Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 32.1. Health
7/15/2019

Article 3. Disease Control Measures.

§ 32.1-42. Emergency rules and regulations.

The Board of Health may promulgate regulations and orders to meet any emergency or to prevent a potential emergency caused by a disease dangerous to public health, including, but not limited to, procedures specifically responding to any disease listed pursuant to § 32.1-35 that is determined to be caused by an agent or substance used as a weapon or any communicable disease of public health threat that is involved in an order of quarantine or an order of isolation pursuant to Article 3.02 (§ 32.1-48.05 et seq.) of this chapter.

1979, c. 711; 2002, c. 768; 2004, cc. 773, 1021.

§ 32.1-42.1. Administration and dispensing of necessary drugs and devices during a declared disaster or state of emergency.

The Commissioner, pursuant to § 54.1-3408, may authorize persons who are not authorized by law to administer or dispense drugs or devices to administer or dispense all necessary drugs or devices in accordance with protocols established by the Commissioner when (i) the Governor has declared a disaster or a state of emergency or the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services has issued a declaration of an actual or potential bioterrorism incident or other actual or potential public health emergency; (ii) it is necessary to permit the provision of needed drugs or devices; and (iii) such persons have received the training necessary to safely administer or dispense the needed drugs or devices. Such persons shall administer or dispense all drugs or devices under the direction, control and supervision of the Commissioner. For purposes of this section, "administer," "device," "dispense," and "drug" shall have the same meaning as provided in § 54.1-3401. The Commissioner shall develop protocols, in consultation with the Department of Health Professions, that address the required training of such persons and procedures for such persons to use in administering or dispensing drugs or devices.

2003, c. 794; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-43. Authority of State Health Commissioner to require quarantine, etc.

The State Health Commissioner shall have the authority to require quarantine, isolation, immunization, decontamination, or treatment of any individual or group of individuals when he determines any such measure to be necessary to control the spread of any disease of public health importance and the authority to issue orders of isolation pursuant to Article 3.01 (§ 32.1-48.01 et seq.) of this chapter and orders of quarantine and orders of isolation under exceptional circumstances involving any communicable disease of public health threat pursuant to Article 3.02 (§ 32.1-48.05 et seq.) of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 32-8; 1979, c. 711; 1990, c. 958; 2004, cc. 773, 1021.

§ 32.1-44. Isolated or quarantined persons.

The provisions of this chapter shall be construed to allow any isolated or quarantined person to choose his own treatment, whenever practicable and in the best interest of the health and safety of the isolated or quarantined person and the public; however, the conditions of any order of isolation issued pursuant to Article 3.01 (§ 32.1-48.01 et seq.) of this chapter involving a communicable disease of public health significance and any order of quarantine or order of isolation involving any communicable disease of public health threat pursuant to Article 3.02 (§ 32.1-48.05 et seq.) of this chapter shall remain in effect until the person or persons subject to such order of quarantine or order of isolation shall no longer constitute a threat to other persons.

Code 1950, § 32-13; 1979, c. 711; 1990, c. 958; 2004, cc. 773, 1021.

§ 32.1-45. Expense of treatment.

Except as specifically provided by law, the provisions of this chapter shall not be construed as relieving any individual of the expense, if any, of any treatment, including any person who is subject to an order of isolation issued pursuant to Article 3.01 (§ 32.1-48.01 et seq.) of this chapter or an order of quarantine or an order of isolation issued pursuant to Article 3.02 (§ 32.1-48.05 et seq.) of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 32-56; 1973, c. 401; 1979, c. 711; 1990, c. 958; 2004, cc. 773, 1021.

§ 32.1-45.1. Deemed consent to testing and release of test results related to infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses.

A. Whenever any health care provider, or any person employed by or under the direction and control of a health care provider, is directly exposed to body fluids of a patient in a manner that may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, the patient whose body fluids were involved in the exposure shall be deemed to have consented to testing for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses. Such patient shall also be deemed to have consented to the release of such test results to the person who was exposed. In other than emergency situations, it shall be the responsibility of the health care provider to inform patients of this provision prior to providing them with health care services which create a risk of such exposure.

B. Whenever any patient is directly exposed to body fluids of a health care provider, or of any person employed by or under the direction and control of a health care provider, in a manner that may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, the person whose body fluids were involved in the exposure shall be deemed to have consented to testing for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses. Such person shall also be deemed to have consented to the release of such test results to the patient who was exposed.

C. For the purposes of this section, "health care provider" means any person, facility or agency licensed or certified to provide care or treatment by the Department of Health, Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, Department of Rehabilitative Services, or the Department of Social Services, any person licensed or certified by a health regulatory board within the Department of Health Professions except for the Boards of Funeral Directors and Embalmers and Veterinary Medicine or any personal care agency contracting with the Department of Medical Assistance Services.

D. "Health care provider," as defined in subsection C, shall be deemed to include any person who renders emergency care or assistance, without compensation and in good faith, at the scene of an accident, fire, or any life-threatening emergency, or while en route therefrom to any hospital, medical clinic or doctor's office during the period while rendering such emergency care or assistance. The Department of Health shall provide appropriate counseling and opportunity for face-to-face disclosure of any test results to any such person.

E. Whenever any law-enforcement officer, salaried or volunteer firefighter, or salaried or volunteer emergency medical services provider is directly exposed to body fluids of a person in a manner that may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, the person whose body fluids were involved in the exposure shall be deemed to have consented to testing for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses. Such person shall also be deemed to have consented to the release of such test results to the person who was exposed.

F. Whenever a person is directly exposed to the body fluids of a law-enforcement officer, salaried or volunteer firefighter, or salaried or volunteer emergency medical services provider in a manner that may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, the person whose body fluids were involved in the exposure shall be deemed to have consented to testing for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses. The law-enforcement officer, salaried or volunteer firefighter, or salaried or volunteer emergency medical services provider shall also be deemed to have consented to the release of such test results to the person who was exposed.

G. For the purposes of this section, "law-enforcement officer" means a person who is both (i) engaged in his public duty at the time of such exposure and (ii) employed by any sheriff's office, any adult or youth correctional facility, or any state or local law-enforcement agency, or any agency or department under the direction and control of the Commonwealth or any local governing body that employs persons who have law-enforcement authority.

H. Whenever any school board employee is directly exposed to body fluids of any person in a manner that may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, the person whose body fluids were involved in the exposure shall be deemed to have consented to testing for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses. Such person shall also be deemed to have consented to the release of such test results to the school board employee who was exposed.

I. Whenever any person is directly exposed to the body fluids of a school board employee in a manner that may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, the school board employee whose body fluids were involved in the exposure shall be deemed to have consented to testing for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses. The school board employee shall also be deemed to have consented to the release of such test results to the person.

J. For the purposes of this section, "school board employee" means a person who is both (i) acting in the course of employment at the time of such exposure and (ii) employed by any local school board in the Commonwealth.

K. For purposes of this section, if the person whose blood specimen is sought for testing is a minor, consent for obtaining such specimen shall be obtained from the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis of such minor prior to initiating such testing. If the parent or guardian or person standing in loco parentis withholds such consent, or is not reasonably available, the person potentially exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C viruses, or the employer of such person, may petition the juvenile and domestic relations district court in the county or city where the minor resides or resided, or, in the case of a nonresident, the county or city where the health care provider, law-enforcement agency or school board has its principal office or, in the case of a health care provider rendering emergency care pursuant to subsection D, the county or city where the exposure occurred, for an order requiring the minor to provide a blood specimen or to submit to testing and to disclose the test results in accordance with this section.

L. Except as provided in subsection K, if the person whose blood specimen is sought for testing refuses to provide such specimen, any person identified by this section who was potentially exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus or the hepatitis B or C viruses in the manner described by this section, or the employer of such person, may petition, on a form to be provided by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia, the general district court of the county or city in which the person whose specimen is sought resides or resided, or, in the case of a nonresident, the county or city where the health care provider, law-enforcement agency or school board has its principal office or, in the case of a health care provider rendering emergency care pursuant to subsection D, the county or city where the exposure occurred, for an order requiring the person to provide a blood specimen or to submit to testing and to disclose the test results in accordance with this section. A hearing on such a petition shall be given precedence on the docket so as to be heard by the court within 48 hours of the filing of the petition, or, if the court is closed during such time period, such petition shall be heard on the next day that the court is in session. A copy of the petition, which shall specify the date and location of the hearing, shall be provided to the person whose specimen is sought. At any hearing before the court, the person whose specimen is sought or his counsel may appear. The court may be advised by the Commissioner or his designee prior to entering any testing order. If the general district court determines that there is probable cause to believe that a person identified by this section has been exposed in the manner prescribed by this section, the court shall issue an order requiring the person whose bodily fluids were involved in the exposure to provide a blood specimen or to submit to testing and to disclose the test results in accordance with this section. If a testing order is issued, both the petitioner and the person from whom the blood specimen is sought shall receive counseling and opportunity for face-to-face disclosure of any test results by a licensed practitioner or trained counselor.

M. Any person who is subject to a testing order may appeal the order of the general district court to the circuit court of the same jurisdiction within 10 days of receiving notice of the order. Any hearing conducted pursuant to this subsection shall be held in camera as soon as practicable. The record shall be sealed. The order of the circuit court shall be final and nonappealable.

N. No specimen obtained pursuant to this section shall be tested for any purpose other than for the purpose provided for in this section, nor shall the specimen or the results of any testing pursuant to this section be used for any purpose in any criminal matter or investigation. Any violation of this subsection shall constitute reversible error in any criminal case in which the specimen or results were used.

1989, c. 613; 1993, c. 315; 1994, cc. 230, 236; 1997, c. 869; 2003, c. 1; 2008, cc. 191, 339; 2009, cc. 96, 478, 552, 813, 840; 2015, cc. 51, 502, 503; 2019, c. 27.

§ 32.1-45.2. Public safety employees; testing for blood-borne pathogens; procedure available for certain citizens; definitions.

A. If, in the course of employment, an employee of a public safety agency is involved in a possible exposure prone incident, the employee shall immediately, or as soon thereafter as practicable, notify the agency of the incident in accordance with the agency's procedures for reporting workplace accidents.

B. If, after reviewing the facts of the possible exposure prone incident with the employee and after medical consultation, the agency concludes that it is reasonable to believe that an exposure prone incident may have occurred, (i) the agency shall request the person whose body fluids were involved to submit to testing for hepatitis B or C virus and human immunodeficiency virus as provided in § 32.1-37.2 and to authorize disclosure of the test results or (ii) if the person is deceased, the agency shall request the custodian of the remains to preserve a specimen of blood and shall request the decedent's next of kin to consent, as provided in § 32.1-37.2, to such testing and to authorize disclosure of the test results.

C. If a person is involved in a possible exposure prone incident involving the body fluids of an employee of a public safety agency, the person may request the agency to review the facts of the possible exposure prone incident for purposes of obtaining the employee's consent to test for hepatitis B or C virus and human immunodeficiency virus as provided in § 32.1-37.2 and to authorize disclosure of the test results. If, after reviewing the facts and after medical consultation, the agency concludes it is reasonable to believe an exposure prone incident involving the person and the employee may have occurred, (i) the agency shall request the employee whose body fluids were involved to give consent to submit to testing for hepatitis B or C virus and human immunodeficiency virus and to authorize disclosure of the test results or (ii) if the employee is deceased, the agency shall request the custodian of the remains to preserve a specimen of blood and shall request the decedent's next of kin to provide consent, as provided in § 32.1-37.2, to such testing and to authorize disclosure of the test results.

D. If consent is refused under subsection B of this section, the public safety agency or the employee may petition the general district court of the city or county in which the person resides or resided, or in the case of a nonresident, the city or county of the public safety agency's principal office, to determine whether an exposure prone incident has occurred and to order testing and disclosure of the test results.

If consent is refused under subsection C of this section, the person involved in the possible exposure prone incident may petition the general district court of the city or county of the public safety agency's principal office to determine whether an exposure prone incident has occurred and to order testing and disclosure of the test results.

E. If the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that an exposure prone incident has occurred, it shall order testing for hepatitis B or C virus and human immunodeficiency virus and disclosure of the test results. The court shall be advised by the Commissioner or his designee in making this finding. The hearing shall be held in camera as soon as practicable after the petition is filed. The record shall be sealed.

F. A party may appeal an order of the general district court to the circuit court of the same jurisdiction within ten days from the date of the order. Any such appeal shall be de novo, in camera, and shall be heard as soon as possible by the circuit court. The circuit court shall be advised by the Commissioner or his designee. The record shall be sealed. The order of the circuit court shall be final and nonappealable.

G. Disclosure of any test results provided by this section shall be made to the district health director of the jurisdiction in which the petition was brought or the district in which the person or employee was tested. The district health director or his designee shall inform the parties of the test results and counsel them in accordance with subsection B of § 32.1-37.2.

H. The results of the tests shall be confidential as provided in § 32.1-36.1.

I. No person known or suspected to be positive for infection with hepatitis B or C virus or human immunodeficiency virus shall be refused services for that reason by any public safety agency personnel.

J. For the purpose of this section and for no other purpose, the term "employee" shall include: (i) any person providing assistance to a person employed by a public safety agency who is directly affected by a possible exposure prone incident as a result of the specific crime or specific circumstances involved in the assistance and (ii) any victim of or witness to a crime who is directly affected by a possible exposure prone incident as a result of the specific crime.

K. This section shall not be deemed to create any duty on the part of any person where none exists otherwise, and a cause of action shall not arise from any failure to request consent or to consent to testing under this section. The remedies available under this section shall be exclusive.

L. For the purposes of this section, the following terms shall apply:

"Exposure prone incident" means a direct exposure to body fluids of another person in a manner which may, according to the then current guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, transmit hepatitis B or C virus or human immunodeficiency virus and which occurred during the commission of a criminal act, during the performance of emergency procedures, care or assistance, or in the course of public safety or law-enforcement duties.

"Public safety agency" means any sheriff's office; any adult or youth correctional, law-enforcement, or fire safety organization; the Department of Forensic Science; or any agency or department that employs persons who have law-enforcement authority and which is under the direction and control of the Commonwealth or any local governing body.

1992, c. 711; 1994, c. 146; 1997, cc. 722, 804; 2008, c. 641; 2014, c. 275.

§ 32.1-45.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 301, cl. 1.

§ 32.1-45.4. (Expires July 1, 2020) Comprehensive harm reduction programs.

A. The Commissioner may establish and operate local or regional comprehensive harm reduction programs during a declared public health emergency that include the provision of sterile hypodermic needles and syringes and disposal of used hypodermic needles and syringes. The objectives of such programs shall be to reduce the spread of HIV, viral hepatitis, and other blood-borne diseases in Virginia; reduce the transmission of blood-borne diseases through needlestick injuries to law-enforcement and other emergency personnel; and provide information to individuals who inject drugs regarding addiction recovery treatment services. Such programs shall be located in communities where data indicate, in accordance with criteria established pursuant to subsection B, a risk of transmission of, or increases in the transmission of, HIV, viral hepatitis, or other blood-borne disease as a result of injection drug use. Such programs shall be operated by local health departments or affiliated organizations with which the Department contracts.

B. The Department shall establish criteria to determine the level of risk and the level of readiness for comprehensive harm reduction of a community. Such criteria shall address the extent to which unsafe injection of drugs is occurring, socioeconomic factors, and readiness for comprehensive harm reduction and shall utilize data that address, at a minimum, (i) HIV and hepatitis disease morbidity, (ii) drug overdose deaths, (iii) poverty level, (iv) unemployment rate, (v) prescription opioid volume, (vi) potential to provide medication-assisted treatment, (vii) prevalence of treatment for drug overdose, (viii) emergency medical services utilization for drug overdose, (ix) administration of naloxone, (x) substance-use disorder admissions to behavioral health facilities, (xi) arrests for drug possession or sales or other drug related crime, (xii) the support of the local governing body, (xiii) the support of law enforcement, (xiv) the existence of a local entity with programmatic administrative capacity, and (xv) access to health care and behavioral health care services.

C. Comprehensive harm reduction programs established pursuant to this section shall be administered pursuant to standards and protocols established by the Commissioner after the declaration of a public health emergency and approved by the Secretary of Health and Human Resources and the Secretary of Public Safety and Homeland Security. Such standards and protocols shall address (i) the disposal of used hypodermic needles and syringes; (ii) the provision of hypodermic needles and syringes and other injection supplies at no cost and in quantities sufficient to ensure that needles, hypodermic syringes, and other injection supplies are not shared or reused; (iii) reasonable and adequate security of program sites, equipment, and personnel; (iv) the provision of educational materials concerning prevention and treatment; (v) access to overdose prevention kits; (vi) individual harm reduction counseling; and (vii) verification that a hypodermic needle or syringe or other injection supplies were obtained from a comprehensive harm reduction program established pursuant to this section.

D. The Commissioner may authorize persons who are not otherwise authorized by law to dispense or distribute hypodermic needles and syringes to dispense or distribute hypodermic needles and syringes as part of a comprehensive harm reduction program during a declared public health emergency and in accordance with standards and protocols established pursuant to subsection C. The provisions of §§ 18.2-250, 18.2-265.3, and 54.1-3466 shall not apply to such authorized persons who are acting in accordance with the standards and protocols of a comprehensive harm reduction program for the duration of the declared public health emergency.

2017, c. 183.

§ 32.1-46. Immunization of patients against certain diseases.

A. The parent, guardian or person standing in loco parentis of each child within this Commonwealth shall cause such child to be immunized in accordance with the Immunization Schedule developed and published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). The required immunizations for attendance at a public or private elementary, middle or secondary school, child care center, nursery school, family day care home or developmental center shall be those set forth in the State Board of Health Regulations for the Immunization of School Children. The Board's regulations shall at a minimum require:

1. A minimum of three properly spaced doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB).

2. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of diphtheria toxoid. One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday.

3. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of tetanus toxoid. One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday.

4. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of acellular pertussis vaccine. One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday. A booster dose shall be administered prior to entry into the seventh grade.

5. Two or three primary doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, depending on the manufacturer, for children up to 60 months of age.

6. Two properly spaced doses of live attenuated measles (rubeola) vaccine. The first dose shall be administered at age 12 months or older.

7. One dose of live attenuated rubella vaccine shall be administered at age 12 months or older.

8. One dose of live attenuated mumps vaccine shall be administered at age 12 months or older.

9. All children born on and after January 1, 1997, shall be required to have one dose of varicella vaccine on or after 12 months.

10. Three or more properly spaced doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday. A fourth dose shall be required if the three dose primary series consisted of a combination of OPV and IPV.

11. One to four doses, dependent on age at first dose, of properly spaced pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccine for children up to 60 months of age.

12. Three doses of properly spaced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for females. The first dose shall be administered before the child enters the sixth grade.

The parent, guardian or person standing in loco parentis may have such child immunized by a physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse, or a pharmacist who administers pursuant to a valid prescription, or may present the child to the appropriate local health department, which shall administer the vaccines required by the State Board of Health Regulations for the Immunization of School Children without charge to the parent of or person standing in loco parentis to the child if (i) the child is eligible for the Vaccines for Children Program or (ii) the child is eligible for coverages issued pursuant to Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1395 et seq. (Medicare), Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1396 et seq. (Medicaid), Title XXI of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1397aa et seq. (CHIP), or 10 U.S.C. § 1071 et seq. (CHAMPUS). In all cases in which a child is covered by a health carrier, Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, or CHAMPUS, the Department shall seek reimbursement from the health carrier, Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, or CHAMPUS for all allowable costs associated with the provision of the vaccine. For the purposes of this section, the Department shall be deemed a participating provider with a managed care health insurance plan as defined in § 32.1-137.1.

B. A physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, pharmacist, or local health department administering a vaccine required by this section shall provide to the person who presents the child for immunizations a certificate that shall state the diseases for which the child has been immunized, the numbers of doses given, the dates when administered and any further immunizations indicated.

C. The vaccines required by this section shall meet the standards prescribed in, and be administered in accordance with, regulations of the Board.

D. The provisions of this section shall not apply if:

1. The parent or guardian of the child objects thereto on the grounds that the administration of immunizing agents conflicts with his religious tenets or practices, unless an emergency or epidemic of disease has been declared by the Board;

2. The parent or guardian presents a statement from a physician licensed to practice medicine in Virginia, a licensed nurse practitioner, or a local health department that states that the physical condition of the child is such that the administration of one or more of the required immunizing agents would be detrimental to the health of the child; or

3. Because the human papillomavirus is not communicable in a school setting, a parent or guardian, at the parent's or guardian's sole discretion, may elect for the parent's or guardian's child not to receive the human papillomavirus vaccine, after having reviewed materials describing the link between the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer approved for such use by the Board.

E. For the purpose of protecting the public health by ensuring that each child receives age-appropriate immunizations, any physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, licensed institutional health care provider, local or district health department, the Virginia Immunization Information System, and the Department of Health may share immunization and patient locator information without parental authorization, including, but not limited to, the month, day, and year of each administered immunization; the patient's name, address, telephone number, birth date, and social security number; and the parents' names. The immunization information; the patient's name, address, telephone number, birth date, and social security number; and the parents' names shall be confidential and shall only be shared for the purposes set out in this subsection.

F. The State Board of Health shall review this section annually and make recommendations for revision by September 1 to the Governor, the General Assembly, and the Joint Commission on Health Care.

Code 1950, § 32-57.1; 1968, c. 592; 1972, c. 558; 1979, c. 711; 1980, c. 410; 1989, c. 382; 1991, c. 133; 1992, cc. 127, 166; 1994, c. 62; 1995, cc. 729, 742; 1996, cc. 67, 533; 1999, cc. 632, 676, 738; 2000, c. 476; 2004, c. 855; 2005, cc. 643, 684; 2006, cc. 364, 396, 716; 2007, cc. 858, 922; 2011, c. 125; 2014, cc. 316, 344; 2016, c. 81; 2019, c. 222.

§ 32.1-46.01. Virginia Immunization Information System.

A. The Board of Health shall establish the Virginia Immunization Information System (VIIS), a statewide immunization registry that consolidates patient immunization histories from birth to death into a complete, accurate, and definitive record that may be made available to participating health care providers throughout Virginia, to the extent funds are appropriated by the General Assembly or otherwise made available. The purposes of VIIS shall be to (i) protect the public health of all citizens of the Commonwealth, (ii) prevent under- and over-immunization of children, (iii) ensure up-to-date recommendations for immunization scheduling to health care providers and the Board, (iv) generate parental reminder and recall notices and manufacturer recalls, (v) develop immunization coverage reports, (vi) identify areas of under-immunized population, and (vii) provide, in the event of a public health emergency, a mechanism for tracking the distribution and administration of immunizations, immune globulins, or other preventive medications or emergency treatments.

B. The Board of Health shall promulgate regulations to implement the VIIS that shall address:

1. Registration of voluntary participants, including, but not limited to, a list of those health care entities that are authorized to participate and any forms and agreements necessary for compliance with the regulations concerning patient privacy promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services;

2. Procedures for confirming, continuing, and terminating participation and disciplining any participant for unauthorized use or disclosure of any VIIS data;

3. Procedures, timelines, and formats for reporting of immunizations by participants;

4. Procedures to provide for a secure system of data entry that may include encrypted online data entry or secure delivery of data files;

5. Procedures for incorporating the data reported on children's immunizations pursuant to subsection E of § 32.1-46;

6. The patient identifying data to be reported, including, but not limited to, the patient's name, date of birth, gender, telephone number, home address, birth place, and mother's maiden name;

7. The patient immunization information to be reported, including, but not necessarily limited to, the type of immunization administered (specified by current procedural terminology (CPT) code or Health Level 7 (HL7) code); date of administration; identity of administering person; lot number; and if present, any contraindications, or religious or medical exemptions;

8. Mechanisms for entering into data-sharing agreements with other state and regional immunization registries for the exchange, on a periodic nonemergency basis and in the event of a public health emergency, of patient immunization information, after receiving, in writing, satisfactory assurances for the preservation of confidentiality, a clear description of the data requested, specific details on the intended use of the data, and the identities of the persons with whom the data will be shared;

9. Procedures for the use of vital statistics data, including, but not necessarily limited to, the linking of birth certificates and death certificates;

10. Procedures for requesting immunization records that are in compliance with the requirements for disclosing health records set forth in § 32.1-127.1:03; such procedures shall address the approved uses for the requested data, to whom the data may be disclosed, and information on the provisions for disclosure of health records pursuant to § 32.1-127.1:03;

11. Procedures for releasing aggregate data, from which personal identifying data has been removed or redacted, to qualified persons for purposes of research, statistical analysis, and reporting; and

12. Procedures for the Commissioner of Health to access and release, as necessary, the data contained in VIIS in the event of an epidemic or an outbreak of any vaccine-preventable disease or the potential epidemic or epidemic of any disease of public health importance, public health significance, or public health threat for which a treatment or vaccine exists.

The Board's regulations shall also include any necessary definitions for the operation of VIIS; however, "health care entity," "health care plan," and "health care provider" shall be as defined in subsection B of § 32.1-127.1:03.

C. The establishment and implementation of VIIS is hereby declared to be a necessary public health activity to ensure the integrity of the health care system in Virginia and to prevent serious harm and serious threats to the health and safety of individuals and the public. Pursuant to the regulations concerning patient privacy promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services, covered entities may disclose protected health information to the secure system established for VIIS without obtaining consent or authorization for such disclosure. Such protected health information shall be used exclusively for the purposes established in this section.

D. The Board and Commissioner of Health, any employees of the health department, any voluntary participant, and any person authorized to report or disclose immunization data hereunder shall be immune from civil liability in connection therewith unless such person acted with gross negligence or malicious intent.

E. This section shall not diminish the responsibility of any physician or other person to maintain accurate patient immunization data or the responsibility of any parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis to cause a child to be immunized in accordance with the provisions of § 32.1-46. Further, this section shall not be construed to require the immunization of any person who objects thereto on the grounds that the administration of immunizing agents conflicts with his religious tenets or practices, or any person for whom administration of immunizing agents would be detrimental to his health.

F. The Commissioner may authorize linkages between VIIS and other secure electronic databases that contain health records reported to the Department of Health, subject to all state and federal privacy laws and regulations. These health records may include newborn screening results reported pursuant to § 32.1-65, newborn hearing screening results reported pursuant to § 32.1-64.1, and blood-lead level screening results reported pursuant to § 32.1-46.1. Health care providers authorized to use VIIS may view the health records of individuals to whom the providers are providing health care services.

2005, cc. 643, 684; 2012, c. 147.

§ 32.1-46.02. Administration of influenza vaccine to minors.

The Board shall, together with the Board of Nursing and by August 31, 2009, develop and issue guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccine to minors by licensed pharmacists, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, or emergency medical services providers who hold an emergency medical technician intermediate or emergency medical technician paramedic certification issued by the Commissioner pursuant to § 54.1-3408. Such guidelines shall require the consent of the minor's parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis and shall be consistent with applicable guidelines developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

2009, c. 110; 2010, cc. 179, 252; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

§ 32.1-46.1. Board to establish protocol for identification of children with elevated blood-lead levels.

The Board shall promulgate regulations establishing a protocol for the identification of children at risk for elevated blood-lead levels which shall (i) require blood-lead level testing at appropriate ages and frequencies, when indicated, (ii) provide for criteria for determining low risk for elevated blood-lead levels and when such blood-lead level testing is not indicated, and (iii) require physicians to make available to parents information on the dangers of lead poisoning, along with a list of available resources, as part of regular well check visits for all children.

As deemed necessary by the Board, the protocol may also address follow-up testing for children with elevated blood-lead levels, dissemination of the protocol or other information to relevant health care professionals, appropriate information for parents, and other means of preventing lead poisoning among children. In promulgating such regulations, the Board shall consider the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and may consider such other materials relating to lead poisoning prevention, testing, and treatment as it deems appropriate. The Board may also establish procedures governing how health care providers and laboratories report results to the Department of Health.

The Commissioner may authorize linkages between secure electronic data systems maintained by the Department of Health containing blood-lead level records and the Virginia Immunization Information System (VIIS) operated pursuant to § 32.1-46.01. The Commissioner may authorize health care providers authorized to view VIIS to view blood-lead level records of individuals to whom the providers are providing health care services. The records may be made available until the child reaches seven years of age, after which the records shall not be made available through a linkage to VIIS. Such linkages shall be subject to all applicable state and federal privacy laws and regulations.

2000, c. 907; 2003, c. 463; 2007, c. 691; 2012, c. 147.

§ 32.1-46.2. Certain testing or determination of low risk for elevated blood-lead levels required.

In accordance with the protocol required by § 32.1-46.1 and the regulations of the Board of Health promulgated thereto, the parent, guardian or other person standing in loco parentis of each child within the Commonwealth shall cause such child to be tested for elevated blood-lead levels or shall obtain a determination that the child is at low risk for elevated blood-lead levels.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to any child whose parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of such child shall object to such testing on the grounds that the procedure conflicts with his religious tenets or practices.

2000, c. 907.

§ 32.1-47. Exclusion from school of children not immunized.

Upon the identification of an outbreak, potential epidemic or epidemic of a vaccine-preventable disease in a public or private school, the Commissioner shall have the authority to require the exclusion from such school of all children who are not immunized against that disease.

1979, c. 711.

§ 32.1-47.1. Vaccination of children; plan enhancements.

The Department shall include in its vaccination plans procedures to ensure the prompt vaccination of all persons of school age in the Commonwealth, without preference regarding the manner of compliance with the compulsory school attendance law set forth in § 22.1-254, upon declaration of a public health emergency involving a vaccine-preventable disease and consent of the parent or guardian of the person of school age if such person is a minor or, if the person of school age is not a minor, of the person. Vaccination plans developed pursuant to this section shall be consistent with applicable guidelines developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and shall be subject to the same review and update requirements, process, and schedule as the State Emergency Operations Plan developed by the Department of Emergency Management pursuant to § 44-146.18.

2010, c. 73.

§ 32.1-48. Powers of Commissioner in epidemic.

A. Nothing in this article shall preclude the Commissioner from requiring immediate immunization of all persons in case of an epidemic of any disease of public health importance for which a vaccine exists other than a person to whose health the administration of a vaccine would be detrimental as certified in writing by a physician licensed to practice medicine in this Commonwealth.

B. In addition, the State Health Commissioner shall hold the powers conferred pursuant to Article 3.02 (§ 32.1-48.05 et seq.) of this chapter to issue orders of quarantine or prepare orders of isolation for a communicable disease of public health threat.

1979, c. 711; 2004, cc. 773, 1021.

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