Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations
Chapter 34. Drug Control Act
10/20/2021

Article 5. Standards and Schedules.

§ 54.1-3443. Board to administer article.

A. The Board shall administer this article and may add substances to or deschedule or reschedule all substances enumerated in the schedules in this article pursuant to the procedures of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). In making a determination regarding a substance, the Board shall consider the following:

1. The actual or relative potential for abuse;

2. The scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known;

3. The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the substance;

4. The history and current pattern of abuse;

5. The scope, duration, and significance of abuse;

6. The risk to the public health;

7. The potential of the substance to produce psychic or physical dependence; and

8. Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this article.

B. After considering the factors enumerated in subsection A, the Board shall make findings and issue a regulation controlling the substance if it finds the substance has a potential for abuse.

C. If the Board designates a substance as an immediate precursor, substances which are precursors of the controlled precursor shall not be subject to control solely because they are precursors of the controlled precursor.

D. If the Board, in consultation with the Department of Forensic Science, determines the substance shall be placed into Schedule I or II pursuant to § 54.1-3445 or 54.1-3447, the Board may amend its regulations pursuant to Article 2 (§ 2.2-4006 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act. Prior to making such amendments, the Board shall conduct a public hearing. At least 30 days prior to conducting such hearing, it shall post notice of the hearing on the Virginia Regulatory Town Hall and shall send notice of the hearing to any persons requesting to be notified of a regulatory action. In the notice, the Board shall include a list of all substances it intends to schedule by regulation. The Board shall notify the House Committee for Courts of Justice and the Senate Committee on the Judiciary of any new substance added to Schedule I or II pursuant to this subsection. Any substance added to Schedule I or II pursuant to this subsection shall remain on Schedule I or II for a period of 18 months. Upon expiration of such 18-month period, such substance shall be descheduled unless a general law is enacted adding such substance to Schedule I or II. Nothing in this subsection shall preclude the Board from adding substances to or descheduling or rescheduling all substances enumerated in the schedules pursuant to the provisions of subsections A, B, and E.

E. If any substance is designated, rescheduled, or descheduled as a controlled substance under federal law and notice of such action is given to the Board, the Board may similarly control the substance under this chapter after the expiration of 30 days from publication in the Federal Register of a final or interim final order or rule designating a substance as a controlled substance or rescheduling or descheduling a substance by amending its regulations in accordance with the requirements of Article 2 (§ 2.2-4006 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act. Prior to making such amendments, the Board shall post notice of the hearing on the Virginia Regulatory Town Hall and shall send notice of the hearing to any persons requesting to be notified of a regulatory action. The Board shall include a list of all substances it intends to schedule by regulation in such notice.

F. Authority to control under this section does not extend to distilled spirits, wine, malt beverages, or tobacco as those terms are defined or used in Title 4.1.

G. The Board shall exempt any nonnarcotic substance from a schedule if such substance may, under the provisions of the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.) or state law, be lawfully sold over the counter without a prescription.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:1; 1976, c. 614; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 866; 1996, c. 408; 2014, cc. 674, 719; 2017, cc. 416, 432.

§ 54.1-3444. Controlled substances included by whatever name designated.

The controlled substances listed or to be listed in the schedules in this chapter are included by whatever official, common, usual, chemical, or trade name designated.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:2; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3445. Placement of substance in Schedule I.

The Board shall place a substance in Schedule I if it finds that the substance:

1. Has high potential for abuse; and

2. Has no accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or lacks accepted safety for use in treatment under medical supervision.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:3; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3446. Schedule I.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule I:

1. Any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of these isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

1-[2-methyl-4-(3-phenyl-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-1-butanone (other name: 2-methyl AP-237);

1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetyloxypiperidine (other name: PEPAP);

1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (other name: MPPP);

2-methoxy-N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-acetamide (other name: Methoxyacetyl fentanyl);

3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methyl-benzamide (other name: U-47700);

3,4-dichloro-N-{[1-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]methyl}benzamide (other name: AH-7921);

Acetyl fentanyl (other name: desmethyl fentanyl);

Acetylmethadol;

Allylprodine;

Alphacetylmethadol (except levo-alphacetylmethadol, also known as levo-alpha-acetylmethadol, levomethadyl acetate, or LAAM);

Alphameprodine;

Alphamethadol;

Benzethidine;

Betacetylmethadol;

Betameprodine;

Betamethadol;

Betaprodine;

Clonitazene;

Dextromoramide;

Diampromide;

Diethylthiambutene;

Difenoxin;

Dimenoxadol;

Dimepheptanol;

Dimethylthiambutene;

Dioxaphetylbutyrate;

Dipipanone;

Ethylmethylthiambutene;

Etonitazene;

Etoxeridine;

Furethidine;

Hydroxypethidine;

Ketobemidone;

Levomoramide;

Levophenacylmorphan;

Morpheridine;

MT-45 (1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine);

N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide (other name: Cyclopropyl fentanyl);

N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (other name: Tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl);

N-[1-[1-methyl-2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidyl]-N-phenylpropanamide (other name: alpha-methylthiofentanyl);

N-[1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl]-N-phenylacetamide (other name: acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl);

N-{1-[2-hydroxy-2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinyl}-N-phenylpropanamide (other name: beta-hydroxythiofentanyl);

N-[1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenyl)ethyl-4-piperidyl]-N-phenylpropanamide (other name: beta-hydroxyfentanyl);

N-[1-(alpha-methyl-beta-phenyl)ethyl-4-piperidyl]propionanilide (other names: 1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-(N-propanilido) piperidine, alpha-methylfentanyl);

N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other names: 2-fluorofentanyl, ortho-fluorofentanyl);

N-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other name: 3-fluorofentanyl);

N-[3-methyl-1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)4-piperidyl]-N-phenylpropanamide (other name: beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl);

N-[3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl]-N-phenylpropanamide (other name: 3-methylfentanyl);

N-[3-methyl-1-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl]-N-phenylpropanamide (other name: 3-methylthiofentanyl);

N-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other name: para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl);

N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-butanamide (other name: para-fluorobutyrylfentanyl);

N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other name: para-fluorofentanyl);

N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-isopropoxybenzyl)-5-nitro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-amine (other name: Isotonitazene);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2-furancarboxamide (other name: N-benzyl Furanyl norfentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-(4-piperidinyl)-propanamide (other name: Norfentanyl);

Noracymethadol;

Norlevorphanol;

Normethadone;

Norpipanone;

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2-furancarboxamide (other name: Furanyl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2-propenamide (other name: Acryl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-butanamide (other name: butyryl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-pentanamide (other name: Pentanoyl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-thienyl)ethyl-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other name: thiofentanyl);

Phenadoxone;

Phenampromide;

Phenomorphan;

Phenoperidine;

Piritramide;

Proheptazine;

Properidine;

Propiram;

Racemoramide;

Tilidine;

Trimeperidine;

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide (other name: Benzodioxole fentanyl);

3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(diethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (other name: U-49900);

2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methyl acetamide (other name: U-48800);

2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methyl acetamide (other name: U-51754);

N-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-methoxy-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-acetamide (other name: Ocfentanil);

N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-butanamide (other name: 4-methoxybutyrylfentanyl);

N-phenyl-2-methyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other name: Isobutyryl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-cyclopentanecarboxamide (other name: Cyclopentyl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)-propanamide (other name: N-methyl norfentanyl);

N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide (other names: 3,4-methylenedioxy U-47700 or 3,4-MDO-U-47700);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2-butenamide (other name: Crotonyl fentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[4-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-propanamide (other name: 4-phenylfentanyl);

N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-benzamide (other names: Phenyl fentanyl, Benzoyl fentanyl);

N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-phenylfuran-2-carboxamide (other name: Furanyl UF-17);

N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-phenylpropionamide (other name: UF-17);

3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-isopropyl-benzamide (other name: Isopropyl U-47700).

2. Any of the following opium derivatives, their salts, isomers and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of these salts, isomers and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Acetorphine;

Acetyldihydrocodeine;

Benzylmorphine;

Codeine methylbromide;

Codeine-N-Oxide;

Cyprenorphine;

Desomorphine;

Dihydromorphine;

Drotebanol;

Etorphine;

Heroin;

Hydromorphinol;

Methyldesorphine;

Methyldihydromorphine;

Morphine methylbromide;

Morphine methylsulfonate;

Morphine-N-Oxide;

Myrophine;

Nicocodeine;

Nicomorphine;

Normorphine;

Pholcodine;

Thebacon.

3. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or which contains any of its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation (for purposes of this subdivision only, the term "isomer" includes the optical, position, and geometric isomers):

Alpha-ethyltryptamine (some trade or other names: Monase; a-ethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine; 3-2-aminobutyl] indole; a-ET; AET);

4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (some trade or other names: 2-4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-1-aminoethane;alpha-desmethyl DOB; 2C-B; Nexus);

3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine;

5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine;

3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine;

Alpha-methyltryptamine (other name: AMT);

Bufotenine;

Diethyltryptamine;

Dimethyltryptamine;

4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET);

4-fluoro-N-ethylamphetamine;

2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine (other name: 2C-T-7);

Ibogaine;

5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-DIPT);

Lysergic acid diethylamide;

Mescaline;

Parahexyl (some trade or other names: 3-Hexyl-1-hydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo [b,d] pyran; Synhexyl);

Peyote;

N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

Psilocybin;

Psilocyn;

Salvinorin A;

Tetrahydrocannabinols, except as present in (i) industrial hemp, as defined in § 3.2-4112, that is possessed by a person registered pursuant to subsection A of § 3.2-4115 or his agent; (ii) a hemp product, as defined in § 3.2-4112, containing a tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no greater than 0.3 percent that is derived from industrial hemp, as defined in § 3.2-4112, that is grown, dealt, or processed in compliance with state or federal law; (iii) marijuana; (iv) dronabinol in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a drug product approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; or (v) industrial hemp, as defined in § 3.2-4112, that is possessed by a person who holds a hemp producer license issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture pursuant to 7 C.F.R. Part 990;

2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (some trade or other names: 2,5-dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; 2,5-DMA);

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), its optical, positional and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers;

3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (also known as N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3,4 (methylenedioxy)phenethylamine, N-ethyl MDA, MDE, MDEA);

N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (some other names: N-hydroxy-alpha-methyl-3,4(methylenedioxy)phenethylamine, and N-hydroxy MDA);

4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (some trade or other names: 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; 4-bromo-2,5-DMA);

4-methoxyamphetamine (some trade or other names: 4-methoxy-a-methylphenethylamine; paramethoxyamphetamine; PMA);

Ethylamine analog of phencyclidine (some other names: N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine, (1-phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine, N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) ethylamine, cyclohexamine, PCE);

Pyrrolidine analog of phencyclidine (some other names: 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine, PCPy, PHP);

Thiophene analog of phencyclidine (some other names: 1-[1-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexyl]-piperidine, 2-thienyl analog of phencyclidine, TPCP, TCP);

1-1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]pyrrolidine (other name: TCPy);

3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (other name: MDPV);

4-methylmethcathinone (other names: mephedrone, 4-MMC);

3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (other name: methylone);

Naphthylpyrovalerone (other name: naphyrone);

4-fluoromethcathinone (other names: flephedrone, 4-FMC);

4-methoxymethcathinone (other names: methedrone; bk-PMMA);

Ethcathinone (other name: N-ethylcathinone);

3,4-methylenedioxyethcathinone (other name: ethylone);

Beta-keto-N-methyl-3,4-benzodioxolylbutanamine (other name: butylone);

N,N-dimethylcathinone (other name: metamfepramone);

Alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: alpha-PPP);

4-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MOPPP);

3,4-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MDPPP);

Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (other name: alpha-PVP);

6,7-dihydro-5H-indeno-(5,6-d)-1,3-dioxol-6-amine (other name: MDAI);

3-fluoromethcathinone (other name: 3-FMC);

4-Ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: 2C-E);

4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: 2C-I);

4-Methylethcathinone (other name: 4-MEC);

4-Ethylmethcathinone (other name: 4-EMC);

N,N-diallyl-5-methoxytryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-DALT);

Beta-keto-methylbenzodioxolylpentanamine (other names: Pentylone, bk-MBDP);

Alpha-methylamino-butyrophenone (other name: Buphedrone);

Alpha-methylamino-valerophenone (other name: Pentedrone);

3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone (other name: 3.4-DMMC);

4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MPPP);

4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other names: 25-I, 25I-NBOMe, 2C-I-NBOMe);

Methoxetamine (other names: MXE, 3-MeO-2-Oxo-PCE);

4-Fluoromethamphetamine (other name: 4-FMA);

4-Fluoroamphetamine (other name: 4-FA);

2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanamine (other name: 2C-D);

2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (other name: 2C-C);

2-[4-(Ethylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (other name: 2C-T-2);

2-[4-(Isopropylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (other name: 2C-T-4);

2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (other name: 2C-H);

2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)ethanamine (other name: 2C-N);

2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylphenyl)ethanamine (other name: 2C-P);

(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (other name: APB);

(2-aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (other name: APDB);

4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other names: 2C-C-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25C);

4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other names: 2C-B-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 25B);

Acetoxydimethyltryptamine (other names: AcO-Psilocin, AcO-DMT, Psilacetin);

Benocyclidine (other names: BCP, BTCP);

Alpha-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (other name: alpha-PBP);

3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylcathinone (other names: Dimethylone, bk-MDDMA);

4-bromomethcathinone (other name: 4-BMC);

4-chloromethcathinone (other name: 4-CMC);

4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other name: 25I-NBOH);

Alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone (other name: alpha-PHP);

Alpha-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone (other name: PV8);

5-methoxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-MIPT);

Beta-keto-N,N-dimethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine (other names: Dibutylone, bk-DMBDB);

Beta-keto-4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: bk-2C-B);

1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)-1-pentanone (other name: N-ethylpentylone);

1-[1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (other name: 3-methoxy PCP);

1-[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (other name: 4-methoxy PCP);

4-Chloroethcathinone (other name: 4-CEC);

3-Methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1-propanone (other name: Mexedrone);

1-propionyl lysergic acid diethylamide (other name: 1P-LSD);

(2-Methylaminopropyl)benzofuran (other name: MAPB);

1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(dimethylamino)-1-pentanone (other names: N,N-Dimethylpentylone, Dipentylone);

1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)octan-1-one (other name: 4-methoxy-PV9);

3,4-tetramethylene-alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (other name: TH-PVP);

4-allyloxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: Allylescaline);

4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other name: 25B-NBOH);

4-chloro-alpha-methylamino-valerophenone (other name: 4-chloropentedrone);

4-chloro-alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (other name: 4-chloro-alpha-PVP);

4-fluoro-alpha-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone (other name: 4-fluoro-PV8);

4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (other name: 4-OH-DIPT);

4-methyl-alpha-ethylaminopentiophenone;

4-methyl-alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone (other name: MPHP);

5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-DMT);

5-methoxy-N-ethyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-EIPT);

6-ethyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide (other name: ETH-LAD);

6-allyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide (other name: AL-LAD);

(N-methyl aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (other name: MAPDB);

2-(methylamino)-2-phenyl-cyclohexanone (other name: Deschloroketamine);

2-(ethylamino)-2-phenyl-cyclohexanone (other name: deschloro-N-ethyl-ketamine);

2-methyl-1-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-2-morpholinopropiophenone (other name: MMMP);

Alpha-ethylaminohexanophenone (other name: N-ethylhexedrone);

N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexylamine (other name: 3-methoxy-PCE);

4-fluoro-alpha-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (other name: 4-fluoro-alpha-PHP);

N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (other name: Ephenidine);

2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (other name: DOC);

3,4-methylenedioxy-N-tert-butylcathinone;

Alpha-pyrrolidinoisohexiophenone (other name: alpha-PiHP);

1-[1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (other name: 3-hydroxy PCP);

4-acetyloxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine (other name: 4-AcO-DALT);

4-hydroxy-N,N-methylisopropyltryptamine (other name: 4-hydroxy-MiPT);

3,4-Methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (other name: MDPHP);

5-methoxy-N,N-dibutyltryptamine (other name: 5-methoxy-DBT);

1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)-1-butanone (other names: Eutylone, bk-EBDB);

1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(butylamino)-1-pentanone (other name: N-butylpentylone);

N-benzyl-3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (other name: N-benzyl-3,4-DMA);

1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(sec-butylamino)pentan-1-one (other name: N-sec-butyl Pentylone);

1-cyclopropionyl lysergic acid diethylamide (other name: 1cP-LSD);

2-(ethylamino)-1-phenylheptan-1-one (other name: N-ethylheptedrone);

(2-ethylaminopropyl)benzofuran (other name: EAPB);

4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other name: 25E-NBOH);

2-fluoro-Deschloroketamine (other name: 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone);

4-hydroxy-N-ethyl-N-propyltryptamine (other name: 4-hydroxy-EPT);

2-(isobutylamino)-1-phenylhexan-1-one (other names: N-Isobutyl Hexedrone, alpha-isobutylaminohexanphenone);

1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (other names: para-Methoxymethamphetamine, PMMA);

N-ethyl-1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexylamine (other name: 3-hydroxy-PCE);

N-heptyl-3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (other names: N-heptyl-3,4-DMA);

N-hexyl-3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (other names: N-hexyl-3,4-DMA).

4. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Clonazolam;

Etizolam;

Flualprazolam;

Flubromazepam;

Flubromazolam;

Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (some other names include GHB; gamma hydroxybutyrate; 4-hydroxybutyrate; 4-hydroxybutanoic acid; sodium oxybate; sodium oxybutyrate);

Mecloqualone;

Methaqualone.

5. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers:

2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine (other name: 3-fluorophenmetrazine);

Aminorex (some trade or other names; aminoxaphen; 2-amino-5-phenyl-2-oxazoline; 4,5-dihydro-5-phenyl-2-oxazolamine);

Cathinone (some trade or other names: 2-amino-1-phenyl-1-propanone, alpha-aminopropiophenone, 2-aminopropiophenone, norephedrone), and any plant material from which Cathinone may be derived;

Cis-4-methylaminorex (other name: cis-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolamine);

Ethylamphetamine;

Ethyl phenyl(piperidin-2-yl)acetate (other name: Ethylphenidate);

Fenethylline;

Methcathinone (some other names: 2-(methylamino)-propiophenone; alpha-(methylamino)-propiophenone; 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one; alpha-N-methylaminopropiophenone; monomethylpropion; ephedrone; N-methylcathinone; methylcathinone; AL-464; AL-422; AL-463 and UR 1432);

N-Benzylpiperazine (some other names: BZP, 1-benzylpiperazine);

N,N-dimethylamphetamine (other names: N, N-alpha-trimethyl-benzeneethanamine, N, N-alpha-trimethylphenethylamine);

Methyl 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-piperidinyl)acetate (other name: 4-fluoromethylphenidate);

Isopropyl-2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidinyl)acetate (other name: Isopropylphenidate);

4-chloro-N,N-dimethylcathinone;

3,4-methylenedioxy-N-benzylcathinone (other name: BMDP).

6. Any substance that contains one or more cannabimimetic agents or that contains their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, and any preparation, mixture, or substance containing, or mixed or infused with, any detectable amount of one or more cannabimimetic agents.

a. "Cannabimimetic agents" includes any substance that is within any of the following structural classes:

2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent;

3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent;

3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any extent;

1-(1-naphthylmethyl)indene with substitution of the 3-position of the indene ring, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent;

3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent;

3-cyclopropoylindole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the cyclopropyl ring to any extent;

3-adamantoylindole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the adamantyl ring to any extent;

N-(adamantyl)-indole-3-carboxamide with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the adamantyl ring to any extent; and

N-(adamantyl)-indazole-3-carboxamide with substitution at a nitrogen atom of the indazole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indazole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the adamantyl ring to any extent.

b. The term "cannabimimetic agents" includes:

5-(1,1-Dimethylheptyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497);

5-(1,1-Dimethylhexyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497 C6 homolog);

5-(1,1-Dimethyloctyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497 C8 homolog);

5-(1,1-Dimethylnonyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497 C9 homolog);

1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other names: JWH-018, AM-678);

1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-073);

1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (other name: JWH-250);

1-hexyl-3-(naphthalen-1-oyl)indole (other name: JWH-019);

1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-200);

(6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tet rahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (other name: HU-210);

1-pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-081);

1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-122);

1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (other name: JWH-203);

1-pentyl-3-(4-ethyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-210);

1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-398);

1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (other name: AM-694);

1-((N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: AM-1220);

1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: AM-2201);

1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (other name: AM-2233);

Pravadoline (4-methoxyphenyl)-[2-methyl-1-(2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl)indol-3-y l]methanone (other name: WIN 48,098);

1-pentyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole (other names: RCS-4, SR-19);

1-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (other names: RCS-8, SR-18);

1-pentyl-3-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropylmethanone)indole (other name: UR-144);

1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropylmethanone)indole (other names: XLR-11, 5-fluoro-UR-144);

N-adamantyl-1-fluoropentylindole-3-carboxamide (other name: STS-135);

N-adamantyl-1-pentylindazole-3-carboxamide (other names: AKB48, APINACA);

1-pentyl-3-(1-adamantoyl)indole (other name: AB-001);

(8-quinolinyl)(1-pentylindol-3-yl)carboxylate (other name: PB-22);

(8-quinolinyl)(1-(5-fluoropentyl)indol-3-yl)carboxylate (other name: 5-fluoro-PB-22);

(8-quinolinyl)(1-cyclohexylmethyl-indol-3-yl)carboxylate (other name: BB-22);

N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentylindazole-3-carboxamide (other name: AB-PINACA);

N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: AB-FUBINACA);

1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indazole (other name: THJ-2201);

N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentylindazole-3-carboxamide (other name: ADB-PINACA);

N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: AB-CHMINACA);

N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: 5-fluoro-AB-PINACA);

N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indazole-3-carboxam ide (other names: ADB-CHMINACA, MAB-CHMINACA);

Methyl-2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate (other name: 5-fluoro-AMB);

1-naphthalenyl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (other name: NM-2201);

1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-3-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropylmethanone)indole (other name: FUB-144);

1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name MAM-2201);

N-(1-Amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole- 3-carboxamide (other name: ADB-FUBINACA);

Methyl 2-[1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-di methylbutanoate (other name: MDMB-FUBINACA);

Methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (other names: 5-fluoro-ADB, 5-Fluoro-MDMB-PINACA);

Methyl 2-({1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl}amino)-3-methylbutanoat e (other names: AMB-FUBINACA, FUB-AMB);

N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: FUB-AKB48);

N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: 5F-AKB48);

N-(adamantanyl)-1-(5-chloropentyl) indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: 5-chloro-AKB48);

Naphthalen-1-yl 1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylate (other name: SDB-005);

N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carboxamide (other name: AB-CHMICA);

1-pentyl-N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (other name: SDB-006);

Quinolin-8-yl 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (other name: FUB-PB-22);

Methyl N-[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]valinate (other name: MMB-CHMICA);

N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)indazole-3-carboxamid e (other name: 5-fluoro-ADB-PINACA);

1-(4-cyanobutyl)-N-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: 4-cyano CUMYL-BUTINACA);

Methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (other name: 5-Fluoro-MDMB-PICA);

Ethyl 2-({1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl}amino)-3-methylbutanoat e (other name: EMB-FUBINACA);

Methyl 2-[1-4-fluorobutyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (other name: 4-fluoro-MDMB-BUTINACA);

1-(5-fluoropentyl)-N-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (other name: 5-fluoro CUMYL-PICA);

Methyl 2-[1-(pent-4-enyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamindo]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (other name: MDMB-4en-PINACA);

Methyl 2-({1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonyl}amino)-3-methylbutanoate (other names: MMB-FUBICA, AMB-FUBICA);

Methyl 2-[1-(4-penten-1-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido]-3-methylbutanoate (other names: MMB022, MMB-4en-PICA);

Methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido]-3-methylbutanoate (other name: MMB 2201);

Methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido]-3-phenylpropanoate (other name: 5-fluoro-MPP-PICA);

N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-butylindazole-3-carboxamide (other name: ADB-BUTINACA);

N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-chloropentyl)indazole-3-carboxamide (other name: 5-chloro-AB-PINACA).

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:4; 1973, c. 479; 1976, c. 614; 1977, c. 302; 1979, cc. 387, 435; 1982, c. 505; 1984, cc. 186, 192; 1986, c. 463; 1988, c. 765; 1994, c. 763; 1996, c. 408; 1997, c. 594; 1999, c. 722; 2000, c. 348; 2005, c. 119; 2008, c. 59; 2011, cc. 384, 410; 2012, cc. 762, 816; 2013, cc. 295, 785; 2014, cc. 674, 719; 2015, cc. 726, 757; 2016, cc. 103, 112; 2017, cc. 414, 434; 2018, c. 372; 2019, cc. 85, 653, 654; 2020, cc. 101, 229, 1285, 1286; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 73, 110.

§ 54.1-3447. Placement of substance in Schedule II.

The Board shall place a substance in Schedule II if it finds that:

1. The substance has high potential for abuse;

2. The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, or currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions; and

3. The abuse of the substance may lead to severe psychic or physical dependence.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:5; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3448. Schedule II.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule II:

1. Any of the following substances, except those narcotic drugs listed in other schedules, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate, excluding apomorphine, thebaine-derived butorphanol, dextrorphan, nalbuphine, naldemedine, nalmefene, naloxone naltrexone and their respective salts, but including the following:

Raw opium;

Opium extracts;

Opium fluid extracts;

Powdered opium;

Granulated opium;

Tincture of opium;

Codeine;

Dihydroetorphine;

Ethylmorphine;

Etorphine hydrochloride;

Hydrocodone;

Hydromorphone;

Metopon;

Oripavine (3-O-demethylthebaine or 6,7,8,14-tetradehydro-4,

5-alpha-epoxy-6-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3-ol);

Morphine;

Oxycodone;

Oxymorphone;

Thebaine.

Any salt, compound, isomer, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in this subdivision, but not including the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

Opium poppy and poppy straw.

Coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, but not including decocainized coca leaves or extractions which do not contain cocaine or ecgonine; cocaine or any salt or isomer thereof.

Concentrate of poppy straw, the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid or powder form, which contains the phenanthrene alkaloids of the opium poppy.

2. Any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of these isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Alfentanil;

Alphaprodine;

Anileridine;

Bezitramide;

Bulk dextropropoxyphene (nondosage forms);

Carfentanil;

Dihydrocodeine;

Diphenoxylate;

Fentanyl;

Isomethadone;

Levo-alphacetylmethadol (levo-alpha-acetylmethadol)(levomethadyl acetate)(LAAM);

Levomethorphan;

Levorphanol;

Metazocine;

Methadone;

Methadone — Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenyl butane;

Moramide — Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenyl-propane-carboxylicacid;

Pethidine (other name: meperidine);

Pethidine — Intermediate — A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine;

Pethidine — Intermediate — B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate;

Pethidine — Intermediate — C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid;

Phenazocine;

Piminodine;

Racemethorphan;

Racemorphan;

Remifentanil;

Sufentanil;

Tapentadol;

Thiafentanil.

3. Any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers;

Phenmetrazine and its salts;

Any substance which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers;

Methylphenidate;

Lisdexamfetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers.

4. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Amobarbital;

Glutethimide;

Secobarbital;

Pentobarbital;

Phencyclidine.

5. The following hallucinogenic substances:

Nabilone;

Dronabinol ((-)-delta-9-trans tetrahydrocannabinol) in an oral solution in a drug product approved for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

6. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances which are:

a. Immediate precursors to amphetamine and methamphetamine:

Phenylacetone.

b. Immediate precursor to phencyclidine:

1-phenylcyclohexylamine;

1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (other name: PCC).

c. Immediate precursor to fentanyl:

4-anilino-N-phenethyl-4-piperidine (ANPP).

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:6; 1976, c. 614; 1977, c. 302; 1978, c. 833; 1979, c. 387; 1981, c. 30; 1984, c. 192; 1986, c. 463; 1988, cc. 283, 765; 1992, c. 737; 1994, c. 763; 1998, c. 105; 2000, c. 135; 2005, c. 119; 2008, c. 74; 2010, c. 423; 2011, c. 700; 2017, c. 612; 2019, c. 85.

§ 54.1-3449. Placement of substance in Schedule III.

The Board shall place a substance in Schedule III if it finds that:

1. The substance has a potential for abuse less than the substances listed in Schedules I and II;

2. The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States; and

3. Abuse of the substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:7; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3450. Schedule III.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule III:

1. Unless specifically exempted or listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid, except those substances which are specifically listed in other schedules;

Any compound, mixture or preparation containing amobarbital, secobarbital, or pentobarbital or any salt of amobarbital, secobarbital, or pentobarbital and one or more other active medicinal ingredients which are not listed in Schedules II through V;

Any suppository dosage form containing amobarbital, secobarbital, or pentobarbital or any salt of amobarbital, secobarbital, or pentobarbital and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for marketing only as a suppository;

Chlorhexadol;

Any drug product containing gamma hydroxybutyric acid, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, for which an application is approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 355);

Embutramide;

Ketamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers (some other names: [+-] -2-[2-chlorophenyl]-2-[methylamino]-cyclohexanone);

Lysergic acid;

Lysergic acid amide;

Methyprylon;

Perampanel [2-(2-oxo-1-phenyl-5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl) benxonitrile], including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers;

Sulfondiethylmethane;

Sulfonethylmethane;

Sulfonmethane; and

Tiletamine-zolazepam combination product or any salt thereof.

2. Nalorphine.

3. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule:

a. Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs or their salts thereof:

Buprenorphine.

b. Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof:

Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

4. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Benzphetamine;

Chlorphentermine;

Clortermine;

Phendimetrazine.

5. The Board may except by regulation any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulation or depressant substance listed in subsection A from the application of all or any part of this chapter if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system, and if the admixtures are included therein in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system.

6. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Anabolic steroids, including, but not limited to:

3beta,17-dihydroxy-5a-androstane;

3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5a-androstane;

5alpha-androstan-3,17-dione;

1-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-ene);

1-androstenediol (3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-ene);

4-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-androst-4-ene);

5-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-androst-5-ene);

1-androstenedione ([5alpha]-androst-1-en-3,17-dione);

4-androstenedione (androst-4-en-3,17-dione);

5-androstenedione (androst-5-en-3,17-dione);

Bolasterone (7alpha,17alpha-dimenthyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

Boldenone (Dehydrotestosterone)(17beta-hydroxyandrost-1,4,-diene-3-one);

Boldione (androsta-1, 4-diene-3, 17-dione);

Calusterone (7beta,17alpha-dimethyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

Clostebol (4-Chlorotestosterone)(Chlorotestosterone)(4-chloro-17beta-hydr oxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-androst-1,4-dien-3-one) ;

Delta1-dihydrotestosterone (1-testosterone) (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one);

Desoxymethyltestosterone (madol) (17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-ol);

Dromostanolone (Drostanolone) (17beta-hydroxy-2alpha-methyl-5alpha-androstan-3- one);

Ethylestrenol (17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-ene);

Fluoxymesterone (9-fluoro-17alpha-methyl-11beta,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3- one);

Formyldienolone (Formebolone) (2-formyl-17alpha-methyl-11alpha,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-1,4-di en-3-one);

Furazabol (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrostano[2,3-c]-furazan);

13-beta-ethyl-17alpha-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one;

4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17beta-dihydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one);

4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone (4,17beta-dihydroxy-estr-4-en-3-one);

Mestanolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-5-androstan-3-one);

Mesterolone (1alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-[5alpha]-androstan-3-one);

Methandriol (methylandrostenediol) (17alpha-methyl-3beta,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-5-ene);

Methandrostenolone (Methandienone) (Dehydromethyltestosterone) (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one);

Methasterone (2alpha,17alpha-dimethyl-5alpha-androstan-17beta-ol-3-one);

Methenolone (1-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one);

17alpha-methyl-3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-5a-androstane;

17alpha-methyl-3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5a-androstane;

17alpha-methyl-3beta,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-ene);

17alpha-methyl-4-hydroxynandrolone (17alpha-methyl-4-hydroxy-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

Methyldienolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9(10)-dien-3-one);

Methyltrienolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9-11-trien-3-one);

17-Methyltestosterone (Methyltestosterone)(17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en- 3-one);

Mibolerone (7alpha,17alpha-dimethyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

17alpha-methyl-delta1-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one)(17-al pha-methyl-1-testosterone);

Nandrolone (19-Nortestosterone)(17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

19-nor-4,9(10)-androstadienedione(estra-4,9(10)-diene-3,17-dion e);

19-nor-4-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxyestr-4-ene);

19-nor-4-androstenediol (3alpha,17beta-dihydroxyestr-4-ene);

19-nor-5-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxyestr-5-ene);

19-nor-5-androstenediol (3alpha,17beta-dihydroxyestr-5-ene);

19-nor-4-androstenedione (estr-4-en-3,17-dione);

19-nor-5-androstenedione (estr-5-en-3,17-dione);

Norbolethone (13beta,17alpha-diethyl-17beta-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one);

Norclostebol (4-chloro-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

Norethandrolone (17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

Normethandrolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

Oxandrolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-2-oxa-[5alpha]-androstan-3-one);

Oxymesterone (Oxymestrone) (17alpha-methyl-4,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

Oxymetholone (Anasterone) (17alpha-methyl-2-hydroxymethylene-17beta-hydroxy-[ 5alpha]-androsta n-3-one);

Prostanozol (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole);

Stanolone (4-Dihydrotestosterone) (Dihydrotestosterone) (17beta-hydroxy-androstan-3-one);

Stanozolol (Androstanazole) (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-[5alpha]-androst-2-eno[3,2-c]-py razole);

Stenbolone (17beta-hydroxy-2-methyl-[5alpha]-androst-1-en-3-one);

Testolactone (1-Dehydrotestololactone) (13-hydroxy-3-oxo-13,17-secoandrosta-1 ,4-dien-17-oic acid lactone);

Testosterone (17beta-hydroxandrost-4-en-3-one);

Tetrahydrogestrinone (13beta,17alpha-diethyl-17beta-hydroxygon-4,9,11-trien-3-one);

Trenbolone (Trienbolone) (Trienolone) (17beta-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one); and

Any salt, ester, or ether of a drug or substance described or listed in this paragraph. However, such term does not include an anabolic steroid which is expressly intended for administration through implants to cattle or other nonhuman species and which has been approved by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services for such administration. If any person prescribes, dispenses, or distributes any such steroid for human use, such person shall be considered to have prescribed, dispensed, or distributed an anabolic steroid within the meaning of this subsection.

7. Dronabinol (synthetic) in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a drug product approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:8; 1976, c. 614; 1977, c. 302; 1979, c. 387; 1982, c. 505; 1988, cc. 283, 765; 1992, c. 737; 2000, cc. 135, 348; 2003, c. 640; 2005, c. 119; 2006, c. 346; 2007, c. 14; 2010, c. 423; 2013, c. 233; 2014, c. 74; 2015, c. 303.

§ 54.1-3451. Placement of substance in Schedule IV.

The Board shall place a substance in Schedule IV if it finds that:

1. The substance has a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III;

2. The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States; and

3. Abuse of the substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the substances in Schedule III.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:9; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3452. Schedule IV.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule IV unless specifically excepted or listed in another schedule:

1. Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

Alfaxalone (5[alpha]-pregnan-3[alpha]-ol-11, 20-dione), previously spelled "alphaxalone," including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers;

Alprazolam;

Barbital;

Bromazepam;

Camazepam;

Carisoprodol;

Chloral betaine;

Chloral hydrate;

Chlordiazepoxide;

Clobazam;

Clonazepam;

Clorazepate;

Clotiazepam;

Cloxazolam;

Delorazepam;

Diazepam;

Dichloralphenazone;

Estazolam;

Ethchlorvynol;

Ethinamate;

Ethyl loflazepate;

Fludiazepam;

Flunitrazepam;

Flurazepam;

Fospropofol;

Halazepam;

Haloxazolam;

Ketazolam;

Loprazolam;

Lorazepam;

Lormetazepam;

Mebutamate;

Medazepam;

Methohexital;

Meprobamate;

Methylphenobarbital;

Midazolam;

Nimetazepam;

Nitrazepam;

Nordiazepam;

Oxazepam;

Oxazolam;

Paraldehyde;

Petrichloral;

Phenobarbital;

Pinazepam;

Prazepam;

Quazepam;

Suvorexant ([(7R)-4-(5-chloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-7-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl][5-methyl-2- (2H-1, 2, 3-triazol-2-yl) phenyl]methanone), including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers;

Temazepam;

Tetrazepam;

Triazolam;

Zaleplon;

Zolpidem;

Zopiclone.

2. Any compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances including any salts or isomers thereof:

Fenfluramine;

Lorcaserin.

3. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

Cathine (+)-norpseudoephedrine;

Diethylpropion;

Fencamfamin;

Fenproprex;

Mazindol;

Mefenorex;

Modafinil;

Phentermine;

Pemoline (including organometallic complexes and chelates thereof);

Pipradrol;

Sibutramine;

SPA (-)-1-dimethylamino-1,2-diphenylethane.

4. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as set forth below:

Dextropropoxyphene (alpha-(+)-4-dimethylamino-1,2-diphenyl-3-methyl-2-propionoxybutane);

Not more than 1 milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit;

2-[(dimethylamino) methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of such isomers, including tramadol.

5. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including their salts:

Butorphanol (including its optical isomers);

Eluxadoline (including its optical isomers and its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers);

Pentazocine.

6. The Board may except by regulation any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any depressant substance listed in subdivision 1 from the application of all or any part of this chapter if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, and if the admixtures are included therein in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which have a depressant effect on the central nervous system.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:10; 1976, c. 614; 1977, c. 302; 1978, c. 705; 1979, c. 387; 1982, c. 505; 1986, c. 463; 1988, cc. 283, 765; 1992, c. 737; 1994, c. 763; 1998, c. 105; 1999, c. 605; 2000, c. 135; 2003, c. 640; 2006, c. 346; 2010, c. 423; 2012, c. 540; 2014, c. 74; 2015, c. 303; 2016, c. 499.

§ 54.1-3453. Placement of substance in Schedule V.

The Board shall place a substance in Schedule V if it finds that:

1. The substance has low potential for abuse relative to the controlled substances listed in Schedule IV;

2. The substance has currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States; and

3. The substance has limited physical dependence or psychological dependence liability relative to the controlled substances listed in Schedule IV.

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:11; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3454. Schedule V.

The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule V:

1. Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, which also contains one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation, valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit;

Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

Not more than 0.5 milligrams of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

The Board may except by regulation any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any depressant substance listed in subdivision 1 from the application of all or any part of this chapter and such substances so excepted may be dispensed pursuant to § 54.1-3416.

2. Unless specifically excepted or listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers:

Pyrovalerone.

3. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts:

Brivaracetam ((2S)-2-[(4R)-2-oxo-4-propylpyrrolidin-1-yl] butanamide) (also referred to as BRV; UCB-34714; Briviact);

Ezogabine [N-[2-amino-4-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-phenyl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester]-2779;

Gabapentin [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid];

Lacosamide [(R)-2-acetoamido-N-benzyl-3-methoxy-propionamide];

Pregabalin [(S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid].

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:12; 1976, c. 614; 1977, c. 302; 1979, c. 387; 1984, c. 186; 1986, c. 463; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 737; 1994, c. 763; 2003, c. 640; 2006, c. 346; 2010, c. 423; 2012, c. 541; 2017, c. 612; 2019, c. 214.

§ 54.1-3455. Schedule VI.

The following classes of drugs and devices shall be controlled by Schedule VI:

1. Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulant or depressant drug exempted from Schedules III, IV or V and designated by the Board as subject to this section.

2. Every drug, not included in Schedules I, II, III, IV or V, or device, which because of its toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or the method of its use, or the collateral measures necessary to its use, is not generally recognized among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety and efficacy as safe for use except by or under the supervision of a practitioner licensed to prescribe or administer such drug or device.

3. Any drug, not included in Schedules I, II, III, IV or V, required by federal law to bear on its label prior to dispensing, at a minimum, the symbol "Rx only," or which bears the legend "Caution: Federal Law Prohibits Dispensing Without Prescription" or "Caution: Federal Law Restricts This Drug To Use By Or On The Order Of A Veterinarian" or any device which bears the legend "Caution: Federal Law Restricts This Device To Sales By Or On The Order Of A _______________." (The blank should be completed with the word "Physician," "Dentist," "Veterinarian," or with the professional designation of any other practitioner licensed to use or order such device.)

1972, c. 798, § 54-524.84:13; 1976, c. 614; 1977, c. 302; 1988, c. 765; 1999, c. 605.

§ 54.1-3456. Controlled substance analog.

A controlled substance analog shall, to the extent intended for human consumption, be treated, for the purposes of any state law, as a controlled substance in Schedule I or II. A controlled substance analog shall be considered to be listed on the same schedule as the drug or class of drugs which it imitates.

1987, c. 447, § 54-524.84:14; 1988, c. 765; 2014, cc. 674, 719.

§ 54.1-3456.1. Drugs of concern.

The Board may promulgate regulations designating specific drugs and substances, including any controlled substance or other drug or substance where there has been or there is the actual or relative potential for abuse, as drugs of concern. Drugs or substances designated as drugs of concern shall be reported to the Department of Health Professions and shall be subject to reporting requirements for the Prescription Monitoring Program established pursuant to Chapter 25.2 (§ 54.1-2519 et seq.).

2014, c. 664; 2017, c. 181; 2019, c. 214.