Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 8.7. Commercial Code -- Warehouse Receipts, Bills of Lading and Other Documents of Title
3/24/2019

Part 1. General.

§ 8.7-101. Short title.

This title shall be known and may be cited as Uniform Commercial Code -- Documents of Title.

1964, c. 219.

§ 8.7-102. Definitions and index of definitions.

(1) In this title, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) "Bailee" means the person who by a warehouse receipt, bill of lading or other document acknowledges possession of goods and contracts to deliver them.

(b) "Carrier" means a person that issues a bill of lading.

(c) "Consignee" means the person named in a bill to whom or to whose order the bill promises delivery.

(d) "Consignor" means the person named in a bill as the person from whom the goods have been received for shipment.

(e) "Delivery order" means a record that contains an order to deliver goods directed to a warehouseman, carrier or other person who in the ordinary course of business issues warehouse receipts or bills of lading.

(f) "Document" means document of title as defined in the general definitions in Title 8.1A (§ 8.1A-201).

(g) "Good faith" means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing.

(h) "Goods" means all things that are treated as movable for the purposes of a contract of storage or transportation.

(i) "Issuer" means a bailee who issues a document except that in relation to an unaccepted delivery order it means the person who orders the possessor of goods to deliver. Issuer includes any person for whom an agent or employee purports to act in issuing a document if the agent or employee has real or apparent authority to issue documents, even if the issuer received no goods, the goods were misdescribed, or in any other respect the agent or employee violated the issuer's instructions.

(j) "Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

(k) "Shipper" means a person that enters into a contract of transportation with a carrier.

(l) "Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a record (1) to execute or adopt a tangible symbol or (2) to attach to or logically associate with the record an electronic sound, symbol, or process.

(m) "Warehouseman" is a person engaged in the business of storing goods for hire.

(2) Other definitions applying to this title or to specified parts thereof, and the sections in which they appear are:

"Duly negotiate." § 8.7-501.

"Person entitled under the document." § 8.7-403(4).

(3) Definitions in other titles applying to this title and the sections in which they appear are:

"Contract for sale." § 8.2-106.

"Lessee in ordinary course." § 8.2A-103.

"Overseas." § 8.2-323.

"Receipt" of goods. § 8.2-103.

(4) In addition Title 8.1A contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this title.

Code 1950, § 61-1; 1964, c. 219; 2003, c. 353; 2004, c. 200.

§ 8.7-103. Relation of title to treaty or statute.

(1) To the extent that any treaty or statute of the United States or regulatory statute of this State is applicable, the provisions of this title are subject thereto.

(2) This article does not modify or repeal any law prescribing the form or content of a document of title or the services or facilities to be afforded by a bailee, or otherwise regulating a bailee's business in respects not specifically treated in this article. However, violation of such a law does not affect the status of a document that otherwise is within the definition of a document.

(3) This Title modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. § 7001, et seq.) but does not modify, limit, or supersede Section 101(c) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7001(c)) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in Section 103 (b) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7003 (b)).

(4) To the extent there is a conflict between the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.) and this article this article governs.

1964, c. 219; 2004, c. 200.

§ 8.7-104. Negotiable and nonnegotiable documents.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3, a document is negotiable:

(a) if by its terms the goods are to be delivered to bearer or to the order of a named person; or

(b) where recognized in overseas trade, if it runs to a named person or assigns.

(2) A document other than one described in subsection 1 is nonnegotiable. A bill of lading in which it is stated that the goods are consigned to a named person is not made negotiable by a provision that the goods are to be delivered only against an order in a record signed by the same or another named person.

(3) A document is nonnegotiable if, at the time it is issued, the document has a conspicuous legend, however expressed, that it is nonnegotiable.

Code 1950, §§ 61-7, 61-8; 1964, c. 219; 2004, c. 200.

§ 8.7-105. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 200.

§ 8.7-105.1. Reissuance in alternative medium.

(1) Upon request of a person entitled under an electronic document, the issuer of the electronic document may issue a tangible document as a substitute for the electronic document if:

(a) the person entitled under the electronic document surrenders control of the document to the issuer; and

(b) the tangible document when issued contains a statement that it is issued in substitution for the electronic document.

(2) Upon issuance of a tangible document in substitution for an electronic document in accordance with subsection (1):

(a) the electronic document ceases to have any effect or validity; and

(b) the person that procured issuance of the tangible document warrants to all subsequent persons entitled under the tangible document that the warrantor was a person entitled under the electronic document when the warrantor surrendered control of the electronic document to the issuer.

(3) Upon request of a person entitled under a tangible document, the issuer of the tangible document may issue an electronic document as a substitute for the tangible document if:

(a) the person entitled under the tangible document surrenders possession of the document to the issuer; and

(b) the electronic document when issued contains a statement that it is issued in substitution for the tangible document.

(4) Upon issuance of an electronic document in substitution for a tangible document in accordance with subsection (3):

(a) the tangible document ceases to have any effect or validity; and

(b) the person that procured issuance of the electronic document warrants to all subsequent persons entitled under the electronic document that the warrantor was a person entitled under the tangible document when the warrantor surrendered possession of the tangible document to the issuer.

2004, c. 200.

§ 8.7-106. Control of electronic document.

(1) A person has control of an electronic document if a system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the electronic document reliably establishes that person as the person to which the electronic document was issued or transferred.

(2) A system satisfies subsection (1), and a person is deemed to have control of an electronic document, if the document is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that:

(a) a single authoritative copy of the document exists that is unique, identifiable, and, except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (c), (d), and (e), unalterable;

(b) the authoritative copy identifies the person asserting control as:

(i) the person to whom the document was issued; or

(ii) if the authoritative copy indicates that the document has been transferred, the person to whom the document was most recently transferred;

(c) the authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained by the person asserting control or his designated custodian;

(d) copies or amendments that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy can be made only with the consent of the person asserting control;

(e) each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the authoritative copy; and

(f) any amendment of the authoritative copy is readily identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.

2004, c. 200.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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