Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
6/15/2024

Part II. Management and Personnel

Article 1
Supervision

12VAC5-421-50. Assignment of responsibility.

Article 1
Supervision

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, the permit holder shall be the person in charge or shall designate a person in charge and shall ensure that a person in charge is present at the food establishment during all hours of operation.Pf

B. In a food establishment with two or more separately permitted departments that are the legal responsibility of the same permit holder and that are located on the same premises, the permit holder may, during specific time periods when food is not being prepared, packaged, or served, designate a single person in charge who is present on the premises during all hours of operation, and who is responsible for each separately permitted food establishment on the premises.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Errata, 26:9 VA.R. 1316 January 4, 2009; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-55. Certified food protection manager.

A. At least one employee with supervisory and management responsibility and the authority to direct and control food preparation and service shall be a certified food protection manager, demonstrating proficiency of required knowledge and information through passing a test that is part of an accredited program.

B. This section does not apply to food establishments that serve only non-time/temperature control for safety food and food establishments that store and prepare food only to the extent that they reheat or cold hold commercially processed, fully cooked time/temperature control for safety foods. Food establishments exempt from the certified food protection manager requirement may not cool time/temperature control for safety foods.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021; Errata 37:23 VA.R. 3482 July 5, 2021; amended, Virginia Register Volume 39, Issue 5, eff. November 23, 2022.

12VAC5-421-60. Demonstration of knowledge.

Based on the risks of foodborne illness inherent to the food operation, during inspections and upon request the person in charge shall demonstrate to the department knowledge of foodborne disease prevention, and the requirements of this chapter. The person in charge shall demonstrate this knowledge by:

1. Complying with this chapter by having no violations of priority items during the current inspection;Pf

2. Being a certified food protection manager who has shown proficiency of required information through passing a test that is part of an accredited program;Pf or

3. Responding correctly to the environmental health specialist's questions as they relate to the specific food operation. The areas of operation may include:

a. Describing the relationship between the prevention of foodborne disease and the personal hygiene of a food employee;Pf

b. Explaining the responsibility of the person in charge for preventing the transmission of foodborne disease by a food employee who has a disease or medical condition that may cause foodborne disease;Pf

c. Describing the symptoms associated with the diseases that are transmissible through food;Pf

d. Explaining the significance of the relationship between maintaining the time and temperature of time/temperature control for safety food and the prevention of foodborne illness;Pf

e. Explaining the hazards involved in the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and fish;Pf

f. Stating the required food temperatures and times for safe cooking of time/temperature control for safety food including meat, poultry, eggs, and fish;Pf

g. Stating the required temperatures and times for the safe refrigerated storage, hot holding, cooling, and reheating of time/temperature control for safety food;Pf

h. Describing the relationship between the prevention of foodborne illness and the management and control of the following:

(1) Cross contamination;Pf

(2) Hand contact with ready-to-eat foods;Pf

(3) Handwashing;Pf and

(4) Maintaining the food establishment in a clean condition and in good repair;Pf

i. Describing the foods identified as major food allergens and the symptoms that a major food allergen could cause in a sensitive individual who has an allergic reaction;Pf

j. Explaining the relationship between food safety and providing equipment that is:

(1) Sufficient in number and capacity;Pf and

(2) Properly designed, constructed, located, installed, operated, maintained, and cleaned;Pf

k. Explaining correct procedures for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment;Pf

l. Identifying the source of water used and measures taken to ensure that the water supply remains protected from contamination such as providing protection from backflow and precluding the creation of cross connections;Pf

m. Identifying poisonous or toxic materials in the food establishment and the procedures necessary to ensure that they are safely stored, dispensed, used, and disposed of according to law;Pf

n. Identifying critical control points in the operation from purchasing through sale or service that when not controlled may contribute to the transmission of foodborne illness and explaining steps taken to ensure that the points are controlled in accordance with the requirements of this chapter;Pf

o. Explaining the details of how the person in charge and food employees comply with a HACCP plan if such a plan is required by law, this chapter, or a an agreement between the department and the food establishment; Pf

p. Explaining the responsibilities, rights, and authorities assigned by this chapter to the:

(1) Food employee;Pf

(2) Conditional employee;Pf

(3) Person in charge;Pf and

(4) Department;Pf and

q. Explaining how the person in charge, food employees, and conditional employees comply with reporting responsibilities and the exclusion or restriction of food employees.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-65. Food protection manager certification.

A. A person in charge who demonstrates knowledge by being a food protection manager who is certified by a food protection manager certification program that is evaluated by a Conference for Food Protection-recognized accrediting agency as conforming to the Conference for Food Protection Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, (Conference for Food Protection) is deemed to comply with subdivision 2 of 12VAC5-421-60.

B. A food establishment that has an employee who is certified by a food protection certification program that is evaluated and listed by a Conference for Food Protection-recognized accrediting agency as conforming to the Conference for Food Protection Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, (Conference for Food Protection) is deemed to comply with 12VAC5-421-55.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-70. Duties of person in charge.

The person in charge shall ensure that:

1. Food establishment operations are not conducted in a private home or in a room used as living or sleeping quarters as specified under 12VAC5-421-2990;Pf

2. Persons unnecessary to the food establishment operation are not allowed in the food preparation, food storage, or warewashing areas, except that brief visits and tours may be authorized by the person in charge if steps are taken to ensure that exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles are protected from contamination;Pf

3. Employees and other persons such as delivery and maintenance persons and pesticide applicators entering the food preparation, food storage, and warewashing areas comply with this chapter;Pf

4. Employees are effectively cleaning their hands, by routinely monitoring the employees' handwashing;Pf

5. Employees are visibly observing foods as they are received to determine that they are from approved sources, delivered at the required temperatures, protected from contamination, unadulterated, and accurately presented, by routinely monitoring the employees' observations and periodically evaluating foods upon their receipt;Pf

6. Employees are verifying that foods delivered to the food establishment during non-operating hours are from approved sources and are placed into appropriate storage locations such that they are maintained at the required temperatures, protected from contamination, unadulterated, and accurately presented;Pf

7. Employees are properly cooking time/temperature control for safety food, being particularly careful in cooking those foods known to cause severe foodborne illness and death, such as eggs and comminuted meats, through daily oversight of the employees' routine monitoring of the cooking temperatures using appropriate temperature measuring devices properly scaled and calibrated as specified under 12VAC5-421-1180 and 12VAC5-421-1730 B;Pf

8. Employees are using proper methods to rapidly cool time/temperature control for safety food that is not held hot or is not for consumption within four hours, through daily oversight of the employees' routine monitoring of food temperatures during cooling;Pf

9. Employees are properly maintaining the temperatures of time/temperature control for safety food during hot and cold holding through daily oversight of the employees routine monitoring of food temperatures;Pf

10. Consumers who order raw or partially cooked ready-to-eat foods of animal origin are informed as specified under 12VAC5-421-930 that the food is not cooked sufficiently to ensure its safety;Pf

11. Employees are properly sanitizing cleaned multiuse equipment and utensils before they are reused, through routine monitoring of solution temperature and exposure time for hot water sanitizing, and chemical concentration, pH, temperature, and exposure time for chemical sanitizing;Pf

12. Consumers are notified that clean tableware is to be used when they return to self-service areas such as salad bars and buffets as specified in 12VAC5-421-590;Pf

13. Except when approval is obtained from the department as specified in 12VAC5-421-450 E, employees are preventing cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food with bare hands by properly using suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves, or dispensing equipment; Pf

14. Employees are properly trained in food safety, including food allergy awareness, as it relates to their assigned duties;Pf

15. Food employees and conditional employees are informed in a verifiable manner of their responsibility to report in accordance with law, to the person in charge, information about their health and activities as they relate to diseases that are transmissible through food, as specified under 12VAC5-421-80;Pf and

16. Written procedures and plans, where specified by this chapter and as developed by the food establishment, are maintained and implemented as required.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

Article 2
Employee Health

12VAC5-421-80. Responsibility of permit holder, person in charge, and conditional employees.

A. The permit holder shall require food employees and conditional employees to report to the person in charge information about their health and activities as they relate to diseases that are transmissible through food. A food employee or conditional employee shall report the information in a manner that allows the person in charge to reduce the risk of foodborne disease transmission, including providing necessary additional information, such as the date of onset of symptoms and an illness, or of a diagnosis without symptoms, if the food employee or conditional employee:

1. Has any of the following symptoms:

a. Vomiting;P

b. Diarrhea;P

c. Jaundice;P

d. Sore throat with fever;P or

e. A lesion containing pus such as a boil or infected wound that is open or draining and is:

(1) On the hands or wrists, unless an impermeable cover such as a finger cot or stall protects the lesion and a single-use glove is worn over the impermeable cover;P

(2) On exposed portions of the arms, unless the lesion is protected by an impermeable cover;P or

(3) On other parts of the body, unless the lesion is covered by a dry, durable, tight-fitting bandage;P

2. Has an illness diagnosed by a health practitioner due to:

a. Norovirus;P

b. Hepatitis A virus;P

c. Shigella spp.;P

d. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; P

e. Typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi);P or

f. Salmonella (nontyphoidal);P

3. Had Typhoid fever, diagnosed by a health practitioner, within the past three months, without having received antibiotic therapy, as determined by a health practitioner;P

4. Has been exposed to, or is the suspected source of, a confirmed disease outbreak, because the food employee or conditional employee consumed or prepared food implicated in the outbreak, or consumed food at an event prepared by a person who is infected or ill with:

a. Norovirus within the past 48 hours of the last exposure; P

b. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, or Shigella spp. within the past three days of the last exposure;P

c. Typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi) within the past 14 days of the last exposure;P or

d. Hepatitis A virus within the past 30 days of the last exposure;P or

5. Has been exposed by attending or working in a setting where there is a confirmed disease outbreak, or living in the same household as, and has knowledge about an individual who works or attends a setting where there is a confirmed disease outbreak, or living in the same household as and has knowledge about, an individual diagnosed with an illness caused by:

a. Norovirus within the past 48 hours of the last exposure;P

b. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella spp. within the past three days of the last exposure;P

c. Typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi) within the past 14 days of the last exposure;P or

d. Hepatitis A virus within the past 30 days of the last exposure.P

B. The person in charge shall notify the department when a food employee is:

1. Jaundiced;Pf or

2. Diagnosed with an illness due to a pathogen as specified under subdivisions A 2 a through f of this section.Pf

C. The person in charge shall ensure that a conditional employee:

1. Who exhibits or reports a symptom, or who reports a diagnosed illness as specified under subdivisions A 1, 2, and 3 of this section, is prohibited from becoming a food employee until the conditional employee meets the criteria for the specific symptoms or diagnosed illness as specified under 12VAC5-421-100;P and

2. Who will work as a food employee in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population and reports a history of exposure as specified under subdivisions A 4 and 5 of this section, is prohibited from becoming a food employee until the conditional employee meets the criteria specified under subdivision 10 of 12VAC5-421-100.P

D. The person in charge shall ensure that a food employee who exhibits or reports a symptom, or who reports a diagnosed illness or history of exposure as specified under subdivisions A 1 through 5 of this section is:

1. Excluded as specified under subdivisions 1, 2, and 3 of 12VAC5-421-90, and subdivision 4 a, 5 a, 6 a, 7, or 8 a of 12VAC5-421-90 and in compliance with the provisions specified under subdivisions 1 through 8 of 12VAC5-421-100;P or

2. Restricted as specified under subdivision 4 b, 5 b, 6 b, or 8 b of 12VAC5-421-90, or subdivision 9 or 10 of 12VAC5-421-90 and in compliance with the provisions specified under subdivisions 4 through 10 of 12VAC5-421-100.P

E. A food employee or conditional employee shall report to the person in charge the information as specified under subsection A of this section.Pf

F. A food employee shall:

1. Comply with an exclusion as specified under subdivisions 1, 2, and 3 of 12VAC5-421-90 and subdivision 4 a, 5 a, 6 a, 7, or 8 a of 12VAC5-421-90 and with the provisions specified under subdivisions 1 through 8 of 12VAC5-421-100;P or

2. Comply with a restriction as specified under subdivision 4 b, 5 b, 6 b, 7, or 8 b of 12VAC5-421-90, or subdivision 8, 9, or 10 of 12VAC5-421-90 and comply with the provisions specified under subdivisions 4 through 10 of 12VAC5-421-100.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-90. Exclusions and restrictions.

The person in charge shall exclude or restrict a food employee from a food establishment in accordance with the following:

1. Except when the symptom is from a noninfectious condition, exclude a food employee if the food employee is:

a. Symptomatic with vomiting or diarrhea;P or

b. Symptomatic with vomiting or diarrhea and diagnosed with an infection from Norovirus, Shigella spp., Salmonella (nontyphoidal), or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.P

2. Exclude a food employee who is:

a. Jaundiced and the onset of jaundice occurred within the last seven calendar days, unless the food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner specifying that the jaundice is not caused by Hepatitis A virus or other fecal-orally transmitted infection;P

b. Diagnosed with an infection from Hepatitis A virus within 14 calendar days from the onset of any illness symptoms, or within seven calendar days of the onset of jaundice;P or

c. Diagnosed with an infection from Hepatitis A virus without developing symptoms.P

3. Exclude a food employee who is diagnosed with Typhoid fever, or reports having had Typhoid fever within the past three months as specified in 12VAC5-421-80 A 3.P

4. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Norovirus and is asymptomatic:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

5. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Shigella spp. and is asymptomatic:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

6. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and is asymptomatic:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

7. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Salmonella (nontyphoidal) and is asymptomatic, restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment:

a. Serving a highly susceptible population,P or

b. Not serving a highly susceptible population.P

8. If a food employee is ill with symptoms of acute onset of sore throat with fever:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

9. If a food employee is infected with a skin lesion containing pus such as a boil or infected wound that is open or draining and not properly covered as specified under 12VAC5-421-80 A 1 e, restrict the food employee.P

10. If a food employee is exposed to a foodborne pathogen as specified under 12VAC5-421-80 A 4 or 5, restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-100. Removal, adjustment, or retention of exclusions and restrictions.

The person in charge shall adhere to the following conditions when removing, adjusting, or retaining the exclusion or restriction of a food employee:

1. Except when a food employee is diagnosed with Typhoid fever or an infection from Hepatitis A virus:

a. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 a of 12VAC5-421-90 if the food employee:

(1) Is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours;P or

(2) Provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner that states the symptom is from a noninfectious condition.P

b. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Norovirus and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 12VAC5-421-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 4 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 4 a or b of this section are met.P

c. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Shigella spp. and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 12VAC5-421-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic, for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 5 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 5 a or b, or 5 a and 1 c (1) of this section are met.P

d. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 12VAC5-421-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 6 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 6 a or b are met.P

e. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Salmonella (nontyphoidal) and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 12VAC5-421-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee who is asymptomatic for at least 30 days until conditions for reinstatement as specified under subdivision 7 a or 7 b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee who is symptomatic, until conditions for reinstatement as specified under subdivision 7 a or 7 b of this section are met. P

2. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 2 of 12VAC5-421-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The food employee has been jaundiced for more than seven calendar days;P

b. The anicteric food employee has been symptomatic with symptoms other than jaundice for more than 14 calendar days;P or

c. The food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Hepatitis A virus infection.P

3. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 3 of 12VAC5-421-90 if:

a. The person in charge obtains approval from the department;P and

b. The food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner that states the employee is free from Typhoid fever.P

4. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b or 4 a of 12VAC5-421-90, who was restricted under subdivision 4 b of 12VAC5-421-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Norovirus infection;P

b. The food employee was excluded or restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved, and more than 48 hours have passed since the food employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than 48 hours have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

5. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b or 5 a of 12VAC5-421-90 or who was restricted under subdivision 5 b of 12VAC5-421-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Shigella spp. infection based on test results showing two consecutive negative stool specimen cultures that are taken:

(1) Not earlier than 48 hours after discontinuance of antibiotics,P and

(2) At least 24 hours apart;P

b. The food employee was excluded or restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved, and more than seven calendar days have passed since the food employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than seven calendar days have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

6. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded or restricted as specified under subdivision 1 b or 6 a of 12VAC5-421-90 or who was restricted under subdivision 6 b of 12VAC5-421-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of an infection from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli based on test results that show two consecutive negative stool specimen cultures that are taken:

(1) Not earlier than 48 hours after the discontinuance of antibiotics;P and

(2) At least 24 hours apart;P

b. The food employee was excluded or restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved and more than seven calendar days have passed since the employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than seven days have passed since the employee was diagnosed.P

7. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subsection 1 b of 12VAC5-421-90 or who was restricted as specified under subsection 7 of 12VAC5-421-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the departmentP and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Salmonella (nontyphoidal) infection based on test results showing two consecutive negative stool specimen cultures that are taken:

(1) Not earlier than 48 hours after discontinuance of antibiotics;P and

(2) At least 24 hours apart;P

b. The food employee was restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved, and more than 30 days have passed since the food employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than 30 days have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

8. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded or restricted as specified under subdivision 8 a or b of 12VAC5-421-90 if the food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee meets one of the following conditions:

a. Has received antibiotic therapy for Streptococcus pyogenes infection for more than 24 hours;P

b. Has at least one negative throat specimen culture for Streptococcus pyogenes infection;P or

c. Is otherwise determined by a health practitioner to be free of Streptococcus pyogenes infection.P

9. Reinstate a food employee who was restricted as specified under subdivision 9 of 12VAC5-421-90 if the skin, infected wound, cut, or pustular boil is properly covered with one of the following:

a. An impermeable cover such as a finger cot or stall and a single-use glove over the impermeable cover if the infected wound or pustular boil is on the hand, finger, or wrist;P

b. An impermeable cover on the arm if the infected wound or pustular boil is on the arm;P or

c. A dry, durable, tight-fitting bandage if the infected wound or pustular boil is on another part of the body.P

10. Reinstate a food employee who was restricted as specified under subdivision 10 of 12VAC5-421-90 and was exposed to one of the following pathogens as specified under 12VAC5-421-80 A 4 or 5:

a. Norovirus and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) More than 48 hours have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P or

(2) More than 48 hours have passed since the food employee's household contact became asymptomatic.P

b. Shigella spp. or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) More than three calendar days have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P or

(2) More than three calendar days have passed since the food employee's household contact became asymptomatic.P

c. Typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi) and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) More than 14 calendar days have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P or

(2) More than 14 calendar days have passed since the food employee's household contact became asymptomatic.P

d. Hepatitis A virus and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) The food employee is immune to Hepatitis A virus infection because of prior illness from Hepatitis A;P

(2) The food employee is immune to Hepatitis A virus infection because of vaccination against Hepatitis A;P

(3) The food employee is immune to Hepatitis A virus infection because of IgG administration;P

(4) More than 30 calendar days have passed since the last time the food employee was potentially exposed;P

(5) More than 30 calendar days have passed since the food employee's household contact became jaundiced;P or

(6) The food employee does not use an alternative procedure that allows bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food until at least 30 days after the potential exposure, as specified in subdivisions 10 d (4) and (5) of this section, and the food employee receives additional training about:

(a) Hepatitis A symptoms and preventing the transmission of infection;P

(b) Proper handwashing procedures;P and

(c) Protecting ready-to-eat food from contamination introduced by bare hand contact.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-110. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

12VAC5-421-120. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

Article 3
Personal Cleanliness

12VAC5-421-130. Clean condition of hands and arms.

Article 3
Personal Cleanliness

Food employees shall keep their hands and exposed portions of their arms clean.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-140. Cleaning procedure of hands and arms.

A. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms or surrogate prosthetic devices for hands or arms for at least 20 seconds, using a cleaning compound in a lavatory that is equipped as specified under 12VAC5-421-2190.P

B. Food employees shall use the following cleaning procedure in the order stated to clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms, including surrogate prosthetic devices for hands and arms:

1. Rinse under clean, running warm water;P

2. Apply an amount of cleaning compound recommended by the cleaning compound manufacturer;P

3. Rub together vigorously for at least 10 to 15 seconds while:

a. Paying particular attention to removing soil from underneath the fingernails during the cleaning procedure;P and

b. Creating friction on the surfaces of the hands and arms or surrogate prosthetic devices for hands and arms, finger tips, and areas between the fingers;P

4. Thoroughly rinsing under clean, running warm water;P and

5. Immediately follow the cleaning procedure with thorough drying using a method as specified under 12VAC5-421-3030.P

C. To avoid recontaminating their hands or surrogate prosthetic devices, food employees may use disposable paper towels or similar clean barriers when touching surfaces such as manually operated faucet handles on a handwashing sink or the handle of a restroom door.

D. If approved and capable of removing the types of soils encountered in the food operations involved, an automatic handwashing facility may be used by food employees to clean their hands or surrogate prosthetic devices.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-150. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

12VAC5-421-160. When to wash.

Food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms as specified under 12VAC5-421-140 immediately before engaging in food preparation including working with exposed food, clean equipment and utensils, and unwrapped single-service and single-use articlesP and:

1. After touching bare human body parts or hair other than clean hands and clean, exposed portions of arms;P

2. After using the toilet room;P

3. After caring for or handling service animals or aquatic animals as allowed under 12VAC5-421-250 B;P

4. Except as specified in 12VAC5-421-220 B, after coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief or disposable tissue, using tobacco, eating, or drinking;P

5. After handling soiled equipment or utensils;P

6. During food preparation, as often as necessary to remove soil and contamination and to prevent cross contamination when changing tasks;P

7. When switching between working with raw foods and working with ready-to-eat foods;P

8. Before donning gloves to initiate a task that involves working with foods;P and

9. After engaging in other activities that contaminate the hands.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-170. Where to wash.

Food employees shall clean their hands in a handwashing sink or approved automatic handwashing facility and shall not clean their hands (i) in a sink used for food preparation or utensil washing or (ii) in a service sink or a curbed cleaning facility used for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-180. Hand antiseptics.

A. A hand antiseptic used as a topical application, a hand antiseptic solution used as a hand dip, or a hand antiseptic soap shall:

1. Comply with one of the following:

a. Be an approved drug that is listed in the FDA publication "Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations," 39th Edition, 2019 (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) as an approved drug based on safety and effectiveness;Pf or

b. Have active antimicrobial ingredients that are listed in the FDA monograph for OTC (over the counter) Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products as an antiseptic handwash;Pf

2. Consist only of components which the intended use of each complies with one of the following:

a. A threshold of regulation exemption under 21 CFR 170.39;Pf

b. 21 CFR Part 178, as regulated for use as a food additive with conditions of safe use;Pf

c. A determination of generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Partial listings of substances with food uses that are GRAS may be found in 21 CFR Part 182, 21 CFR 184, or 21 CFR Part 186 for use in contact with food and in FDA's Inventory of GRAS Notices;Pf

d. A prior sanction listed under 21 CFR 181;Pf or

e. A food contact notification that is effective;Pf and

3. Be applied only to hands that are cleaned as specified under 12VAC5-421-140.Pf

B. If a hand antiseptic or a hand antiseptic solution used as a hand dip does not meet the criteria specified in subdivision A 2 of this section, use shall be:

1. Followed by thorough hand rinsing in clean water before hand contact with food or by the use of gloves;Pf or

2. Limited to situations that involve no direct contact with food by the bare hands.Pf

C. A hand antiseptic solution used as a hand dip shall be maintained clean and at a strength equivalent to at least 100 ppm (mg/l) chlorine .Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-190. Maintenance of fingernails.

A. Food employees shall keep their fingernails trimmed, filed, and maintained so the edges and surfaces are cleanable and not rough.Pf

B. Unless wearing intact gloves in good repair, a food employee shall not wear fingernail polish or artificial nails when working with exposed food.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-200. Prohibition of jewelry.

Except for a plain ring such as a wedding band, while preparing food, food employees shall not wear jewelry, including medical information jewelry on their arms and hands.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-210. Clean condition of outer clothing.

Food employees shall wear clean outer clothing to prevent contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

Article 4
Hygienic Practices

12VAC5-421-220. Eating, drinking, or using tobacco.

Article 4
Hygienic Practices

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an employee shall eat, drink, or use any form of tobacco only in designated areas where the contamination of exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; unwrapped single-service and single-use articles; or other items needing protection cannot result.

B. A food employee may drink from a closed beverage container if the container is handled to prevent contamination of:

1. The employee's hands;

2. The container; and

3. Exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-230. Discharges from the eyes, nose, and mouth.

Food employees experiencing persistent sneezing, coughing, or a runny nose that causes discharges from the eyes, nose, or mouth shall not work with exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; or unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

12VAC5-421-235. Use of bandages, finger cots, or finger stalls.

If used, an impermeable cover such as a bandage, finger cot, or finger stall located on the wrist, hand, or finger of the food employee working with exposed food shall be covered with a single-use glove.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-235. Use of bandages, finger cots, or finger stalls.

If used, an impermeable cover such as a bandage, finger cot, or finger stall located on the wrist, hand, or finger of the food employee working with exposed food shall be covered with a single-use glove.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-235. Use of bandages, finger cots, or finger stalls.

If used, an impermeable cover such as a bandage, finger cot, or finger stall located on the wrist, hand, or finger of the food employee working with exposed food shall be covered with a single-use glove.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-240. Effectiveness of hair restraints.

A. Except as provided under subsection B of this section, food employees shall wear hair restraints, such as hats, hair coverings or nets, beard restraints, and clothing that covers body hair, that are designed and worn to effectively keep their hair from contacting exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

B. This section does not apply to food employees such as counter staff who only serve beverages and wrapped or packaged foods, hostesses, and wait staff if they present a minimal risk of contaminating exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-250. Handling of animals prohibited.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, food employees shall not care for or handle animals that may be present such as patrol dogs, service animals, or pets that are allowed under 12VAC5-421-3310 B 2, 3, and 4.Pf

B. Food employees with service animals may handle or care for their service animals and food employees may handle or care for fish in aquariums or molluscan shellfish or crustacea in display tanks if they wash their hands as specified under 12VAC5-421-140 and subdivision 3 of 12VAC5-421-160.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-255. Clean-up of vomiting and diarrheal events.

A food establishment shall have written procedures for employees to follow when responding to vomiting or diarrheal events that involve the discharge of vomitus or fecal matter onto surfaces in the food establishment. The procedures shall address the specific actions employees must take to minimize the spread of contamination and the exposure of employees, consumers, food, and surfaces to vomitus or fecal matter.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

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