Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 37.2. Behavioral Health and Developmental Services
Chapter 8. Emergency Custody and Voluntary and Involuntary Civil Admissions
10/6/2022

This section has more than one version with varying effective dates. Scroll down to see all versions.

§ 37.2-817.1. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Monitoring mandatory outpatient treatment; petition for hearing.

A. The community services board where the person resides shall monitor the person's compliance with the mandatory outpatient treatment plan or discharge plan ordered by the court pursuant to § 37.2-817. Monitoring compliance shall include (i) contacting the service providers to determine if the person is complying with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment and (ii) notifying the court of the person's material noncompliance with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment. Providers of services identified in the plan shall report any material noncompliance to the community services board.

B. If the community services board determines that the person materially failed to comply with the order, it shall petition the court for a review of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment as provided in § 37.2-817.2. The community services board shall petition the court for a review of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment within three days of making that determination, or within 24 hours if the person is being detained under a temporary detention order, and shall recommend an appropriate disposition. Copies of the petition shall be sent to the person and the person's attorney.

C. If the community services board determines that the person is not materially complying with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment or for any other reason, and there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of the person's mental illness that the person will, in the near future, (i) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (ii) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, it shall immediately request that the magistrate issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808 or a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461.

§ 37.2-817.1. (Effective October 1, 2022) Monitoring and court review of mandatory outpatient treatment.

A. As used in this section, "material nonadherence" means deviation from a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan by a person who is subject to an order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01 or an order for mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 that it is likely to lead to the person's relapse or deterioration and for which the person cannot provide a reasonable explanation.

B. The community services board where the person resides shall monitor the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan prepared in accordance with § 37.2-817.01. Such monitoring shall include (i) contacting or making documented efforts to contact the person regarding the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan and any support necessary for the person to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, (ii) contacting the service providers to determine if the person is adhering to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan and, in the event of material nonadherence, if the person fails or refuses to cooperate with efforts of the community services board or providers of services identified in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan to address the factors leading to the person's material nonadherence, petitioning for a review hearing pursuant to this section. Service providers identified in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall report any material nonadherence and any material changes in the person's condition to the community services board. Any finding of material nonadherence shall be based upon a totality of the circumstances.

C. The community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall report monthly, in writing, to the court regarding the person's and the community services board's compliance with the provisions of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. If the community services board determines that the deterioration of the condition or behavior of a person who is subject to an order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01 or a mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 is such that there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of the person's mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (i) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (ii) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, it shall immediately request that the magistrate issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808 or a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809. Entry of an emergency custody order, temporary detention order, or involuntary inpatient treatment order shall suspend but not rescind an existing order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01 or a mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01.

D. The district court judge or special justice shall hold a hearing within five days after receiving the petition for review of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; however, if the fifth day is a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed, the hearing shall be held by the close of business on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed. The clerk shall provide notice of the hearing to the person, the community services board, all treatment providers listed in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment order or discharge plan, and the original petitioner for the person's involuntary treatment. If the person is not represented by counsel, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the person in this hearing and any subsequent hearing under this section or § 37.2-817.4, giving consideration to appointing the attorney who represented the person at the proceeding that resulted in the issuance of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment. The same judge or special justice that presided over the hearing resulting in the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment need not preside at the nonadherence hearing or any subsequent hearings. The community services board shall offer to arrange the person's transportation to the hearing if the person is not detained and has no other source of transportation.

Any of the following may petition the court for a hearing pursuant to this subsection: (i) the person who is subject to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (ii) the community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (iii) a treatment provider designated in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; (iv) the person who originally filed the petition that resulted in the entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (v) any health care agent designated in the advance directive of the person who is the subject of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; or (vi) if the person who is the subject of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment has been determined to be incapable of making an informed decision, the person's guardian or other person authorized to make health care decisions for the person pursuant to § 54.1-2986.

A petition filed pursuant to this subsection may request that the court do any of the following:

1. Enforce a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment and require the person who is the subject of the order to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, in the case of material nonadherence;

2. Modify a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment or a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan due to a change in circumstances, including changes in the condition, behavior, living arrangement, or access to services of the person who is the subject to the order; or

3. Rescind a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment.

At any time after 30 days from entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 or from the discharge of the person from involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to an order under subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01, the person may petition the court to rescind the order. The person shall not file a petition to rescind the order more than once during a 90-day period.

E. If requested in a petition filed pursuant to subsection D or on the court's own motion, the court may appoint an examiner in accordance with § 37.2-815 who shall personally examine the person on or before the date of the review, as directed by the court, and certify to the court whether or not he has probable cause to believe that the person meets the criteria for mandatory outpatient treatment as specified in subsection B, C, or D of § 37.2-817.01, as may be applicable. The examination shall include all applicable requirements of § 37.2-815. The certification of the examiner may be admitted into evidence without the appearance of the examiner at the hearing if not objected to by the person or his attorney. If the person is not incarcerated or receiving treatment in an inpatient facility, the community services board shall arrange for the person to be examined at a convenient location and time. The community services board shall offer to arrange for the person's transportation to the examination if the person has no other source of transportation and resides within the service area or an adjacent service area of the community services board. If the person refuses or fails to appear, the community services board shall notify the court, or a magistrate if the court is not available, and the court or magistrate shall issue a mandatory examination order and capias directing the primary law-enforcement agency in the jurisdiction where the person resides to transport the person to the examination. The person shall remain in custody until a temporary detention order is issued or until the person is released, but in no event shall the period exceed eight hours.

F. If the person fails to appear for the hearing, the court may, after consideration of any evidence regarding why the person failed to appear at the hearing, (i) dismiss the petition, (ii) issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808, or (iii) reschedule the hearing pursuant to subsection D and issue a subpoena for the person's appearance at the hearing and enter an order for mandatory examination, to be conducted prior to the hearing and in accordance with subsection E.

G. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed to practice in the Commonwealth, if available, (ii) the person's adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person, (iv) any examiner's certification, (v) any health records available, (vi) any report from the community services board, and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted at the hearing, the judge or special justice shall make one of the following dispositions:

1. In a hearing on any petition seeking enforcement of a mandatory outpatient treatment order, upon finding that continuing mandatory outpatient treatment is warranted, the court shall direct the person to fully comply with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment and may make any modifications to such order or the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan that are acceptable to the community services board or treatment provider responsible for the person's treatment. In determining the appropriateness of the outpatient treatment specified in such order and the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, the court may consider the person's material nonadherence to the existing mandatory treatment order.

2. In a hearing on any petition seeking modification of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, upon a finding that (i) one or more modifications of the order would benefit the person and help prevent relapse or deterioration of the person's condition, (ii) the community services board and the treatment provider responsible for the person's treatment are able to provide services consistent with such modification, and (iii) the person is able to adhere to the modified comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, the court may order such modification of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment or the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan as the court finds appropriate.

3. In a hearing on any petition filed to enforce, modify, or rescind a mandatory outpatient treatment order, upon finding that mandatory outpatient treatment is no longer appropriate, the court may rescind the order.

H. The judge or special justice may schedule periodic status hearings for the purpose of obtaining information regarding the person's progress while the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment remains in effect. The clerk shall provide notice of the hearing to the person who is the subject of the order and the community services board responsible for monitoring the person's condition and adherence to the plan. The person shall have the right to be represented by counsel at the hearing, and if the person does not have counsel the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the person. However, status hearings may be held without counsel present by mutual consent of the parties. The community services board shall offer to arrange the person's transportation to the hearing if the person is not detained and has no other source of transportation. During a status hearing, the treatment plan may be amended upon mutual agreement of the parties. Contested matters shall not be decided during a status hearing, nor shall any decision regarding enforcement, rescission, or renewal of the order be entered.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221; 2022, c. 763.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.