Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations
Chapter 29. Medicine and Other Healing Arts
9/17/2021

Article 4. Licensure and Certification of Other Practitioners of the Healing Arts.

§ 54.1-2942. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2000, c. 688, cl. 2.

§ 54.1-2949. License required.

It shall be unlawful for a person to practice or to hold himself out as practicing as a physician assistant or to use in connection with his name the words or letters "Physician Assistant" or "PA" unless he holds a license as such issued by the Board.

1988, c. 765; 2013, c. 144; 2016, c. 450.

§ 54.1-2950. Requisite training and educational achievements of assistants.

The Board shall establish a testing program to determine the training and educational achievements of the physician assistant or the Board may accept other evidence, such as experience or completion of an approved training program, in lieu of testing and shall establish this as a prerequisite for approval of the licensee's application.

Pending the outcome of the next examination administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants, the Board may grant provisional licensure to graduates of physician assistants curricula that are approved by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant. Such provisional licensure shall be granted at the discretion of the Board.

1973, c. 529, § 54-281.7; 1984, c. 46; 1988, c. 765; 1997, c. 806; 2013, c. 144; 2016, c. 450.

§ 54.1-2950.1. Advisory Board on Physician Assistants; membership; qualifications.

The Advisory Board on Physician Assistants shall consist of five members to be appointed by the Governor as follows: three members shall be licensed physician assistants who have practiced their professions in Virginia for not less than three years prior to their appointments; one shall be a physician who collaborates with at least one physician assistant; and one shall be a citizen member appointed from the Commonwealth at large. Appointments shall be for four-year terms. Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two successive terms.

1998, c. 319; 2002, c. 698; 2011, cc. 691, 714; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2951. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 319.

§ 54.1-2951.1. Requirements for licensure and practice as a physician assistant; licensure by endorsement.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations establishing requirements for licensure as a physician assistant that shall include the following:

1. Successful completion of a physician assistant program or surgical physician assistant program accredited by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant;

2. Passage of the certifying examination administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants; and

3. Documentation that the applicant for licensure has not had his license or certification as a physician assistant suspended or revoked and is not the subject of any disciplinary proceedings in another jurisdiction.

B. The Board may issue a license by endorsement to an applicant for licensure as a physician assistant if the applicant (i) is the spouse of an active duty member of the Armed Forces of the United States or the Commonwealth, (ii) holds current certification from the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants, and (iii) holds a license as a physician assistant that is in good standing, or that is eligible for reinstatement if lapsed, under the laws of another state.

C. Every physician assistant shall practice as part of a patient care team and shall provide care in accordance with a written or electronic practice agreement with one or more patient care team physicians or patient care team podiatrists.

A practice agreement shall include acts pursuant to § 54.1-2952, provisions for the periodic review of patient charts or electronic health records, guidelines for collaboration and consultation among the parties to the agreement and the patient, periodic joint evaluation of the services delivered, and provisions for appropriate physician input in complex clinical cases, in patient emergencies, and for referrals.

A practice agreement may include provisions for periodic site visits by a patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist who is part of the patient care team at a location other than where the licensee regularly practices. Such visits shall be in the manner and at the frequency as determined by the patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist who is part of the patient care team.

D. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by the physician assistant and provided to the Board upon request. The practice agreement may be maintained in writing or electronically and may be a part of credentialing documents, practice protocols, or procedures.

1998, c. 319; 2011, c. 390; 2013, c. 144; 2016, c. 450; 2019, cc. 92, 137, 338; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2951.2. Issuance of a license.

The Board shall issue a license to the physician assistant to practice in accordance with § 54.1-2951.1.

1998, c. 319; 2019, cc. 92, 137; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2951.3. Restricted volunteer license for certain physician assistants.

A. The Board may issue a restricted volunteer license to a physician assistant who meets the qualifications for licensure for physician assistants. The Board may refuse issuance of licensure pursuant to § 54.1-2915.

B. A person holding a restricted volunteer license under this section shall:

1. Only practice in public health or community free clinics approved by the Board;

2. Only treat patients who have no insurance or who are not eligible for financial assistance for medical care; and

3. Not receive remuneration directly or indirectly for practicing as a physician assistant.

C. A physician assistant with a restricted volunteer license issued under this section shall only practice as a physician assistant and perform certain acts which constitute the practice of medicine to the extent and in the manner authorized by the Board if:

1. A patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist is available at all times to collaborate and consult with the physician assistant; or

2. A patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist periodically reviews the relevant patient records.

D. A restricted volunteer license granted pursuant to this section shall be issued to the physician assistant without charge, shall expire twelve months from the date of issuance, and may be renewed annually in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board.

E. A physician assistant holding a restricted volunteer license issued pursuant to this section is subject to the provisions of this chapter and the regulations promulgated under this chapter unless otherwise provided for in this section.

1998, c. 319; 2005, c. 163; 2019, cc. 92, 137.

§ 54.1-2951.4. Exception to physician assistant license requirement; physician assistant student.

The provisions of § 54.1-2902 shall not be construed as prohibiting a physician assistant student who is enrolled in a physician assistant education program accredited by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant or its successor agency from engaging in acts that constitute practice as a physician assistant.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2952. Role of patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist on patient care teams; services that may be performed by physician assistants; responsibility of licensee; employment of physician assistants.

A. A patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist licensed under this chapter may serve on a patient care team with physician assistants and shall provide collaboration and consultation to such physician assistants. No patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist shall be allowed to collaborate or consult with more than six physician assistants on a patient care team at any one time.

Service as part of a patient care team by a patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist shall not, by the existence of such service alone, establish or create vicarious liability for the actions or inactions of other team members.

B. Physician assistants may practice medicine to the extent and in the manner authorized by the Board. A patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist shall be available at all times to collaborate and consult with physician assistants. Each patient care team shall identify the relevant physician assistant's scope of practice and an evaluation process for the physician assistant's performance.

C. Physician assistants appointed as medical examiners pursuant to § 32.1-282 shall only function as part of a patient care team that has a licensed doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine who has been appointed to serve as a medical examiner pursuant to § 32.1-282.

D. Any professional corporation or partnership of any licensee, any hospital and any commercial enterprise having medical facilities for its employees that are supervised by one or more physicians or podiatrists may employ one or more physician assistants in accordance with the provisions of this section.

Activities shall be performed in a manner consistent with sound medical practice and the protection of the health and safety of the patient. Such activities shall be set forth in a practice agreement and may include health care services that are educational, diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventive, including establishing a diagnosis, providing treatment, and performing procedures. Prescribing or dispensing of drugs may be permitted as provided in § 54.1-2952.1. In addition, a physician assistant may perform initial and ongoing evaluation and treatment of any patient in a hospital, including its emergency department, in accordance with the practice agreement, including tasks performed, relating to the provision of medical care in an emergency department.

A patient care team physician or the on-duty emergency department physician shall be available at all times for collaboration and consultation with both the physician assistant and the emergency department physician. No person shall have responsibility for any physician assistant who is not employed by the person or the person's business entity.

E. No physician assistant shall perform any acts beyond those set forth in the practice agreement or authorized as part of the patient care team. No physician assistant practicing in a hospital shall render care to a patient unless the physician responsible for that patient is available for collaboration or consultation, pursuant to regulations of the Board.

F. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 54.1-2956.8:1, a licensed physician assistant who (i) is working in the field of radiology as part of a patient care team, (ii) has been trained in the proper use of equipment for the purpose of performing radiologic technology procedures consistent with Board regulations, and (iii) has successfully completed the exam administered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists for physician assistants for the purpose of performing radiologic technology procedures may use fluoroscopy for guidance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

1973, c. 529, §§ 54-281.4, 54-281.5; 1975, cc. 508, 565; 1985, c. 316; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 793; 1996, c. 779; 2000, cc. 467, 497; 2002, c. 387; 2005, c. 662; 2008, c. 281; 2012, c. 81; 2014, c. 89; 2015, c. 107; 2016, c. 450; 2019, cc. 92, 137; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2952.1. Prescription of certain controlled substances and devices by licensed physician assistants.

A. In accordance with the provisions of this section and pursuant to the requirements of Chapter 33 (§ 54.1-3300 et seq.), a licensed physician assistant shall have the authority to prescribe controlled substances and devices as set forth in Chapter 34 (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.) and as provided in a practice agreement. Such practice agreements shall include a statement of the controlled substances the physician assistant is or is not authorized to prescribe and may restrict such prescriptive authority as deemed appropriate by the patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist.

B. It shall be unlawful for the physician assistant to prescribe controlled substances or devices pursuant to this section unless such prescription is authorized by the practice agreement and the requirements in this section.

C. The Board of Medicine, in consultation with the Board of Pharmacy, shall promulgate such regulations governing the prescriptive authority of physician assistants as are deemed reasonable and necessary to ensure an appropriate standard of care for patients.

The regulations promulgated pursuant to this section shall include, at a minimum, (i) such requirements as may be necessary to ensure continued physician assistant competency, which may include continuing education, testing, and any other requirement and shall address the need to promote ethical practice, an appropriate standard of care, patient safety, the use of new pharmaceuticals, and appropriate communication with patients, and (ii) a requirement that the physician assistant disclose to his patients his name, address, and telephone number and that he is a physician assistant. If a patient or his representative requests to speak with the patient care team physician or patient care team podiatrist, the physician assistant shall arrange for communication between the parties or provide the necessary information.

D. This section shall not prohibit a licensed physician assistant from administering controlled substances in compliance with the definition of "administer" in § 54.1-3401 or from receiving and dispensing manufacturers' professional samples of controlled substances in compliance with the provisions of this section.

1992, c. 793; 1997, c. 806; 1999, c. 745; 2001, c. 465; 2003, c. 510; 2007, c. 16; 2016, c. 450; 2019, cc. 92, 137; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2952.2. When physician assistant signature accepted.

Whenever any law or regulation requires a signature, certification, stamp, verification, affidavit, or endorsement by a physician, it shall be deemed to include a signature, certification, stamp, verification, affidavit, or endorsement by a physician assistant.

2011, c. 468.

§ 54.1-2953. Renewal, revocation, suspension, and refusal.

The Board may revoke, suspend, or refuse to renew a license to practice as a physician assistant for any of the following:

1. Any action by a physician assistant constituting unprofessional conduct pursuant to § 54.1-2915;

2. Practice by a physician assistant other than as part of a patient care team, including practice without entering into a practice agreement with one or more patient care team physicians or patient care team podiatrists;

3. Failure of the physician assistant to practice in accordance with the requirements of his practice agreement;

4. Negligence or incompetence on the part of the physician assistant or other member of the patient care team;

5. Violation of or cooperation in the violation of any provision of this chapter or the regulations of the Board; or

6. Failure to comply with any regulation of the Board required for licensure of a physician assistant.

1973, c. 529, §§ 54-281.8, 54-281.9; 1985, c. 316; 1988, c. 765; 2013, c. 144; 2016, c. 450; 2019, cc. 92, 137; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2954. Respiratory therapist; definition.

"Respiratory therapist" means a person who has passed the examination for the entry level practice of respiratory care administered by the National Board for Respiratory Care, Inc., or other examination approved by the Board, who has complied with the regulations pertaining to licensure prescribed by the Board, and who has been issued a license by the Board.

1985, c. 347, § 54-281.10; 1988, c. 765; 1998, c. 557; 2015, c. 302.

§ 54.1-2954.1. Powers of Board concerning respiratory care.

The Board shall take such actions as may be necessary to ensure the competence and integrity of any person who claims to be a respiratory therapist or who holds himself out to the public as a respiratory therapist or who engages in the practice of respiratory care and to that end the Board shall license persons as respiratory therapists. The Board shall consider and may accept relevant practical experience and didactic and clinical components of education and training completed by an applicant for licensure as a respiratory therapist during his service as a member of any branch of the armed forces of the United States as evidence of the satisfaction of the educational requirements for licensure as a respiratory therapist. The provisions hereof shall not prevent or prohibit other persons licensed pursuant to this chapter from continuing to practice respiratory care when such practice is in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board.

The Board shall establish requirements for the supervised, structured education of respiratory therapists, including preclinical, didactic and laboratory, and clinical activities, and an examination to evaluate competency. All such training programs shall be approved by the Board.

1990, c. 920; 1998, c. 557; 2011, c. 390; 2015, c. 302.

§ 54.1-2955. Restriction of titles.

It is unlawful for any person not holding a current and valid license from the Virginia Board of Medicine to practice as a respiratory therapist or to assume the title "Respiratory Therapist" or to use, in conjunction with his name, the letters "RT."

1985, c. 347, § 54-281.11; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 920; 1998, c. 557; 2015, c. 302.

§ 54.1-2956. Advisory Board on Respiratory Care; appointment; terms; duties; etc.

A. The Advisory Board on Respiratory Care shall assist the Board in carrying out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications, examination, and regulation of licensed respiratory therapists.

The Advisory Board shall consist of five members appointed by the Governor as follows: three members shall be at the time of appointment respiratory therapists who have practiced for not less than three years, one member shall be a physician licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth, and one member shall be appointed by the Governor from the Commonwealth at large. Beginning July 1, 2011, the Governor's appointments shall be staggered as follows: two members for a term of one year, one member for a term of two years, and two members for a term of three years. Thereafter, appointments shall be for four-year terms.

Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two consecutive terms.

B. The Advisory Board shall, under the authority of the Board, recommend to the Board for its enactment into regulation the criteria for licensure as a respiratory therapist and the standards of professional conduct for holders of licenses.

The Advisory Board shall also assist in such other matters dealing with respiratory care as the Board may in its discretion direct.

1985, c. 347, §§ 54-281.12, 54-281.13; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 920; 1998, c. 557; 2011, cc. 691, 714; 2015, c. 302.

§ 54.1-2956.01. Exceptions to respiratory therapist's licensure.

The licensure requirements for respiratory therapists provided in this chapter shall not prohibit the practice of respiratory care as an integral part of a program of study by students enrolled in an accredited respiratory care education program approved by the Board. Any student enrolled in accredited respiratory care education programs shall be identified as "Student RT" and shall only deliver respiratory care under the direct supervision of an appropriate clinical instructor recognized by the education program.

1998, c. 557; 2015, c. 302.

§ 54.1-2956.1. Powers of Board concerning occupational therapy.

The Board shall take such actions as may be necessary to ensure the competence and integrity of any person who practices occupational therapy or claims to be an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant or who holds himself out to the public as an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant or who engages in the practice of occupational therapy, and to that end it may license practitioners as occupational therapists or occupational therapy assistants who have met the qualifications established in regulation by the Board.

The Board shall consider and may accept relevant practical experience and didactic and clinical components of education and training completed by an applicant for licensure as an occupational therapist during his service as a member of any branch of the armed forces of the United States as evidence of the satisfaction of the educational requirements for licensure as an occupational therapist.

1989, c. 306; 1998, c. 593; 2000, c. 782; 2004, c. 61; 2008, cc. 64, 89; 2011, c. 390.

§ 54.1-2956.2. Advisory Board of Occupational Therapy.

The Advisory Board of Occupational Therapy, referred to hereinafter as "Advisory Board," shall assist the Board in the manner set forth in this chapter.

1989, c. 306.

§ 54.1-2956.3. Advisory Board of Occupational Therapy; composition; appointment.

The Advisory Board shall be comprised of five members appointed by the Governor for four-year terms. Three members shall be, at the time of appointment, licensed occupational therapists who have practiced for not less than three years, one member shall be a physician licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth, and one member shall be appointed by the Governor from the Commonwealth at large. Any vacancy occurring during a member's term shall be filled for the unexpired balance of that term.

1989, c. 306; 2004, c. 61.

§ 54.1-2956.4. Advisory Board of Occupational Therapy; powers.

The Advisory Board shall, under the authority of the Board:

1. Recommend to the Board, for its promulgation into regulation, the criteria for licensure as an occupational therapist or an occupational therapy assistant and the standards of professional conduct for holders of licenses.

2. Assess the qualifications of applicants for licensure and recommend licensure when applicants meet the required criteria. The recommendations of the Advisory Board on licensure of applicants shall be presented to the Board, which shall then issue or deny licenses. Any applicant who is aggrieved by a denial of recommendation on licensure of the Advisory Board may appeal to the Board.

3. Receive investigative reports of professional misconduct and unlawful acts and recommend sanctions when appropriate. Any recommendation of sanctions shall be presented to the Board, which may then impose sanctions or take such other action as may be warranted by law.

4. Assist in such other matters dealing with occupational therapy as the Board may in its discretion direct.

1989, c. 306; 1998, c. 593; 2004, c. 61; 2008, cc. 64, 89.

§ 54.1-2956.5. Unlawful to practice occupational therapy without license.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person not holding a current and valid license from the Board to practice occupational therapy or to claim to be an occupational therapist or to assume the title "Occupational Therapist," "Occupational Therapist, Licensed," "Licensed Occupational Therapist," or any similar term, or to use the designations "O.T." or "O.T.L." or any variation thereof. However, a person who has graduated from a duly accredited educational program in occupational therapy may practice with the title "Occupational Therapist, License Applicant" or "O.T.L.-Applicant" until he has received a failing score on any examination required by the Board or until six months from the date of graduation, whichever occurs sooner.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice as an occupational therapy assistant as defined in § 54.1-2900 or to hold himself out to be or advertise that he is an occupational therapy assistant or use the designation "O.T.A." or any variation thereof unless such person holds a current and valid license from the Board to practice as an occupational therapy assistant. However, a person who has graduated from a duly accredited occupational therapy assistant education program may practice with the title "Occupational Therapy Assistant, License Applicant" or "O.T.A.-Applicant" until he has received a failing score on any examination required by the Board or until six months from the date of graduation, whichever occurs sooner.

1989, c. 306; 1998, c. 593; 2000, c. 782; 2004, c. 61; 2008, cc. 64, 89; 2014, c. 252.

§ 54.1-2956.6. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1994, c. 803, effective January 1, 1997.

§ 54.1-2956.7:1. (Effective January 1, 2022) Occupational Therapy Interjurisdictional Licensure Compact.

The General Assembly hereby enacts, and the Commonwealth of Virginia hereby enters into, the Occupational Therapy Interjurisdictional Licensure Compact with any and all states legally joining therein according to its terms, in the form substantially as follows:

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERJURISDICTIONAL LICENSURE COMPACT.

Article I. Purpose.

The purpose of this Compact is to facilitate interstate practice of occupational therapy with the goal of improving public access to occupational therapy services. The practice of occupational therapy occurs in the state where the patient/client is located at the time of the patient/client encounter. The Compact preserves the regulatory authority of states to protect public health and safety through the current system of state licensure.

This Compact is designed to achieve the following objectives:

1. Increase public access to occupational therapy services by providing for the mutual recognition of other member state licenses;

2. Enhance the states' ability to protect the public's health and safety;

3. Encourage the cooperation of member states in regulating multi-state occupational therapy practice;

4. Support spouses of relocating military members;

5. Enhance the exchange of licensure, investigative, and disciplinary information between member states;

6. Allow a remote state to hold a provider of services with a compact privilege in that state accountable to that state's practice standards; and

7. Facilitate the use of telehealth technology in order to increase access to occupational therapy services.

Article II. Definitions.

As used in this Compact, and except as otherwise provided, the following definitions shall apply:

"Active duty military" means full-time duty status in the active uniformed service of the United States, including members of the National Guard and Reserve on active duty orders pursuant to 10 U.S.C. Chapter 1209 and Section 1211.

"Adverse action" means any administrative, civil, equitable, or criminal action permitted by a state's laws which is imposed by a licensing board or other authority against an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant, including actions against an individual's license or compact privilege such as censure, revocation, suspension, probation, monitoring of the licensee, or restriction on the licensee's practice.

"Alternative program" means a non-disciplinary monitoring process approved by an occupational therapy licensing board.

"Compact" means the Occupational Therapy Interjurisdictional Licensure Compact.

"Compact privilege" means the authorization, which is equivalent to a license, granted by a remote state to allow a licensee from another member state to practice as an occupational therapist or practice as an occupational therapy assistant in the remote state under its laws and rules. The practice of occupational therapy occurs in the member state where the patient/client is located at the time of the patient/client encounter.

"Continuing competence/education" means a requirement, as a condition of license renewal, to provide evidence of participation in, and/or completion of, educational and professional activities relevant to practice or area of work.

"Current significant investigative information" means investigative information that a licensing board, after an inquiry or investigation that includes notification and an opportunity for the occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant to respond, if required by state law, has reason to believe is not groundless and, if proved true, would indicate more than a minor infraction.

"Data system" means a repository of information about licensees, including but not limited to license status, investigative information, compact privileges, and adverse actions.

"Encumbered license" means a license in which an adverse action restricts the practice of occupational therapy by the licensee or said adverse action has been reported to the National Practitioners Data Bank (NPDB).

"Executive committee" means a group of directors elected or appointed to act on behalf of, and within the powers granted to them by, the Commission.

"Home state" means the member state that is the licensee's primary state of residence.

"Impaired practitioner" means individuals whose professional practice is adversely affected by substance abuse, addiction, or other health-related conditions.

"Investigative information" means information, records, and/or documents received or generated by an occupational therapy licensing board pursuant to an investigation.

"Jurisprudence requirement" means the assessment of an individual's knowledge of the laws and rules governing the practice of occupational therapy in a state.

"Licensee" means an individual who currently holds an authorization from the state to practice as an occupational therapist or as an occupational therapy assistant.

"Member state" means a state that has enacted the Compact.

"Occupational therapist" means an individual who is licensed by a state to practice occupational therapy.

"Occupational therapy assistant" means an individual who is licensed by a state to assist in the practice of occupational therapy.

"Occupational therapy," "occupational therapy practice," and the "practice of occupational therapy" mean the care and services provided by an occupational therapist or an occupational therapy assistant as set forth in the member state's statutes and regulations.

"Occupational Therapy Compact Commission" or "Commission" means the national administrative body whose membership consists of all states that have enacted the Compact.

"Occupational therapy licensing board" or "licensing board" means the agency of a state that is authorized to license and regulate occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants.

"Primary state of residence" means the state (also known as the home state) in which an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant who is not active duty military declares a primary residence for legal purposes as verified by: driver's license, federal income tax return, lease, deed, mortgage or voter registration or other verifying documentation as further defined by Commission rules.

"Remote state" means a member state other than the home state, where a licensee is exercising or seeking to exercise the compact privilege.

"Rule" means a regulation promulgated by the Commission that has the force of law.

"State" means any state, commonwealth, district, or territory of the United States of America that regulates the practice of occupational therapy.

"Single-state license" means an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant license issued by a member state that authorizes practice only within the issuing state and does not include a compact privilege in any other member state.

"Telehealth" means the application of telecommunication technology to deliver occupational therapy services for assessment, intervention, and/or consultation.

Article III. State Participation in the Compact.

A. To participate in the Compact, a member state shall:

1. License occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants;

2. Participate fully in the Commission's data system, including but not limited to using the Commission's unique identifier as defined in rules of the Commission;

3. Have a mechanism in place for receiving and investigating complaints about licensees;

4. Notify the Commission, in compliance with the terms of the Compact and rules, of any adverse action or the availability of investigative information regarding a licensee;

5. Implement or utilize procedures for considering the criminal history records of applicants for an initial compact privilege. These procedures shall include the submission of fingerprints or other biometric-based information by applicants for the purpose of obtaining an applicant's criminal history record information from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the agency responsible for retaining that state's criminal records;

a. A member state shall, within a time frame established by the Commission, require a criminal background check for a licensee seeking/applying for a compact privilege whose primary state of residence is that member state, by receiving the results of the Federal Bureau of Investigation criminal record search, and shall use the results in making licensure decisions.

b. Communication between a member state, the Commission and among member states regarding the verification of eligibility for licensure through the Compact shall not include any information received from the Federal Bureau of Investigation relating to a federal criminal records check performed by a member state under P.L. 92-544.

6. Comply with the rules of the Commission;

7. Utilize only a recognized national examination as a requirement for licensure pursuant to the rules of the Commission; and

8. Have continuing competence/education requirements as a condition for license renewal.

B. A member state shall grant the compact privilege to a licensee holding a valid unencumbered license in another member state in accordance with the terms of the Compact and rules.

C. Member states may charge a fee for granting a compact privilege.

D. A member state shall provide for the state's delegate to attend all Occupational Therapy Compact Commission meetings.

E. Individuals not residing in a member state shall continue to be able to apply for a member state's single-state license as provided under the laws of each member state. However, the single-state license granted to these individuals shall not be recognized as granting the compact privilege in any other member state.

F. Nothing in this Compact shall affect the requirements established by a member state for the issuance of a single-state license.

Article IV. Compact Privilege.

A. To exercise the compact privilege under the terms and provisions of the Compact, the licensee shall:

1. Hold a license in the home state;

2. Have a valid United States social security number or national practitioner identification number;

3. Have no encumbrance on any state license;

4. Be eligible for a compact privilege in any member state in accordance with subsections D, F, G, and H;

5. Have paid all fines and completed all requirements resulting from any adverse action against any license or compact privilege, and two years have elapsed from the date of such completion;

6. Notify the Commission that the licensee is seeking the compact privilege within a remote state(s);

7. Pay any applicable fees, including any state fee, for the compact privilege;

8. Complete a criminal background check in accordance with subdivision A 5 of Article III. The licensee shall be responsible for the payment of any fee associated with the completion of a criminal background check;

9. Meet any jurisprudence requirements established by the remote state(s) in which the licensee is seeking a compact privilege; and

10. Report to the Commission adverse action taken by any non-member state within 30 days from the date the adverse action is taken.

B. The compact privilege is valid until the expiration date of the home state license. The licensee must comply with the requirements of subsection A to maintain the compact privilege in the remote state.

C. a licensee providing occupational therapy in a remote state under the compact privilege shall function within the laws and regulations of the remote state.

D. Occupational therapy assistants practicing in a remote state shall be supervised by an occupational therapist licensed or holding a compact privilege in that remote state.

E. A licensee providing occupational therapy in a remote state is subject to that state's regulatory authority. A remote state may, in accordance with due process and that state's laws, remove a licensee's compact privilege in the remote state for a specific period of time, impose fines, and/or take any other necessary actions to protect the health and safety of its citizens. The licensee may be ineligible for a compact privilege in any state until the specific time for removal has passed and all fines are paid.

F. If a home state license is encumbered, the licensee shall lose the compact privilege in any remote state until the following occur:

1. The home state license is no longer encumbered; and

2. Two years have elapsed from the date on which the home state license is no longer encumbered in accordance with subdivision 1.

G. Once an encumbered license in the home state is restored to good standing, the licensee must meet the requirements of subsection A to obtain a compact privilege in any remote state.

H. If a licensee's compact privilege in any remote state is removed, the individual may lose the compact privilege in any other remote state until the following occur:

1. The specific period of time for which the compact privilege was removed has ended;

2. All fines have been paid and all conditions have been met;

3. Two years have elapsed from the date of completing requirements for subdivisions 1 and 2; and

4. The compact privileges are reinstated by the Commission, and the compact data system is updated to reflect reinstatement.

I. If a licensee's compact privilege in any remote state is removed due to an erroneous charge, privileges shall be restored through the compact data system.

J. Once the requirements of subsection H have been met, the license must meet the requirements in subsection A to obtain a compact privilege in a remote state.

Article V. Obtaining a New Home State License by Virtue of Compact Privilege.

A. An occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant may hold a home state license, which allows for compact privileges in member states, in only one member state at a time.

B. If an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant changes primary state of residence by moving between two member states:

1. The occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant shall file an application for obtaining a new home state license by virtue of a compact privilege, pay all applicable fees, and notify the current and new home state in accordance with applicable rules adopted by the Commission.

2. Upon receipt of an application for obtaining a new home state license by virtue of compact privilege, the new home state shall verify that the occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant meets the pertinent criteria outlined in Article IV via the data system, without need for primary source verification except for:

a. An FBI fingerprint based criminal background check if not previously performed or updated pursuant to applicable rules adopted by the Commission in accordance with P.L. 92-544;

b. Other criminal background check as required by the new home state; and

c. Submission of any requisite jurisprudence requirements of the new home state.

3. The former home state shall convert the former home state license into a compact privilege once the new home state has activated the new home state license in accordance with applicable rules adopted by the Commission.

4. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Compact, if the occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant cannot meet the criteria in Article IV, the new home state shall apply its requirements for issuing a new single-state license.

5. The occupational therapist or the occupational therapy assistant shall pay all applicable fees to the new home state in order to be issued a new home state license.

C. If an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant changes primary state of residence by moving from a member state to a non-member state, or from a non-member state to a member state, the state criteria shall apply for issuance of a single-state license in the new state.

D. Nothing in this compact shall interfere with a licensee's ability to hold a single-state license in multiple states; however, for the purposes of this compact, a licensee shall have only one home state license.

E. Nothing in this Compact shall affect the requirements established by a member state for the issuance of a single-state license.

Article VI. Active Duty Military Personnel or their Spouses.

Active duty military personnel, or their spouses, shall designate a home state where the individual has a current license in good standing. The individual may retain the home state designation during the period the service member is on active duty. Subsequent to designating a home state, the individual shall only change their home state through application for licensure in the new state or through the process described in Article V.

Article VII. Adverse Actions.

A. A home state shall have exclusive power to impose adverse action against an occupational therapist's or occupational therapy assistant's license issued by the home state.

B. In addition to the other powers conferred by state law, a remote state shall have the authority, in accordance with existing state due process law, to:

1. Take adverse action against an occupational therapist's or occupational therapy assistant's compact privilege within that member state.

2. Issue subpoenas for both hearings and investigations that require the attendance and testimony of witnesses as well as the production of evidence. Subpoenas issued by a licensing board in a member state for the attendance and testimony of witnesses or the production of evidence from another member state shall be enforced in the latter state by any court of competent jurisdiction, according to the practice and procedure of that court applicable to subpoenas issued in proceedings pending before it. The issuing authority shall pay any witness fees, travel expenses, mileage and other fees required by the service statutes of the state in which the witnesses or evidence are located.

C. For purposes of taking adverse action, the home state shall give the same priority and effect to reported conduct received from a member state as it would if the conduct had occurred within the home state. In so doing, the home state shall apply its own state laws to determine appropriate action.

D. The home state shall complete any pending investigations of an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant who changes primary state of residence during the course of the investigations. The home state, where the investigations were initiated, shall also have the authority to take appropriate action(s) and shall promptly report the conclusions of the investigations to the OT Compact Commission data system. The occupational therapy compact commission data system administrator shall promptly notify the new home state of any adverse actions.

E. A member state, if otherwise permitted by state law, may recover from the affected occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant the costs of investigations and disposition of cases resulting from any adverse action taken against that occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant.

F. A member state may take adverse action based on the factual findings of the remote state, provided that the member state follows its own procedures for taking the adverse action.

G. Joint investigations.

1. In addition to the authority granted to a member state by its respective state occupational therapy laws and regulations or other applicable state law, any member state may participate with other member states in joint investigations of licensees.

2. Member states shall share any investigative, litigation, or compliance materials in furtherance of any joint or individual investigation initiated under the Compact.

H. If an adverse action is taken by the home state against an occupational therapist's or occupational therapy assistant's license, the occupational therapist's or occupational therapy assistant's compact privilege in all other member states shall be deactivated until all encumbrances have been removed from the state license. All home state disciplinary orders that impose adverse action against an occupational therapist's or occupational therapy assistant's license shall include a statement that the occupational therapist's or occupational therapy assistant's compact privilege is deactivated in all member states during the pendency of the order.

I. If a member state takes adverse action, it shall promptly notify the administrator of the data system. The administrator of the data system shall promptly notify the home state of any adverse actions by remote states.

J. Nothing in this Compact shall override a member state's decision that participation in an alternative program may be used in lieu of adverse action.

Article VIII. Establishment of the Occupational Therapy Compact Commission.

A. The Compact member states hereby create and establish a joint public agency known as the Occupational Therapy Compact Commission:

1. The Commission is an instrumentality of the compact states.

2. Venue is proper and judicial proceedings by or against the Commission shall be brought solely and exclusively in a court of competent jurisdiction where the principal office of the Commission is located. The Commission may waive venue and jurisdictional defenses to the extent it adopts or consents to participate in alternative dispute resolution proceedings.

3. Nothing in this Compact shall be construed to be a waiver of sovereign immunity.

B. Membership, voting, and meetings.

1. Each member state shall have and be limited to one delegate selected by that member state's licensing board.

2. The delegate shall be either:

a. A current member of the licensing board, who is an occupational therapist, occupational therapy assistant, or public member; or

b. An administrator of the licensing board.

3. Any delegate may be removed or suspended from office as provided by the law of the state from which the delegate is appointed.

4. The member state board shall fill any vacancy occurring in the Commission within 90 days.

5. Each delegate shall be entitled to one vote with regard to the promulgation of rules and creation of bylaws and shall otherwise have an opportunity to participate in the business and affairs of the Commission. A delegate shall vote in person or by such other means as provided in the bylaws. The bylaws may provide for delegates' participation in meetings by telephone or other means of communication.

6. The Commission shall meet at least once during each calendar year. Additional meetings shall be held as set forth in the bylaws.

7. The Commission shall establish by rule a term of office for delegates.

C. The Commission shall have the following powers and duties:

1. Establish a code of ethics for the Commission;

2. Establish the fiscal year of the Commission;

3. Establish bylaws;

4. Maintain its financial records in accordance with the bylaws;

5. Meet and take such actions as are consistent with the provisions of this Compact and the bylaws;

6. Promulgate uniform rules to facilitate and coordinate implementation and administration of this Compact. The rules shall have the force and effect of law and shall be binding in all member states;

7. Bring and prosecute legal proceedings or actions in the name of the Commission, provided that the standing of any state occupational therapy licensing board to sue or be sued under applicable law shall not be affected;

8. Purchase and maintain insurance and bonds;

9. Borrow, accept, or contract for services of personnel, including, but not limited to, employees of a member state;

10. Hire employees, elect or appoint officers, fix compensation, define duties, grant such individuals appropriate authority to carry out the purposes of the Compact, and establish the Commission's personnel policies and programs relating to conflicts of interest, qualifications of personnel, and other related personnel matters;

11. Accept any and all appropriate donations and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials and services, and receive, utilize and dispose of the same; provided that at all times the Commission shall avoid any appearance of impropriety and/or conflict of interest;

12. Lease, purchase, accept appropriate gifts or donations of, or otherwise own, hold, improve or use, any property, real, personal or mixed; provided that at all times the Commission shall avoid any appearance of impropriety;

13. Sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, abandon, or otherwise dispose of any property real, personal, or mixed;

14. Establish a budget and make expenditures;

15. Borrow money;

16. Appoint committees, including standing committees composed of members, state regulators, state legislators or their representatives, and consumer representatives, and such other interested persons as may be designated in this Compact and the bylaws;

17. Provide and receive information from, and cooperate with, law enforcement agencies;

18. Establish and elect an executive committee; and

19. Perform such other functions as may be necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of this Compact consistent with the state regulation of occupational therapy licensure and practice.

D. The executive committee.

The executive committee shall have the power to act on behalf of the Commission according to the terms of this Compact.

1. The executive committee shall be composed of nine members:

a. Seven voting members who are elected by the Commission from the current membership of the Commission;

b. One ex-officio, nonvoting member from a recognized national occupational therapy professional association; and

c. One ex officio, nonvoting member from a recognized national occupational therapy certification organization.

2. The ex officio members will be selected by their respective organizations.

3. The Commission may remove any member of the executive committee as provided in bylaws.

4. The executive committee shall meet at least annually.

5. The executive committee shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

a. Recommend to the entire Commission changes to the rules or bylaws, changes to this Compact legislation, fees paid by compact member states such as annual dues, and any commission compact fee charged to licensees for the compact privilege;

b. Ensure Compact administration services are appropriately provided, contractual or otherwise;

c. Prepare and recommend the budget;

d. Maintain financial records on behalf of the Commission;

e. Monitor Compact compliance of member states and provide compliance reports to the Commission;

f. Establish additional committees as necessary; and

g. Perform other duties as provided in rules or bylaws.

E. Meetings of the Commission.

1. All meetings shall be open to the public, and public notice of meetings shall be given in the same manner as required under the rulemaking provisions in Article X.

2. The Commission or the executive committee or other committees of the Commission may convene in a closed, non-public meeting if the Commission or executive committee or other committees of the Commission must discuss:

a. Non-compliance of a member state with its obligations under the Compact;

b. The employment, compensation, discipline or other matters, practices or procedures related to specific employees or other matters related to the Commission's internal personnel practices and procedures;

c. Current, threatened, or reasonably anticipated litigation;

d. Negotiation of contracts for the purchase, lease, or sale of goods, services, or real estate;

e. Accusing any person of a crime or formally censuring any person;

f. Disclosure of trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential;

g. Disclosure of information of a personal nature where disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;

h. Disclosure of investigative records compiled for law enforcement purposes;

i. Disclosure of information related to any investigative reports prepared by or on behalf of or for use of the Commission or other committee charged with responsibility of investigation or determination of compliance issues pursuant to the Compact; or

j. Matters specifically exempted from disclosure by federal or member state statute.

3. If a meeting, or portion of a meeting, is closed pursuant to this provision, the Commission's legal counsel or designee shall certify that the meeting may be closed and shall reference each relevant exempting provision.

4. The Commission shall keep minutes that fully and clearly describe all matters discussed in a meeting and shall provide a full and accurate summary of actions taken, and the reasons therefore, including a description of the views expressed. All documents considered in connection with an action shall be identified in such minutes. All minutes and documents of a closed meeting shall remain under seal, subject to release by a majority vote of the Commission or order of a court of competent jurisdiction.

F. Financing of the Commission.

1. The Commission shall pay, or provide for the payment of, the reasonable expenses of its establishment, organization, and ongoing activities.

2. The Commission may accept any and all appropriate revenue sources, donations, and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials, and services.

3. The Commission may levy on and collect an annual assessment from each member state or impose fees on other parties to cover the cost of the operations and activities of the Commission and its staff, which must be in a total amount sufficient to cover its annual budget as approved by the Commission each year for which revenue is not provided by other sources. The aggregate annual assessment amount shall be allocated based upon a formula to be determined by the Commission, which shall promulgate a rule binding upon all member states.

4. The Commission shall not incur obligations of any kind prior to securing the funds adequate to meet the same; nor shall the Commission pledge the credit of any of the member states, except by and with the authority of the member state.

5. The Commission shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. The receipts and disbursements of the Commission shall be subject to the audit and accounting procedures established under its bylaws. However, all receipts and disbursements of funds handled by the Commission shall be audited yearly by a certified or licensed public accountant, and the report of the audit shall be included in and become part of the annual report of the Commission.

G. Qualified immunity, defense, and indemnification.

1. The members, officers, executive director, employees and representatives of the Commission shall be immune from suit and liability, either personally or in their official capacity, for any claim for damage to or loss of property or personal injury or other civil liability caused by or arising out of any actual or alleged act, error or omission that occurred, or that the person against whom the claim is made had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties or responsibilities; provided that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to protect any such person from suit and/or liability for any damage, loss, injury, or liability caused by the grossly negligent, intentional or willful or wanton misconduct of that person.

2. The Commission shall defend any member, officer, executive director, employee, or representative of the Commission in any civil action seeking to impose liability arising out of any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, or that the person against whom the claim is made had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, provided that nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit that person from retaining his or her own counsel, and provided further, that the actual or alleged act, error, or omission did not result from that person's intentional or willful or wanton misconduct.

3. The Commission shall indemnify and hold harmless any member, officer, executive director, employee, or representative of the Commission for the amount of any settlement or judgment obtained against that person arising out of any actual or alleged act, error or omission that occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, or that such person had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, provided that the actual or alleged act, error, or omission did not result from the intentional or willful or wanton misconduct of that person.

Article IX. Data System.

A. The Commission shall provide for the development, maintenance, and utilization of a coordinated database and reporting system containing licensure, adverse action, and investigative information on all licensed individuals in member states.

B. A member state shall submit a uniform data set to the data system on all individuals to whom this Compact is applicable (utilizing a unique identifier) as required by the rules of the Commission, including:

1. Identifying information;

2. Licensure data;

3. Adverse actions against a license or compact privilege;

4. Non-confidential information related to alternative program participation;

5. Any denial of application for licensure, and the reason(s) for such denial;

6. Other information that may facilitate the administration of this Compact, as determined by the rules of the Commission; and

7. Current significant investigative information.

C. Current significant investigative information and other investigative information pertaining to a Licensee in any member state will only be available to other member states.

D. The Commission shall promptly notify all member states of any adverse action taken against a licensee or an individual applying for a license. Adverse action information pertaining to a licensee in any member state will be available to any other member state.

E. Member states contributing information to the data system may designate information that may not be shared with the public without the express permission of the contributing state.

F. Any information submitted to the data system that is subsequently required to be expunged by the laws of the member state contributing the information shall be removed from the data system.

Article X. Rulemaking.

A. The Commission shall exercise its rulemaking powers pursuant to the criteria set forth in this article and the rules adopted thereunder. Rules and amendments shall become binding as of the date specified in each rule or amendment.

B. The Commission shall promulgate reasonable rules in order to effectively and efficiently achieve the purposes of the Compact. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event the Commission exercises its rulemaking authority in a manner that is beyond the scope of the purposes of the Compact, or the powers granted hereunder, then such an action by the Commission shall be invalid and have no force and effect.

C. If a majority of the legislatures of the member states rejects a rule, by enactment of a statute or resolution in the same manner used to adopt the Compact within four years of the date of adoption of the rule, then such rule shall have no further force and effect in any member state.

D. Rules or amendments to the rules shall be adopted at a regular or special meeting of the Commission.

E. Prior to promulgation and adoption of a final rule or rules by the Commission, and at least 30 days in advance of the meeting at which the rule will be considered and voted upon, the Commission shall file a notice of proposed rulemaking:

1. On the website of the Commission or other publicly accessible platform; and

2. On the website of each member state occupational therapy licensing board or other publicly accessible platform or the publication in which each state would otherwise publish proposed rules.

F. The notice of proposed rulemaking shall include:

1. The proposed time, date, and location of the meeting in which the rule will be considered and voted upon;

2. The text of the proposed rule or amendment and the reason for the proposed rule;

3. A request for comments on the proposed rule from any interested person; and

4. The manner in which interested persons may submit notice to the Commission of their intention to attend the public hearing and any written comments.

G. Prior to adoption of a proposed rule, the Commission shall allow persons to submit written data, facts, opinions, and arguments, which shall be made available to the public.

H. The Commission shall grant an opportunity for a public hearing before it adopts a rule or amendment if a hearing is requested by:

1. At least 25 persons;

2. A state or federal governmental subdivision or agency; or

3. An association or organization having at least 25 members.

I. If a hearing is held on the proposed rule or amendment, the Commission shall publish the place, time, and date of the scheduled public hearing. If the hearing is held via electronic means, the Commission shall publish the mechanism for access to the electronic hearing.

1. All persons wishing to be heard at the hearing shall notify the executive director of the Commission or other designated member in writing of their desire to appear and testify at the hearing not less than five business days before the scheduled date of the hearing.

2. Hearings shall be conducted in a manner providing each person who wishes to comment a fair and reasonable opportunity to comment orally or in writing.

3. All hearings will be recorded. A copy of the recording will be made available on request.

4. Nothing in this article shall be construed as requiring a separate hearing on each rule. Rules may be grouped for the convenience of the Commission at hearings required by this article.

J. Following the scheduled hearing date, or by the close of business on the scheduled hearing date if the hearing was not held, the Commission shall consider all written and oral comments received.

K. If no written notice of intent to attend the public hearing by interested parties is received, the Commission may proceed with promulgation of the proposed rule without a public hearing.

L. The Commission shall, by majority vote of all members, take final action on the proposed rule and shall determine the effective date of the rule, if any, based on the rulemaking record and the full text of the rule.

M. Upon determination that an emergency exists, the Commission may consider and adopt an emergency rule without prior notice, opportunity for comment, or hearing, provided that the usual rulemaking procedures provided in the Compact and in this article shall be retroactively applied to the rule as soon as reasonably possible, in no event later than 90 days after the effective date of the rule. For the purposes of this provision, an emergency rule is one that must be adopted immediately in order to:

1. Meet an imminent threat to public health, safety, or welfare;

2. Prevent a loss of Commission or member state funds;

3. Meet a deadline for the promulgation of an administrative rule that is established by federal law or rule; or

4. Protect public health and safety.

N. The Commission or an authorized committee of the Commission may direct revisions to a previously adopted rule or amendment for purposes of correcting typographical errors, errors in format, errors in consistency, or grammatical errors. Public notice of any revisions shall be posted on the website of the Commission. The revision shall be subject to challenge by any person for a period of 30 days after posting. The revision may be challenged only on grounds that the revision results in a material change to a rule. A challenge shall be made in writing and delivered to the chair of the Commission prior to the end of the notice period. If no challenge is made, the revision will take effect without further action. If the revision is challenged, the revision may not take effect without the approval of the Commission.

Article XI. Oversight, Dispute Resolution, and Enforcement.

A. Oversight.

1. The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government in each member state shall enforce this Compact and take all actions necessary and appropriate to effectuate the Compact's purposes and intent. The provisions of this Compact and the rules promulgated hereunder shall have standing as statutory law.

2. All courts shall take judicial notice of the Compact and the rules in any judicial or administrative proceeding in a member state pertaining to the subject matter of this Compact which may affect the powers, responsibilities, or actions of the Commission.

3. The Commission shall be entitled to receive service of process in any such proceeding, and shall have standing to intervene in such a proceeding for all purposes. Failure to provide service of process to the Commission shall render a judgment or order void as to the Commission, this Compact, or promulgated rules.

B. Default, technical assistance, and termination.

1. If the Commission determines that a member state has defaulted in the performance of its obligations or responsibilities under this Compact or the promulgated rules, the Commission shall:

a. Provide written notice to the defaulting state and other member states of the nature of the default, the proposed means of curing the default and/or any other action to be taken by the Commission; and

b. Provide remedial training and specific technical assistance regarding the default.

2. If a state in default fails to cure the default, the defaulting state may be terminated from the Compact upon an affirmative vote of a majority of the member states, and all rights, privileges and benefits conferred by this Compact may be terminated on the effective date of termination. A cure of the default does not relieve the offending state of obligations or liabilities incurred during the period of default.

3. Termination of membership in the Compact shall be imposed only after all other means of securing compliance have been exhausted. Notice of intent to suspend or terminate shall be given by the Commission to the governor, the majority and minority leaders of the defaulting state's legislature, and each of the member states.

4. A state that has been terminated is responsible for all assessments, obligations, and liabilities incurred through the effective date of termination, including obligations that extend beyond the effective date of termination.

5. The Commission shall not bear any costs related to a state that is found to be in default or that has been terminated from the Compact, unless agreed upon in writing between the Commission and the defaulting state.

6. The defaulting state may appeal the action of the Commission by petitioning the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia or the federal district where the Commission has its principal offices. The prevailing member shall be awarded all costs of such litigation, including reasonable attorney fees.

C. Dispute resolution.

1. Upon request by a member state, the Commission shall attempt to resolve disputes related to the Compact that arise among member states and between member and non-member states.

2. The Commission shall promulgate a rule providing for both mediation and binding dispute resolution for disputes as appropriate.

D. Enforcement.

The Commission, in the reasonable exercise of its discretion, shall enforce the provisions and rules of this Compact.

By majority vote, the Commission may initiate legal action in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or the federal district where the Commission has its principal offices against a member state in default to enforce compliance with the provisions of the Compact and its promulgated rules and bylaws. The relief sought may include both injunctive relief and damages. In the event judicial enforcement is necessary, the prevailing member shall be awarded all costs of such litigation, including reasonable attorney fees.

The remedies herein shall not be the exclusive remedies of the Commission. The Commission may pursue any other remedies available under federal or state law.

Article XII. Date of Implementation of the Interstate Commission for Occupational Therapy Practice and Associated Rules, Withdrawal, and Amendment.

A. The Compact shall come into effect on the date on which the Compact statute is enacted into law in the tenth member state. The provisions, which become effective at that time, shall be limited to the powers granted to the Commission relating to assembly and the promulgation of rules. Thereafter, the Commission shall meet and exercise rulemaking powers necessary to the implementation and administration of the Compact.

B. Any state that joins the Compact subsequent to the Commission's initial adoption of the rules shall be subject to the rules as they exist on the date on which the Compact becomes law in that state. Any rule that has been previously adopted by the Commission shall have the full force and effect of law on the day the Compact becomes law in that state.

C. Any member state may withdraw from this Compact by enacting a statute repealing the same.

1. A member state's withdrawal shall not take effect until six months after enactment of the repealing statute.

2. Withdrawal shall not affect the continuing requirement of the withdrawing state's occupational therapy licensing board to comply with the investigative and adverse action reporting requirements of this act prior to the effective date of withdrawal.

D. Nothing contained in this Compact shall be construed to invalidate or prevent any occupational therapy licensure agreement or other cooperative arrangement between a member state and a non-member state that does not conflict with the provisions of this Compact.

E. This Compact may be amended by the member states. No amendment to this Compact shall become effective and binding upon any member state until it is enacted into the laws of all member states.

Article XIII. Construction and Severability.

This Compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this Compact shall be severable and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this Compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any member state or of the United States or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person, or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this Compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person, or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this Compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any member state, the Compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining member states and in full force and effect as to the member state affected as to all severable matters.

Article XIV. Binding Effect of Compact and Other Laws.

A. A licensee providing occupational therapy in a remote state under the compact privilege shall function within the laws and regulations of the remote state.

B. Nothing herein prevents the enforcement of any other law of a member state that is not inconsistent with the Compact.

C. Any laws in a member state in conflict with the Compact are superseded to the extent of the conflict.

D. Any lawful actions of the Commission, including all rules and bylaws promulgated by the Commission, are binding upon the member states.

E. All agreements between the Commission and the member states are binding in accordance with their terms.

F. In the event any provision of the Compact exceeds the constitutional limits imposed on the legislature of any member state, the provision shall be ineffective to the extent of the conflict with the constitutional provision in question in that member state.

§ 54.1-2956.8. Advisory Board on Radiological Technology; appointments; terms; etc.

The Advisory Board on Radiological Technology shall assist the Board in carrying out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications, examination, registration and regulation of certified radiological technology practitioners.

The Advisory Board shall consist of five members to be appointed by the Governor as follows: three members shall be licensed radiological technology practitioners who have been practicing in the Commonwealth for not less than three years prior to their appointments, one member shall be a board-certified radiologist licensed in the Commonwealth, and one member shall be a citizen member appointed from the Commonwealth at large. Beginning July 1, 2011, the Governor's appointments shall be staggered as follows: two members for a term of one year, one member for a term of two years, and two members for a term of three years. Thereafter, appointments shall be for four-year terms.

Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two consecutive terms.

1990, c. 966; 2002, c. 698; 2011, cc. 691, 714.

§ 54.1-2956.8:1. Unlawful to practice radiologic technology without license; unlawful designation as a radiologist assistant, radiologic technologist, or radiologic technologist, limited; Board to regulate radiologist assistants and radiologic technologists.

Except as set forth herein, it shall be unlawful for a person to practice or hold himself out as practicing as a radiologist assistant, radiologic technologist, or radiologic technologist, limited, unless he holds a license as such issued by the Board.

In addition, it shall be unlawful for any person who is not licensed under this chapter whose licensure has been suspended or revoked, or whose licensure has lapsed and has not been renewed to use in conjunction with his name the words "licensed radiologist assistant," "licensed radiologic technologist" or "licensed radiologic technologist, limited" or to otherwise by letters, words, representations, or insignias assert or imply that he is licensed to practice radiologic technology.

The Board shall prescribe by regulation the qualifications governing the licensure of radiologist assistants, radiologic technologists, and radiologic technologists, limited. The regulations may include requirements for approved education programs, experience, examinations, and periodic review for continued competency.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to any employee of a hospital licensed pursuant to Article 1 (§ 32.1-123 et seq.) of Chapter 5 of Title 32.1 acting within the scope of his employment or engagement as a radiologic technologist.

1994, c. 803; 2009, cc. 83, 507.

§ 54.1-2956.8:2. Requisite training and educational achievements of radiologist assistants, radiologic technologists, and radiologic technologists, limited.

The Board shall establish a testing program to determine the training and educational achievements of radiologist assistants, radiologic technologists, or radiologic technologists, limited. The Board may accept other evidence such as successful completion of a national certification examination, experience, or completion of an approved training program in lieu of testing and shall establish this as a prerequisite for approval of the licensee's application. The Board shall consider and may accept relevant practical experience and didactic and clinical components of education and training completed by an applicant for licensure as a radiologist assistant, radiologic technologist, or radiologic technologist, limited, during his service as a member of any branch of the armed forces of the United States as evidence of the satisfaction of the educational requirements for licensure.

1994, c. 803; 2009, cc. 83, 507; 2011, c. 390.

§ 54.1-2956.9. Unlawful to practice acupuncture without license; unlawful designation as acupuncturist; Board to regulate acupuncturists.

It shall be unlawful for a person to practice or to hold himself out as practicing as an acupuncturist unless he holds a license as such issued by the Board. A person licensed to practice acupuncture, when using the title "acupuncturist," shall include therewith the designation Lic.Ac. or L.Ac.

In addition, it shall be unlawful for any person who is not licensed under this chapter, whose licensure has been suspended or revoked, or whose licensure has lapsed and has not been renewed to use in conjunction with his name the words "licensed acupuncturist" or to otherwise by letters, words, representations, or insignias assert or imply that he is licensed to practice acupuncture.

The Board of Medicine shall prescribe by regulation the qualifications governing the licensure of acupuncturists. Such regulations shall not restrict the practice of this profession to practitioners regulated by the Board on June 30, 1992, to practice the healing arts. The regulations shall at a minimum require that, prior to performing acupuncture, any acupuncturist who is not licensed to practice medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic or podiatry shall either (i) obtain written documentation that the patient had received a diagnostic examination from a licensed practitioner of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic or podiatry with regard to the ailment or condition to be treated or (ii) provide to the patient a written recommendation for such a diagnostic examination. The regulations may include requirements for approved education programs, experience, and examinations. The regulations shall exempt from the requirement for Test of Spoken English (TSE) or the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) any foreign speaking acupuncturist who speaks the language of the majority of his clients.

1991, c. 643; 1993, c. 753; 1996, c. 470; 1999, c. 779; 2000, c. 814.

§ 54.1-2956.10. Requisite training and educational achievements of acupuncturists.

The Board shall establish a testing program to determine the training and educational achievements of acupuncturists, or the Board may accept other evidence such as successful completion of a national certification examination, experience, or completion of an approved training program in lieu of testing and shall establish this as a prerequisite for approval of the licensee's application.

1991, c. 643; 1993, c. 753.

§ 54.1-2956.11. Advisory Board on Acupuncture; composition; appointment.

The Advisory Board on Acupuncture, hereinafter referred to as the "Advisory Board," shall assist the Board of Medicine in carrying out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications, examination, licensure, and regulation of acupuncturists. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to authorize the Advisory Board to advise the Board of Medicine in matters pertaining to the regulations of doctors of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, or podiatry who are qualified by such regulations to practice acupuncture.

The Advisory Board shall consist of five members to be appointed by the Governor as follows: three members shall be licensed acupuncturists who have been practicing in Virginia for not less than three years; one member shall be a doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic or podiatry who is qualified to practice acupuncture in Virginia; and one member shall be a citizen member appointed from the Commonwealth at large. Beginning July 1, 2011, the Governor's appointments shall be staggered as follows: two members for a term of one year, two members for a term of two years, and one member for a term of three years. Thereafter, appointments shall be for four-year terms. Any vacancy occurring during a member's term shall be filled for the unexpired balance of that term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two successive terms.

1991, c. 643; 1993, c. 753; 2000, c. 814; 2002, c. 698; 2003, c. 512; 2011, cc. 691, 714.

§ 54.1-2956.12. Registered surgical technologist; use of title; registration.

A. No person shall hold himself out to be a surgical technologist or use or assume the title of "surgical technologist" or "certified surgical technologist," or use the designation "C.S.T." or "S.T." or any variation thereof, unless such person is certified by the Board.

B. The Board shall certify as a surgical technologist any applicant who presents satisfactory evidence that he (i) has successfully completed an accredited surgical technologist training program and holds a current credential as a certified surgical technologist from the National Board of Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting or its successor, (ii) has successfully completed a training program for surgical technology during the person's service as a member of any branch of the armed forces of the United States, or (iii) has practiced as a surgical technologist at any time in the six months prior to July 1, 2021, provided he registers with the Board by December 31, 2021.

2014, c. 531; 2016, c. 99; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 230.

§ 54.1-2956.13. Licensure of surgical assistant; practice of surgical assisting; use of title.

A. No person shall engage in the practice of surgical assisting or use or assume the title "surgical assistant" unless such person holds a license as a surgical assistant issued by the Board. Nothing in this section shall be construed as prohibiting any professional licensed, certified, or registered by a health regulatory board from acting within the scope of his practice.

B. The Board shall establish criteria for licensure as a surgical assistant, which shall include evidence that the applicant:

1. Holds a current credential as a surgical assistant or surgical first assistant issued by the National Board of Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting, or the National Commission for Certification of Surgical Assistants or their successors;

2. Has successfully completed a surgical assistant training program during the person's service as a member of any branch of the armed forces of the United States; or

3. Has practiced as a surgical assistant in the Commonwealth at any time in the six months immediately prior to July 1, 2020.

C. For renewal of a license, a surgical assistant who was licensed based on a credential as a surgical assistant or surgical first assistant issued by the National Board of Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting, or the National Commission for the Certification of Surgical Assistants or their successors shall attest that the credential is current at the time of renewal.

2014, c. 531; 2016, c. 99; 2018, c. 374; 2020, c. 1222.

§ 54.1-2956.14. Advisory Board on Surgical Assisting; appointments; terms; duties.

A. The Advisory Board on Surgical Assisting (Advisory Board) shall assist the Board in carrying out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications and regulation of licensed surgical assistants.

B. The Advisory Board shall consist of five members appointed by the Governor for four-year terms. Three members of the Board shall be, at the time of appointment, surgical assistants who have practiced in the Commonwealth for not less than three years; one member shall be a doctor of medicine, osteopathy, or podiatry whose practice shall include surgery; and one member shall be a citizen member appointed from the Commonwealth at large. Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of a term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two consecutive terms.

C. The Advisory Board shall, under the authority of the Board, recommend to the Board for its enactment into regulations (i) standards for continued licensure of surgical assistants, including continuing education requirements, and (ii) standards relating to the professional conduct, termination and reinstatement and renewal of licenses of surgical assistants.

2020, c. 1222.

§ 54.1-2957. (Effective until July 1, 2022) Licensure and practice of nurse practitioners.

A. As used in this section, "clinical experience" means the postgraduate delivery of health care directly to patients pursuant to a practice agreement with a patient care team physician.

B. The Board of Medicine and the Board of Nursing shall jointly prescribe the regulations governing the licensure of nurse practitioners. It is unlawful for a person to practice as a nurse practitioner in the Commonwealth unless he holds such a joint license.

C. Every nurse practitioner other than a certified nurse midwife, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or clinical nurse specialist or a nurse practitioner who meets the requirements of subsection I shall maintain appropriate collaboration and consultation, as evidenced in a written or electronic practice agreement, with at least one patient care team physician. A nurse practitioner who meets the requirements of subsection I may practice without a written or electronic practice agreement. A certified nurse midwife shall practice pursuant to subsection H. A nurse practitioner who is licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing as a clinical nurse specialist shall practice pursuant to subsection J. A certified registered nurse anesthetist shall practice under the supervision of a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, podiatry, or dentistry. A nurse practitioner who is appointed as a medical examiner pursuant to § 32.1-282 shall practice in collaboration with a licensed doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine who has been appointed to serve as a medical examiner pursuant to § 32.1-282. Collaboration and consultation among nurse practitioners and patient care team physicians may be provided through telemedicine as described in § 38.2-3418.16.

Physicians on patient care teams may require that a nurse practitioner be covered by a professional liability insurance policy with limits equal to the current limitation on damages set forth in § 8.01-581.15.

Service on a patient care team by a patient care team member shall not, by the existence of such service alone, establish or create liability for the actions or inactions of other team members.

D. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing shall jointly promulgate regulations specifying collaboration and consultation among physicians and nurse practitioners working as part of patient care teams that shall include the development of, and periodic review and revision of, a written or electronic practice agreement; guidelines for availability and ongoing communications that define consultation among the collaborating parties and the patient; and periodic joint evaluation of the services delivered. Practice agreements shall include provisions for (i) periodic review of health records, which may include visits to the site where health care is delivered, in the manner and at the frequency determined by the nurse practitioner and the patient care team physician and (ii) input from appropriate health care providers in complex clinical cases and patient emergencies and for referrals. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by a nurse practitioner and provided to the Boards upon request. For nurse practitioners providing care to patients within a hospital or health care system, the practice agreement may be included as part of documents delineating the nurse practitioner's clinical privileges or the electronic or written delineation of duties and responsibilities in collaboration and consultation with a patient care team physician.

E. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing may issue a license by endorsement to an applicant to practice as a nurse practitioner if the applicant has been licensed as a nurse practitioner under the laws of another state and, pursuant to regulations of the Boards, the applicant meets the qualifications for licensure required of nurse practitioners in the Commonwealth. A nurse practitioner to whom a license is issued by endorsement may practice without a practice agreement with a patient care team physician pursuant to subsection I if such application provides an attestation to the Boards that the applicant has completed the equivalent of at least two years of full-time clinical experience, as determined by the Boards, in accordance with the laws of the state in which the nurse practitioner was licensed.

F. Pending the outcome of the next National Specialty Examination, the Boards may jointly grant temporary licensure to nurse practitioners.

G. In the event a physician who is serving as a patient care team physician dies, becomes disabled, retires from active practice, surrenders his license or has it suspended or revoked by the Board, or relocates his practice such that he is no longer able to serve, and a nurse practitioner is unable to enter into a new practice agreement with another patient care team physician, the nurse practitioner may continue to practice upon notification to the designee or his alternate of the Boards and receipt of such notification. Such nurse practitioner may continue to treat patients without a patient care team physician for an initial period not to exceed 60 days, provided the nurse practitioner continues to prescribe only those drugs previously authorized by the practice agreement with such physician and to have access to appropriate input from appropriate health care providers in complex clinical cases and patient emergencies and for referrals. The designee or his alternate of the Boards shall grant permission for the nurse practitioner to continue practice under this subsection for another 60 days, provided the nurse practitioner provides evidence of efforts made to secure another patient care team physician and of access to physician input.

H. Every certified nurse midwife shall practice in accordance with regulations adopted by the Boards and consistent with the Standards for the Practice of Midwifery set by the American College of Nurse-Midwives governing such practice. A certified nurse midwife who has practiced fewer than 1,000 hours shall practice in consultation with a certified nurse midwife who has practiced for at least two years prior to entering into the practice agreement or a licensed physician, in accordance with a practice agreement. Such practice agreement shall address the availability of the certified nurse midwife who has practiced for at least two years prior to entering into the practice agreement or the licensed physician for routine and urgent consultation on patient care. Evidence of the practice agreement shall be maintained by the certified nurse midwife and provided to the Boards upon request. A certified nurse midwife who has completed 1,000 hours of practice as a certified nurse midwife may practice without a practice agreement upon receipt by the certified nurse midwife of an attestation from the certified nurse midwife who has practiced for at least two years prior to entering into the practice agreement or the licensed physician with whom the certified nurse midwife has entered into a practice agreement stating (i) that such certified nurse midwife or licensed physician has provided consultation to the certified nurse midwife pursuant to a practice agreement meeting the requirements of this section and (ii) the period of time for which such certified nurse midwife or licensed physician practiced in collaboration and consultation with the certified nurse midwife pursuant to the practice agreement. A certified nurse midwife authorized to practice without a practice agreement shall consult and collaborate with and refer patients to such other health care providers as may be appropriate for the care of the patient.

I. A nurse practitioner, other than a nurse practitioner licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing in the category of certified nurse midwife, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or clinical nurse specialist, who has completed the equivalent of at least two years of full-time clinical experience as a licensed nurse practitioner, as determined by the Boards, may practice in the practice category in which he is certified and licensed without a written or electronic practice agreement upon receipt by the nurse practitioner of an attestation from the patient care team physician stating (i) that the patient care team physician has served as a patient care team physician on a patient care team with the nurse practitioner pursuant to a practice agreement meeting the requirements of this section and § 54.1-2957.01; (ii) that while a party to such practice agreement, the patient care team physician routinely practiced with a patient population and in a practice area included within the category for which the nurse practitioner was certified and licensed; and (iii) the period of time for which the patient care team physician practiced with the nurse practitioner under such a practice agreement. A copy of such attestation shall be submitted to the Boards together with a fee established by the Boards. Upon receipt of such attestation and verification that a nurse practitioner satisfies the requirements of this subsection, the Boards shall issue to the nurse practitioner a new license that includes a designation indicating that the nurse practitioner is authorized to practice without a practice agreement. In the event that a nurse practitioner is unable to obtain the attestation required by this subsection, the Boards may accept other evidence demonstrating that the applicant has met the requirements of this subsection in accordance with regulations adopted by the Boards.

A nurse practitioner authorized to practice without a practice agreement pursuant to this subsection shall (a) only practice within the scope of his clinical and professional training and limits of his knowledge and experience and consistent with the applicable standards of care, (b) consult and collaborate with other health care providers based on the clinical conditions of the patient to whom health care is provided, and (c) establish a plan for referral of complex medical cases and emergencies to physicians or other appropriate health care providers.

A nurse practitioner practicing without a practice agreement pursuant to this subsection shall obtain and maintain coverage by or shall be named insured on a professional liability insurance policy with limits equal to the current limitation on damages set forth in § 8.01-581.15.

J. Nurse practitioners licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing in the category of clinical nurse specialist shall practice in consultation with a licensed physician in accordance with a practice agreement between the nurse practitioner and the licensed physician. Such practice agreement shall address the availability of the physician for routine and urgent consultation on patient care. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by a nurse practitioner and provided to the Boards upon request. The practice of clinical nurse specialists shall be consistent with the standards of care for the profession and with applicable laws and regulations.

Code 1950, § 54-274; 1950, p. 98; 1958, c. 161; 1962, c. 127; 1966, c. 657; 1970, c. 69; 1973, cc. 105, 514, 529; 1975, c. 508; 1976, c. 15; 1980, c. 157; 1982, c. 220; 1985, cc. 303, 347; 1986, c. 377; 1988, c. 765; 2006, c. 750; 2012, c. 213; 2015, c. 107; 2016, cc. 308, 409, 495; 2018, c. 776; 2019, cc. 92, 137; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 1, 157, 396.

§ 54.1-2957. (Effective July 1, 2022) Licensure and practice of nurse practitioners.

A. As used in this section, "clinical experience" means the postgraduate delivery of health care directly to patients pursuant to a practice agreement with a patient care team physician.

B. The Board of Medicine and the Board of Nursing shall jointly prescribe the regulations governing the licensure of nurse practitioners. It is unlawful for a person to practice as a nurse practitioner in the Commonwealth unless he holds such a joint license.

C. Every nurse practitioner other than a certified nurse midwife, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or clinical nurse specialist or a nurse practitioner who meets the requirements of subsection I shall maintain appropriate collaboration and consultation, as evidenced in a written or electronic practice agreement, with at least one patient care team physician. A nurse practitioner who meets the requirements of subsection I may practice without a written or electronic practice agreement. A certified nurse midwife shall practice pursuant to subsection H. A nurse practitioner who is licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing as a clinical nurse specialist shall practice pursuant to subsection J. A certified registered nurse anesthetist shall practice under the supervision of a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, podiatry, or dentistry. A nurse practitioner who is appointed as a medical examiner pursuant to § 32.1-282 shall practice in collaboration with a licensed doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine who has been appointed to serve as a medical examiner pursuant to § 32.1-282. Collaboration and consultation among nurse practitioners and patient care team physicians may be provided through telemedicine as described in § 38.2-3418.16.

Physicians on patient care teams may require that a nurse practitioner be covered by a professional liability insurance policy with limits equal to the current limitation on damages set forth in § 8.01-581.15.

Service on a patient care team by a patient care team member shall not, by the existence of such service alone, establish or create liability for the actions or inactions of other team members.

D. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing shall jointly promulgate regulations specifying collaboration and consultation among physicians and nurse practitioners working as part of patient care teams that shall include the development of, and periodic review and revision of, a written or electronic practice agreement; guidelines for availability and ongoing communications that define consultation among the collaborating parties and the patient; and periodic joint evaluation of the services delivered. Practice agreements shall include provisions for (i) periodic review of health records, which may include visits to the site where health care is delivered, in the manner and at the frequency determined by the nurse practitioner and the patient care team physician and (ii) input from appropriate health care providers in complex clinical cases and patient emergencies and for referrals. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by a nurse practitioner and provided to the Boards upon request. For nurse practitioners providing care to patients within a hospital or health care system, the practice agreement may be included as part of documents delineating the nurse practitioner's clinical privileges or the electronic or written delineation of duties and responsibilities in collaboration and consultation with a patient care team physician.

E. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing may issue a license by endorsement to an applicant to practice as a nurse practitioner if the applicant has been licensed as a nurse practitioner under the laws of another state and, pursuant to regulations of the Boards, the applicant meets the qualifications for licensure required of nurse practitioners in the Commonwealth. A nurse practitioner to whom a license is issued by endorsement may practice without a practice agreement with a patient care team physician pursuant to subsection I if such application provides an attestation to the Boards that the applicant has completed the equivalent of at least five years of full-time clinical experience, as determined by the Boards, in accordance with the laws of the state in which the nurse practitioner was licensed.

F. Pending the outcome of the next National Specialty Examination, the Boards may jointly grant temporary licensure to nurse practitioners.

G. In the event a physician who is serving as a patient care team physician dies, becomes disabled, retires from active practice, surrenders his license or has it suspended or revoked by the Board, or relocates his practice such that he is no longer able to serve, and a nurse practitioner is unable to enter into a new practice agreement with another patient care team physician, the nurse practitioner may continue to practice upon notification to the designee or his alternate of the Boards and receipt of such notification. Such nurse practitioner may continue to treat patients without a patient care team physician for an initial period not to exceed 60 days, provided the nurse practitioner continues to prescribe only those drugs previously authorized by the practice agreement with such physician and to have access to appropriate input from appropriate health care providers in complex clinical cases and patient emergencies and for referrals. The designee or his alternate of the Boards shall grant permission for the nurse practitioner to continue practice under this subsection for another 60 days, provided the nurse practitioner provides evidence of efforts made to secure another patient care team physician and of access to physician input.

H. Every certified nurse midwife shall practice in accordance with regulations adopted by the Boards and consistent with the Standards for the Practice of Midwifery set by the American College of Nurse-Midwives governing such practice. A certified nurse midwife who has practiced fewer than 1,000 hours shall practice in consultation with a certified nurse midwife who has practiced for at least two years prior to entering into the practice agreement or a licensed physician, in accordance with a practice agreement. Such practice agreement shall address the availability of the certified nurse midwife who has practiced for at least two years prior to entering into the practice agreement or the licensed physician for routine and urgent consultation on patient care. Evidence of the practice agreement shall be maintained by the certified nurse midwife and provided to the Boards upon request. A certified nurse midwife who has completed 1,000 hours of practice as a certified nurse midwife may practice without a practice agreement upon receipt by the certified nurse midwife of an attestation from the certified nurse midwife who has practiced for at least two years prior to entering into the practice agreement or the licensed physician with whom the certified nurse midwife has entered into a practice agreement stating (i) that such certified nurse midwife or licensed physician has provided consultation to the certified nurse midwife pursuant to a practice agreement meeting the requirements of this section and (ii) the period of time for which such certified nurse midwife or licensed physician practiced in collaboration and consultation with the certified nurse midwife pursuant to the practice agreement. A certified nurse midwife authorized to practice without a practice agreement shall consult and collaborate with and refer patients to such other health care providers as may be appropriate for the care of the patient.

I. A nurse practitioner, other than a nurse practitioner licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing in the category of certified nurse midwife, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or clinical nurse specialist, who has completed the equivalent of at least five years of full-time clinical experience as a licensed nurse practitioner, as determined by the Boards, may practice in the practice category in which he is certified and licensed without a written or electronic practice agreement upon receipt by the nurse practitioner of an attestation from the patient care team physician stating (i) that the patient care team physician has served as a patient care team physician on a patient care team with the nurse practitioner pursuant to a practice agreement meeting the requirements of this section and § 54.1-2957.01; (ii) that while a party to such practice agreement, the patient care team physician routinely practiced with a patient population and in a practice area included within the category for which the nurse practitioner was certified and licensed; and (iii) the period of time for which the patient care team physician practiced with the nurse practitioner under such a practice agreement. A copy of such attestation shall be submitted to the Boards together with a fee established by the Boards. Upon receipt of such attestation and verification that a nurse practitioner satisfies the requirements of this subsection, the Boards shall issue to the nurse practitioner a new license that includes a designation indicating that the nurse practitioner is authorized to practice without a practice agreement. In the event that a nurse practitioner is unable to obtain the attestation required by this subsection, the Boards may accept other evidence demonstrating that the applicant has met the requirements of this subsection in accordance with regulations adopted by the Boards.

A nurse practitioner authorized to practice without a practice agreement pursuant to this subsection shall (a) only practice within the scope of his clinical and professional training and limits of his knowledge and experience and consistent with the applicable standards of care, (b) consult and collaborate with other health care providers based on the clinical conditions of the patient to whom health care is provided, and (c) establish a plan for referral of complex medical cases and emergencies to physicians or other appropriate health care providers.

A nurse practitioner practicing without a practice agreement pursuant to this subsection shall obtain and maintain coverage by or shall be named insured on a professional liability insurance policy with limits equal to the current limitation on damages set forth in § 8.01-581.15.

J. Nurse practitioners licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing in the category of clinical nurse specialist shall practice in consultation with a licensed physician in accordance with a practice agreement between the nurse practitioner and the licensed physician. Such practice agreement shall address the availability of the physician for routine and urgent consultation on patient care. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by a nurse practitioner and provided to the Boards upon request. The practice of clinical nurse specialists shall be consistent with the standards of care for the profession and with applicable laws and regulations.

Code 1950, § 54-274; 1950, p. 98; 1958, c. 161; 1962, c. 127; 1966, c. 657; 1970, c. 69; 1973, cc. 105, 514, 529; 1975, c. 508; 1976, c. 15; 1980, c. 157; 1982, c. 220; 1985, cc. 303, 347; 1986, c. 377; 1988, c. 765; 2006, c. 750; 2012, c. 213; 2015, c. 107; 2016, cc. 308, 409, 495; 2018, c. 776; 2019, cc. 92, 137; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 1, 157, 396.

§ 54.1-2957.001. Restricted volunteer license for nurse practitioners.

A. The Board of Medicine and the Board of Nursing may jointly issue a restricted volunteer license to a nurse practitioner who (i) within the past five years held an unrestricted license as a nurse practitioner in the Commonwealth or another state that was in good standing at the time the license expired or became inactive and (ii) holds an active license or a volunteer restricted license as a registered nurse or a multistate licensure privilege. Nurse practitioners holding a restricted volunteer license issued pursuant to this section shall only practice in public health or community free clinics that provide services to underserved populations.

B. An applicant for a restricted volunteer license shall submit an application on a form provided by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing and attest that he will not receive remuneration directly or indirectly for providing nursing services.

C. A nurse practitioner holding a restricted volunteer license pursuant to this section may obtain prescriptive authority in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957.01.

D. A nurse practitioner holding a restricted volunteer license pursuant to this section shall not be required to complete continuing competency requirements for the first renewal of such license. For subsequent renewals, a nurse practitioner holding a restricted volunteer license shall be required to complete the continuing competency requirements required for renewal of an active license.

E. A restricted volunteer license issued pursuant to this section may be renewed biennially in accordance with the renewal schedule established in regulations jointly promulgated by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing.

F. The application and biennial renewal fee for restricted volunteer licenses pursuant to this section shall be one-half of the fee for an active license.

G. A nurse practitioner holding a restricted volunteer license issued pursuant to this section shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter and all regulations applicable to nurse practitioners practicing in the Commonwealth.

2015, c. 522.

§ 54.1-2957.01. Prescription of certain controlled substances and devices by licensed nurse practitioners.

A. In accordance with the provisions of this section and pursuant to the requirements of Chapter 33 (§ 54.1-3300 et seq.), a licensed nurse practitioner shall have the authority to prescribe Schedule II through Schedule VI controlled substances and devices as set forth in Chapter 34 (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.).

B. A nurse practitioner who does not meet the requirements for practice without a written or electronic practice agreement set forth in subsection I of § 54.1-2957 shall prescribe controlled substances or devices only if such prescribing is authorized by a written or electronic practice agreement entered into by the nurse practitioner and a patient care team physician. Such nurse practitioner shall provide to the Boards of Medicine and Nursing such evidence as the Boards may jointly require that the nurse practitioner has entered into and is, at the time of writing a prescription, a party to a written or electronic practice agreement with a patient care team physician that clearly states the prescriptive practices of the nurse practitioner. Such written or electronic practice agreements shall include the controlled substances the nurse practitioner is or is not authorized to prescribe and may restrict such prescriptive authority as described in the practice agreement. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by a nurse practitioner pursuant to § 54.1-2957. Practice agreements authorizing a nurse practitioner to prescribe controlled substances or devices pursuant to this section either shall be signed by the patient care team physician or shall clearly state the name of the patient care team physician who has entered into the practice agreement with the nurse practitioner.

It shall be unlawful for a nurse practitioner to prescribe controlled substances or devices pursuant to this section unless (i) such prescription is authorized by the written or electronic practice agreement or (ii) the nurse practitioner is authorized to practice without a written or electronic practice agreement pursuant to subsection I of § 54.1-2957.

C. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing shall promulgate regulations governing the prescriptive authority of nurse practitioners as are deemed reasonable and necessary to ensure an appropriate standard of care for patients. Such regulations shall include requirements as may be necessary to ensure continued nurse practitioner competency, which may include continuing education, testing, or any other requirement, and shall address the need to promote ethical practice, an appropriate standard of care, patient safety, the use of new pharmaceuticals, and appropriate communication with patients.

D. This section shall not limit the functions and procedures of certified registered nurse anesthetists or of any nurse practitioners which are otherwise authorized by law or regulation.

E. The following restrictions shall apply to any nurse practitioner authorized to prescribe drugs and devices pursuant to this section:

1. The nurse practitioner shall disclose to the patient at the initial encounter that he is a licensed nurse practitioner. Any party to a practice agreement shall disclose, upon request of a patient or his legal representative, the name of the patient care team physician and information regarding how to contact the patient care team physician.

2. Physicians shall not serve as a patient care team physician on a patient care team at any one time to more than six nurse practitioners.

F. This section shall not prohibit a licensed nurse practitioner from administering controlled substances in compliance with the definition of "administer" in § 54.1-3401 or from receiving and dispensing manufacturers' professional samples of controlled substances in compliance with the provisions of this section.

G. Notwithstanding any provision of law or regulation to the contrary, a nurse practitioner licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing in the category of certified nurse midwife or clinical nurse specialist and holding a license for prescriptive authority may prescribe Schedules II through VI controlled substances. However, if the nurse practitioner licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing in the category of certified nurse midwife or clinical nurse specialist is required, pursuant to subsection H or J of § 54.1-2957, to practice pursuant to a practice agreement, such prescribing shall also be in accordance with any prescriptive authority included in such practice agreement.

H. Notwithstanding any provision of law or regulation to the contrary, a nurse practitioner licensed by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing as a certified registered nurse anesthetist shall have the authority to prescribe Schedule II through Schedule VI controlled substances and devices in accordance with the requirements for practice set forth in subsection C of § 54.1-2957 to a patient requiring anesthesia, as part of the periprocedural care of such patient. As used in this subsection, "periprocedural" means the period beginning prior to a procedure and ending at the time the patient is discharged.

1991, cc. 519, 524; 1992, c. 409; 1995, c. 506; 1999, c. 745; 2000, c. 924; 2005, c. 926; 2006, c. 494; 2012, c. 213; 2016, c. 495; 2018, c. 776; 2020, cc. 100, 161; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 157, 396.

§ 54.1-2957.02. When nurse practitioner signature accepted.

Whenever any law or regulation requires a signature, certification, stamp, verification, affidavit or endorsement by a physician, it shall be deemed to include a signature, certification, stamp, verification, affidavit or endorsement by a nurse practitioner.

2004, c. 855.

§ 54.1-2957.03. Certified nurse midwives; required disclosures; liability.

A. As used in this section, "birthing center" means a facility outside a hospital that provides maternity services.

B. A certified nurse midwife who provides health care services to a patient outside of a hospital or birthing center shall disclose to that patient, when appropriate, information on health risks associated with births outside of a hospital or birthing center, including but not limited to risks associated with vaginal births after a prior cesarean section, breech births, births by women experiencing high-risk pregnancies, and births involving multiple gestation.

C. A certified nurse midwife who provides health care to a patient shall be liable for the midwife's negligent, grossly negligent, or willful and wanton acts or omissions. Except as otherwise provided by law, any (i) doctor of medicine or osteopathy who did not collaborate or consult with the midwife regarding the patient and who has not previously treated the patient for this pregnancy, (ii) physician assistant, (iii) nurse practitioner, (iv) prehospital emergency medical personnel, or (v) hospital as defined in § 32.1-123, or any employee of, person providing services pursuant to a contract with, or agent of such hospital, that provides screening and stabilization health care services to a patient as a result of a certified nurse midwife's negligent, grossly negligent, or willful and wanton acts or omissions, shall be immune from liability for acts or omissions constituting ordinary negligence.

2006, c. 750; 2009, c. 646; 2016, c. 495; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 396.

§ 54.1-2957.04. Licensure as a licensed certified midwife; practice as a licensed certified midwife; use of title; required disclosures.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice or to hold himself out as practicing as a licensed certified midwife or use in connection with his name the words "Licensed Certified Midwife" unless he holds a license as such issued jointly by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing.

B. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing shall jointly adopt regulations for the licensure of licensed certified midwives, which shall include criteria for licensure and renewal of a license as a certified midwife that shall include a requirement that the applicant provide evidence satisfactory to the Boards of current certification as a certified midwife by the American Midwifery Certification Board and that shall be consistent with the requirements for certification as a certified midwife established by the American Midwifery Certification Board.

C. The Boards of Medicine and Nursing may issue a license by endorsement to an applicant to practice as a licensed certified midwife if the applicant has been licensed as a certified midwife under the laws of another state and, pursuant to regulations of the Boards, the applicant meets the qualifications for licensure as a licensed certified midwife in the Commonwealth.

D. Licensed certified midwives shall practice in consultation with a licensed physician in accordance with a practice agreement between the licensed certified midwife and the licensed physician. Such practice agreement shall address the availability of the physician for routine and urgent consultation on patient care. Evidence of a practice agreement shall be maintained by the licensed certified midwife and provided to the Board upon request. The Board shall adopt regulations for the practice of licensed certified midwives, which shall be in accordance with regulations jointly adopted by the Boards of Medicine and Nursing, which shall be consistent with the Standards for the Practice of Midwifery set by the American College of Nurse-Midwives governing the practice of midwifery.

E. Notwithstanding any provision of law or regulation to the contrary, a licensed certified midwife may prescribe Schedules II through VI controlled substances in accordance with regulations of the Boards of Medicine and Nursing.

F. A licensed certified midwife who provides health care services to a patient outside of a hospital or birthing center shall disclose to that patient, when appropriate, information on health risks associated with births outside of a hospital or birthing center, including but not limited to risks associated with vaginal births after a prior cesarean section, breech births, births by women experiencing high-risk pregnancies, and births involving multiple gestation. As used in this subsection, "birthing center" shall have the same meaning as in § 54.1-2957.03.

G. A licensed certified midwife who provides health care to a patient shall be liable for the midwife's negligent, grossly negligent, or willful and wanton acts or omissions. Except as otherwise provided by law, any (i) doctor of medicine or osteopathy who did not collaborate or consult with the midwife regarding the patient and who has not previously treated the patient for this pregnancy, (ii) physician assistant, (iii) nurse practitioner, (iv) prehospital emergency medical personnel, or (v) hospital as defined in § 32.1-123, or any employee of, person providing services pursuant to a contract with, or agent of such hospital, that provides screening and stabilization health care services to a patient as a result of a licensed certified midwife's negligent, grossly negligent, or willful and wanton acts or omissions shall be immune from liability for acts or omissions constituting ordinary negligence.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 200, 201.

§ 54.1-2957.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1996, cc. 152 and 158.

§ 54.1-2957.4. Licensure as athletic trainer required; requisite training and educational requirements; powers of the Board concerning athletic training.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice or to hold himself out as practicing as an athletic trainer unless he holds a license as an athletic trainer issued by the Board. The Board shall issue licenses to practice athletic training to applicants for such licensure who meet the requirements of this chapter and the Board's regulations.

B. The Board shall establish criteria for the licensure of athletic trainers to ensure the appropriate training and educational credentials for the practice of athletic training. Such criteria may include experiential requirements and shall include one of the following: (i) a Virginia testing program to determine the quality of the training and educational credentials for and competence of athletic trainers, (ii) successful completion of a training program and passage of the certifying examination administered by the National Athletic Training Association Board of Certification resulting in certification as an athletic trainer by such national association, or (iii) completion of another Board-approved training program and examination.

C. At its discretion, the Board may grant provisional licensure to persons who have successfully completed an approved training program or who have met requisite experience criteria established by the Board. Such provisional licensure shall expire as provided for in the regulations of the Board.

D. The Board shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary for the licensure of athletic trainers and the issuance of licenses to athletic trainers to practice in the Commonwealth. The Board's regulations shall assure the competence and integrity of any person claiming to be an athletic trainer or who engages in the practice of athletic training.

1999, cc. 639, 682, 747; 2004, c. 669; 2013, c. 144.

§ 54.1-2957.5. Advisory Board on Athletic Training established; duties; composition; appointment; terms.

A. The Advisory Board on Athletic Training shall assist the Board in formulating its requirements for the licensure of athletic trainers. In the exercise of this responsibility, the Advisory Board shall recommend to the Board the criteria for licensure of athletic trainers and the standards of professional conduct for licensees. The Advisory Board shall also assist in such other matters relating to the practice of athletic training as the Board may require.

B. The Advisory Board shall consist of five members appointed by the Governor for four-year terms. The first appointments shall provide for staggered terms with two members being appointed for a two-year term, two members being appointed for a three-year term and one member being appointed for a four-year term. Three members shall be at the time of appointment athletic trainers who are currently licensed by the Board and who have practiced in Virginia for not less than three years, including one athletic trainer employed at a secondary school, one employed at an institution of higher education, and one employed in the public or private sector; one member shall be a physician licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth; and one member shall be a citizen appointed by the Governor from the Commonwealth at large.

Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two full consecutive terms.

1999, cc. 639, 682, 747; 2001, c. 61; 2004, c. 669; 2011, cc. 691, 714; 2020, c. 926.

§ 54.1-2957.6. Exceptions to athletic trainer licensure.

A. The provisions of this section shall not be construed to prohibit any individual from providing first aid, nor any coach, physical education instructor or other person from (i) conducting or assisting with exercise or conditioning programs or classes within the scope of their duties as employees or volunteers or (ii) applying protective taping to an uninjured body part.

B. The requirements for licensure of athletic trainers shall not prevent student athletic trainers from practicing athletic training under the supervision and control of a licensed athletic trainer pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Board.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 54.1-2957.4 and 54.1-2957.5, any person who, prior to June 30, 2004, is employed in Virginia as an athletic trainer, or in the performance of his employment duties engages in the practice of athletic training and is certified pursuant to this section and §§ 54.1-2957.4 and 54.1-2957.5 as such statutes were in effect on June 30, 2004, shall not be required to obtain a license from the Board to continue to be so employed until July 1, 2005.

1999, cc. 639, 682, 747; 2001, c. 61; 2003, c. 529; 2004, c. 669.

§ 54.1-2957.7. Licensed midwife and practice of midwifery; definitions.

"Midwife" means any person who provides primary maternity care by affirmative act or conduct prior to, during, and subsequent to childbirth, and who is not licensed as a doctor of medicine or osteopathy or certified nurse midwife.

"Practicing midwifery" means providing primary maternity care that is consistent with a midwife's training, education, and experience to women and their newborns throughout the childbearing cycle, and identifying and referring women or their newborns who require medical care to an appropriate practitioner.

2005, cc. 719, 917.

§ 54.1-2957.8. Licensure of midwives; requisite training and educational requirements; fees.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice midwifery in the Commonwealth or use the title of licensed midwife unless he holds a license issued by the Board. The Board may license an applicant as a midwife after such applicant has submitted evidence satisfactory to the Board that he has obtained the Certified Professional Midwife (CPM) credential pursuant to regulations adopted by the Board and in accordance with the provisions of §§ 54.1-2915.

B. Persons seeking licensure as a midwife shall submit such information as required in the form and manner determined by the Board.

C. Persons seeking licensure shall pay the required license fee as determined by the Board.

2005, cc. 719, 917.

§ 54.1-2957.9. Regulation of the practice of midwifery.

The Board shall adopt regulations governing the practice of midwifery, upon consultation with the Advisory Board on Midwifery. The regulations shall (i) address the requirements for licensure to practice midwifery, including the establishment of standards of care, (ii) be consistent with the North American Registry of Midwives' current job description for the profession and the National Association of Certified Professional Midwives' standards of practice, except that prescriptive authority and the possession and administration of controlled substances shall be prohibited, (iii) ensure independent practice, (iv) require midwives to disclose to their patients, when appropriate, options for consultation and referral to a physician and evidence-based information on health risks associated with birth of a child outside of a hospital or birthing center, as defined in § 54.1-2957.03, including risks associated with vaginal births after a prior cesarean section, breech births, births by women experiencing high-risk pregnancies, and births involving multiple gestation, (v) provide for an appropriate license fee, and (vi) include requirements for licensure renewal and continuing education. Such regulations shall not (a) require any agreement, written or otherwise, with another health care professional or (b) require the assessment of a woman who is seeking midwifery services by another health care professional.

License renewal shall be contingent upon maintaining a Certified Professional Midwife certification.

2005, cc. 719, 917; 2009, c. 646; 2016, c. 495.

§ 54.1-2957.10. Advisory Board on Midwifery established; membership; duties; terms.

A. The Advisory Board on Midwifery is established as an advisory board in the executive branch of state government. The purpose of the Advisory Board is to assist the Board of Medicine in formulating regulations pertaining to the practice of midwifery. The Advisory Board shall also assist in such other matters relating to the practice of midwifery as the Board may require.

B. The Advisory Board shall consist of five nonlegislative citizen members to be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly, including three Certified Professional Midwives, one doctor of medicine or osteopathy or certified nurse midwife who is licensed to practice in the Commonwealth and who has experience in out-of-hospital birth settings, and one citizen who has used out-of-hospital midwifery services. Nonlegislative citizen members of the Advisory Board shall be citizens of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

The initial appointments shall provide for staggered terms with two members being appointed for two-year terms, two members being appointed for three-year terms, and one member being appointed for a four-year term. Thereafter, nonlegislative citizen members shall be appointed for a term of four years. Appointments to fill vacancies, other than by expiration of a term, shall be for the unexpired terms. All members may be reappointed. However, no nonlegislative citizen member shall serve more than two consecutive four-year terms. The remainder of any term to which a member is appointed to fill a vacancy shall not constitute a term in determining the member's eligibility for reappointment. Vacancies shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointments.

C. The Advisory Board shall elect a chairman and vice-chairman from among its membership. A majority of the members shall constitute a quorum. The meetings of the Advisory Board shall be held at the call of the chairman or whenever the majority of the members so request.

D. Members shall receive such compensation for the discharge of their duties as provided in § 2.2-2813. All members shall be reimbursed for reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties as provided in §§ 2.2-2813 and 2.2-2825. Funding for the costs of compensation and expenses of the members shall be provided by the Board of Medicine.

E. The Department of Health Professions shall provide staff support to the Advisory Board. All agencies of the Commonwealth shall provide assistance to the Advisory Board, upon request.

2005, cc. 719, 917; 2008, c. 36.

§ 54.1-2957.11. Requirements for disclosure.

Any person practicing as a licensed midwife shall provide disclosure of specific information in writing to any client to whom midwifery care is provided. Such disclosure shall include (i) a description of the midwife's qualifications, experience, and training; (ii) a written protocol for medical emergencies, including hospital transport, particular to each client; (iii) a description of the midwives' model of care; (iv) a copy of the regulations governing the practice of midwifery; (v) a statement concerning the licensed midwife's malpractice or liability insurance coverage; (vi) a description of the right to file a complaint with the Board of Medicine and the procedures for filing such complaint; and (vii) such other information as the Board of Medicine determines is appropriate to allow the client to make an informed choice to select midwifery care.

2005, cc. 719, 917.

§ 54.1-2957.12. Immunity.

No person other than the licensed midwife who provided care to the patient shall be liable for the midwife's negligent, grossly negligent or willful and wanton acts or omissions. Except as otherwise provided by law, no other licensed midwife, doctor of medicine or osteopathy, nurse, prehospital emergency medical personnel, or hospital as defined in § 32.1-123, or agents thereof, shall be exempt from liability (i) for their own subsequent and independent negligent, grossly negligent or willful and wanton acts or omissions or (ii) if such person has a business relationship with the licensed midwife who provided care to the patient. A doctor of medicine or osteopathy, nurse, prehospital emergency medical person, or hospital as defined in § 32.1-123, or agents thereof, shall not be deemed to have established a business relationship or relationship of agency, employment, partnership, or joint venture with the licensed midwife solely by providing consultation to or accepting referral from the midwife.

2005, cc. 719, 917.

§ 54.1-2957.13. Exceptions.

The provisions of §§ 54.1-2957.7 through 54.1-2957.12 shall not prevent or prohibit:

1. Any licensed midwife from delegating to an apprentice or personnel in his personal employ and supervised by him such activities or functions that are nondiscretionary and that do not require the exercise of professional judgment for their performance, if such activities or functions are authorized by and performed for the licensed midwife and responsibility for such activities or functions is assumed by the licensed midwife; or

2. Any person from performing tasks related to the practice of midwifery under the direct and immediate supervision of a licensed doctor of medicine or osteopathy, a certified nurse midwife, or a licensed midwife during completion of the North American Registry of Midwives' Portfolio Evaluation Process Program within a time period specified in regulations adopted by the Board or while enrolled in an accredited midwifery education program.

2005, cc. 719, 917.

§ 54.1-2957.14. Advisory Board on Polysomnographic Technology; appointment; terms; duties.

A. The Advisory Board on Polysomnographic Technology shall assist the Board in carrying out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications, examination, and regulation of licensed polysomnographic technologists.

The Advisory Board shall consist of five members appointed by the Governor for four-year terms. Three members shall be at the time of appointment polysomnographic technologists who have practiced for not less than three years, one member shall be a physician who specializes in the practice of sleep medicine and is licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth, and one member shall be appointed by the Governor from the Commonwealth at large.

Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Advisory Board for more than two consecutive terms.

B. The Advisory Board shall, under the authority of the Board, recommend to the Board for its enactment into regulation the criteria for licensure as a polysomnographic technologist and the standards of professional conduct for holders of polysomnographic licenses.

The Advisory Board shall also assist in such other matters dealing with polysomnographic technology as the Board may in its discretion direct.

2010, c. 838.

§ 54.1-2957.15. Unlawful to practice as a polysomnographic technologist without a license.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person not holding a current and valid license from the Board of Medicine to practice as a polysomnographic technologist or to assume the title "licensed polysomnographic technologist," "polysomnographic technologist," or "licensed sleep tech."

B. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a health care provider licensed pursuant to this title from engaging in the full scope of practice for which he is licensed, including, but not limited to, respiratory care professionals.

C. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a student enrolled in an educational program in polysomnographic technology or a person engaged in a traineeship from the practice of polysomnographic technology, provided that such student or trainee is under the direct supervision of a licensed polysomnographic technologist or a licensed doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine. Any such student or trainee shall be identified to patients as a student or trainee in polysomnographic technology. However, any such student or trainee shall be required to have a license to practice after 18 months from the start of the educational program or traineeship or six months from the conclusion of such program or traineeship, whichever is earlier.

D. For the purposes of this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Polysomnographic technology" means the process of analyzing, scoring, attended monitoring, and recording of physiologic data during sleep and wakefulness to assist in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of sleep/wake disorders and other disorders, syndromes, and dysfunctions that either are sleep related, manifest during sleep, or disrupt normal sleep/wake cycles and activities.

"Practice of polysomnographic technology" means the professional services practiced in any setting under the direction and supervision of a licensed physician involving the monitoring, testing, and treatment of individuals suffering from any sleep disorder. Other procedures include but are not limited to:

a. Application of electrodes and apparatus necessary to monitor and evaluate sleep disturbances, including application of devices that allow a physician to diagnose and treat sleep disorders, which disorders include but shall not be limited to insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, movement disorders, disorders of excessive somnolence, and parasomnias;

b. Under the direction of a physician, institution and evaluation of the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities and procedures including the therapeutic use of oxygen and positive airway pressure (PAP) devices, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway pressure of non-ventilated patients;

c. Initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, maintenance of patient's airway (which does not include endotracheal intubation);

d. Transcription and implementation of physician orders pertaining to the practice of polysomnographic technology;

e. Initiation of treatment changes and testing techniques required for the implementation of polysomnographic protocols under the direction and supervision of a licensed physician; and

f. Education of patients and their families on the procedures and treatments used during polysomnographic technology or any equipment or procedure used for the treatment of any sleep disorder.

2010, c. 838; 2018, c. 98.

§ 54.1-2957.16. Licensure of behavior analysts and assistant behavior analysts; requirements; powers of the Board.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice or to hold himself out as practicing as a behavior analyst or to use the title "Licensed Behavior Analyst" unless he holds a license as a behavior analyst issued by the Board. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice or to hold himself out as practicing as an assistant behavior analyst or to use the title "Licensed Assistant Behavior Analyst" unless he holds a license as an assistant behavior analyst issued by the Board. The Board shall issue licenses to practice as a behavior analyst or an assistant behavior analyst to applicants for licensure who meet the requirements of this chapter and the Board's regulations.

B. The Board shall establish criteria for licensure as a behavior analyst, which shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

1. Documentation that the applicant is currently certified as a Board Certified Behavior Analyst by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board or any other entity that is nationally accredited to certify practitioners of behavior analysis;

2. Documentation that the applicant conducts his professional practice in accordance with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and Professional Ethical and Disciplinary Standards and any other accepted professional and ethical standards the Board deems necessary; and

3. Documentation that the applicant for licensure has not had his license or certification as a behavior analyst or as an assistant behavior analyst suspended or revoked and is not the subject of any disciplinary proceedings by the certifying board or in another jurisdiction.

C. The Board shall establish criteria for licensure as an assistant behavior analyst, which shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

1. Documentation that the applicant is currently certified as a Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board or any other entity that is nationally accredited to certify practitioners of behavior analysis;

2. Documentation that the applicant conducts his professional practice in accordance with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board Guidelines for Responsible Conduct and Professional Ethical and Disciplinary Standards and any other accepted professional and ethical standards the Board deems necessary;

3. Documentation that the applicant for licensure has not had his license or certification as an assistant behavior analyst suspended or revoked and is not the subject of any disciplinary proceedings by the certifying board or in another jurisdiction; and

4. Documentation that the applicant's work is supervised by a licensed behavior analyst in accordance with the supervision requirements and procedures established by the Board.

D. The Board shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to implement the provisions of this chapter related to (i) application for and issuance of licenses to behavior analysts or assistant behavior analysts, (ii) requirements for licensure as a behavior analyst or an assistant behavior analyst, (iii) standards of practice for licensed behavior analysts or licensed assistant behavior analysts, (iv) requirements and procedures for the supervision of a licensed assistant behavior analyst by a licensed behavior analyst, and (v) requirements and procedures for supervision by licensed behavior analysts and licensed assistant behavior analysts of unlicensed individuals who assist in the provision of applied behavior analysis services.

E. The Board shall establish a fee, determined in accordance with methods used to establish fees for other health professionals licensed by the Board of Medicine, to be paid by all applicants for licensure as a behavior analyst or assistant behavior analyst.

2012, c. 3.

§ 54.1-2957.17. Exceptions to licensure requirements.

A. The provisions of § 54.1-2957.16 shall not be construed as prohibiting any professional licensed, certified, or registered by a health regulatory board from acting within the scope of his practice.

B. The provisions of § 54.1-2957.16 shall not be construed as prohibiting or restricting the applied behavior analysis activities of a student participating in a defined course, internship, practicum, or program of study at an institution of higher education, provided such activities are supervised by a member of the faculty of the institution or by a licensed behavior analyst and such student does not hold himself out as a licensed behavior analyst and is identified as a "behavior analyst student," "behavior analyst intern," or "behavior analyst trainee."

C. The provisions of § 54.1-2957.16 shall not be construed as prohibiting or restricting the activities of unlicensed individuals pursuing supervised experiential training to meet eligibility requirements for certification by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board or for state licensure, provided such activities are supervised by a licensed behavior analyst who has been approved by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board to provide supervision, the individual does not hold himself out as a licensed behavior analyst, and no more than five years have elapsed from the date on which the supervised experiential training began.

D. The provisions of § 54.1-2957.16 shall not be construed as prohibiting or restricting the activities of an individual employed by a school board or by a school for students with disabilities licensed by the Board of Education from providing behavior analysis when such behavior analysis is performed as part of the regular duties of his office or position and he receives no compensation in excess of the compensation he regularly receives for the performance of the duties of his office or position. No person exempted from licensure pursuant to this subsection shall hold himself out as a licensed behavior analyst or a licensed assistant behavior analyst unless he holds a license as such issued by the Board.

2012, c. 3; 2014, c. 584.

§ 54.1-2957.18. Advisory Board on Behavior Analysis.

A. The Advisory Board on Behavior Analysis (Advisory Board) shall assist the Board in carrying out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications, examination, and regulation of licensed behavior analysts and licensed assistant behavior analysts.

B. The Advisory Board shall consist of five members appointed by the Governor for four-year terms as follows: two members shall be, at the time of appointment, licensed behavior analysts who have practiced for at least three years; one member shall be, at the time of appointment, a licensed assistant behavior analyst who has practiced for not less than three years; one member shall be a physician licensed by the Board who is familiar with the principles of behavior analysis; and one member shall be a consumer of applied behavior analysis who does not hold a license as a behavior analyst or assistant behavior analyst who is appointed by the Governor from the Commonwealth at large. Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of terms shall be filled for the unexpired term.

C. The Advisory Board shall, under the authority of the Board, recommend to the Board for its enactment into regulation the criteria for licensure as a behavior analyst or an assistant behavior analyst and the standards of professional conduct for holders of such licenses.

The Advisory Board shall also assist in such other matters relating to behavior analysis as the Board in its discretion may direct.

2014, c. 584.

§ 54.1-2957.19. Genetic counseling; regulation of the practice; license required; licensure; temporary license.

A. The Board shall adopt regulations governing the practice of genetic counseling, upon consultation with the Advisory Board on Genetic Counseling. The regulations shall (i) set forth the requirements for licensure to practice genetic counseling, (ii) provide for appropriate application and renewal fees, (iii) include requirements for licensure renewal and continuing education, (iv) be consistent with the American Board of Genetic Counseling's current job description for the profession and the standards of practice of the National Society of Genetic Counselors, and (v) allow for independent practice.

B. It shall be unlawful for a person to practice or hold himself out as practicing genetic counseling in the Commonwealth without a valid, unrevoked license issued by the Board. No unlicensed person may use in connection with his name or place of business the title "genetic counselor," "licensed genetic counselor," "gene counselor," "genetic consultant," or "genetic associate" or any words, letters, abbreviations, or insignia indicating or implying a person holds a genetic counseling license.

C. An applicant for licensure as a genetic counselor shall submit evidence satisfactory to the Board that the applicant (i) has earned a master's degree from a genetic counseling training program that is accredited by the Accreditation Council of Genetic Counseling and (ii) holds a current, valid certificate issued by the American Board of Genetic Counseling or American Board of Medical Genetics to practice genetic counseling.

D. The Board shall waive the requirements of a master's degree and American Board of Genetic Counseling or American Board of Medical Genetics certification for license applicants who (i) apply for licensure before December 31, 2018, or within 90 days of the effective date of the regulations promulgated by the Board pursuant to subsection A, whichever is later; (ii) comply with the Board's regulations relating to the National Society of Genetic Counselors Code of Ethics; (iii) have at least 20 years of documented work experience practicing genetic counseling; (iv) submit two letters of recommendation, one from a genetic counselor and another from a physician; and (v) have completed, within the last five years, 25 hours of continuing education approved by the National Society of Genetic Counselors or the American Board of Genetic Counseling.

E. The Board may grant a temporary license to an applicant who has been granted Active Candidate Status by the American Board of Genetic Counseling and has paid the temporary license fee. Temporary licenses shall be valid for a period of up to one year. An applicant shall not be eligible for temporary license renewal upon expiration of Active Candidate Status as defined by the American Board of Genetic Counseling. A person practicing genetic counseling under a temporary license shall be supervised by a licensed genetic counselor or physician.

2014, cc. 10, 266; 2017, c. 422.

§ 54.1-2957.20. Exemptions.

The provisions of this chapter shall not prohibit:

1. A licensed and qualified health care provider from practicing within his scope of practice, provided he does not use the title "genetic counselor" or any other title tending to indicate he is a genetic counselor unless licensed in the Commonwealth;

2. A student from performing genetic counseling as part of an approved academic program in genetic counseling, provided he is supervised by a licensed genetic counselor and designated by a title clearly indicating his status as a student or trainee; or

3. A person who holds a current, valid certificate issued by the American Board of Genetic Counseling or American Board of Medical Genetics to practice genetic counseling, who is employed by a rare disease organization located in another jurisdiction, and who complies with the licensure requirements of that jurisdiction from providing genetic counseling in the Commonwealth fewer than 10 days per year.

2014, cc. 10, 266.

§ 54.1-2957.21. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 240, cl. 1, effective July 1, 2021.

§ 54.1-2957.22. Advisory Board on Genetic Counseling established; membership; terms.

A. The Advisory Board on Genetic Counseling (Advisory Board) is established as an advisory board in the executive branch of state government. The Advisory Board shall assist the Board of Medicine in formulating regulations related to the practice of genetic counseling. The Advisory Board shall also assist in such other matters relating to the practice of genetic counseling as the Board may require.

B. The Advisory Board shall consist of five nonlegislative citizen members to be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly, and shall include three licensed genetic counselors, one doctor of medicine or osteopathy who has experience with genetic counseling services, and one nonlegislative citizen member who has used genetic counseling services. Members of the Advisory Board shall be citizens of the Commonwealth.

After the initial staggering of terms, members shall be appointed for a term of four years. Appointments to fill vacancies, other than by expiration of a term, shall be for the unexpired terms. All members may be reappointed. However, no member shall serve more than two consecutive four-year terms. The remainder of any term to which a member is appointed to fill a vacancy shall not constitute a term in determining the member's eligibility for reappointment. Vacancies shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointments.

2014, cc. 10, 266.