Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 18.2. Crimes and Offenses Generally
Chapter 5. Crimes Against Property
6/13/2021

Article 4. Embezzlement and Fraudulent Conversions.

§ 18.2-111. Embezzlement deemed larceny; indictment.

If any person wrongfully and fraudulently use, dispose of, conceal or embezzle any money, bill, note, check, order, draft, bond, receipt, bill of lading or any other personal property, tangible or intangible, which he shall have received for another or for his employer, principal or bailor, or by virtue of his office, trust, or employment, or which shall have been entrusted or delivered to him by another or by any court, corporation or company, he shall be guilty of embezzlement. Proof of embezzlement shall be sufficient to sustain the charge of larceny. Any person convicted hereunder shall be deemed guilty of larceny and may be indicted as for larceny and upon conviction shall be punished as provided in § 18.2-95 or § 18.2-96.

Code 1950, § 18.1-109; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1979, c. 349; 1994, c. 555; 2003, c. 733.

§ 18.2-111.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 459.

§ 18.2-111.2. Failure to pay withheld child support; embezzlement.

If any employer withholds money from the pay of his employee for the purpose of paying administrative or court-ordered child support on behalf of the employee and then wrongfully and fraudulently fails to make payment of the money withheld, the employer shall be guilty of embezzlement.

1999, c. 56.

§ 18.2-112. Embezzlement by officers, etc., of public or other funds; default in paying over funds evidence of guilt.

If any officer, agent or employee of the Commonwealth or of any city, town, county, or any other political subdivision, or the deputy of any such officer having custody of public funds, or other funds coming into his custody under his official capacity, knowingly misuse or misappropriate the same or knowingly dispose thereof otherwise than in accordance with law, he shall be guilty of a Class 4 felony; and any default of such officer, agent, employee or deputy in paying over any such funds to the proper authorities when required by law to do so shall be deemed prima facie evidence of his guilt.

Code 1950, § 18.1-110; 1960, c. 358; 1973, c. 15; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1979, c. 585.

§ 18.2-112.1. Misuse of public assets; penalty.

A. For purposes of this section, "public assets" means personal property belonging to or paid for by the Commonwealth, or any city, town, county, or any other political subdivision, or the labor of any person other than the accused that is paid for by the Commonwealth, or any city, town, county, or any other political subdivision.

B. Any full-time officer, agent, or employee of the Commonwealth, or of any city, town, county, or any other political subdivision who, without lawful authorization, uses or permits the use of public assets for private or personal purposes unrelated to the duties and office of the accused or any other legitimate government interest when the value of such use exceeds $1,000 in any 12-month period, is guilty of a Class 4 felony.

C. Any county, city, or town shall be permitted to adopt a local ordinance that provides that any non-full-time officer, agent, employee, or elected official of the county, city, or town who, without lawful authorization, uses or permits the use of public assets for private or personal purposes unrelated to the duties and office of the accused or any other legitimate government interest when the value of such use exceeds $1,000 in any 12-month period is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

2008, cc. 738, 755; 2014, c. 321.

§ 18.2-113. Fraudulent entries, etc., in accounts by officers or clerks of financial institutions, joint stock companies or corporations; penalty.

If any officer or clerk of any financial institution, joint stock company or corporation makes, alters or omits to make any entry in any account kept in or by such financial institution, company or corporation, with intent, in so doing, to conceal the true state of such account, or to defraud such financial institution, company or corporation, or to enable or assist any person to obtain money to which he was not entitled, such officer or clerk shall be guilty of a Class 4 felony.

Code 1950, § 18.1-111; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1996, c. 77; 2003, c. 740.

§ 18.2-114. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 459.

§ 18.2-114.1. When collection of money by commissioner, etc., larceny.

If any special commissioner or receiver, appointed by any court to collect money, and required by law, or decree of the court, to give bond before collecting the same, shall collect such money, or any part thereof, without giving such bond, and fail properly to account for the same, he shall be deemed guilty of larceny of the money so collected and not so accounted for.

1978, c. 718.

§ 18.2-115. Fraudulent conversion or removal of property subject to lien or title to which is in another.

Whenever any person is in possession of any personal property, including motor vehicles or farm products, in any capacity, the title or ownership of which he has agreed in writing shall be or remain in another, or on which he has given a lien, and such person so in possession shall fraudulently sell, pledge, pawn or remove such property from the premises where it has been agreed that it shall remain, and refuse to disclose the location thereof, or otherwise dispose of the property or fraudulently remove the same from the Commonwealth, without the written consent of the owner or lienor or the person in whom the title is, or, if such writing be a deed of trust, without the written consent of the trustee or beneficiary in such deed of trust, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.

In any prosecution hereunder, the fact that such person after demand therefor by the lienholder or person in whom the title or ownership of the property is, or his agent, shall fail or refuse to disclose to such claimant or his agent the location of the property, or to surrender the same, shall be prima facie evidence of the violation of the provisions of this section. In the case of farm products, failure to pay the proceeds of the sale of the farm products to the secured party, lienholder or person in whom the title or ownership of the property is, or his agent, within ten days after the sale or other disposition of the farm products unless otherwise agreed by the lender and borrower in the obligation of indebtedness, note or other evidence of the debt shall be prima facie evidence of a violation of the provisions of this section. The venue of prosecutions against persons fraudulently removing any such property, including motor vehicles, from the Commonwealth shall be the county or city in which such property or motor vehicle was purchased or in which the accused last had a legal residence.

This section shall not be construed to interfere with the rights of any innocent third party purchasing such property, unless such writing shall be docketed or recorded as provided by law.

Code 1950, § 18.1-116; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1986, c. 484.

§ 18.2-115.1. Unlawful sublease of a motor vehicle; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person, for profit in the course of business, who is not a party to a lease contract, conditional sales contract, or security agreement which transfers any right or interest in a motor vehicle, knowing that the motor vehicle is subject to a lease, security interest or lien, to:

1. Obtain or exercise control over a motor vehicle and sell, transfer, assign, or lease the motor vehicle to another person without the prior written authorization of the secured creditor, lessor, or lienholder if he receives compensation or other consideration for the sale, transfer, assignment, or lease of the motor vehicle; or

2. Assist, cause, or arrange the actual or purported sale, transfer, assignment, or lease of a motor vehicle to another person without the prior written authorization of the secured creditor, lessor, or lienholder if he receives compensation or other consideration for assisting, causing, or arranging the sale, transfer, assignment, or lease of the motor vehicle.

B. A violation of this section is punishable as a Class 3 misdemeanor.

C. This section shall not apply to any employee acting upon request of his employer.

D. This section shall not apply if the entire indebtedness owed under or secured by the lease, conditional sales contract, or security agreement through the date of payment is paid in full and received by the lessor or secured party within thirty days after the sale, transfer, assignment, or lease of the motor vehicle.

1990, c. 844; 1993, c. 608.

§ 18.2-116. Failure to pay for or return goods delivered for selection or approval.

If any person shall solicit and obtain from any merchant any goods, wares or merchandise for examination or approval, and shall thereafter, upon written demand, refuse or fail to return the same to such merchant in unused condition, or to pay for the same, such person so offending shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof. But the provisions of this section shall not apply unless such written demand be made within five days after delivery, and unless the goods, wares or merchandise shall have attached to them or to the package in which they are contained a label, card or tag containing the words, "Delivered for selection or approval."

Code 1950, § 18.1-117; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-117. Failure of bailee to return animal, aircraft, vehicle or boat.

If any person comes into the possession as bailee of any animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel, and fail to return the same to the bailor, in accordance with the bailment agreement, he shall be deemed guilty of larceny thereof and receive the same punishment, according to the value of the thing stolen, prescribed for the punishment of the larceny of goods and chattels. The failure to return to the bailor such animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel, within five days from the time the bailee has agreed in writing to return the same shall be prima facie evidence of larceny by such bailee of such animal, aircraft, vehicle, boat or vessel.

Code 1950, § 18.1-163; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-118. Fraudulent conversion or removal of leased personal property.

A. Whenever any person is in possession or control of any personal property, by virtue of or subject to a written lease of such property, except property described in § 18.2-117 or in the Virginia Lease-Purchase Agreement Act (§ 59.1-207.17 et seq.), and such person so in possession or control shall, with intent to defraud, sell, secrete, or destroy the property, or dispose of the property for his own use, or fraudulently remove the same from the Commonwealth without the written consent of the lessor thereof, or fail to return such property to the lessor thereof within 30 days after expiration of the lease or rental period for such property stated in such written lease, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.

B. The fact that such person signs the lease or rental agreement with a name other than his own, or fails to return such property to the lessor thereof within 30 days after the giving of written notice to such person that the lease or rental period for such property has expired, shall be prima facie evidence of intent to defraud. For purposes of this section, notice mailed by certified mail and addressed to such person at the address of the lessee stated in the lease, shall be sufficient giving of written notice under this section.

C. The venue of prosecution under this section shall be the county or city in which such property was leased or in which such accused person last had a legal residence.

D. The court shall order a person found guilty of an offense under this section to make restitution as the court deems appropriate to the lessor. Such restitution may include (i) the cost of repairing such property; (ii) if the property is not returned or cannot reasonably be repaired, the actual value of such property; and (iii) any reasonable loss of revenue by the lessor resulting from the fraudulent conversion or removal of such property.

Code 1950, § 18.1-117.1; 1966, c. 474; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1978, c. 675; 2013, c. 536; 2014, c. 56.