Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances
Chapter 19. Virginia Condominium Act
8/3/2021

Article 3. Management of Condominium.

§ 55.1-1940. Bylaws to be recorded with declaration; contents; unit owners' association; executive board; amendment of bylaws.

A. Bylaws providing for governance of the condominium by an association of all of the unit owners shall be recorded simultaneously with the declaration. The unit owners' association may be incorporated.

B. The bylaws shall provide whether or not the unit owners' association shall elect an executive board. If there is to be such a board, the bylaws shall specify the powers and responsibilities of the board and the number and terms of its members. Except to the extent the condominium instruments provide otherwise, any vacancy occurring in the executive board shall be filled by a vote of a majority of the remaining members of the executive board at a meeting of the executive board, even though the members of the executive board present at such meeting may constitute less than a quorum because a quorum is impossible to obtain. Each person so elected shall serve until the next annual meeting of the unit owners' association at which time a successor shall be elected by a vote of the unit owners. The bylaws may delegate to such board, inter alia, any of the powers and responsibilities assigned by this chapter to the unit owners' association. The bylaws shall also specify which, if any, of its powers and responsibilities the unit owners' association or its executive board may delegate to a managing agent.

C. The bylaws may provide for arbitration of disputes or other means of alternative dispute resolution in accordance with subsection C of § 55.1-1915.

D. In any case where an amendment to the declaration is required by subsection B, C, or D of § 55.1-1918, the person required to execute such amendment shall also prepare and execute, and record simultaneously with such amendment, an amendment to the bylaws. The amendment to the bylaws shall allocate votes in the unit owners' association to new units on the same basis as was used for the allocation of such votes to the units depicted on plats and plans recorded pursuant to subsections A and B of § 55.1-1920 or shall abolish the votes appertaining to former units, as appropriate. The amendment to the bylaws shall also reallocate rights to future common surpluses, and liabilities for future common expenses not specially assessed, in proportion to relative voting strengths as reflected by the amendment.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.73; 1978, c. 332; 1993, c. 667; 1998, c. 32; 2012, c. 758; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 592.

§ 55.1-1941. Amendment to condominium instruments; consent of mortgagee.

A. If any provision in the condominium instruments requires the written consent of a mortgagee in order to amend the condominium instruments, the unit owners' association shall be deemed to have received the written consent of a mortgagee if the unit owners' association sends the text of the proposed amendment by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the mortgagee at the address supplied by such mortgagee in a written request to the unit owners' association to receive notice of proposed amendments to the condominium instruments and receives no written objection to the adoption of the amendment from the mortgagee within 60 days of the date that the notice of amendment is sent by the unit owners' association, unless the condominium instruments expressly provide otherwise. If the mortgagee has not supplied an address to the unit owners' association, the unit owners' association shall be deemed to have received the written consent of a mortgagee if the unit owners' association sends the text of the proposed amendment by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the mortgagee at the address filed in the land records or with the local tax assessor's office and receives no written objection to the adoption of the amendment from the mortgagee within 60 days of the date that the notice of amendment is sent by the unit owners' association, unless the condominium instruments expressly provide otherwise.

B. Any amendment adopted without the required consent of a mortgagee shall be voidable only by an institutional lender that was entitled to notice and an opportunity to consent. An action to void an amendment shall be subject to the one-year statute of limitations set forth in subsection C of § 55.1-1934 beginning on the date of recordation of the amendment.

C. Subsection A shall not apply to amendments that alter the priority of the lien of the mortgagee or that materially impair or affect the unit as collateral or the right of the mortgagee to foreclose on a unit as collateral.

D. Where the condominium instruments are silent on the need for mortgagee consent, no mortgagee consent shall be required if the amendment to the condominium instruments does not specifically affect mortgagee rights.

1993, c. 1, § 55-79.73:1; 1998, c. 32; 2007, c. 675; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 817.

§ 55.1-1942. Reformation of declaration; judicial procedure.

A. A unit owners' association may petition the circuit court in the county or city in which the condominium or the greater part of the condominium is located to reform the condominium instruments where the unit owners' association, acting through its executive board, has attempted to amend the condominium instruments regarding ownership of legal title of the common elements or real property using provisions outlined in the condominium instruments to resolve (i) ambiguities or inconsistencies in the condominium instruments that are the source of legal and other disputes pertaining to the legal rights and responsibilities of the unit owners' association or individual unit owners or (ii) scrivener's errors, including incorrectly identifying the unit owners' association, incorrectly identifying an entity other than the unit owners' association, or errors arising from oversight or from an inadvertent omission or mathematical mistake.

B. The court shall have jurisdiction over matters set forth in subsection A regarding ownership of legal title of the common elements or real property to:

1. Reform, in whole or in part, any provision of the condominium instruments; and

2. Correct mistakes or any other error in the condominium instruments that may exist with respect to the declaration for any other purpose.

C. A petition filed by the unit owners' association with the court setting forth any inconsistency or error made in the condominium instruments, or the necessity for any change in such instruments, shall be deemed sufficient basis for the reformation, in whole or in part, of the condominium instruments, provided that:

1. The unit owners' association has made three good faith attempts to convene a duly called meeting of the unit owners' association to present for consideration amendments to the condominium instruments for the reasons specified in subsection A, which attempts have proven unsuccessful as evidenced by an affidavit verified by oath of the principal officer of the unit owners' association;

2. There is no adequate remedy at law as practical and effective to attain the ends of justice as may be accomplished in the circuit court;

3. Where the declarant of the condominium still owns a unit or continues to have any special declarant rights in the condominium, the declarant joins in the petition of the unit owners' association;

4. A copy of the petition is sent to all unit owners at least 30 days before the petition is filed as evidenced by an affidavit verified by oath of the principal officer of the unit owners' association; and

5. A copy of the petition is sent to all mortgagees at least 30 days before the petition is filed as evidenced by an affidavit verified by oath of the principal officer of the unit owners' association.

D. Any mortgagee of a condominium unit in the condominium shall have standing to participate in the reformation proceedings before the court. No reformation pursuant to this section shall affect mortgagee rights, alter the priority of the lien of any mortgage, materially impair or affect any condominium unit as collateral for a mortgage, or affect a mortgagee's right to foreclose on a condominium unit as collateral without the prior written consent of the mortgagee. Consent of a mortgagee required by this section may be deemed received pursuant to § 55.1-1941.

2014, c. 659, § 55-79.73:2; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1943. Control of condominium by declarant.

A. The condominium instruments may authorize the declarant, or a managing agent or some other person selected or to be selected by the declarant, to appoint and remove some or all of the officers of the unit owners' association or its executive board, or to exercise powers and responsibilities otherwise assigned by the condominium instruments and by this chapter to the unit owners' association, the officers, or the executive board. The declarant, managing agent, or other person selected by the declarant to so appoint and remove officers or the executive board or to exercise such powers and responsibilities otherwise assigned to the unit owners' association, the officers, or the executive board shall be subject to liability as fiduciaries of the unit owners for their action or omissions during the period of declarant control as specified in the condominium instruments or, if not so specified, within such period as defined in this section. But no amendment to the condominium instruments shall increase the scope of such authorization if there is any unit owner other than the declarant, and no such authorization shall be valid after the time limit set by the condominium instruments or after units to which three-fourths of the undivided interests in the common elements appertain have been conveyed, whichever occurs first. For the purposes of the preceding sentence only, the calculation of the fraction of undivided interest shall be based upon the total undivided interests assigned or to be assigned to all units registered with the Common Interest Community Board pursuant to subsection B of § 55.1-1978 and described pursuant to subdivision A 4, B 2, or C 8 of § 55.1-1916.

B. The time limit initially set by the condominium instruments shall not exceed five years in the case of an expandable condominium; three years in the case of a condominium other than an expandable condominium, containing any convertible land; or two years in the case of any other condominium. Such time period shall begin upon settlement of the first unit to be sold in any portion of the condominium.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, at the request of the declarant, such time limits may be extended for a period not to exceed 15 years from the settlement of the first unit to be sold in any portion of the condominium or after units to which three-fourths of the undivided interests in the common elements appertain have been conveyed, whichever occurs first, provided that (i) a special meeting is held prior to the expiration of the initial period of declarant control; (ii) at such special meeting, the extension of such time limits is approved by a two-thirds affirmative vote of the unit owners other than the declarant; and (iii) at such special meeting, there is an election of a warranty review committee consisting of no fewer than three persons unaffiliated with the declarant.

Prior to any such vote, the declarant shall furnish to the unit owners in the notice of such special meeting made in accordance with § 55.1-1949 a written statement in a form provided by the Common Interest Community Board that discloses that an affirmative vote extends the right of the declarant, or a managing agent or some other person selected by the declarant, to (a) appoint and remove some or all of the officers of the unit owners' association or its executive board and (b) exercise powers and responsibilities otherwise assigned by the condominium instruments and by this chapter. In addition, such statement shall contain both a notice of the effect of the extension of declarant control on the enforcement of the warranty against structural defects provided by the declarant in accordance with § 55.1-1955 and a statement that a unit owner is advised to exercise whatever due diligence the unit owner deems necessary to protect his interest.

C. If entered into any time prior to the expiration of the period of declarant control, no contract or lease entered into with the declarant or any entity controlled by the declarant, management contract, employment contract, or lease of recreational or parking areas or facilities, which is directly or indirectly made by or on behalf of the unit owners' association, its executive board, or the unit owners as a group, shall be entered into for a period in excess of two years. Any such contract or agreement entered into on or after July 1, 1978, may be terminated without penalty by the unit owners' association or its executive board upon not less than 90 days' written notice to the other party given not later than 60 days after the expiration of the period of declarant control. Any such contract or agreement may be renewed for periods not in excess of two years; however, at the end of any two-year period the unit owners' association or its executive board may terminate any further renewals or extensions of such contract or agreement. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any lease referred to in § 55.1-1910 or subject to subsection E of § 55.1-1916.

D. If entered into at any time prior to the expiration of the period of declarant control, any contract, lease, or agreement, other than those subject to the provisions of subsection C, may be entered into by or on behalf of the unit owners' association, its executive board, or the unit owners as a group, if such contract, lease, or agreement is bona fide and is commercially reasonable to the unit owners' association at the time entered into under the circumstances.

E. This section does not apply to any contract, incidental to the disposition of a condominium unit, to provide to a unit owner for the duration of such unit owner's life, or for any term in excess of one year, nursing services, medical services, other health-related services, board and lodging and care as necessary, or any combination of such services. The rule of property law known as the rule restricting unreasonable restraints on alienation shall not be applied to defeat any provision of the condominium instruments requiring that the unit owners be parties to such contracts.

F. If the unit owners' association is not in existence or does not have officers at the time of the creation of the condominium, the declarant shall, until there is such an association with such officers, have the power and the responsibility to act in all instances where this chapter requires action by the unit owners' association, its executive board, or any officer.

G. Thirty days prior to the expiration of the period of declarant control, the declarant shall notify the governing body of the locality in which the condominium is located of the forthcoming termination of declarant control. Prior to the expiration of the 30-day period, the local governing body or an agency designated by the local governing body shall advise the principal elected officer of the condominium unit owners' association of any outstanding violations of applicable building codes or local ordinances or other deficiencies of record.

H. Within 45 days from the expiration of the period of declarant control, the declarant shall deliver to the president of the unit owners' association or his designated agent (i) all unit owners' association books and records held by or controlled by the declarant, including minute books and all rules, regulations, and amendments to such rules and regulations that may have been promulgated; (ii) an accurate and complete statement of receipts and expenditures prepared using the accrual method of accounting from the date of the recording of the condominium instruments to the end of the regular accounting period immediately succeeding the first annual meeting of the unit owners, not to exceed 60 days from the date of the election; (iii) a copy of the latest available approved plans and specifications for all improvements in the project or as-built plans, if available; (iv) all association insurance policies that are currently in force; (v) written unexpired warranties of the contractors, subcontractors, suppliers, and manufacturers, if any; (vi) contracts in which the association is a contracting party, if any; (vii) a list of manufacturers of paints, roofing materials, and other similar materials if specified for use on the condominium property; and (viii) an inventory and description of stormwater facilities located on the common elements or which otherwise serve the condominium and for which the unit owners' association has, or subsequently may have, maintenance, repair, or replacement responsibility, together with the requirements for maintenance thereof.

The requirement for delivery of stormwater facility information required by clause (viii) shall be deemed satisfied by delivery to the association of a final site plan or final construction drawing showing stormwater facilities as approved by a local government jurisdiction and applicable recorded easements, or agreements if any, containing requirements for the maintenance, repair, or replacement of the stormwater facilities.

If the unit owners' association is managed by a management company in which the declarant, or its principals, have no pecuniary interest or management role, then such management company shall have the responsibility to provide the documents and information required by clauses (i), (ii), (iv), and (vi).

I. This section shall be strictly construed to protect the rights of the unit owners.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.74; 1975, c. 415; 1978, c. 332; 1980, c. 738; 1984, c. 601; 1985, c. 83; 1996, c. 977; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2013, c. 599; 2019, cc. 712, 724.

§ 55.1-1944. Deposit of funds.

All funds deposited with a managing agent shall be handled in a fiduciary capacity and shall be kept in a fiduciary trust account in a federally insured financial institution separate from other assets of the managing agent. The funds shall be the property of the unit owners' association and shall be segregated for each account in the records of the managing agent in a manner that permits the funds to be identified on an individual unit owners' association basis.

2007, cc. 696, 712, § 55-79.74:01; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1945. Books, minutes, and records; inspection.

A. The declarant, managing agent, unit owners' association, or person specified in the bylaws of the association shall keep detailed records of the receipts and expenditures affecting the operation and administration of the condominium and specifying the maintenance and repair expenses of the common elements and any other expenses incurred by or on behalf of the association. Subject to the provisions of subsections B, C, and E, upon request, any unit owner shall be provided a copy of such records and minutes. All financial books and records shall be kept in accordance with generally accepted accounting practices.

B. Subject to the provisions of subsection C, all books and records kept by or on behalf of the unit owners' association, including the unit owners' association membership list, and addresses and aggregate salary information of unit owners' association employees, shall be available for examination and copying by a unit owner in good standing or his authorized agent so long as the request is for a proper purpose related to his membership in the unit owners' association and not for pecuniary gain or commercial solicitation. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, this right of examination shall exist without reference to the duration of membership and may be exercised (i) only during reasonable business hours or at a mutually convenient time and location and (ii) upon five business days' written notice for a unit owner association managed by a common interest community manager and 10 business days' written notice for a self-managed unit owners' association, which notice shall reasonably identify the purpose for the request and the specific books and records of the unit owners' association requested.

C. Books and records kept by or on behalf of a unit owners' association may be withheld from examination or copying by unit owners and contract purchasers to the extent that they are drafts not yet incorporated into the books and records of the unit owners' association or if such books and records concern:

1. Personnel matters relating to specific, identified persons or a person's medical records;

2. Contracts, leases, and other commercial transactions to purchase or provide goods or services, currently in or under negotiation;

3. Pending or probable litigation. For purposes of this subdivision, "probable litigation" means those instances where there has been a specific threat of litigation from a person or the legal counsel of such person;

4. Matters involving state or local administrative or other formal proceedings before a government tribunal for enforcement of the condominium instruments or rules and regulations promulgated by the executive board;

5. Communications with legal counsel that relate to subdivisions 1 through 4 or that are protected by the attorney-client privilege or the attorney work product doctrine;

6. Disclosure of information in violation of law;

7. Meeting minutes or other confidential records of an executive session of the executive board held pursuant to subsection C of § 55.1-1949;

8. Documentation, correspondence or management or executive board reports compiled for or on behalf of the unit owners' association or the executive board by its agents or committees for consideration by the executive board in executive session; or

9. Individual unit owner or member files, other than those of the requesting unit owner, including any individual unit owner's files kept by or on behalf of the unit owners' association.

D. Books and records kept by or on behalf of a unit owners' association shall be withheld from examination and copying in their entirety only to the extent that an exclusion from disclosure under subsection C applies to the entire content of such books and records. Otherwise, only those portions of the books and records containing information subject to an exclusion under subsection C may be withheld or redacted, and all portions of the books and records that are not so excluded shall be available for examination and copying, provided that the requesting member shall be responsible to the association for paying or reimbursing the association for any reasonable costs incurred by the association in responding to the request for the books and records and review for redaction of the same.

E. Prior to providing copies of any books and records, the unit owners' association may impose and collect a charge, not to exceed the reasonable costs of materials and labor, incurred to provide such copies. Charges may be imposed only in accordance with a cost schedule adopted by the executive board in accordance with this subsection. The cost schedule shall (i) specify the charges for materials and labor, (ii) apply equally to all unit owners in good standing, and (iii) be provided to such requesting unit owner at the time the request is made.

1980, c. 738, § 55-79.74:1; 1985, c. 75; 1989, c. 57; 1990, c. 662; 1992, c. 72; 1994, c. 463; 1999, c. 594; 2000, cc. 906, 919; 2001, c. 419; 2011, cc. 334, 361, 605; 2014, c. 207; 2018, c. 663; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 592.

§ 55.1-1946. Management office.

Unless the condominium instruments expressly provide otherwise, the unit owners' association shall not be prohibited from maintaining a management office on common elements or in one or more units in the condominium.

1982, c. 545, § 55-79.74:2; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1947. Transfer of special declarant rights.

A. For the purposes of this section, "affiliate of a declarant" means any person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a declarant. A person controls a declarant if the person (i) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the declarant; (ii) directly or indirectly, or acting in concert with one or more persons or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing more than 20 percent of the voting interests in the declarant; (iii) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the declarant; or (iv) has contributed more than 20 percent of the capital of the declarant. A person is controlled by a declarant if the declarant (a) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the person; (b) directly or indirectly, or acting in concert with one or more other persons or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing more than 20 percent of the voting interest in the person; (c) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the person; or (d) has contributed more than 20 percent of the capital of the person. Control does not exist if the powers described in this subsection are held solely as security for an obligation and are not exercised.

B. No special declarant right may be transferred except by a document evidencing the transfer recorded in every county and city in which any portion of the condominium is located. The instrument shall not be effective unless executed by the transferee.

C. Upon transfer of any special declarant right, the liability of a transferor declarant shall be as follows:

1. The transferor shall not be relieved of any obligation or liability arising before the transfer and shall remain liable for warranty obligations imposed upon him by subsection B of § 55.1-1955. Lack of privity shall not deprive any unit owner of standing to bring an action to enforce any obligation of the transferor.

2. If the successor to any special declarant right is an affiliate of a declarant, the transferor shall also be jointly and severally liable with the successor for any obligation or liability of the successor that relates to the condominium.

3. If a transferor retains any special declarant rights, but transfers other special declarant rights to a successor who is not an affiliate of the declarant, the transferor shall also be liable for all obligations and liabilities relating to the retained special declarant rights and imposed on a declarant by this chapter or by the condominium instruments.

4. A transferor shall have no liability for any breach of a contractual or warranty obligation or for any other act or omission, arising from the exercise of a special declarant right by a successor declarant who is not an affiliate of the transferor.

D. Except as otherwise provided by the mortgage or deed of trust, in case of foreclosure of a mortgage, sale by a trustee under a deed of trust, tax sale, judicial sale, or sale under receivership proceedings or the Bankruptcy Code as codified in Title 11 of the United States Code of any unit owned by a declarant or land subject to development rights:

1. A person acquiring title to all the land being foreclosed or sold shall, but only upon his request, succeed to all special declarant rights related to that land reserved by that declarant, or only to any rights reserved in the declaration pursuant to § 55.1-1929 and held by that declarant to maintain sales offices, management offices, model units, or signs.

2. The judgment or instrument conveying title shall provide for transfer of only the special declarant rights requested.

For the purposes of this subsection, "development rights" means any right or combination of rights to expand an expandable condominium, contract a contractable condominium, convert convertible land, or convert convertible space.

E. Upon foreclosure, sale by a trustee under a deed of trust, tax sale, judicial sale, or sale under receivership proceedings or the Bankruptcy Code as codified in Title 11 of the United States Code of all units and other land in the condominium owned by a declarant, (i) that declarant ceases to have any special declarant rights and (ii) any period of declarant control reserved under subsection A of § 55.1-1943 shall terminate, unless the judgment or instrument conveying title provides for transfer of all special declarant rights held by that declarant to a successor declarant.

F. The liabilities and obligations of any person who succeed to any special declarant right shall be as follows:

1. A successor to any special declarant right who is an affiliate of a declarant is subject to all obligations and liabilities imposed on the transferor by this chapter or by the condominium instruments.

2. A successor to any special declarant right, other than a successor described in subdivisions 3 and 4, who is not an affiliate of a declarant shall be subject to all obligations and liabilities imposed by this chapter or the condominium instruments on a declarant that relate to his exercise or nonexercise of special declarant rights, or on his transferor, except for (i) misrepresentations by any prior declarant, (ii) warranty obligations as provided in subsection B of § 55.1-1955 on improvements made by any previous declarant or made before the condominium was created, (iii) breach of any fiduciary obligation by any previous declarant or his appointees to the executive board, or (iv) any liability or obligation imposed on the transferor as a result of the transferor's acts or omissions after the transfer.

3. Unless he is an affiliate of a declarant, a successor to only a right reserved in the declaration to maintain sales offices, management offices, model units, or signs shall not exercise any other special declarant right and shall not be subject to any liability or obligation as a declarant, except the liabilities and obligations arising under Article 4 (§ 55.1-1970 et seq.) as to disposition by that successor.

4. A successor to all special declarant rights held by his transferor who is not an affiliate of that transferor and who succeeded to those rights pursuant to a deed in lieu of foreclosure or a judgment or instrument conveying title to units under subsection D may declare his intention in a recorded instrument to hold those rights solely for transfer to another person. Thereafter, until transferring all special declarant rights to any person acquiring title to any unit owned by the successor, or until recording an instrument permitting exercise of all those rights, that successor may not exercise any of those rights other than any right reserved by his transferor pursuant to subsection A of § 55.1-1943. Any attempted exercise of those rights is void. So long as a successor declarant may not exercise special declarant rights under this subsection, he shall not be subject to any liability or obligation as a declarant other than liability for his acts and omissions relating to the exercise of rights reserved under subsection A of § 55.1-1943.

G. Nothing in this section subjects any successor to a special declarant right to any claims against or other obligations of a transferor declarant, other than claims and obligations arising under this chapter or the condominium instruments.

1982, c. 545, § 55-79.74:3; 1991, c. 497; 1996, c. 977; 2006, c. 646; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1948. Declarants not succeeding to special declarant rights.

A declarant who does not succeed to any special declarant rights shall be liable only to the extent of his actions for claims and obligations arising under this chapter or the condominium instruments.

1993, c. 667, § 55-79.74:4; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1949. Meetings of unit owners' association and executive board.

A. 1. Meetings of the unit owners' association shall be held in accordance with the provisions of the condominium instruments at least once each year after the formation of the association. The bylaws shall specify an officer or his agent who shall, at least 21 days in advance of any annual or regularly scheduled meeting and at least seven days in advance of any other meeting, send to each unit owner notice of the time, place, and purposes of such meeting. In the event of cancellation of any annual meeting of the unit owners' association at which directors are elected, the seven-day notice of any subsequent meeting scheduled to elect such directors shall include a statement that the meeting is scheduled for the purpose of the election of directors.

2. Notice shall be sent by United States mail to all unit owners of record at the address of their respective units, unless the unit owner has provided to such officer or his agent an address other than the address of the unit, or notice may be hand delivered by the officer or his agent, provided that the officer or his agent certifies in writing that notice was delivered to the person of the unit owner.

3. In lieu of delivering notice as specified in subdivision 2, such officer or his agent may send notice by electronic means if consented to by the unit owner to whom the notice is given, provided that the officer or his agent certifies in writing that notice was sent and, if such electronic mail was returned as undeliverable, notice was subsequently sent by United States mail.

B. 1. Except as otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, the provisions of this subsection shall apply to executive board meetings at which business of the unit owners' association is transacted or discussed. All meetings of the unit owners' association or the executive board, including any subcommittee or other committee of such association or board, shall be open to all unit owners of record. The executive board shall not use work sessions or other informal gatherings of the executive board to circumvent the open meeting requirements of this section. Minutes of the meetings of the executive board shall be recorded and shall be available as provided in § 55.1-1945.

2. Notice of the time, date, and place of each meeting of the executive board or of any subcommittee or other committee of the executive board, and of each meeting of a subcommittee or other committee of the unit owners' association, shall be published where it is reasonably calculated to be available to a majority of the unit owners.

A unit owner may make a request to be notified on a continual basis of any such meetings, which request shall be made at least once a year in writing and include the unit owners' name, address, zip code, and any email address as appropriate. Notice of the time, date, and place shall be sent to any unit owner requesting notice (i) by first-class mail or email in the case of meetings of the executive board or (ii) by email in the case of meetings of any subcommittee or other committee of the executive board or of a subcommittee or other committee of the unit owners' association.

Notice, reasonable under the circumstances, of special or emergency meetings shall be given contemporaneously with the notice provided to members of the (i) executive board or any subcommittee or other committee of such board or (ii) subcommittee or other committee of the unit owners' association conducting the meeting.

3. Unless otherwise exempt as relating to an executive session pursuant to subsection C, at least one copy of all agenda packets and materials furnished to members of the executive board or subcommittee or other committee of the executive board for a meeting shall be made available for inspection by the membership of the unit owners' association at the same time such documents are furnished to the members of the executive board.

4. Any unit owner may record any portion of a meeting required to be open. The executive board or subcommittee or other committee of the executive board conducting the meeting may adopt rules (i) governing the placement and use of equipment necessary for recording a meeting to prevent interference with the proceedings and (ii) requiring the unit owner recording the meeting to provide notice that the meeting is being recorded.

5. Voting by secret or written ballot in an open meeting is a violation of this chapter except for the election of officers.

C. The executive board or any subcommittee or other committee of the executive board may convene in executive session to consider personnel matters; consult with legal counsel; discuss and consider contracts, probable or pending litigation, and matters involving violations of the condominium instruments or rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to such condominium instruments for which a unit owner, his family members, tenants, guests, or other invitees are responsible; or discuss and consider the personal liability of unit owners to the unit owners' association, upon the affirmative vote in an open meeting to assemble in executive session. The motion shall state specifically the purpose for the executive session. Reference to the motion and the stated purpose for the executive session shall be included in the minutes. The executive board shall restrict the consideration of matters during such portions of meetings to only those purposes specifically exempted and stated in the motion. No contract, motion, or other action adopted, passed, or agreed to in executive session shall become effective unless the executive board or subcommittee or other committee of the executive board, following the executive session, reconvenes in open meeting and takes a vote on such contract, motion, or other action, which shall have its substance reasonably identified in the open meeting. The requirements of this section do not require the disclosure of information in violation of law.

D. Subject to reasonable rules adopted by the executive board, the executive board shall provide a designated period during each meeting to allow unit owners an opportunity to comment on any matter relating to the unit owners' association. During a meeting at which the agenda is limited to specific topics or at a special meeting, the executive board may limit the comments of unit owners to the topics listed on the meeting agenda.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.75; 1978, c. 363; 1989, c. 58; 1990, c. 662; 1992, c. 72; 2000, c. 906; 2001, c. 715; 2003, cc. 404, 405, 442; 2005, c. 353; 2007, c. 675; 2013, c. 275; 2019, c. 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 9, 494.

§ 55.1-1950. Distribution of information by members.

A. The executive board shall establish a reasonable, effective, and free method, appropriate to the size and nature of the condominium, for unit owners to communicate among themselves and with the executive board regarding any matter concerning the unit owners' association.

B. Except as otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, the executive board shall not require prior approval of the dissemination or content of any material regarding any matter concerning the unit owners' association.

2001, c. 715, § 55-79.75:1; 2003, c. 405; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1951. Display of the flag of the United States; necessary supporting structures; affirmative defense.

A. In accordance with the federal Freedom to Display the American Flag Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-243), no unit owners' association shall prohibit or otherwise adopt or enforce any policy restricting a unit owner from displaying upon property to which the unit owner has a separate ownership interest or a right to exclusive possession or use the flag of the United States whenever such display is in compliance with Chapter 1 of Title 4 of the United States Code (4 U.S.C. § 1 et seq.) or any rule or custom pertaining to the proper display of the flag. A unit owners' association may, however, establish reasonable restrictions as to the size, place, duration, and manner of placement or display of the flag on such property, provided that such restrictions are necessary to protect a substantial interest of the unit owners' association.

B. The unit owners' association may restrict the display of such flags in the common elements.

C. In any action brought by the unit owners' association under § 55.1-1959 for a violation of a flag restriction, the unit owners' association shall bear the burden of proof that the restrictions as to the size, place, duration, and manner of placement or display of such flag are necessary to protect a substantial interest of the unit owners' association.

D. In any action brought by the unit owners' association under § 55.1-1959, the unit owner shall be entitled to assert as an affirmative defense that the required disclosure of any limitation pertaining to the flag of the United States or any flagpole or similar structure necessary to display the flag of the United States was not contained in the public offering statement or resale certificate, as appropriate, required pursuant to § 55.1-1976 or 55.1-1991.

2007, cc. 854, 910, § 55-79.75:2; 2010, cc. 166, 453; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1951.1. (Effective October 1, 2021) Installation of solar energy collection devices.

A. As used in this section, "solar energy collection device" means any device manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive heating panels or building components and solar photovoltaic apparatus.

B. No unit owners' association shall prohibit an owner from installing a solar energy collection device on that owner's property unless the recorded declaration for the unit owners' association establishes such a prohibition. However, a unit owners' association may establish reasonable restrictions concerning the size, place, and manner of placement of such solar energy collection devices on property designated and intended for individual ownership and use. Any resale certificate pursuant to § 55.1-1990 given to a purchaser shall contain a statement setting forth any restriction, limitation, or prohibition on the right of an owner to install or use solar energy collection devices on his property.

C. A restriction shall be deemed not to be reasonable if application of the restriction to a particular proposal (i) increases the cost of installation of the solar energy collection device by five percent over the projected cost of the initially proposed installation or (ii) reduces the energy production by the solar energy collection device by 10 percent below the projected energy production of the initially proposed installation. The owner shall provide documentation prepared by an independent solar panel design specialist, who is certified by the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners and is licensed in Virginia, that is satisfactory to the unit owners' association to show that the restriction is not reasonable according to the criteria established in this subsection.

D. The unit owners' association may prohibit or restrict the installation of solar energy collection devices on the common elements or common area within the real estate development served by the unit owners' association. A unit owners' association may establish reasonable restrictions as to the number, size, place, and manner of placement or installation of any solar energy collection device installed on the common elements or common area.

2006, c. 939, §§ 67-700, 67-701; 2008, c. 881; 2009, c. 866; 2013, c. 357; 2014, c. 525; 2020, cc. 272, 795; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 55.1-1952. Meetings of unit owners' association and executive board; quorums.

A. Unless the condominium instruments otherwise provide or as specified in subsection H of § 55.1-1953, a quorum shall be deemed to be present throughout any meeting of the unit owners' association until adjourned if persons entitled to cast more than one-third of the votes are present at the beginning of such meeting. The bylaws may provide for a larger percentage, or for a smaller percentage not less than 10 percent.

B. Unless the condominium instruments specify a larger majority, a quorum shall be deemed to be present throughout any meeting of the executive board if persons entitled to cast one-half of the votes in that body are present at the beginning of such meeting.

C. On petition of the unit owners' association or any unit owner entitled to vote, the circuit court of the county or city in which the condominium or the greater part of such condominium is located may order an annual meeting of the unit owners' association be held for the purpose of the election of members of the executive board, provided that:

1. No annual meeting as required by § 55.1-1949 has been held due to the failure to obtain a quorum of unit owners as specified in the condominium instruments; and

2. The unit owners' association has made good faith attempts to convene a duly called annual meeting of the unit owners' association in three successive years, which attempts have proven unsuccessful due to the failure to obtain a quorum.

The court may set the quorum for the meeting and enter other orders necessary to convene the meeting.

A unit owner filing a petition under this subsection shall provide a copy of the petition to the executive board at least 10 business days prior to filing.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.76; 2003, c. 413; 2015, cc. 214, 430; 2019, c. 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 9, 494.

§ 55.1-1953. Meetings of unit owners' association and executive board; voting by unit owners; proxies.

A. The bylaws may allocate to each unit depicted on plats and plans that comply with subsections A and B of § 55.1-1920 a number of votes in the unit owners' association proportionate to the undivided interest in the common elements appertaining to each such unit.

B. Otherwise, the bylaws shall allocate to each such unit an equal number of votes in the unit owners' association, subject to the following exception: Each convertible space so depicted shall be allocated a number of votes in the unit owners' association proportionate to the size of each such space, vis-a-vis the aggregate size of all units so depicted, while the remaining votes in the unit owners' association shall be allocated equally to the other units so depicted.

C. Since a unit owner may be more than one person, if only one of such persons is present at a meeting of the unit owners' association, that person shall be entitled to cast the votes appertaining to that unit. If more than one of such persons is present, the vote appertaining to that unit shall be cast only in accordance with their unanimous agreement unless the condominium instruments expressly provide otherwise, and such consent shall be conclusively presumed if any one of them purports to cast the votes appertaining to that unit without protest being made forthwith by any of the others to the person presiding over the meeting. For purposes of this subsection, "person" is deemed to include any natural person having authority to execute deeds on behalf of any person, excluding natural persons, that is, either alone or in conjunction with another person, a unit owner.

D. The votes appertaining to any unit may be cast pursuant to a proxy duly executed by or on behalf of the unit owner, or, in cases where the unit owner is more than one person, by or on behalf of all such unit owners. No such proxy shall be revocable except by actual notice to the person presiding over the meeting, by the unit owner or by any of such persons, that it be revoked. Except to the extent otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, any proxy is void if it is not dated, or if it purports to be revocable without the required notice. Any proxy shall be void if not signed by or on behalf of the unit owner. If the unit owner is more than one person, any such unit owner may object to the proxy at or prior to the meeting, whereupon the proxy shall be deemed revoked. Any proxy shall terminate after the first meeting held on or after the date of that proxy or any recess or adjournment of that meeting. The proxy shall include a brief explanation of the effect of leaving the proxy uninstructed.

E. Unless expressly prohibited by the condominium instruments, a unit owner may vote at a meeting of the unit owners' association in person, by proxy, or by absentee ballot. Such voting may take place by electronic means, provided that the executive board has adopted guidelines for such voting by electronic means. Unit owners voting by absentee ballot or proxy shall be deemed to be present at the meeting for all purposes.

F. If 50 percent or more of the votes in the unit owners' association appertain to 25 percent or less of the units, then in any case where a majority vote is required by the condominium instruments or by this chapter, the requirement for such a majority shall be deemed to include, in addition to the specified majority of the votes, assent by the unit owners of a like majority of the units.

G. All votes appertaining to units owned by the unit owners' association shall be deemed present for quorum purposes at all duly called meetings of the unit owners' association and shall be deemed cast in the same proportions as the votes cast by unit owners other than the unit owners' association.

H. Except to the extent that the condominium instruments provide otherwise, the voting interest allocated to the unit or member that has been suspended by the unit owners' association or the executive board pursuant to the condominium instruments shall not be counted in the total number of voting interests used to determine the quorum for any meeting or vote under the condominium instruments.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.77; 1980, c. 108; 1991, c. 497; 1993, c. 667; 1998, c. 32; 2003, c. 442; 2015, c. 214; 2019, cc. 367, 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 9, 494.

§ 55.1-1954. Officers.

A. If the condominium instruments provide that any officer must be a unit owner, then any such officer who disposes of all of his units in fee shall be deemed to have disqualified himself from continuing in office unless the condominium instruments otherwise provide, or unless he acquires or contracts to acquire another unit in the condominium under terms giving him a right of occupancy effective on or before the termination of his right of occupancy under such disposition.

B. If the condominium instruments provide that any officer must be a unit owner, then notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision 1 of § 55.1-1912, the term "unit owner" in such context shall, unless the condominium instruments otherwise provide, be deemed to include any director, officer, partner in, or trustee of any person that is, either alone or in conjunction with another person, a unit owner. Any officer who would not be eligible to serve as such were he not a director, officer, partner in, or trustee of such a person, shall be deemed to have disqualified himself from continuing in office if he ceases to have any such affiliation with that person, or if that person would itself have been deemed to have disqualified itself from continuing in such office under subsection A were it a natural person holding such office.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.78; 1991, c. 497; 2002, c. 520; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1955. Upkeep of condominiums; warranty against structural defects; statute of limitations for warranty; warranty review committee.

A. Except to the extent otherwise provided by the condominium instruments, all powers and responsibilities, including financial responsibility, with regard to maintenance, repair, renovation, restoration, and replacement of the condominium shall belong (i) to the unit owners' association in the case of the common elements and (ii) to the individual unit owner in the case of any unit or any part of such unit, except to the extent that the need for repairs, renovation, restoration, or replacement arises from a condition originating in or through the common elements or any apparatus located within the common elements, in which case the unit owners' association shall have such powers and responsibilities. Each unit owner shall afford to the other unit owners and to the unit owners' association and to any agents or employees of either such access through his unit as may be reasonably necessary to enable them to exercise and discharge their respective powers and responsibilities. To the extent that damage is inflicted on the common elements or any unit through which access is taken, the unit owner causing the same, or the unit owners' association if it caused the damage, shall be liable for the prompt repair of such damage.

B. Notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, the declarant shall warrant or guarantee against structural defects each of the units for two years from the date each is conveyed and all of the common elements for two years. For each unit, the declarant shall also warrant that the unit is fit for habitation in the case of a residential unit and constructed in a workmanlike manner so as to pass without objection in the trade. The two-year warranty as to each of the common elements begins whenever that common element has been completed or, if later, (i) as to any common element within any additional land or portion of the additional land, at the time the first unit in that additional land is conveyed; (ii) as to any common element within any convertible land or portion of the convertible land, at the time the first unit in the convertible land is conveyed; and (iii) as to any common element within any other portion of the condominium, at the time the first unit in that portion is conveyed. For the purposes of this subsection, no unit shall be deemed conveyed unless conveyed to a bona fide purchaser. Any conveyance of a condominium unit transfers to the purchaser all of the declarant's warranties against structural defects imposed by this subsection. For the purposes of this subsection, structural defects shall be those defects in components constituting any unit or common element that reduce the stability or safety of the structure below accepted standards or restrict the normal intended use of all or part of the structure and that require repair, renovation, restoration, or replacement. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to make the declarant responsible for any items of maintenance relating to the units or common elements.

C. An action for breach of any warranty prescribed by this section shall begin within (i) five years after the date such warranty period began or (ii) one year after the formation of any warranty review committee pursuant to subsection B of § 55.1-1943, whichever occurs last. However, no such action shall be maintained against the declarant unless a written statement by the claimant, or his agent, attorney, or representative, of the nature of the alleged defect has been sent to the declarant by registered or certified mail at his last known address, as reflected in the records of the Common Interest Community Board, more than six months prior to the beginning of the action giving the declarant an opportunity to cure the alleged defect within a reasonable time, not to exceed five months. Sending the notice required by this subsection shall toll the statute of limitations for beginning a breach of warranty action for a period not to exceed six months.

D. If the initial period of declarant control has been extended in accordance with subsection B of § 55.1-1943, the warranty review committee, referred to in this section as "the committee," shall have (i) subject to the provisions of subdivision 3, the irrevocable power as attorney-in-fact on behalf of the unit owners' association to assert or settle in the name of the unit owners' association any claims involving the declarant's warranty against structural defects with respect to all of the common elements and (ii) the authority to levy an additional assessment against all of the units in proportion to their respective undivided interests in the common elements pursuant to § 55.1-1964 if the committee determines that the assessments levied by the unit owners' association are insufficient to enable the committee reasonably to perform its functions pursuant to this subsection. The committee or the declarant shall notify the governing body of the locality in which the condominium is located of the formation of the committee within 30 days of its formation. Within 30 days after such notice, the local governing body or an agency designated by the local governing body shall advise the chair of the committee of any outstanding violations of applicable building codes, local ordinances, or other deficiencies of record. Members of the committee shall be insured, indemnified, and subject to liability to the same extent as officers or directors under the condominium instruments or applicable law. The unit owners' association shall provide sufficient funds reasonably necessary for the committee to perform the functions set out in this subsection and to:

1. Engage an independent architect, engineer, legal counsel, and such other experts as the committee may reasonably determine;

2. Investigate whether there exists any breach of the warranty as to any of the common elements. The committee shall document its findings and the evidence that supports such findings. Such findings and evidence shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed to the declarant without the consent of the committee; and

3. Assert or settle in the name of the unit owners' association any claims involving the declarant's warranty on the common elements, provided that (i) the committee sends the declarant at least six months prior to the expiration of the statute of limitations a written statement pursuant to subsection C of the alleged nature of any defect in the common elements giving the declarant an opportunity to cure the alleged defect; (ii) the declarant fails to cure the alleged defect within a reasonable time; and (iii) the declarant control period or the statute of limitations has not expired.

E. Within 45 days after the formation of the committee, the declarant shall deliver to the chair of the committee (i) a copy of the latest available approved plans and specifications for all improvements in the project or as-built plans if available; (ii) all association insurance policies that are currently in force; (iii) any written unexpired warranties of the contractors, subcontractors, suppliers, and manufacturers applicable to the condominium; and (iv) a list of manufacturers of paints, roofing materials, and other similar materials if specified for use on the condominium property.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.79; 1975, c. 415; 1980, c. 386; 1982, c. 545; 1984, c. 347; 1987, c. 395; 2006, c. 646; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2013, c. 599; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1956. Control of common elements.

A. Except to the extent prohibited, restricted, or limited by the condominium instruments, the unit owners' association shall have the power to:

1. Employ, dismiss, and replace agents and employees to exercise and discharge the powers and responsibilities of the association arising under § 55.1-1955;

2. Make or cause to be made additional improvements on and as a part of the common elements;

3. Grant or withhold approval of any action by one or more unit owners or other persons entitled to the occupancy of any unit that would change the exterior appearance of any unit or of any other portion of the condominium, or elect or provide for the appointment of an architectural control committee, the members of which must have the same qualifications as officers, to grant or withhold such approval; and

4. Acquire, hold, convey, and encumber title to real property, including condominium units, whether or not the association is incorporated.

B. Except to the extent prohibited, restricted, or limited by the condominium instruments, the executive board of the unit owners' association, if any, and if not, then the unit owners' association itself, has the irrevocable power as attorney-in-fact on behalf of all the unit owners and their successors in title with respect to the common elements, including the right, in the name of the unit owners' association, to (i) grant easements through the common elements and accept easements benefiting all or any portion of the condominium; (ii) assert, through litigation or otherwise, defend against, compromise, adjust, and settle any claims or actions related to common elements, other than claims against or actions involving the declarant during any period of declarant control reserved pursuant to subsection A of § 55.1-1943; and (iii) apply for any governmental approvals under state and local law.

C. This section shall not be construed to prohibit the grant by the condominium instruments of other powers and responsibilities to the unit owners' association or its executive board.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.80; 1975, c. 415; 1981, c. 146; 1982, c. 195; 1991, c. 497; 1993, c. 667; 1996, c. 977; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1957. Common elements; notice of pesticide application.

The unit owners' association shall post notice of all pesticide applications in or upon the common elements. Such notice shall consist of conspicuous signs placed in or upon the common elements where the pesticide will be applied at least 48 hours prior to the application.

1999, c. 65, § 55-79.80:01; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1958. Tort and contract liability; judgment lien.

A. An action for tort alleging a wrong done (i) by any agent or employee of the declarant or of the unit owners' association or (ii) in connection with the condition of any portion of the condominium that the declarant or the association has the responsibility to maintain shall be brought against the declarant or the association, as appropriate. No unit owner shall be precluded from bringing such an action by virtue of his ownership of an undivided interest in the common elements or by reason of his membership in the association or his status as an officer.

B. Unit owners other than the declarant shall not be liable for torts caused by agents or employees of the declarant within any convertible land or using any easement reserved in the declaration or created by § 55.1-1928 or 55.1-1929.

C. An action arising from a contract made by or on behalf of the unit owners' association or its executive board or the unit owners as a group shall be brought against the association, or against the declarant if the cause of action arose during the exercise by the declarant of control reserved pursuant to subsection A of § 55.1-1943. No unit owner shall be precluded from bringing such an action by reason of his membership in the association or his status as an officer.

D. A judgment for money against the unit owners' association shall be a lien against any property owned by the association, and against each of the condominium units in proportion to the liability of each unit owner for common expenses as established pursuant to subsection D of § 55.1-1964, but not against any other property of any unit owner. A unit owner who pays a percentage of the total amount due under such judgment equal to such unit owner's liability for common expenses fixed pursuant to subsection D of § 55.1-1964 shall be entitled to a release of any such judgment lien, and the association shall not be entitled to assess the unit for payment of the remaining amount due. Such judgment shall be otherwise subject to the provisions of § 8.01-458.

1975, c. 415, § 55-79.80:1; 1991, c. 497; 1992, c. 72; 1996, c. 977; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1959. Suspension of services for failure to pay assessments; corrective action; assessment of charges for violations; notice; hearing; adoption and enforcement of rules and regulations.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the executive board shall have the power to establish, adopt, and enforce rules and regulations with respect to use of the common elements and with respect to such other areas of responsibility assigned to the unit owners' association by the condominium instruments, except where expressly reserved by the condominium instruments to the unit owners. Rules and regulations may be adopted by resolution and shall be reasonably published or distributed to the unit owners. At a special meeting of the unit owners' association convened in accordance with the provisions of the condominium instruments, a majority of the votes cast at such meeting may repeal or amend any rule or regulation adopted by the executive board. Rules and regulations may be enforced by any method authorized by this chapter.

B. The unit owners' association shall have the power, to the extent the condominium instruments or the condominium's rules and regulations expressly provide, to (i) suspend a unit owner's right to use facilities or services, including utility services, provided directly through the unit owners' association for nonpayment of assessments that are more than 60 days past due, to the extent that access to the unit through the common elements is not precluded and provided that such suspension does not endanger the health, safety, or property of any unit owner, tenant, or occupant and (ii) assess charges against any unit owner for any violation of the condominium instruments or of the rules or regulations promulgated pursuant thereto for which such unit owner or his family members, tenants, guests, or other invitees are responsible.

C. Before any action authorized in this section is taken, the unit owner shall be given a reasonable opportunity to correct the alleged violation after written notice of the alleged violation to the unit owner at the address required for notices of meetings pursuant to § 55.1-1949. If the violation remains uncorrected, the unit owner shall be given an opportunity to be heard and to be represented by counsel before the executive board or such other tribunal as the condominium instruments or its adopted rules and regulations specify.

Notice of such hearing, including the actions that may be taken by the unit owners' association in accordance with this section, shall, at least 14 days in advance, be hand delivered or mailed by registered or certified United States mail, return receipt requested, to such unit owner at the address required for notices of meetings pursuant to § 55.1-1949. Within seven days of the hearing, the hearing result shall be hand delivered or mailed by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to such unit owner at the address required for notices of meetings pursuant to § 55.1-1949.

D. The amount of any charges assessed shall not exceed $50 for a single offense, or $10 per diem for any offense of a continuing nature, and shall be treated as an assessment against such unit owner's condominium unit for the purpose of § 55.1-1966. However, the total charges for any offense of a continuing nature shall not be assessed for a period exceeding 90 days.

E. The unit owners' association may file or defend legal action in general district or circuit court that seeks relief, including injunctive relief, arising from any violation of the condominium instruments or the condominium's adopted rules and regulations.

F. After the date an action is filed in the general district or circuit court by (i) the unit owners' association, by and through its counsel, to collect the charges or obtain injunctive relief and correct the violation or (ii) the unit owner challenging any such charges, no additional charges shall accrue.

If the court rules in favor of the unit owners' association, it shall be entitled to collect such charges from the date the action was filed as well as all other charges assessed pursuant to this section against the unit owner prior to the action. In addition, if the court finds that the violation remains uncorrected, the court may order the unit owner to abate or remedy the violation.

In any action filed in general district court pursuant to this section, the court may enter default judgment against the unit owner on the sworn affidavit of the unit owners' association.

G. This section shall not be construed to prohibit the grant by the condominium instruments of other powers and responsibilities to the unit owners' association or its executive board.

1993, c. 667, § 55-79.80:2; 1997, cc. 173, 417; 2000, cc. 846, 906; 2002, c. 509; 2011, cc. 372, 378; 2014, c. 784; 2019, c. 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 131.

§ 55.1-1960. Limitation of occupancy of a unit.

To the extent expressly provided in the condominium instruments, the unit owners' association may limit the number of persons who may occupy a unit as a dwelling. Such limitation shall be reasonable and shall comply with the provisions of applicable law, including the Virginia Fair Housing Law (§ 36-96.1 et seq.), the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.), and local ordinances.

1996, c. 888, § 55-79.80:3; 1998, c. 454; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1960.1. Limitation of smoking in condominium.

Except to the extent that the condominium instruments provide otherwise, the executive board may establish reasonable rules that restrict smoking in the condominium, including rules that prohibit smoking in the common elements and within units. Rules adopted pursuant to this section may be enforced in accordance with § 55.1-1959.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 131.

§ 55.1-1961. Use of for sale sign in connection with resale.

Except as expressly authorized in this chapter or in the condominium instruments or as otherwise provided by law, no unit owners' association shall require the use of any for sale sign that is (i) a unit owners' association sign or (ii) a real estate sign that does not comply with the requirements of the Real Estate Board. A unit owners' association may, however, prohibit the placement of signs in the common elements and establish reasonable rules and regulations that regulate (a) the number of real estate signs to be located on real property upon which the owner has a separate ownership interest or a right of exclusive possession, so long as at least one real estate sign is permitted; (b) the geographical location of real estate signs on real property in which the owner has a separate ownership interest or a right of exclusive possession, so long as the location of the real estate signs complies with the requirements of the Real Estate Board; (c) the manner in which real estate signs are affixed to real property; and (d) the period of time after settlement when the real estate signs on such real property shall be removed.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.97; 1975, c. 415; 1978, cc. 234, 290; 1983, c. 60; 1984, cc. 29, 103; 1990, c. 662; 1991, c. 497; 1994, c. 172; 1997, c. 222; 1998, cc. 32, 454, 463; 1999, c. 263; 2001, c. 556; 2002, cc. 459, 509; 2005, c. 415; 2007, cc. 696, 712, 854, 910; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2011, c. 334; 2013, cc. 357, 492; 2014, c. 216; 2015, c. 277; 2016, c. 471; 2017, cc. 393, 406; 2018, c. 70; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1962. Designation of authorized representative.

Except as expressly authorized in this chapter or in the condominium instruments or as otherwise provided by law, no unit owners' association shall require any unit owner to execute a formal power of attorney if the unit owner designates a person licensed under the provisions of § 54.1-2106.1 as the unit owner's authorized representative, and the unit owners' association shall recognize such representation without a formal power of attorney, provided that the unit owners' association is given a written authorization signed by the unit owner designating such representative. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the requirements of § 55.1-1953 and the condominium instruments shall be satisfied before any such representative may exercise a vote on behalf of a unit owner as a proxy.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.97; 1975, c. 415; 1978, cc. 234, 290; 1983, c. 60; 1984, cc. 29, 103; 1990, c. 662; 1991, c. 497; 1994, c. 172; 1997, c. 222; 1998, cc. 32, 454, 463; 1999, c. 263; 2001, c. 556; 2002, cc. 459, 509; 2005, c. 415; 2007, cc. 696, 712, 854, 910; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2011, c. 334; 2013, cc. 357, 492; 2014, c. 216; 2015, c. 277; 2016, c. 471; 2017, cc. 393, 406; 2018, c. 70; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1962.1. Electric vehicle charging stations permitted.

A. Except to the extent that the condominium instruments provide otherwise, no unit owners' association shall prohibit any unit owner from installing an electric vehicle charging station for the unit owner's personal use within the boundaries of a unit or limited common element parking space appurtenant to the unit owned by the unit owner.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or the condominium instruments, the unit owners' association may prohibit a unit owner from installing an electric vehicle charging station if installation of the electric vehicle charging station is not technically feasible or reasonably practicable due to safety risks, structural issues, or engineering conditions.

C. The unit owners' association may require as a condition of approving installation of an electric vehicle charging station that the unit owner:

1. Provide detailed plans and drawings for installation of an electric vehicle charging station prepared by a licensed and registered electrical contractor or engineer familiar with the installation and core requirements of an electric vehicle charging station.

2. Comply with applicable building codes or recognized safety standards.

3. Comply with reasonable architectural standards adopted by the unit owners' association that govern the dimensions, placement, or external appearance of the electric vehicle charging station.

4. Pay the costs of installation, maintenance, operation, and use of the electric vehicle charging station.

5. Indemnify and hold the unit owners' association harmless from any claim made by a contractor or supplier pursuant to Title 43.

6. Pay the cost of removal of the electric vehicle charging station and restoration of the area if the unit owner decides there is no longer a need for the electric vehicle charging station.

7. Separately meter, at the unit owner's sole expense, the utilities associated with such electric vehicle charging station and pay the cost of electricity and other associated utilities.

8. Engage the services of a licensed electrician or engineer familiar with the installation and core requirements of an electric vehicle charging station to install the electric vehicle charging station.

9. Obtain and maintain insurance covering claims and defenses of claims related to the installation, maintenance, operation, and use of the electric vehicle charging station and provide a certificate of insurance naming the unit owners' association as an additional insured on the unit owner's insurance policy for any claim related to the installation, maintenance, operation, or use of the electric vehicle charging station within 14 days after receiving the unit owners' association's approval to install such charging station.

10. Reimburse the unit owners' association for any increase in common expenses specifically attributable to the electric vehicle charging station installation, including the actual cost of any increased insurance premium amount, within 14 days' notice from the unit owners' association.

D. The conditions imposed pursuant to this section on unit owners for installation of an electric vehicle charging station shall run with title to the unit to which the limited common element parking space is appurtenant.

E. Any unit owner installing an electric vehicle charging station in a unit or on a limited common element parking space appurtenant to the unit owned by the unit owner shall indemnify and hold the unit owners' association harmless from all liability, including reasonable attorney fees incurred by the association resulting from a claim, arising out of the installation, maintenance, operation, or use of such electric charging station. A unit owners' association may require the unit owner to obtain and maintain insurance covering claims and defenses of claims related to the installation, maintenance, operation, or use of the electric vehicle charging station and require the unit owners' association to be included as a named insured on such policy.

2020, c. 1012.

§ 55.1-1963. Insurance.

A. The condominium instruments may require the unit owners' association, or the executive board or managing agent on behalf of such association, to obtain:

1. A master casualty policy affording fire and extended coverage in an amount consonant with the full replacement value of the structures within the condominium, or of such structures that in whole or in part comprise portions of the common elements;

2. A master liability policy, in an amount specified by the condominium instruments, covering the unit owners' association, the executive board, if any, the managing agent, if any, all persons acting or who may come to act as agents or employees of any of the foregoing with respect to the condominium, and all unit owners and other persons entitled to occupy any unit or other portion of the condominium; and

3. Such other policies as may be required by the condominium instruments, including workers' compensation insurance, liability insurance on motor vehicles owned by the unit owners' association, and specialized policies covering lands or improvements in which the unit owners' association has or shares ownership or other rights.

B. Any unit owners' association collecting assessments for common expenses shall obtain and maintain a blanket fidelity bond or employee dishonesty insurance policy insuring the unit owners' association against losses resulting from theft or dishonesty committed by the officers, directors, or persons employed by the unit owners' association, or committed by any common interest community manager or employees of the common interest community manager. Such bond or insurance policy shall provide coverage in an amount equal to the lesser of $1 million or the amount of reserve balances of the unit owners' association plus one-fourth of the aggregate annual assessment of such unit owners' association. The minimum coverage amount shall be $10,000. The executive board or common interest community manager may obtain such bond or insurance on behalf of the unit owners' association.

C. When any policy of insurance has been obtained by or on behalf of the unit owners' association, written notice of such obtainment and of any subsequent changes in or termination of the policy shall be promptly furnished to each unit owner by the officer required to send notices of meetings of the unit owners' association. Such notices shall be sent in accordance with the provisions of subsection A of § 55.1-1949.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.81; 2000, c. 906; 2003, c. 360; 2004, c. 281; 2007, cc. 696, 712; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1964. Liability for common expenses; late fees.

A. Except to the extent that the condominium instruments provide otherwise, any common expenses associated with the maintenance, repair, renovation, restoration, or replacement of any limited common element shall be specially assessed against the condominium unit to which that limited common element was assigned at the time such expenses were made or incurred. If the limited common element involved was assigned at that time to more than one condominium unit, however, such expenses shall be specially assessed against each such condominium unit equally so that the total of such special assessments equals the total of such expenses, except to the extent that the condominium instruments provide otherwise.

B. To the extent that the condominium instruments expressly so provide, any other common expenses benefiting less than all of the condominium units, or caused by the conduct of less than all those entitled to occupy the same or by their licensees or invitees, shall be specially assessed against any condominium unit involved, in accordance with such reasonable provisions as the condominium instruments may make for such cases. The executive board may impose reasonable user fees.

C. To the extent that the condominium instruments expressly so provide, (i) any common expenses paid or incurred in making available the same off-site amenities or paid subscription television service to some or all of the unit owners shall be assessed equally against the condominium units involved and (ii) any common expenses paid or incurred in providing metered utility services to some or all of the units shall be assessed against each condominium unit involved based on its actual consumption of such services.

D. The amount of all common expenses not specially assessed pursuant to subsection A, B, or C shall be assessed against the condominium units in proportion to the number of votes in the unit owners' association appertaining to each such unit, or, if such votes were allocated as provided in subsection B of § 55.1-1953, those common expense assessments shall be either in proportion to those votes or in proportion to the units' respective undivided interests in the common elements, whichever basis the condominium instruments specify. Such assessments shall be made by the unit owners' association annually, or more often if the condominium instruments so provide. No change in the number of votes in the unit owners' association appertaining to any condominium unit shall enlarge, diminish, or otherwise affect any liabilities arising from assessments made prior to such change.

E. Except to the extent otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, if the executive board determines that the assessments levied by the unit owners' association are insufficient to cover the common expenses of the unit owners' association, the executive board may levy an additional assessment against all of the units in proportion to their respective undivided interests in the common elements. The executive board shall give written notice to the unit owners stating the amount of, the reasons for, and the due date for payment of any additional assessment. If the additional assessment is to be paid in a lump sum, payment shall be due and payable no earlier than 90 days after delivery or mailing of the notice.

All unit owners shall be obligated to pay the additional assessment unless the unit owners by a majority of votes cast, in person or by proxy, at a meeting of the unit owners' association convened in accordance with the provisions of the condominium instruments within 60 days of the delivery or mailing of the notice required by this subsection, rescind or reduce the additional assessment. No director or officer of the unit owners' association shall be liable for failure to perform his fiduciary duty if an additional assessment for the funds necessary for the director or officer to perform his fiduciary duty is rescinded by the unit owners' association in accordance with this subsection. The unit owners' association shall indemnify such director or officer against any damage resulting from any claimed breach of fiduciary duty due to the assessment for the necessary funds rescinded by the unit owners' association in accordance with this subsection.

F. Neither a unit owned by the declarant nor any other unit may be exempted from assessments made pursuant to this section by reason of the identity of the unit owner.

G. All condominium instruments for condominiums created prior to January 1, 1981, are hereby validated notwithstanding noncompliance with the first sentence of subsection D if they provide instead that the amount of all common expenses not specially assessed pursuant to subsection A, B, or C shall be assessed against the condominium units in proportion to their respective undivided interests in the common elements.

H. Except to the extent that the condominium instruments or the association's rules or regulations provide otherwise, an executive board may impose a late fee, not to exceed the penalty provided for in § 58.1-3915, for any assessment or installment that is not paid within 60 days of the due date for payment of such assessment or installment.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.83; 1977, c. 428; 1981, c. 180; 1984, cc. 27, 84, 601; 1992, c. 72; 1993, c. 667; 2003, c. 421; 2013, c. 256; 2014, c. 239; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1965. Annual budget; reserves for capital components.

A. Except to the extent provided in the condominium instruments, the executive board shall, prior to the commencement of the fiscal year, make available to unit owners either (i) the annual budget of the unit owners' association or (ii) a summary of such annual budget.

B. Except to the extent otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, the executive board shall:

1. Conduct a study at least once every five years to determine the necessity and amount of reserves required to repair, replace, and restore the capital components as defined in § 55.1-1900;

2. Review the results of that study at least annually to determine if reserves are sufficient; and

3. Make any adjustments the executive board deems necessary to maintain reserves, as appropriate.

C. To the extent that the reserve study conducted in accordance with this section indicates a need to budget for reserves, the unit owners' association budget shall include:

1. The current estimated replacement cost, estimated remaining life, and estimated useful life of the capital components as defined in § 55.1-1900;

2. As of the beginning of the fiscal year for which the budget is prepared, the current amount of accumulated cash reserves set aside to repair, replace, or restore the capital components and the amount of the expected contribution to the reserve fund for that fiscal year;

3. A statement describing the procedures used for estimation and accumulation of cash reserves pursuant to this section; and

4. A statement of the amount of reserves recommended in the study and the amount of current cash for replacement reserves.

2002, c. 459, § 55-79.83:1; 2019, cc. 33, 44, 712.

§ 55.1-1966. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Lien for assessments.

A. The unit owners' association shall have a lien on each condominium unit for unpaid assessments levied against that condominium unit in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and all lawful provisions of the condominium instruments. The lien, once perfected, shall be prior to all other liens and encumbrances except (i) real estate tax liens on that condominium unit, (ii) liens and encumbrances recorded prior to the recordation of the declaration, and (iii) sums unpaid on any first mortgages or first deeds of trust recorded prior to the perfection of such lien for assessments and securing institutional lenders. The provisions of this subsection shall not affect the priority of mechanics' and materialmen's liens.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, or any other provision of law requiring documents to be recorded in the miscellaneous lien books or the deed books in the clerk's office of any court, on or after July 1, 1974, all memoranda of liens arising under this section shall, in the discretion of the clerk, be recorded in the miscellaneous lien books or the deed books in such clerk's office. Any such memorandum shall be indexed in the general index to deeds, and such general index shall identify the lien as a lien for condominium assessments.

C. In order to perfect the lien given by this section, the unit owners' association shall file a memorandum verified by the oath of the principal officer of the unit owners' association, or such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify, before the expiration of 90 days from the time the first such assessment became due and payable. The memorandum shall be filed in the clerk's office of the circuit court in the county or city in which such condominium is situated. The memorandum shall contain the following:

1. A description of the condominium unit in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-1909.

2. The name or names of the persons constituting the unit owners of that condominium unit.

3. The amount of unpaid assessments currently due or past due together with the date when each fell due.

4. The date of issuance of the memorandum.

The clerk in whose office such memorandum is filed shall record and index the memorandum as provided in subsection B, in the names of the persons identified in such memorandum as well as in the name of the unit owners' association. The cost of recording such memorandum shall be taxed against the person found liable in any judgment enforcing such lien.

D. No action to enforce any lien perfected under subsection C shall be brought or action to foreclose any lien perfected under subsection I shall be initiated after 36 months from the time when the memorandum of lien was recorded; however, the filing of a petition to enforce any such lien in any action in which such petition may be properly filed shall be regarded as the institution of an action under this section. Nothing in this subsection shall extend the time within which any such lien may be perfected.

E. The judgment in an action brought pursuant to this section shall include reimbursement for costs and attorney fees of the prevailing party. If the association prevails, it may also recover interest at the legal rate for the sums secured by the lien from the time each such sum became due and payable.

F. When payment or satisfaction is made of a debt secured by the lien perfected by subsection C, such lien shall be released in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-339. Any lien that is not so released shall subject the lien creditor to the penalty set forth in subdivision B 1 of § 55.1-339. For the purposes of that section, the principal officer of the unit owners' association, or such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify, shall be deemed the duly authorized agent of the lien creditor.

G. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit actions at law to recover sums for which subsection A creates a lien, maintainable pursuant to § 55.1-1915.

H. Any unit owner or purchaser of a condominium unit, having executed a contract for the disposition of such condominium unit, shall be entitled upon request to a recordable statement setting forth the amount of unpaid assessments currently levied against that unit. Such request shall be in writing, directed to the principal officer of the unit owners' association or to such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify. Failure to furnish or make available such a statement within 10 days of the receipt of such request shall extinguish the lien created by subsection A as to the condominium unit involved. Such statement shall be binding on the unit owners' association, the executive board, and every unit owner. Payment of a fee not exceeding $10 may be required as a prerequisite to the issuance of such a statement if the condominium instruments so provide.

I. At any time after perfecting the lien pursuant to this section, the unit owners' association may sell the unit at public sale, subject to prior liens. For purposes of this section, the unit owners' association shall have the power both to sell and convey the unit and shall be deemed the unit owner's statutory agent for the purpose of transferring title to the unit. A nonjudicial foreclosure sale shall be conducted in compliance with the following:

1. The unit owners' association shall give notice to the unit owner prior to advertisement required by subdivision 4. The notice shall specify (i) the debt secured by the perfected lien; (ii) the action required to satisfy the debt secured by the perfected lien; (iii) the date, not less than 60 days from the date the notice is given to the unit owner, by which the debt secured by the lien must be satisfied; and (iv) that failure to satisfy the debt secured by the lien on or before the date specified in the notice may result in the sale of the unit. The notice shall further inform the unit owner of the right to bring a court action in the circuit court of the county or city where the condominium is located to assert the nonexistence of a debt or any other defense of the unit owner to the sale.

2. After expiration of the 60-day notice period provided in subdivision 1, the unit owners' association may appoint a trustee to conduct the sale. The appointment of the trustee shall be filed in the clerk's office of the circuit court in the county or city in which the condominium is located. The clerk in whose office such appointment is filed shall record and index the appointment as provided in subsection C, in the names of the persons identified therein as well as in the name of the unit owners' association. The unit owners' association, at its option, may from time to time remove the trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

3. If the unit owner meets the conditions specified in this subdivision prior to the date of the foreclosure sale, the unit owner shall have the right to have enforcement of the perfected lien discontinued prior to the sale of the unit. Those conditions are that the unit owner (a) satisfy the debt secured by lien that is the subject of the nonjudicial foreclosure sale and (b) pays all expenses and costs incurred in perfecting and enforcing the lien, including advertising costs and reasonable attorney fees.

4. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivision 5, the unit owners' association shall give written notice of the time, date, and place of any proposed sale in execution of the lien, and shall include the name, address, and telephone number of the trustee, by personal delivery or by mail to (i) the present owner of the condominium unit to be sold at his last known address as such owner and address appear in the records of the unit owners' association, (ii) any lienholder who holds a note against the condominium unit secured by a deed of trust recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale and whose address is recorded with the deed of trust, and (iii) any assignee of such a note secured by a deed of trust provided the assignment and address of the assignee are likewise recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale. Mailing a copy of the advertisement or the notice containing the same information to the owner by certified or registered mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale and to the lienholders and their assigns, at the addresses noted in the memorandum of lien, by ordinary mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale shall be a sufficient compliance with the requirement of notice.

5. The advertisement of sale by the unit owners' association shall be in a newspaper having a general circulation in the locality in which the condominium unit to be sold, or any portion of such unit, is located pursuant to the following provisions:

a. The unit owners' association shall advertise once a week for four successive weeks; however, if the condominium unit or some portion of such unit is located in a city or in a county immediately contiguous to a city, publication of the advertisement five different days, which may be consecutive days, shall be deemed adequate. The sale shall be held on any day following the day of the last advertisement that is no earlier than eight days following the first advertisement nor more than 30 days following the last advertisement.

b. Such advertisement shall be placed in that section of the newspaper where legal notices appear or where the type of property being sold is generally advertised for sale. The advertisement of sale, in addition to such other matters as the unit owners' association finds appropriate, shall set forth a description of the condominium unit to be sold, which description need not be as extensive as that contained in the deed of trust but shall identify the condominium unit by street address, if any, or, if none, shall give the general location of the condominium unit with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks. Where available, tax map identification may be used but is not required. The advertisement shall also include the date, time, place, and terms of sale and the name of the unit owners' association. The advertisement shall set forth the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who may be able to respond to inquiries concerning the sale.

c. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivisions a and b, the unit owners' association may give such other further and different advertisement as the association finds appropriate.

6. In the event of postponement of a sale, which postponement shall be at the discretion of the unit owners' association, advertisement of such postponed sale shall be in the same manner as the original advertisement of sale.

7. Failure to comply with the requirements for advertisement contained in this section shall, upon petition, render a sale of the condominium unit voidable by the court.

8. In the event of a sale, the unit owners' association shall have the following powers and duties:

a. Written one-price bids may be made and shall be received by the trustee from the unit owners' association or any person for entry by announcement at the sale. Any person other than the trustee may bid at the foreclosure sale, including a person who has submitted a written one-price bid. Upon request to the trustee, any other bidder in attendance at a foreclosure sale shall be permitted to inspect written bids. Unless otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, the unit owners' association may bid to purchase the unit at a foreclosure sale. The unit owners' association may own, lease, encumber, exchange, sell, or convey the unit. Whenever the written bid of the unit owners' association is the highest bid submitted at the sale, such written bid shall be filed by the trustee with his account of sale required under subdivision 10 of this subsection and § 64.2-1309. The written bid submitted pursuant to this subsection may be prepared by the unit owners' association or its agent or attorney.

b. The unit owners' association may require of any bidder at any sale a cash deposit of as much as 10 percent of the sale price before his bid is received, which shall be refunded to him if the condominium unit is not sold to him. The deposit of the successful bidder shall be applied to his credit at settlement, or if such bidder fails to complete his purchase promptly, the deposit shall be applied to pay the costs and expenses of the sale, and the balance, if any, shall be retained by the unit owners' association in connection with that sale.

c. The unit owners' association shall receive and receipt for the proceeds of sale, no purchaser being required to see to the application of the proceeds, and apply the same in the following order: first, to the reasonable expenses of sale, including reasonable attorney fees; second, to the satisfaction of all taxes, levies, and assessments, with costs and interest; third, to the satisfaction of the lien for the unit owners' assessments; fourth, to the satisfaction in the order of priority of any remaining inferior claims of record; and fifth, to pay the residue of the proceeds to the unit owner or his assigns, provided, however, that the association as to such residue shall not be bound by any inheritance, devise, conveyance, assignment, or lien of or upon the unit owner's equity, without actual notice of such encumbrance prior to distribution.

9. The trustee shall deliver to the purchaser a trustee's deed conveying the unit with special warranty of title. The trustee shall not be required to take possession of the condominium unit prior to the sale or to deliver possession of the unit to the purchaser at the sale.

10. The trustee shall file an accounting of the sale with the commissioner of accounts pursuant to § 64.2-1309 and every account of a sale shall be recorded pursuant to § 64.2-1310. In addition, the accounting shall be made available for inspection and copying pursuant to § 55.1-1945 upon the written request of the prior unit owner, current unit owner, or any holder of a recorded lien against the unit at the time of the sale. The unit owners' association shall maintain a copy of the accounting for at least 12 months following the foreclosure sale.

11. If the sale of a unit is made pursuant to this subsection and the accounting is made by the trustee, the title of the purchaser at such sale shall not be disturbed unless within 12 months from the confirmation of the accounting by the commissioner of accounts, the sale is set aside by the court or an appeal is allowed by the Supreme Court of Virginia and an order is entered requiring such sale to be set aside.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.84; 1975, c. 415; 1991, c. 497; 1992, c. 72; 1997, cc. 760, 766; 2000, c. 906; 2004, cc. 778, 779, 786; 2019, c. 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 489.

§ 55.1-1966. (Effective January 1, 2022) Lien for assessments.

A. The unit owners' association shall have a lien on each condominium unit for unpaid assessments levied against that condominium unit in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and all lawful provisions of the condominium instruments. The lien, once perfected, shall be prior to all other liens and encumbrances except (i) real estate tax liens on that condominium unit, (ii) liens and encumbrances recorded prior to the recordation of the declaration, and (iii) sums unpaid on any first mortgages or first deeds of trust recorded prior to the perfection of such lien for assessments and securing institutional lenders. The provisions of this subsection shall not affect the priority of mechanics' and materialmen's liens.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, or any other provision of law requiring documents to be recorded in the miscellaneous lien books or the deed books in the clerk's office of any court, on or after July 1, 1974, all memoranda of liens arising under this section shall, in the discretion of the clerk, be recorded in the miscellaneous lien books or the deed books in such clerk's office. Any such memorandum shall be indexed in the general index to deeds, and such general index shall identify the lien as a lien for condominium assessments.

C. In order to perfect the lien given by this section, the unit owners' association shall file a memorandum verified by the oath of the principal officer of the unit owners' association, or such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify, before the expiration of 90 days from the time the first such assessment became due and payable. The memorandum shall be filed in the clerk's office of the circuit court in the county or city in which such condominium is situated. The memorandum shall contain the following:

1. A description of the condominium unit in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-1909.

2. The name or names of the persons constituting the unit owners of that condominium unit.

3. The amount of unpaid assessments currently due or past due together with the date when each fell due.

4. The date of issuance of the memorandum.

The clerk in whose office such memorandum is filed shall record and index the memorandum as provided in subsection B, in the names of the persons identified in such memorandum as well as in the name of the unit owners' association. The cost of recording such memorandum shall be taxed against the person found liable in any judgment enforcing such lien.

D. No action to enforce any lien perfected under subsection C shall be brought or action to foreclose any lien perfected under subsection I shall be initiated after 36 months from the time when the memorandum of lien was recorded; however, the filing of a petition to enforce any such lien in any action in which such petition may be properly filed shall be regarded as the institution of an action under this section. Nothing in this subsection shall extend the time within which any such lien may be perfected.

E. The judgment in an action brought pursuant to this section shall include reimbursement for costs and attorney fees of the prevailing party. If the association prevails, it may also recover interest at the legal rate for the sums secured by the lien from the time each such sum became due and payable.

F. When payment or satisfaction is made of a debt secured by the lien perfected by subsection C, such lien shall be released in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-339. Any lien that is not so released shall subject the lien creditor to the penalty set forth in subdivision B 1 of § 55.1-339. For the purposes of that section, the principal officer of the unit owners' association, or such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify, shall be deemed the duly authorized agent of the lien creditor.

G. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit actions at law to recover sums for which subsection A creates a lien, maintainable pursuant to § 55.1-1915.

H. Any unit owner or purchaser of a condominium unit, having executed a contract for the disposition of such condominium unit, shall be entitled upon request to a recordable statement setting forth the amount of unpaid assessments currently levied against that unit. Such request shall be in writing, directed to the principal officer of the unit owners' association or to such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify. Failure to furnish or make available such a statement within 10 days of the receipt of such request shall extinguish the lien created by subsection A as to the condominium unit involved. Such statement shall be binding on the unit owners' association, the executive board, and every unit owner. Payment of a fee not exceeding $10 may be required as a prerequisite to the issuance of such a statement if the condominium instruments so provide.

I. At any time after perfecting the lien pursuant to this section, the unit owners' association may sell the unit at public sale, subject to prior liens. For purposes of this section, the unit owners' association shall have the power both to sell and convey the unit and shall be deemed the unit owner's statutory agent for the purpose of transferring title to the unit. A nonjudicial foreclosure sale shall be conducted in compliance with the following:

1. The unit owners' association shall give notice to the unit owner prior to advertisement required by subdivision 4. The notice shall specify (i) the debt secured by the perfected lien; (ii) the action required to satisfy the debt secured by the perfected lien; (iii) the date, not less than 60 days from the date the notice is given to the unit owner, by which the debt secured by the lien must be satisfied; and (iv) that failure to satisfy the debt secured by the lien on or before the date specified in the notice may result in the sale of the unit. The notice shall further inform the unit owner of the right to bring a court action in the circuit court of the county or city where the condominium is located to assert the nonexistence of a debt or any other defense of the unit owner to the sale.

2. After expiration of the 60-day notice period provided in subdivision 1, the unit owners' association may appoint a trustee to conduct the sale. The appointment of the trustee shall be filed in the clerk's office of the circuit court in the county or city in which the condominium is located. The clerk in whose office such appointment is filed shall record and index the appointment as provided in subsection C, in the names of the persons identified therein as well as in the name of the unit owners' association. The unit owners' association, at its option, may from time to time remove the trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

3. If the unit owner meets the conditions specified in this subdivision prior to the date of the foreclosure sale, the unit owner shall have the right to have enforcement of the perfected lien discontinued prior to the sale of the unit. Those conditions are that the unit owner (a) satisfy the debt secured by lien that is the subject of the nonjudicial foreclosure sale and (b) pays all expenses and costs incurred in perfecting and enforcing the lien, including advertising costs and reasonable attorney fees.

4. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivision 5, the unit owners' association shall give written notice of the time, date, and place of any proposed sale in execution of the lien, and shall include the name, address, and telephone number of the trustee, by personal delivery or by mail to (i) the present owner of the condominium unit to be sold at his last known address as such owner and address appear in the records of the unit owners' association, (ii) any lienholder who holds a note against the condominium unit secured by a deed of trust recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale and whose address is recorded with the deed of trust, and (iii) any assignee of such a note secured by a deed of trust provided the assignment and address of the assignee are likewise recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale. Mailing a copy of the advertisement or the notice containing the same information to the owner by certified or registered mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale and to the lienholders and their assigns, at the addresses noted in the memorandum of lien, by ordinary mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale shall be a sufficient compliance with the requirement of notice.

5. The advertisement of sale by the unit owners' association shall be in a newspaper having a general circulation in the locality in which the condominium unit to be sold, or any portion of such unit, is located pursuant to the following provisions:

a. The unit owners' association shall advertise once a week for four successive weeks; however, if the condominium unit or some portion of such unit is located in a city or in a county immediately contiguous to a city, publication of the advertisement five different days, which may be consecutive days, shall be deemed adequate. The sale shall be held on any day following the day of the last advertisement that is no earlier than eight days following the first advertisement nor more than 30 days following the last advertisement.

b. Such advertisement shall be placed in that section of the newspaper where legal notices appear or where the type of property being sold is generally advertised for sale. The advertisement of sale, in addition to such other matters as the unit owners' association finds appropriate, shall set forth a description of the condominium unit to be sold, which description need not be as extensive as that contained in the deed of trust but shall identify the condominium unit by street address, if any, or, if none, shall give the general location of the condominium unit with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks. Where available, tax map identification may be used but is not required. The advertisement shall also include the date, time, place, and terms of sale and the name of the unit owners' association. The advertisement shall set forth the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who may be able to respond to inquiries concerning the sale.

c. In addition to the advertisement required by subdivisions a and b, the unit owners' association may give such other further and different advertisement as the association finds appropriate.

6. In the event of postponement of a sale, which postponement shall be at the discretion of the unit owners' association, advertisement of such postponed sale shall be in the same manner as the original advertisement of sale.

7. Failure to comply with the requirements for advertisement contained in this section shall, upon petition, render a sale of the condominium unit voidable by the court.

8. In the event of a sale, the unit owners' association shall have the following powers and duties:

a. Written one-price bids may be made and shall be received by the trustee from the unit owners' association or any person for entry by announcement at the sale. Any person other than the trustee may bid at the foreclosure sale, including a person who has submitted a written one-price bid. Upon request to the trustee, any other bidder in attendance at a foreclosure sale shall be permitted to inspect written bids. Unless otherwise provided in the condominium instruments, the unit owners' association may bid to purchase the unit at a foreclosure sale. The unit owners' association may own, lease, encumber, exchange, sell, or convey the unit. Whenever the written bid of the unit owners' association is the highest bid submitted at the sale, such written bid shall be filed by the trustee with his account of sale required under subdivision 10 of this subsection and § 64.2-1309. The written bid submitted pursuant to this subsection may be prepared by the unit owners' association or its agent or attorney.

b. The unit owners' association may require of any bidder at any sale a cash deposit of as much as 10 percent of the sale price before his bid is received, which shall be refunded to him if the condominium unit is not sold to him. The deposit of the successful bidder shall be applied to his credit at settlement, or if such bidder fails to complete his purchase promptly, the deposit shall be applied to pay the costs and expenses of the sale, and the balance, if any, shall be retained by the unit owners' association in connection with that sale.

c. The unit owners' association shall receive and receipt for the proceeds of sale, no purchaser being required to see to the application of the proceeds, and apply the same in the following order: first, to the reasonable expenses of sale, including reasonable attorney fees; second, to the satisfaction of all taxes, levies, and assessments, with costs and interest; third, to the satisfaction of the lien for the unit owners' assessments; fourth, to the satisfaction in the order of priority of any remaining inferior claims of record; and fifth, to pay the residue of the proceeds to the unit owner or his assigns, provided, however, that the association as to such residue shall not be bound by any inheritance, devise, conveyance, assignment, or lien of or upon the unit owner's equity, without actual notice of such encumbrance prior to distribution.

9. The trustee shall deliver to the purchaser a trustee's deed conveying the unit with special warranty of title. The trustee shall not be required to take possession of the condominium unit prior to the sale or to deliver possession of the unit to the purchaser at the sale.

10. The trustee shall file an accounting of the sale with the commissioner of accounts pursuant to § 64.2-1309 and every account of a sale shall be recorded pursuant to § 64.2-1310. In addition, the accounting shall be made available for inspection and copying pursuant to § 55.1-1945 upon the written request of the prior unit owner, current unit owner, or any holder of a recorded lien against the unit at the time of the sale. The unit owners' association shall maintain a copy of the accounting for at least 12 months following the foreclosure sale.

11. If the sale of a unit is made pursuant to this subsection and the accounting is made by the trustee, the title of the purchaser at such sale shall not be disturbed unless within 12 months from the confirmation of the accounting by the commissioner of accounts, the sale is set aside by the court or an appeal is filed in the Court of Appeals or granted by the Supreme Court and an order is entered requiring such sale to be set aside.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.84; 1975, c. 415; 1991, c. 497; 1992, c. 72; 1997, cc. 760, 766; 2000, c. 906; 2004, cc. 778, 779, 786; 2019, c. 712; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 489.

§ 55.1-1967. Notice of sale under deed of trust.

In accordance with the provisions of § 15.2-979, the unit owners' association shall be given notice whenever a condominium unit becomes subject to a sale under a deed of trust. Upon receipt of such notice, the executive board, on behalf of the unit owners' association, shall exercise whatever due diligence it deems necessary with respect to the unit subject to a sale under a deed of trust to protect the interests of the unit owners' association.

2015, cc. 93, 410, § 55-79.84:01; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1968. Bond to be posted by declarant.

A. The declarant of a condominium containing units that are required by this chapter to be registered with the Common Interest Community Board shall post a bond in favor of the unit owners' association with good and sufficient surety, in a sum equal to $1,000 per unit, except that such sum shall not be less than $10,000, nor more than $100,000. Such bond shall be filed with the Common Interest Community Board and shall be maintained for so long as the declarant owns more than 10 percent of the units in the condominium or, if the declarant owns less than 10 percent of the units in the condominium, until the declarant is current in the payment of assessments. However, the Board shall return a bond where the declarant owns one unit in a condominium containing less than 10 units, provided that such declarant is current in the payment of assessments.

B. No bond shall be accepted for filing unless it is with a surety company authorized to do business in the Commonwealth or by such other surety as is satisfactory to the Board, and such bond shall be conditioned upon the payment of all assessments levied against condominium units owned by the declarant. The Board may accept a letter of credit in lieu of the bond contemplated by this section.

The Board may promulgate reasonable regulations that govern the return of bonds submitted in accordance with this section.

1977, c. 428, § 55-79.84:1; 1981, c. 480; 1984, c. 601; 1985, c. 107; 1988, c. 15; 1993, cc. 667, 900; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1969. Restraints on alienation.

If the condominium instruments create any rights of first refusal or other restraints on free alienability of the condominium units, such rights and restraints are void unless the condominium instruments make provision for promptly furnishing to any unit owner or purchaser requesting such rights and restraints a recordable statement certifying to any waiver of, or failure or refusal to exercise, such rights and restraints, in all cases where such waiver, failure, or refusal does in fact occur. Failure or refusal to furnish promptly such a statement in such circumstances in accordance with the provisions of the condominium instruments make all such rights and restraints inapplicable to any disposition of a condominium unit in contemplation of which such statement was requested. Any such statement shall be binding on the unit owners' association, the executive board, and every unit owner. Payment of a fee not exceeding $25 may be required as a prerequisite to the issuance of such a statement if the condominium instruments so provide.

1974, c. 416, § 55-79.85; 2019, c. 712.