

The general receiver shall collect the dividends and interest on all the securities in which investments have been or may be made, under the orders or decrees of his court, or under the provisions of § 8.01-582, when and as often as the same may become due and payable thereon, and shall invest the same in like securities, unless the court has ordered or decreed some other investment or disposition to be made thereof; and in such case he shall invest or dispose of the same as the court shall have ordered or decreed.

Code 1950, § 8-727; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-585. How accounts kept by receivers.

Each such general receiver shall keep an accurate and particular account of all moneys received, invested and paid out by him, showing the respective amounts to the credit of each case in the court and designating in the items the judgments, orders or decrees of court under which the respective sums have been received, invested or paid out. No later than October 1 of each year, he shall make a report to his court showing the balance to the credit of each case in the court in which money has been received by him, the manner of each case in the court in which money has been received by him, the manner in which it is invested, the amounts received, invested or paid out during the year ending June 30 of the current year, the approximate date on which the moneys held for the beneficiaries will become payable, and the whole amount then invested and subject to the future order of the court. A copy of the annual report shall be recorded in the trust fund order book. He shall, at any time when required by the court or the Auditor of Public Accounts so to do, furnish a statement of the amount subject to the order of the court in any case pending therein and any other information required by the court or the Auditor of Public Accounts as to any money or other property under his control. He shall annually make formal settlement of his accounts before the court or before the commissioner mentioned in § 8.01-617 which settlement shall be recorded as provided in § 8.01-619.

Code 1950, § 8-728; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 553; 1989, c. 69.

§ 8.01-586. Inquiry as to unknown owners of funds.

When funds are held because of inability to find the person to whom payable, such receiver may be ordered by the court to make inquiry and due diligence to ascertain such person in order that payment may be made; and for this purpose, and to secure any other relevant information, he shall have power to summon witnesses and take evidence; and he shall report specifically to the court in each annual report, and at any other time when so ordered by the court, the details and results of his efforts.

Code 1950, § 8-729; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 553.

§ 8.01-587. Liability of general receivers.

Except as otherwise ordered by the court, for good cause shown, a general receiver shall be liable for any loss of income which results from his (i) failure to invest any money held by him pursuant to §§ 8.01-582 through 8.01-586 within sixty days of his receipt of the funds or (ii) failure to pay out any money so ordered by the court within sixty days of the court order. He shall be charged with interest from the date of the court order until such investment or payment is made.

Code 1950, § 8-730; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 841.

§ 8.01-588. Bonds generally.

A general receiver shall annually give before the court a bond with surety to be approved by it, in such penalty as the court directs, sufficient at least to cover the probable amount under his control in any one year.

This section shall apply to the clerk if the clerk is appointed such receiver, and his official bond as clerk shall not cover money or property under his control as general receiver.

Code 1950, § 8-731; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 841.

§ 8.01-588.1. Bonds apportioned to funds under control; annual reports.

The general receiver shall obtain bond through the Department of the Treasury's Division of Risk Management. No later than October 1 of each year, he shall report to the Division the amount of moneys under his control pursuant to § 8.01-582 as of June 30 of the current year and shall report the amount he expects to come under his control for the year ending on June 30 of the following year. He shall also report any other information reasonably required by the Division concerning bond coverage of moneys under his control. The cost of the bond shall be apportioned among the funds under his control as of the billing date based on the amount of each owner's or beneficiary's moneys. This section shall not apply to any financial institution fulfilling the requirements set out in § 6.2-1003 or § 6.2-1085.

1988, c. 841; 2000, cc. 618, 632.

§ 8.01-589. Compensation and fees; when none allowed.

A. A general receiver may retain from moneys received and held pursuant to § 8.01-582, compensation for his services in such amount as the court deems reasonable, but not exceeding:

1. Ten dollars at receipt of the originating court order to receive funds, deposit funds, and establish files and accounting records with respect to those funds;

2. Ten dollars when all funds held for a beneficiary or beneficiaries are disbursed;

3. Ten dollars per draft or check for periodic and final disbursements;

4. Five percent of the interest income earned;

5. Ten dollars for remitting funds to the State Treasurer and up to ten dollars per draft for remitting those funds; and

6. Fifty dollars for conducting a hearing to ascertain the identity or location of trust fund beneficiaries pursuant to § 8.01-586 as the court directs and $50 per hour for an appearance in court.

B. When direct out-of-pocket expenses are necessary to carry out an order of the court, a general receiver may receive reimbursement for such expenses as the court deems reasonable.

C. Notwithstanding the foregoing subsections, general receivers shall not deduct fees or otherwise be compensated for services with respect to those funds which should have been reported and then remitted to the State Treasurer in accordance with § 8.01-602 or 55.1-2518.

A general receiver shall promptly report to the court the execution of the bond or bonds required in § 8.01-588 and make the reports and perform the duties required of him. No compensation shall be allowed him until he has performed the duties aforesaid.

If such receiver is the clerk of court and if compensation is allowed, it shall be fee and commission income to the office of such clerk in accordance with § 17.1-287.

Code 1950, § 8-732; 1977, c. 617; 1979, c. 498; 1988, c. 841; 2014, c. 65.

§ 8.01-590. Penalty for failure of duty.

If a general receiver fail to keep the account, or to make out and return the statements required by § 8.01-585, he shall be subject to a fine of not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 to be imposed by the court at its discretion; and the condition of his official bond shall be taken to embrace the liability of himself and his sureties for any such fine.

Code 1950, § 8-733; 1977, c. 617.

Article 2. Special Receivers.

§ 8.01-591. Notice required prior to appointment of receiver.

Whenever the pleadings in any suit make out a proper case for the appointment of a receiver and application is made therefor to any court, such court shall designate the time and place for hearing such application, and shall require reasonable notice thereof to be given to the defendant and to all other parties having a substantial interest, either as owners of or lienors of record and lienors known to the plaintiff, in the subject matter. The court to whom such application is made shall inquire particularly of the applicant as to the parties so substantially interested in the subject matter, and such applicant, for any intentional or wilful failure to disclose fully all material information relating to such inquiry, may be adjudged in contempt of court.

Code 1950, § 8-735; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-592. Notice not required in emergencies.

Section 8.01-591 shall not apply to those cases in which an emergency exists and it is necessary that a receiver be immediately appointed to preserve the subject matter. In such emergency cases a receiver may be appointed and the order of appointment shall state the emergency and necessity for immediate action, and shall require bond in proper amount of the applicant or someone for him with sufficient surety conditioned to protect and save harmless the owners, lienors and creditors, lien or general, in the subject matter taken over by the receiver, from all damages and injury properly and naturally flowing from such emergency appointment of a receiver.

Code 1950, § 8-736; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-593. Subsequent proceedings after emergency appointment.

Such emergency appointment shall be limited to a period of not longer than thirty days, during which period notice shall be given by the applicant to all parties having a substantial interest, either as owner of or lienor in the subject matter, of any motion to extend such receivership; and upon the hearing on such motion, the court shall hear the matter de novo, and shall discharge such receiver, or shall appoint the same receiver, or other receivers to act with him, or new receivers as to the court may seem right. Unless such receivership shall be so extended, all the rights and powers of such emergency receiver over the subject matter, at the end of such period for which he shall have been appointed, shall cease and determine, and such receiver shall forthwith file with such court an account of his dealing with such estate. The notices required to be given under this section and §§ 8.01-591 and 8.01-592 shall be served, as to residents of this Commonwealth, in any of the modes prescribed by § 8.01-296, and as to nonresidents of this Commonwealth, or persons unknown, or in any case in which the number of persons to be given notice exceeds thirty, in the manner prescribed by § 8.01-319.

Code 1950, § 8-737; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-594. Notice not required to parties served with process.

In any suit matured and docketed in which the bill or petition prays for the appointment of a receiver, no notice shall be required under this article to be given to any defendant upon whom process to answer such bill or petition shall have been served.

Code 1950, § 8-738; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-595. Preparation of list of creditors; notice to them.

When a receiver has been appointed he shall immediately prepare or cause to be prepared a list of all creditors, lien and general, of the person, firm, corporation or of any other legal or commercial entity for which he is a receiver; and the court may by proper order compel any defendant for whom a receiver is appointed, or any officer of the corporation or of any other legal or commercial entity for whom the receiver is appointed, to furnish or deliver to the receiver a list, duly sworn to, of all creditors, lien or general, together with their addresses if known. The receiver shall then promptly notify by mail each creditor whose name and address has been ascertained of the appointment of the receiver.

When a permanent receiver is appointed he shall not be required to make a new list of creditors if a temporary receiver or a prior receiver appointed in the same proceedings has already prepared one which is adequate, nor shall he be required to mail other notices to creditors if the prior receiver has given proper notice to the parties entitled thereto.

Code 1950, § 8-739; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-596. No sale prior to such notification; exceptions.

No court shall order the sale of any assets of the receivership until a receiver has reported to the court in writing that he has mailed such notices to such creditors at least five days prior to the filing of such report, except that the court may at any time permit the sale of perishable or seasonable goods when necessary to preserve the estate, or may permit the receiver to conduct the business for which he is a receiver as a going business and to sell in the usual course of such business.

Code 1950, § 8-740; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-597. Suits against receivers in certain cases.

Any receiver of any property appointed by the courts of this Commonwealth may be sued in respect of any act or transaction of his in carrying on the business connected with such property, without the previous leave of the court in which such receiver was appointed; but the institution or pendency of such suit shall not interfere with or delay a sale by trustees under a deed of trust or a decree of sale for foreclosure of any mortgage upon such property.

Code 1950, § 8-741; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-598. Effect of judgment against receiver.

A judgment against a receiver under § 8.01-597 shall not be a lien on the property or funds under the control of the court, nor shall any execution issue thereon, but upon filing a certified copy of such judgment in the cause in which the receiver was appointed, the court shall direct payment of such judgment in the same manner as if the claim upon which the judgment is based had been proved and allowed in such cause.

Code 1950, § 8-742; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-599. Warrant or motion for judgment against receiver in general district court, when to be tried.

A warrant or motion for judgment before a general district court under §§ 8.01-597 and 8.01-598 may be tried not less than ten days after service of process.

Code 1950, § 8-743; 1977, c. 617.

Article 3. General Provisions for Moneys under Control of Court.

§ 8.01-600. How money under control of court deposited; record kept; liability of clerk.

A. This section pertains only to money held by the clerk of the circuit court, when the court orders moneys to be held by the clerk pursuant to this section. Where judgment is taken in the circuit court, upon motion of a party for good cause shown, the court may enter an order directing the clerk to hold moneys pursuant to this section. The clerk shall have the duty, unless it is otherwise specially ordered, to receive, take charge of, hold or invest in such manner as the court orders and also to pay out or dispose of these moneys as the court orders or decrees. To this end, the clerk is authorized to verify, receive, and give acquittances for all such moneys as the court may direct.

B. Orders creating funds pursuant to this section or § 8.01-582 shall include information necessary to make prudent investment and disbursement decisions. The orders shall include, except when it is unreasonable, the proposed dates of periodic and final disbursements. Prior to the entry of the order, the beneficiary or his representative shall file an affidavit with the court providing the beneficiary's name, date of birth, address and social security number. The affidavit shall be maintained under seal by the clerk unless otherwise ordered by the court, and the information therein shall be used solely for the purposes of financial management and reporting.

Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the provisions of this section shall not apply to:

1. Cash or other money received in lieu of surety on any bond posted in any civil or criminal case, including but not limited to bail bonds, appeal bonds in appeals from a district court or circuit court, bonds posted in connection with the filing of an attachment, detinue seizure or distress, suspending bonds, and performance bonds;

2. Cash or other money paid or deposited in the clerk's office prior to final disposition of the case, including but not limited to interpleaders or eminent domain; or

3. Cash or other money deposited in lieu of surety on any bond posted in the clerk's office which is not posted in connection with any civil or criminal case, including bonds posted by executors or administrators.

C. All deposits under this section shall be secured in accordance with the Virginia Security for Public Deposits Act (§ 2.2-4400 et seq.).

D. Moneys held pursuant to this section shall be invested in certificates of deposit and time deposits, and in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 45 (§ 2.2-4500 et seq.) of Title 2.2 as ordered by the court.

E. Any interest which accrues on the funds, minus allowable fees and bond costs, shall be credited and payable to the person or persons entitled to receive such funds. The court may order the clerk to consolidate for investment purposes money received under this section, with income received hereunder to be apportioned among the several accounts.

F. Except as otherwise ordered by the court, for good cause shown, the clerk shall be liable for any loss of income which results from his (i) failure to invest the money within sixty days of the court order creating the fund or (ii) failure to pay out any money so ordered by the court within sixty days of the court order. He shall be charged with interest from the date of the court order until such investment or payment is made.

G. The clerk shall keep an accurate and particular account of all moneys received, invested, and paid out by him, showing the respective amounts to the credit of each case in the court and designating in the items the judgments, orders or decrees of court under which the respective sums have been received, invested or paid out. At least annually and no later than October 1 of each year, the clerk shall make a report to the court, which shall include the chief judge of the circuit or the resident judge, showing the balance to the credit of each case in the court in which money has been received by him, the manner in which money has been received by him, the manner in which it is invested, the amounts received, invested or paid out during the year ending June 30 of the current year, the approximate date on which the moneys held for the beneficiaries will become payable, and the whole amount then invested and subject to the future order of the court. The clerk shall make a copy of such report available to the Auditor of Public Accounts for purposes of audit. A copy of this report shall be recorded in the trust fund order book. The clerk shall, at any time when required by the court or the Auditor of Public Accounts to do so, furnish a statement of the amount subject to the order of the court in any case pending therein and any other information required by the court or the Auditor of Public Accounts as to any money or other property under his control before the court. When the clerk receives funds under this section, he shall be entitled to receive fees in accordance with § 17.1-287 in the amounts as specified for general receivers in § 8.01-589.

H. All moneys received under this section are subject to audit by the Auditor of Public Accounts.

Code 1950, § 8-744; 1977, c. 617; 1986, c. 644; 1988, c. 841; 1990, cc. 3, 414; 1991, c. 635; 2002, c. 832; 2015, c. 633; 2017, c. 35.

§ 8.01-600.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1993, c. 939.

§ 8.01-601. Deposit with general receiver of certain funds under supervision of fiduciary and belonging to person under disability.

Whenever it appears to any fiduciary as defined in § 8.01-2 that a person under a disability as defined in § 8.01-2 is not represented by a fiduciary as defined above and is entitled to funds not exceeding $3,000 under the supervision and control of the fiduciary in charge of such funds, he may report such fact to the commissioner of accounts of the court in which he was admitted to qualify. With the approval of such commissioner of accounts, the fiduciary in charge of such funds may deposit such funds with the general receiver of the court in which he was admitted to qualify. The general receiver shall issue a receipt to such fiduciary which shall show the source of such fund, the amount and to whom it belongs and shall enter the amount and such facts in his accounts.

Code 1950, § 8-744.1; 1970, c. 352; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-602. Proceedings when owner of money under control of court unknown.

Whenever any money has remained payable or distributable for one year in the custody or under the control of any court of this Commonwealth without anyone known to the court claiming the same, except funds deposited as compensation and damages in condemnation proceedings pursuant to § 25.1-237 pending a final order or pursuant to § 33.2-1019, the court shall cause such money to be reported and then remitted to the State Treasurer pursuant to §§ 55.1-2518 and 55.1-2524.

The general receiver, if one has been appointed, and the clerk of the circuit court shall be responsible for identifying such money held by them in their respective control pursuant to §§ 8.01-582 and 8.01-600 and for petitioning the court to remit as provided in this section.

Code 1950, § 8-746; 1966, c. 210; 1977, c. 617; 1982, c. 155; 1984, c. 121; 1987, c. 708; 1988, c. 841.

§ 8.01-603. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1982, c. 155.

§ 8.01-604. How State Treasurer to keep account of such money.

The State Treasurer shall keep an account of all money thus paid to him, showing the amount thereof, when, by whom, and under what order it was paid, and the name of the court, and, as far as practicable, a description of the suit or proceeding in which the order was made, and, as far as known, the names of the parties thereto.

Code 1950, § 8-748; 1977, c. 617; 1981, c. 514; 1982, c. 155.

§ 8.01-605. How person entitled to money paid into state treasury may recover it.

Money paid into the state treasury under the provisions of this article shall be accounted for and disbursed under the procedures provided for in Article 3 (§ 55.1-2524 et seq.) of Chapter 25 of Title 55.1.

Code 1950, § 8-749; 1962, c. 607; 1977, c. 617; 1981, c. 514; 1982, c. 155.

§ 8.01-606. Payment of small amounts to certain persons through court without intervention of fiduciary; authority of commissioners of accounts; certain fiduciaries exempt from accountings.

A. Whenever there is due to any person, any sum of money from any source, not exceeding $25,000, the fund may be paid into the circuit court of the county or city in which the fund became due or such person resides. The court may, by an order entered of record, (i) pay the fund to the person to whom it is due, if the person is considered by the court competent to expend and use the same in his behalf, or (ii) pay the fund to some other person who is considered competent to administer it, for the benefit of the person entitled to the fund, without the intervention of a fiduciary, whether the other person resides within or without this Commonwealth. The clerk of the court shall take a receipt from the person to whom the money is paid, which shall show the source from which it was derived, the amount, to whom it belongs, and when and to whom it was paid. The receipt shall be signed and acknowledged by the person receiving the money, and entered of record in the book in the clerk's office in which the current fiduciary accounts are entered and indexed. Upon the payment into court the person owing the money shall be discharged of such obligation. No bond shall be required of the party to whom the money is paid by the court.

B. Whenever (i) it appears to the court having control of a fund, tangible personal property or intangible personal property or supervision of its administration, whether a suit is pending therefor or not, that a person under a disability who has no fiduciary, is entitled to a fund arising from the sale of lands for a division or otherwise, or a fund, tangible personal property or intangible personal property as distributee of any estate, or from any other source, (ii) a judgment, decree, or order for the payment of a sum of money or for delivery of tangible personal property or intangible personal property to a person under a disability who has no fiduciary is rendered by any court, and the amount to which such person is entitled or the value of the tangible personal property or intangible personal property is not more than $25,000, or (iii) a person under a disability is entitled to receive payments of income, tangible personal property or intangible personal property and the amount of the income payments is not more than $25,000 in any one year, or the value of the tangible personal property is not more than $25,000, or the current market value of the intangible personal property is not more than $25,000, the court may, without the intervention of a fiduciary, cause such fund, property or income to be paid or delivered to any person deemed by the court capable of properly handling it, to be used solely for the education, maintenance and support of the person under a disability. In any case in which an infant is entitled to such fund, property or income, the court may, upon its being made to appear that the infant is of sufficient age and discretion to use the fund, property or income judiciously, cause the fund to be paid or delivered directly to the infant.

C. Where judgment is taken in the general district court, upon motion of a party for good cause shown, the general district court judge may enter an order directing the clerk of the general district court to hold such funds in escrow for a period not to exceed 180 days to enable such party to file a petition pursuant to § 8.01-600 requesting that such funds be received and held by the clerk of the circuit court upon payment of fees in accordance with § 17.1-275. The party petitioning the circuit court shall provide the clerk of the general district court a certified copy of any order entered by the circuit court directing that such funds held by the clerk of the general district court be transferred to the clerk of the circuit court. If no such order is received by the clerk of the general district court within the 180-day period, the clerk of the general district court shall give notice to the parties that such funds shall be disbursed to the plaintiff for which judgment was entered in the general district court within 30 days after such notice.

D. Whenever a person is entitled to a fund or such property distributable by a fiduciary settling his accounts before the commissioner of accounts of the court in which the fiduciary qualified, and the amount or value of the fund or property, or the value of any combination thereof, is not more than $25,000, the commissioner of accounts may approve distribution thereof in the same manner and to the extent of the authority herein conferred upon a court including exemption from filing further accounts where the value of the fund being administered is less than $25,000.

E. Whenever an incapacitated person or infant is entitled to a fund or such property distributable by a fiduciary settling accounts before the commissioner of accounts of the court in which the fiduciary qualified and the will or trust instrument under which the fiduciary serves, authorizes the fiduciary to distribute the property or fund to the incapacitated person or infant without the intervention of a guardian, conservator or committee, and the amount or value of such fund or property, or the value of any combination thereof, is not more than $25,000, the commissioner of accounts may approve distribution thereof in the same manner and to the extent of the authority hereinabove conferred upon a court or judge thereof.

F. Whenever a fiduciary is administering funds not exceeding $25,000, the circuit court of the county or city in which the fund is being administered by order entered of record may authorize the fiduciary, when considered competent to administer the funds, to continue to administer the funds for the benefit of the person entitled to the fund without the necessity of filing any further accounts, whether such person resides within or without this Commonwealth. The clerk of the court shall take a receipt from the fiduciary, which shall show the amount of the fund remaining, to whom it belongs, and the date the court entered the order exempting the filing of further accounts. The receipt shall be signed and acknowledged by the fiduciary, and entered of record in the book in the clerk's office in which the current fiduciary accounts are entered and indexed. No surety shall be required on the bond of a fiduciary granted an exemption from filing any further accounts.

G. Whenever a fiduciary qualifies pursuant to § 64.2-454 for the sole purpose of prosecuting or defending an action, the court in which the fiduciary qualifies or the commissioner of accounts for such court may exempt the fiduciary from filing further accounts where the fiduciary is not administering any funds and has no power of sale over any real estate the decedent owned.

Code 1950, §§ 8-750, 8-751; 1952, c. 103; 1954, cc. 238, 526; 1962, c. 465; 1966, cc. 332, 339; 1970, c. 566; 1977, cc. 462, 617; 1978, c. 525; 1980, c. 544; 1985, c. 216; 1987, c. 378; 1995, c. 405; 1997, c. 801; 2003, c. 195; 2012, c. 43; 2015, cc. 129, 130, 633.