Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations
Chapter 34. Drug Control Act
11/28/2022

Article 6. Misbranded and Adulterated Drugs and Cosmetics.

§ 54.1-3457. Prohibited acts.

The following acts shall be prohibited:

1. The manufacture, sale, delivery, holding, or offering for sale of any drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.

2. The adulteration or misbranding of any drug, device, or cosmetic.

3. The receipt in commerce of any drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded, and the delivery or proffered delivery thereof for pay or otherwise.

4. The sale, delivery for sale, holding for sale, or offering for sale of any article in violation of § 54.1-3421.

5. The dissemination of any false advertisement.

6. The refusal to permit entry or inspection, or to permit the taking of a sample, or to permit access to or copying of any record.

7. The giving of a false guaranty or undertaking.

8. The removal or disposal of a detained article in violation of § 54.1-3459.

9. The alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration, or removal of the whole or any part of the labeling of, or the doing of any other act with respect to, a drug, device, or cosmetic, if such act is done while such article is held for sale and results in such article being adulterated or misbranded.

10. The forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using of any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification device authorized or required by regulations promulgated under the provisions of this chapter or of the federal act.

11. The using by any person to his own advantage, or revealing, other than to the Board or its authorized representative or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this chapter of any information acquired under authority of this chapter concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection.

12. The using, on the labeling of any drug or in any advertisement relating to such drug, of any representation or suggestion that an application with respect to such drug is effective under § 54.1-3421, or that such drug complies with the provisions of such section.

13. In the case of a drug distributed or offered for sale in this Commonwealth, the failure of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof to maintain for transmittal, or to transmit, to any practitioner licensed by applicable law to administer such drug who makes written request for information as to such drug, true and correct copies of all printed matter which is required to be included in any package in which that drug is distributed or sold, or such other printed matter as is approved under the federal act. This subdivision shall not be construed to exempt any person from any labeling requirement imposed by or under other provisions of this chapter.

14. Placing or causing to be placed upon any drug or device or container, with intent to defraud, the trade name or other identifying mark, or imprint of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing; or selling, dispensing, disposing of, or causing to be sold, dispensed, or disposed of, or concealing or keeping in possession, control, or custody, with intent to sell, dispense, or dispose of, any drug, device, or any container thereof, with knowledge that the trade name or other identifying mark or imprint of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing has been placed thereon in a manner prohibited by this section or making, selling, disposing of, or causing to be made, sold, or disposed of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit drug.

15. The doing of any act that causes a drug to be a counterfeit drug, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit drug.

16. Dispensing or causing to be dispensed a different drug or brand of drug in place of the drug or brand of drug ordered or prescribed without the permission of the person ordering or prescribing, except as provided in § 54.1-3408.03 relating to dispensing of therapeutically equivalent drugs.

17. Dispensing or causing to be dispensed a biosimilar in place of a prescribed biological product or brand of biological product, except as provided in § 54.1-3408.04 related to dispensing of interchangeable biosimilars.

1970, c. 650, § 54-524.85; 1988, c. 765; 2003, c. 639; 2013, cc. 412, 544.

§ 54.1-3458. Violations.

A. Any person who violates any of the provisions of § 54.1-3457 shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

B. No person shall be subject to the penalties of this section for having violated subdivisions 1 and 3 of § 54.1-3457 if he establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in this Commonwealth from whom he received in good faith the article, to the effect that such article is not adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this chapter.

C. No publisher, radio-broadcast licensee, or agency or medium for the dissemination of an advertisement, except the manufacturer, packer, distributor, or seller of the article to which a false advertisement relates, shall be liable under this section for the dissemination of such false advertisement, unless he has refused, on the request of the Board, to furnish the Board the name and post-office address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, seller, or advertising agency, residing in this Commonwealth who caused him to disseminate such advertisement.

1970, c. 650, § 54-524.87; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3459. Tagging of adulterated or misbranded drugs, devices, or cosmetics; condemnation; destruction; expenses.

A. Whenever a duly authorized agent of the Board finds, or has probable cause to believe, that any drug, device, or cosmetic is adulterated, or so misbranded as to be dangerous or fraudulent, within the meaning of this chapter or is in violation of § 54.1-3457, he shall affix to such article a tag or other appropriate marking, giving notice that such article is, or is suspected of being, adulterated or misbranded or in violation of § 54.1-3457 and has been detained. The tag shall also warn all persons not to remove or dispose of such article by sale or otherwise until permission for removal or disposal is given by an authorized agent or the court. It shall be unlawful for any person to remove or dispose of such detained article by sale or otherwise without permission.

B. When an article is adulterated or misbranded or is in violation of § 54.1-3421, the Board may petition the circuit court in whose jurisdiction the article is detained for condemnation of such article. When an authorized agent finds that an article which has been detained is not adulterated or misbranded, or in violation of § 54.1-3421, he shall remove the tag or other marking.

C. If the court finds that a detained article is adulterated or misbranded, or in violation of § 54.1-3421, such article shall, after entry of the decree, be destroyed at the expense of the claimant, under the supervision of an authorized agent, and all court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses, shall be levied against the claimant or his agent. When the adulteration or misbranding can be corrected by proper labeling or processing of the article, the court shall order the article to be properly labeled or processed. The expense of the supervision shall be paid by the claimant. The article shall be returned to the claimant and the bond shall be discharged on the representation to the court by the Board that the article is no longer in violation of this chapter, and that the expenses of such supervision have been paid.

1970, c. 650, § 54-524.88; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3460. Poisonous or deleterious substance, or color additive.

Any added poisonous or deleterious substance, or any color additive, shall with respect to any particular use or intended use be deemed unsafe with respect to any drug, device, or cosmetic, unless there is a regulation allowing limited use of a quantity of such substance, and the use or intended use of such substance conforms to the terms prescribed by regulation. While such regulations relating to such substance are in effect, a drug or cosmetic shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such substance in accordance with the regulations, be considered adulterated.

1970, c. 650, § 54-524.91; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3461. Adulterated drug or device.

A. A drug or device shall be deemed to be adulterated:

1. If it consists in whole or in part of any filth, putrid or decomposed substance;

2. If it has been produced, prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it has been contaminated with filth, or whereby it has been rendered injurious to health;

3. If it is a drug and the methods used in, or the facilities or controls used for, its manufacture, processing, packing, or holding do not conform to or are not operated or administered in conformity with current good manufacturing practice to assure that such drug meets the requirements of this chapter;

4. If it is a drug and its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health;

5. If it is a drug and it bears or contains, for purposes of coloring only, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of the federal act or § 54.1-3460; or

6. It is a color additive, the intended use of which in or on drugs is for purposes of coloring only, and is unsafe within the meaning of the federal act or § 54.1-3460.

B. A drug or device shall be deemed to be adulterated if it purports to be or is represented as a drug the name of which is recognized in an official compendium, and its strength differs from, or its quality or purity falls below, the standard set forth in such compendium. Such determination of strength, quality, or purity shall be made in accordance with the tests or methods of assay set forth in such compendium, or in the absence of or inadequacy of such tests or methods of assay, those prescribed under authority of the federal act. No drug defined in an official compendium shall be deemed to be adulterated under this subsection because it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or purity set forth in such compendium, if the difference in strength, quality, or purity from such standard is plainly stated on its label.

Whenever a drug is recognized in both the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary and the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States it shall be subject to the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homeopathic drug, in which case it shall be subject to the provisions of the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States and not to those of the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary.

C. A drug or device shall be deemed to be adulterated if it is not subject to the provisions of subsection B of this section and its strength differs from, or its purity or quality falls below, that which it purports or is represented to possess.

D. A drug or device shall be deemed to be adulterated if it is a drug and any substance has been (i) mixed or packed with it so as to reduce its quality or strength or (ii) substituted wholly or in part for it.

Code 1950, § 54-461; 1970, c. 650, § 54-524.92; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3462. Misbranded drug or device.

A drug or device shall be deemed to be misbranded:

1. If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular.

2. If its package does not bear a label containing the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor. However, all prescription drugs intended for human use and devices shall bear a label containing the name and place of business of the manufacturer of the final dosage form of the drug and, if different, the name and place of business of the packer or distributor and an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count. Reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions for small packages shall be allowed in accordance with regulations of the Board.

3. If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed with such conspicuousness, as compared with other words, statements, designs or devices, in the labeling, and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.

4. If it is for use by man and contains any quantity of the narcotic or hypnotic substances alpha-eucaine, barbituric acid, beta-eucaine, bromal, carbromal, chloral, coca, cocaine, codeine, morphine, opium, paraldehyde, or sulfonmethane, or any chemical derivative of such substances, which derivative, after investigation has been found to be and designated as, habit forming, by regulations issued by the Board under this chapter, unless its label bears the name and quantity or proportion of such substance or derivative and in juxtaposition therewith the statement "Warning -- May Be Habit Forming."

5. If it is a drug, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name, except the applicable systematic chemical name or the chemical formula, the established name of the drug, and in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the established name and quantity of each active ingredient, including the kind and quantity or proportion of any alcohol, and the established name and quantity or proportion of any bromides, ether, chloroform, acetanilid, acetphenetidin, amidopyrine, antipyrine, atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine, arsenic, digitalis, digitalis glucosides, mercury, ouabain, strophanthin, strychnine, thyroid, or any derivative or preparation of any such substances. However, the requirement for stating the quantity of the active ingredients, other than the quantity of those specifically named in this subdivision, shall apply only to prescription drugs. Any prescription drug shall have the established name of the drug or ingredient printed on its label prominently and in type at least half as large as that used for any proprietary name or designation for such drug or ingredient. Exemptions may be allowed under regulations of the Board.

As used in this subdivision, the term "established name," with respect to a drug or ingredient, means the applicable official name designated pursuant to § 508 of the federal act, or if there is no such name and such drug, or such ingredient, is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title in such compendium or if neither exists, then the common or usual name, if any, of such drug or of such ingredient. Whenever, an article is recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary and in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia under different official titles, the official title used in the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary shall apply unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homeopathic drug, in which case the official title used in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia shall apply.

6. Unless its labeling bears adequate directions for use and such adequate warnings against use in those pathological conditions or by children where its use may be dangerous to health, or against unsafe dosage or methods or duration of administration or application, in such manner and form, as are necessary for the protection of users. The Board shall promulgate regulations exempting such drug or device from such requirements when these requirements are not necessary to protect the public health and the articles are also exempted under regulations issued under § 502(f) of the federal act.

7. If it purports to be a drug the name of which is recognized in an official compendium, unless it is packaged and labeled as prescribed. The method of packing may be modified with the consent of the Board, or if consent is obtained under the federal act. Whenever a drug is recognized in both the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary and the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, it shall be subject to the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary with respect to packaging and labeling unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homeopathic drug, in which case it shall be subject to the provisions of the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States and not to those of the United States Pharmacopoeia National Formulary. However, in the event of inconsistency between the requirements of this subdivision and those of subdivision 5 as to the name by which the drug or its ingredients shall be designated, the requirements of subdivision 5 shall prevail.

8. If it is dangerous to health when used in the dosage, or with the frequency or duration prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling or advertising.

9. If it is, or purports to be, or is represented as a drug composed wholly or partly of insulin, unless it is from a batch for which a certificate or release has been issued pursuant to § 506 of the federal act, and such certificate or release is in effect with respect to such drug.

10. If it is, or purports to be, or is represented as a drug composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, or any other antibiotic drug, or any derivative, unless it is from a batch, for which a certificate or release has been issued pursuant to § 507 of the federal act, and such certificate or release is in effect for such drug. This subdivision shall not apply to any drug or class of drugs exempted by regulations promulgated under § 507(c) or (d) of the federal law.

For the purpose of this subdivision the term "antibiotic drug" means any drug intended for use by man containing any quantity of any chemical substance which is produced by microorganisms and which has the capacity to inhibit or destroy microorganisms in dilute solution, including, the chemically synthesized equivalent of any such substance.

11. If it is a color additive, the intended use of which in or on drugs is for coloring only, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements applicable to such color additive, prescribed under the provisions of the federal act.

12. In the case of any prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in this Commonwealth, unless the manufacturer, packer, or distributor includes in all advertisements and other descriptive printed matter a true statement of (i) the established name, as defined in this section, printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used for any trade or brand name, (ii) the formula showing quantitatively each ingredient of such drug to the extent required for labels under this section, and (iii) such other information in brief summary relating to side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness as are required in regulations issued under the federal act.

13. If a trademark, trade name or other identifying mark, imprint or device of another or any likeness of the foregoing has been placed thereon or upon its container with intent to defraud.

Drugs and devices which are, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed shall be exempt from any labeling or packaging requirements of this chapter if such drugs and devices are being delivered, manufactured, processed, labeled, repacked or otherwise held in compliance with regulations issued by the Board.

Code 1950, § 54-463; 1958, c. 551; 1970, c. 650, § 54-524.93; 1976, c. 644; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3463. Exemption of drugs dispensed by filling or refilling prescription.

A. Any drug dispensed by filling or refilling a written or oral prescription of a prescriber shall be exempt from the requirements of § 54.1-3462 except subdivisions 1, 9, and 10, and the packaging requirements of subdivision 7, if the drug bears a label containing the name and address of the dispenser, the serial number and date of the prescription or of its filling, the name of the prescriber and the name of the patient, and the directions for use and cautionary statements, if any, contained in such prescription.

B. This section shall not be construed to relieve any person from any requirement prescribed by or under authority of law with respect to drugs now included or which may hereafter be included within the classifications of narcotic drugs or marijuana as defined in the applicable federal and state laws relating to narcotic drugs and marijuana.

1970, c. 650, § 54-524.94; 1988, c. 765; 1996, c. 408.

§ 54.1-3464. Adulterated cosmetics.

A cosmetic shall be deemed to be adulterated:

1. If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to users under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling or advertisement, or under such conditions of use as are customary or usual. This provision shall not apply to coal-tar hair dye, the label of which bears the following legend conspicuously displayed thereon: "Caution -- This product contains ingredients which may cause skin irritation on certain individuals and a preliminary test according to accompanying directions should first be made. This product must not be used for dyeing the eyelashes or eyebrows; to do so may cause blindness," and the labeling of which bears adequate directions for such preliminary testing. For the purpose of this subdivision and subdivision 5, the term "hair dye" shall not include eyelash or eyebrow dyes;

2. If it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance;

3. If it has been produced, prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health;

4. If its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health;

5. If it is not a hair dye, and it is or it bears or contains a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of the federal act or § 54.1-3460.

Code 1950, § 54-462; 1970, c. 650, § 54-524.96; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-3465. Misbranded cosmetics.

A cosmetic shall be deemed to be misbranded:

1. If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular;

2. If in package form unless it bears a label containing the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor and an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count. However, reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions for small packages shall be established by the Board;

3. If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness, as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling, and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use;

4. If its container is so made, formed or filled as to be misleading;

5. If it is a color additive, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with packaging and labeling requirements applicable to such color additive under the provisions of the federal act. This subdivision shall not apply to packages of color additives which, with respect to their use for cosmetics, are marketed and intended for use only in or on hair dyes.

A cosmetic which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled or repacked in substantial quantities at an establishment other than the establishment where it was originally processed or packed, is exempted from the affirmative labeling requirements of this chapter while it is in transit in commerce from the one establishment to the other, if such transit is made in good faith for such completion purposes only; but it is otherwise subject to all applicable provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 54-466; 1970, c. 650, § 54-524.97; 1988, c. 765.