Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 53.1. Prisons and Other Methods of Correction
Chapter 4. Probation and Parole
9/24/2021

Article 2. State Probation and Parole Services.

§ 53.1-141. Division into probation and parole districts.

The Director of the Department shall divide the Commonwealth into as many separate probation and parole districts as he deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this article. The Director may change the area embraced in any probation and parole district to conform to conditions and demands as they arise.

Code 1950, § 53-242; 1970, c. 648; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1979, c. 700; 1982, c. 636; 1984, c. 514.

§ 53.1-142. Assignments of officers to districts.

There shall be at least one probation and parole officer for each probation and parole district. The Director of the Department may assign officers authorized in one district to duties in another district. However, no such transfer shall be effected without the concurrence of the affected officer. Any officer so assigned shall have the same power and authority as an officer authorized by the judge or judges of the court or courts of such other district. The Director, in consultation with the court, shall designate all supervisory staff.

Code 1950, § 53-243; 1966, c. 638; 1973, c. 253; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1979, c. 700; 1982, c. 636; 1984, c. 514; 2003, c. 944.

§ 53.1-143. How officers authorized.

The Director shall employ officers to carry out the powers and duties prescribed in § 53.1-145 and elsewhere in this article. The Director shall submit the names of eligible officers to the judge or judges of the judicial circuit where the officer is initially assigned to be authorized to act as an officer of the court.

The judge or judges of the judicial circuit to which an officer is assigned shall authorize the officer to serve as an officer of the court to carry out the power and duties prescribed in § 53.1-145 and elsewhere in this article. When the area of a probation and parole district lies in two or more judicial circuits, the probation and parole officers shall be authorized by joint action of the judges of the several circuits. If there are more than two such judges, a majority vote shall control the authorization.

Whenever the authorization is to be made by two judges and they fail to agree within 60 days of the Director's assignment of such officer, the Director shall authorize the officer to serve the judicial circuits of the Commonwealth.

The authorization of an officer by the judicial circuit to which the officer is initially assigned shall be valid in all judicial circuits in the Commonwealth regardless of subsequent assignments.

Code 1950, § 53-244; 1970, c. 648; 1973, c. 253; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1979, c. 700; 1982, c. 636; 1984, c. 514; 2003, c. 944.

§ 53.1-144. Term of officers.

Each probation and parole officer shall be authorized initially for a term of one year. Subsequent authorizations shall be for indefinite periods.

Code 1950, § 53-245; 1966, c. 638; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1978, c. 595; 1979, c. 700; 1982, c. 636; 2003, c. 944.

§ 53.1-145. Powers and duties of probation and parole officers.

In addition to other powers and duties prescribed by this article, each probation and parole officer shall:

1. Investigate and report on any case pending in any court or before any judge in his jurisdiction referred to him by the court or judge;

2. Supervise and assist all persons within his territory placed on probation, secure, as appropriate and when available resources permit, placement of such persons in a substance abuse treatment program which may include utilization of acupuncture and other treatment modalities, and furnish every such person with a written statement of the conditions of his probation and instruct him therein; if any such person has been committed to the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services under the provisions of Chapter 9 (§ 37.2-900 et seq.) of Title 37.2, the conditions of probation shall include the requirement that the person comply with all conditions given him by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, and that he follow all of the terms of his treatment plan;

3. Supervise and assist all persons within his territory released on parole or postrelease supervision, secure, as appropriate and when available resources permit, placement of such persons in a substance abuse treatment program which may include utilization of acupuncture and other treatment modalities, and, in his discretion, assist any person within his territory who has completed his parole, postrelease supervision, or has been mandatorily released from any correctional facility in the Commonwealth and requests assistance in finding a place to live, finding employment, or in otherwise becoming adjusted to the community;

4. Arrest and recommit to the place of confinement from which he was released, or in which he would have been confined but for the suspension of his sentence or of its imposition, for violation of the terms of probation, post-release supervision pursuant to § 19.2-295.2 or parole, any probationer, person subject to post-release supervision or parolee under his supervision, or as directed by the Chairman, Board member or the court, pending a hearing by the Board or the court, as the case may be;

5. Keep such records, make such reports, and perform other duties as may be required of him by the Director and the court or judge by whom he was authorized;

6. Order and conduct, in his discretion, drug and alcohol screening tests of any probationer, person subject to post-release supervision pursuant to § 19.2-295.2 or parolee under his supervision who the officer has reason to believe is engaged in the illegal use of controlled substances or marijuana, or the abuse of alcohol. The cost of the test may be charged to the person under supervision. Regulations governing the officer's exercise of this authority shall be promulgated by the Director;

7. Have the power to carry a concealed weapon in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Director and upon the certification of appropriate training and specific authorization by a judge of a circuit court;

8. Provide services in accordance with any contract entered into between the Department of Corrections and the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services pursuant to § 37.2-912;

9. Pursuant to any contract entered into between the Department of Corrections and the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, probation and parole officers shall have the power to provide intensive supervision services to persons placed on conditional release, regardless of whether the person has any time remaining to serve on any criminal sentence, pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 37.2-900 et seq.);

10. Determine by reviewing the Local Inmate Data System upon intake and again prior to release whether a blood, saliva, or tissue sample has been taken for DNA analysis for each person placed on probation or parole required to submit a sample pursuant to Article 1.1 (§ 19.2-310.2 et seq.) of Chapter 18 of Title 19.2 and, if no sample has been taken, require a person placed on probation or parole to submit a sample for DNA analysis;

11. For every offender accepted pursuant to the Interstate Compact for the Supervision of Adult Offenders (§ 53.1-176.1 et seq.) who has been convicted of an offense that, if committed in Virginia, would be considered a felony, take a sample or verify that a sample has been taken and accepted into the data bank for DNA analysis in the Commonwealth;

12. Monitor the collection and payment of restitution to the victims of crime for offenders placed on supervised probation;

13. Prior to the release from supervision of any offender on probation as of July 1, 2019, review the criminal history record of the offender at least 60 days prior to release from supervision, or immediately if the offender is scheduled to be released from supervision within less than 60 days, to determine whether all offenses for which the offender is being supervised appear on such record and, if any such offense that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to § 19.2-390 does not appear, (i) take and provide fingerprints and a photograph of the offender to the Central Criminal Records Exchange to be classified and filed as part of the criminal history record information pursuant to subsection D of § 19.2-390 and (ii) provide written or electronic notification to the Central Criminal Records Exchange within the Department of State Police that such offense does not appear on the offender's criminal history record; and

14. Upon intake of any offender on or after July 1, 2019, (i) take and provide fingerprints and a photograph of the offender to the Central Criminal Records Exchange to be classified and filed as part of the criminal history record information pursuant to subsection D of § 19.2-390, (ii) review the criminal history record of the offender to determine whether all offenses for which the offender is being supervised appear on such record, and (iii) if any such offense that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to § 19.2-390 does not appear, provide written or electronic notification to the Central Criminal Records Exchange within the Department of State Police that such offense does not appear on the offender's criminal history record.

Nothing in this article shall require probation and parole officers to investigate or supervise cases before general district or juvenile and domestic relations district courts.

Code 1950, § 53-250; 1970, c. 648; 1973, c. 253; 1974, cc. 44, 45, 240; 1975, c. 630; 1976, c. 39; 1982, c. 636; 1992, cc. 188, 740; 1994, c. 935; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 1997, c. 526; 2003, c. 944; 2006, cc. 698, 730, 863, 914; 2007, c. 528; 2009, cc. 813, 840; 2011, cc. 384, 410; 2014, cc. 674, 719; 2018, cc. 316, 671; 2019, cc. 782, 783; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-146. Use of officers as to persons convicted of local violations; payment of expenses.

Upon request of the governing body of a county, city or town, the probation and parole officer shall perform the same duties and have the same powers as to persons convicted for violations of ordinances of the county, city or town as he has as to persons violating laws of the Commonwealth. The county, city or town so using the services of a probation and parole officer shall pay a pro rata part of his expenses to be arrived at by mutual agreement between the local governing body and the Department.

Code 1950, § 53-249; 1970, c. 648; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-147. Compensation; expenses.

Each probation and parole officer shall receive as compensation for his services a salary to be fixed in accordance with the standards of classification of Chapter 29 (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.) of Title 2.2. Each officer shall also be paid necessary traveling and other expenses incurred by him in the discharge of his duties. The salary and expenses herein provided for shall be paid by the Commonwealth and no part shall be paid by or chargeable to any county or city, except as hereinafter provided.

The governing body of any county or city may add to the fixed compensation of probation and parole officers such amount as the governing body may appropriate with the total amount not to exceed fifty percent of the amount paid by the Commonwealth to probation and parole officers. No additional amount paid by a local governing body shall be chargeable to the Department of Corrections or the Parole Board, nor shall it remove or supersede any authority, control or supervision of the Department or Board.

Code 1950, §§ 53-246, 53-247; 1956, c. 316; 1966, c. 483; 1970, c. 648; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-148. Transfer of supervision from one probation officer to another.

The court placing any person on probation may transfer such person from the supervision of one probation officer to that of another probation officer. Such transfer shall be reported by the court to both probation officers and to the person on probation. A record of the transfer shall be filed with the records of the case or entered upon the records of the court.

Whenever a person placed on probation resides in a locality removed from that in which the court which placed such person on probation is situated, or whenever a person on probation desires to remove to a locality other than that in which the court is situated, the court placing such person on probation may transfer him to a probation officer regularly appointed and authorized to serve for the locality in which the probationer resides or to which he is to move. In such cases the probation officer shall send to the court desiring to make the transfer a written statement that he will exercise supervision over such person. The statement shall be approved in writing by the judge of the court to which the probation officer is attached. The probation officer shall report concerning the conduct and condition of the probationer at regular intervals to the judge of the court who placed the defendant on probation.

Code 1950, § 53-277; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-149. Arrest of probationer without warrant; written statement.

Any probation officer appointed pursuant to this chapter may arrest a probationer without a warrant, or may deputize any other officer with power to arrest to do so, by a written statement setting forth that the probationer has, in the judgment of the probation officer, violated one or more of the terms or conditions upon which the probationer was released on probation. Such a written statement by a probation officer delivered to the officer in charge of any local jail or lockup shall be sufficient warrant for the detention of the probationer. Any officer deputized upon receipt of the written statement shall, in accordance with § 19.2-390, enter, or cause to be entered, the person's name and other appropriate information required by the Department of State Police into the "information systems" known as the Virginia Criminal Information Network (VCIN), established and maintained by the Department pursuant to Chapter 2 (§ 52-12 et seq.) of Title 52. Such information shall be deemed a warrant authorizing the arrest of the person anywhere in the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 53-278.5; 1962, c. 327; 1982, c. 636; 2010, c. 273.

§ 53.1-150. Contributions by persons on parole, probation, and work release.

A. Any person who has costs assessed against him pursuant to §§ 17.1-275.1, 17.1-275.2, 17.1-275.7, or § 17.1-275.8, or subsection B or C of § 16.1-69.48:1 shall be required to pay, as specified in those sections, a sentencing/supervision fee to be deposited in the general fund of the state treasury.

All fees assessed pursuant to this section shall be paid to the clerk of the sentencing court.

B. Except when the fee referenced in subsection A has been previously assessed, any person (i) who is granted parole or (ii) who participates in a work release program pursuant to the provisions of §§ 53.1-60 and 53.1-131 shall be required to pay a fee of fifty dollars as a condition of parole or work release.

Code 1950, § 53-19.40; 1981, c. 634; 1982, cc. 492, 636; 1984, c. 668; 1988, c. 824; 1990, cc. 511, 816; 1992, c. 529; 1993, c. 195; 1994, cc. 613, 638; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1999, c. 9; 2000, c. 1040; 2002, c. 831.

§ 53.1-150.1. Contribution by persons on parole.

Any person who is granted parole and who is required to receive substance abuse treatment as a condition of parole shall contribute towards the cost of such treatment based upon his ability to pay, as established pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Director. The regulations shall provide that (i) any fees collected for such treatment shall be paid directly to the service provider and (ii) any person may be exempt from the payment of such fees on the grounds of unreasonable hardship.

1996, c. 807; 2020, c. 759.