Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 18.2. Crimes and Offenses Generally
5/28/2020

Article 3. Larceny and Receiving Stolen Goods.

§ 18.2-95. Grand larceny defined; how punished.

Any person who (i) commits larceny from the person of another of money or other thing of value of $5 or more, (ii) commits simple larceny not from the person of another of goods and chattels of the value of $500 or more, or (iii) commits simple larceny not from the person of another of any firearm, regardless of the firearm's value, shall be guilty of grand larceny, punishable by imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than 20 years or, in the discretion of the jury or court trying the case without a jury, be confined in jail for a period not exceeding 12 months or fined not more than $2,500, either or both.

Code 1950, § 18.1-100; 1960, c. 358; 1966, c. 247; 1975, cc. 14, 15, 603; 1980, c. 175; 1991, c. 710; 1992, c. 822; 1998, c. 821; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-96. Petit larceny defined; how punished.

Any person who:

1. Commits larceny from the person of another of money or other thing of value of less than $5, or

2. Commits simple larceny not from the person of another of goods and chattels of the value of less than $500, except as provided in clause (iii) of § 18.2-95, shall be deemed guilty of petit larceny, which shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 18.1-101; 1960, c. 358; 1966, c. 247; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1980, c. 175; 1992, c. 822; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-96.1. Identification of certain personalty.

A. The owner of personal property may permanently mark such property, including any part thereof, for the purpose of identification with the social security number of the owner, preceded by the letters "VA."

B. [Repealed.]

C. It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, alter, deface, destroy, conceal, or otherwise obscure the manufacturer's serial number or marks, including personalty marked with a social security number preceded by the letters "VA," from such personal property or any part thereof, without the consent of the owner, with intent to render it or other property unidentifiable.

D. It shall be unlawful for any person to possess such personal property or any part thereof, without the consent of the owner, knowing that the manufacturer's serial number or any other distinguishing identification number or mark, including personalty marked with a social security number preceded by the letters "VA," has been removed, altered, defaced, destroyed, concealed, or otherwise obscured with the intent to violate the provisions of this section.

E. A person in possession of such property which is otherwise in violation of this section may apply in writing to the Bureau of Criminal Investigation, Virginia State Police, for assignment of a number for the personal property providing he can show that he is the lawful owner of the property. If a number is issued in conformity with the provisions of this section, then the person to whom it was issued and any person to whom the property is lawfully disposed of shall not be in violation of this section. This subsection shall apply only when the application has been filed by a person prior to arrest or authorization of a warrant of arrest for that person by a court.

F. Any person convicted of an offense under this section, when the value of the personalty is less than $500, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor and, when the value of the personalty is $500 or more, shall be guilty of a Class 5 felony.

1981, c. 165; 1982, c. 382; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-97. Larceny of certain animals and poultry.

Any person who shall be guilty of the larceny of a dog, horse, pony, mule, cow, steer, bull, or calf shall be guilty of a Class 5 felony, and any person who shall be guilty of the larceny of any poultry of the value of $5 or more, but of the value of less than $500, or of a sheep, lamb, swine, or goat, of the value of less than $500, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

Code 1950, § 18.1-102; 1960, c. 358; 1962, c. 15; 1966, c. 247; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1981, c. 197; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-97.1. Removal of a transmitting device; penalty.

Any person who removes an electronic or radio transmitting device from a dog, falcon, hawk, or owl without the permission of the owner and with the intent to prevent or hinder the owner from locating the dog, falcon, hawk, or owl is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Upon a finding of guilt, the court shall order that the defendant pay as restitution the actual value of any dog, falcon, hawk, or owl lost or killed as a result of such removal. The court may also order restitution to the owner for any lost breeding revenues.

2007, cc. 484, 721; 2011, c. 191.

§ 18.2-98. Larceny of bank notes, checks, etc., or any book of accounts.

If any person steal any bank note, check, or other writing or paper of value, whether the same represents money and passes as currency, or otherwise, or any book of accounts, for or concerning money or goods due or to be delivered, he shall be deemed guilty of larceny thereof, and may be charged for such larceny under § 18.2-95 or 18.2-96, and if convicted shall receive the same punishment, according to the value of the thing stolen, prescribed for the punishment of the larceny of goods and chattels. The provisions of this section shall be construed to embrace all bank notes and papers of value representing money and passing as currency, whether the same be the issue of this Commonwealth or any other state, or of the United States, or of any corporation, and shall include all other papers of value, of whatever description. In a prosecution under this section, the money due on or secured by the writing, paper or book, and remaining unsatisfied, or which in any event might be collected thereon, or the value of the property or money affected thereby, shall be deemed to be the value of the article stolen.

Code 1950, §§ 18.1-104, 18.1-105; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 2009, c. 591.

§ 18.2-98.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1984, c. 751.

§ 18.2-99. Larceny of things fixed to the freehold.

Things which savor of the realty, and are at the time they are taken part of the freehold, whether they be of the substance or produce thereof, or affixed thereto, shall be deemed goods and chattels of which larceny may be committed, although there be no interval between the severing and taking away.

Code 1950, § 18.1-106; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-100. Removal of crop by tenant before rents and advances are satisfied.

It shall be unlawful for any person renting the lands of another, either for a share of the crop or for money consideration, to remove therefrom, without the consent of the landlord, any part of such crop until the rents and advances are satisfied. Every such offense shall be punishable as a Class 3 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 18.1-115; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-101. Selling, etc., of goods distrained or levied on.

If any person fraudulently sell, pledge, encumber, remove, destroy, receive or secrete any goods, chattels or other personal property of any kind whatsoever that has been distrained or levied upon, with intent to defeat such distress or levy, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.

Code 1950, § 18.1-108; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-102. Unauthorized use of animal, aircraft, vehicle or boat; consent; accessories or accomplices.

Any person who shall take, drive or use any animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel, not his own, without the consent of the owner thereof and in the absence of the owner, and with intent temporarily to deprive the owner thereof of his possession thereof, without intent to steal the same, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony, provided, however, that if the value of such animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel shall be less than $500, such person shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The consent of the owner of an animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel to its taking, driving or using shall not in any case be presumed or implied because of such owner's consent on a previous occasion to the taking, driving or using of such animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel by the same or a different person. Any person who assists in, or is a party or accessory to, or an accomplice in, any such unauthorized taking, driving or using shall be subject to the same punishment as if he were the principal offender.

Code 1950, § 18.1-164; 1960, c. 358; 1970, c. 8; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1981, c. 197; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-102.1. Removal of shopping cart from store premises.

(1) The term "shopping cart" when used in this section means those push carts of the type or types which are commonly provided by grocery stores, drugstores, or other merchant stores or markets for the use of the public in transporting commodities in stores and markets from the store to a place outside the store.

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person to remove a shopping cart from the premises, of the owner of such shopping cart without the consent, of the owner or of his agent, servant, or employee given at the time of such removal. For the purpose of this section, the premises shall include all the parking area set aside by the owner, or on behalf of the owner, for the parking of cars for the convenience of the patrons of the owner.

(3) Any person convicted of a violation under subsection (2) shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 18.1-117.2; 1975, c. 269.

§ 18.2-102.2. Unauthorized use of dairy milk cases or milk crates; penalty.

It shall be unlawful for any person to:

1. Buy, sell, or dispose of any milk case or milk crate bearing the name or label of the owner without the written consent of the owner or his designated agent;

2. Refuse, upon written demand of the owner or his designated agent, to return to the owner or his designated agent any milk case or milk crate bearing the name or label of the owner; or

3. Deface, obliterate, erase, cover up, or otherwise remove or conceal any name, label, registered trademark, insignia, or other business identification of an owner of a milk case or milk crate without the consent of the owner, for the purpose of destroying or removing from the milk case or milk crate evidence of its ownership.

A violation of this section shall be punishable as a Class 4 misdemeanor.

For purposes of this section, milk cases or milk crates shall be deemed to bear a name or label of an owner when there is imprinted or attached on the case or crate a name, insignia, mark, business identification, or label showing ownership or sufficient information to ascertain ownership. The term "milk case" or "milk crate" means a wire or plastic container which holds sixteen quarts or more of beverage and is used by distributors or retailers or their agents as a means to transport, store, or carry dairy products.

1990, c. 452.

§ 18.2-103. Concealing or taking possession of merchandise; altering price tags; transferring goods from one container to another; counseling, etc., another in performance of such acts.

Whoever, without authority, with the intention of converting goods or merchandise to his own or another's use without having paid the full purchase price thereof, or of defrauding the owner of the value of the goods or merchandise, (i) willfully conceals or takes possession of the goods or merchandise of any store or other mercantile establishment, or (ii) alters the price tag or other price marking on such goods or merchandise, or transfers the goods from one container to another, or (iii) counsels, assists, aids or abets another in the performance of any of the above acts, when the value of the goods or merchandise involved in the offense is less than $500, shall be guilty of petit larceny and, when the value of the goods or merchandise involved in the offense is $500 or more, shall be guilty of grand larceny. The willful concealment of goods or merchandise of any store or other mercantile establishment, while still on the premises thereof, shall be prima facie evidence of an intent to convert and defraud the owner thereof out of the value of the goods or merchandise.

Code 1950, § 18.1-126; 1960, c. 358; 1970, c. 652; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1994, c. 706; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-104. Punishment for conviction of misdemeanor larceny.

When a person is convicted of an offense of larceny or any offense deemed to be or punished as larceny under any provision of the Code, and it is alleged in the warrant, indictment or information on which he is convicted, and admitted, or found by the jury or judge before whom he is tried, that he has been before convicted in the Commonwealth of Virginia or in another jurisdiction for any offense of larceny or any offense deemed or punishable as larceny, or of any substantially similar offense in any other jurisdiction, regardless of whether the prior convictions were misdemeanors, felonies or a combination thereof, he shall be confined in jail not less than thirty days nor more than twelve months; and for a third, or any subsequent offense, he shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

Code 1950, § 18.1-126.1; 1970, c. 652; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1980, c. 174; 1987, c. 178; 1994, c. 706.

§ 18.2-104.1. Liability upon conviction under § 18.2-103.

Any person who has been convicted of violating the provisions of § 18.2-103 shall be civilly liable to the owner for the retail value of any goods and merchandise illegally converted and not recovered by the owner, and for all costs incurred in prosecuting such person under the provisions of § 18.2-103. Such costs shall be limited to actual expenses, including the base wage of one employee acting as a witness for the Commonwealth and suit costs. Provided, however, the total amount of allowable costs granted hereunder shall not exceed $250, excluding the retail value of the goods and merchandise.

1976, c. 577.

§ 18.2-105. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 462.

§ 18.2-105.1. Detention of suspected shoplifter.

A merchant, agent or employee of the merchant, who has probable cause to believe that a person has shoplifted in violation of § 18.2-95 or § 18.2-96 or § 18.2-103, on the premises of the merchant, may detain such person for a period not to exceed one hour pending arrival of a law-enforcement officer.

1976, c. 515.

§ 18.2-105.2. Manufacture, sale, etc., of devices to shield against electronic detection of shoplifting prohibited; penalty.

It shall be unlawful to manufacture, sell, offer for sale, distribute or possess any specially coated or laminated bag or other device primarily designed and intended to shield shoplifted merchandise from detection by an anti-theft electronic alarm sensor, with the intention that the same be used to aid in the shoplifting of merchandise. A violation of this section shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1984, c. 386; 2003, c. 831.

§ 18.2-106. "Agents of the merchant" defined.

As used in this article "agents of the merchant" shall include attendants at any parking lot owned or leased by the merchant, or generally used by customers of the merchant through any contract or agreement between the owner of the parking lot and the merchant.

Code 1950, § 18.1-128; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-107. Theft or destruction of public records by others than officers.

If any person steal or fraudulently secrete or destroy a public record or part thereof, including a microphotographic copy thereof, he shall, if the offense be not embraced by § 18.2-472 be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

Code 1950, § 18.1-308; 1960, c. 358; 1974, c. 649; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1977, c. 107.

§ 18.2-108. Receiving, etc., stolen goods.

A. If any person buys or receives from another person, or aids in concealing, any stolen goods or other thing, knowing the same to have been stolen, he shall be deemed guilty of larceny thereof, and may be proceeded against, although the principal offender is not convicted.

B. If any person buys or receives any goods or other thing, used in the course of a criminal investigation by law enforcement that such person believes to have been stolen, he shall be deemed guilty of larceny thereof.

Code 1950, § 18.1-107; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 2008, c. 578.

§ 18.2-108.01. Larceny with intent to sell or distribute; sale of stolen property; penalty.

A. Any person who commits larceny of property with a value of $500 or more with the intent to sell or distribute such property is guilty of a felony punishable by confinement in a state correctional facility for not less than two years nor more than 20 years. The larceny of more than one item of the same product is prima facie evidence of intent to sell or intent to distribute for sale.

B. Any person who sells, attempts to sell or possesses with intent to sell or distribute any stolen property with an aggregate value of $500 or more where he knew or should have known that the property was stolen is guilty of a Class 5 felony.

C. A violation of this section constitutes a separate and distinct offense.

2003, c. 831; 2018, cc. 764, 765.

§ 18.2-108.1. Receipt of stolen firearm.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 18.2-108, any person who buys or receives a firearm from another person or aids in concealing a firearm, knowing that the firearm was stolen, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony and may be proceeded against although the principal offender is not convicted.

1988, c. 358; 1998, c. 821.

§ 18.2-109. Receipt or transfer of possession of stolen vehicle, aircraft or boat.

Any person who, with intent to procure or pass title to a vehicle, aircraft, boat or vessel, which he knows or has reason to believe has been stolen, shall receive or transfer possession of the same from one to another or who shall with like intent have in his possession any vehicle, aircraft, boat or vessel which he knows or has reason to believe has been stolen, and who is not an officer of the law engaged at the time in the performance of his duty as an officer, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

Code 1950, § 18.1-165; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-110. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 995.

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