Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 64.2. Wills, Trusts, and Fiduciaries
12/6/2019

Chapter 6. Transfers without Qualification.

Article 1. Virginia Small Estate Act.

§ 64.2-600. Definitions.

For the purposes of this article, the following definitions apply:

"Designated successor" means one or more successors who are designated pursuant to subdivision A 7 of § 64.2-601.

"Person" means any individual, corporation, business trust, fiduciary, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Small asset" means any indebtedness owed to or any asset belonging or presently distributable to the decedent, other than real property, having a value, on the date of the decedent's death, of no more than $50,000. A small asset includes any bank account, savings institution account, credit union account, brokerage account, security, deposit, tax refund, overpayment, item of tangible personal property, or an instrument evidencing a debt, obligation, stock, or chose in action.

"Successor" means any person, other than a creditor, who is entitled under the decedent's will or the laws of intestacy to part or all of a small asset.

1981, c. 281, § 64.1-132.1; 2010, c. 269; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-601. Payment or delivery of small asset by affidavit.

A. Any person having possession of a small asset shall pay or deliver the small asset to the designated successor of the decedent upon being presented an affidavit made by all of the known successors stating:

1. That the value of the decedent's entire personal probate estate as of the date of the decedent's death, wherever located, does not exceed $50,000;

2. That at least 60 days have elapsed since the decedent's death;

3. That no application for the appointment of a personal representative is pending or has been granted in any jurisdiction;

4. That the decedent's will, if any, was duly probated;

5. That the claiming successor is entitled to payment or delivery of the small asset, and the basis upon which such entitlement is claimed;

6. The names and addresses of all successors, to the extent known;

7. The name of each successor designated to receive payment or delivery of the small asset on behalf of all successors; and

8. That the designated successor shall have a fiduciary duty to safeguard and promptly pay or deliver the small asset as required by the laws of the Commonwealth.

B. The designated successor may discharge his fiduciary duty to promptly pay or deliver the small asset to a successor who is, or is reasonably believed to be, incapacitated or under a legal disability, by paying or delivering the asset directly to the incapacitated or disabled successor or applying it for such successor's benefit, or by:

1. Paying it to such successor's conservator or, if no conservator exists, guardian;

2. Paying it to such successor's custodian under the Virginia Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (§ 64.2-1900 et seq.) or custodial trustee under the Uniform Custodial Trust Act (§ 64.2-900 et seq.), and, for that purpose, creating a custodianship or custodial trust;

3. If the designated successor does not know of a conservator, guardian, custodian, or custodial trustee, paying it to an adult relative or other person having legal or physical care or custody of such successor to be expended on such successor's behalf; or

4. Managing it as a separate fund on such successor's behalf, subject to such successor's continuing right to withdraw the asset.

C. Any successor may be represented and bound under virtual representation provisions of §§ 64.2-714, 64.2-716, and 64.2-717 with respect to affidavits required and designations of persons to receive payment or delivery of a small asset under this article.

D. A transfer agent of any security, upon the surrender of the certificates, if any, evidencing the security, shall change the registered ownership on the books of a corporation from the decedent to the designated successor upon the presentation of an affidavit as provided in subsection A.

E. Upon the presentation of an affidavit as provided in subsection A, the designated successor may endorse or negotiate any small asset that is a check, draft, or other negotiable instrument that is payable to the decedent or the decedent's estate. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 8.3A-403, 8.3A-417, and 8.3A-420, a financial institution accepting such check, draft, or other negotiable instrument presented for deposit in such manner is discharged from all claims for the amount accepted.

1981, c. 281, § 64.1-132.2; 1996, c. 549; 2001, c. 368; 2006, c. 280; 2010, c. 269; 2012, c. 614; 2013, c. 68; 2015, c. 617; 2019, c. 360.

§ 64.2-602. Payment or delivery of small asset valued at $25,000 or less without affidavit.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 64.2-601, any person having possession of a small asset valued at $25,000 or less may pay or deliver the small asset to any successor provided that:

1. At least 60 days have elapsed since the decedent's death; and

2. No application for the appointment of a personal representative is pending or has been granted in any jurisdiction.

B. The designated successor shall have a fiduciary duty to safeguard and promptly pay or deliver the small asset as required by the laws of the Commonwealth to the other successors, if any.

1981, c. 281, § 64.1-132.3; 2010, c. 269; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-603. Discharge and release of payor.

Any person paying or delivering a small asset pursuant to § 64.2-601 or 64.2-602 is discharged and released to the same extent as if that person dealt with the personal representative of the decedent. Such person is not required to see the application of the small asset or to inquire into the truth of any statement in any affidavit presented pursuant to subsection A of § 64.2-601. If any person to whom such an affidavit is presented refuses to pay or deliver any small asset, it may be recovered, or its payment or delivery compelled, and damages may be recovered, on proof of rightful claim in a proceeding brought for that purpose by or on behalf of the person entitled thereto. Any person to whom payment or delivery of a small asset has been made is answerable and accountable therefor to any personal representative of the decedent's estate or to any other successor having an equal or superior right.

1981, c. 281, § 64.1-132.4; 2010, c. 269; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-604. Payment or delivery of small asset; funeral expenses.

Thirty days after the death of a decedent upon whose estate there shall have been no application for the appointment of a personal representative pending or granted in any jurisdiction, any person holding a small asset belonging to the decedent may, at the request of a successor, pay or deliver so much of the small asset as does not exceed the amount given priority by § 64.2-528 to the undertaker or mortuary handling the funeral of the decedent, and a receipt of the payee shall be a full and final release of the payor as to such sum.

2010, c. 269, § 64.1-132.5; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-605. Construction of article.

The remedies provided by this article shall be in addition to, and not in exclusion of, any other remedies provided by law.

2010, c. 269, § 64.1-132.6; 2012, c. 614.

Article 2. Payments, Settlements, or Administration without Appointment of Representative.

§ 64.2-606. Transfer of certain vessels registered with U.S. Coast Guard and transfer of motor vehicles.

A. When a resident of the Commonwealth owning a vessel registered with the U.S. Coast Guard dies and there has been no qualification on the decedent's estate, a transfer of ownership may be made by a legatee or distributee if he presents a statement made by him to the U.S. Coast Guard stating that (i) there has not been and there is not expected to be a qualification on the estate and (ii) the decedent's debts have been paid in full or that the proceeds from the sale of such vessel will be used to apply against the decedent's debts. The statement shall state the decedent's name, residence at the time of death, and date of death, and the names of all other persons, if any, having an interest in the vessel who, if they have reached the age of majority, shall signify in writing their consent to such transfer of title.

B. A transfer of ownership of a motor vehicle may be made by a legatee or distributee pursuant to § 46.2-634.

1980, c. 731, § 64.1-123.2; 1994, c. 399; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-607. Transfer of evidences of indebtedness, securities, and stock held in decedents' estates.

When any executor or administrator duly appointed and qualified under this title has completed the distribution of the estate with the exception of transferring any evidences of indebtedness, securities, or stock in any corporation constituting a portion of such estate, such executor or administrator may file with the clerk of the court in which such executors or administrators qualified, a petition describing any such evidences of indebtedness, securities, and stock, stating that all debts of the decedent have been paid, and stating that a final accounting has been filed and approved. Upon receipt of the petition, the clerk shall issue a certificate certifying that the powers of such executor or administrator continue in full force and effect.

Code 1950, § 64-121.1; 1952, c. 329; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-128; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-608. Transfer of securities of nonresident decedents.

The stocks, bonds, or evidences of indebtedness issued by (i) the Commonwealth or any corporation created by the Commonwealth or (ii) any national bank or any other corporation created pursuant to federal law that has its principal office in the Commonwealth that are held in the name of a decedent domiciled outside of the Commonwealth at the time of his death and who is not known by the officer or agent charged with the duty of transferring such stocks, bonds, or evidences of indebtedness to have a personal representative qualified as such within the Commonwealth, may be transferred by the executor or administrator of the decedent qualified according to the laws of the decedent's domicile.

Code 1950, § 64-122; 1950, c. 895; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-129; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-609. Money and personal property belonging to nonresident decedents.

A. When any person, at the time of his death domiciled outside of the Commonwealth, owned stocks, bonds, securities, money, or tangible personal property located in the Commonwealth or was entitled to any debts, choses in action, or tangible personal property in the Commonwealth, the person, firm, or corporation holding such stocks, bonds, securities, money, debts, tangible personal property, and choses in action shall retain such assets for 90 days from the death of such decedent. After the 90-day period, the person, firm, or corporation shall pay over or deliver on demand such portion of the assets for which the person, firm, or corporation has received no legal notice of any lien or encumbrance to an executor, administrator, or other personal representative, qualified according to the laws of the decedent's domicile if the value of such assets in the Commonwealth is, to the knowledge of the person holding or owing such assets, less than $25,000. When the value of such stocks, bonds, securities, money, debts, tangible personal property, and choses in action is $25,000 or more, the holder may pay or deliver such assets to an executor, administrator, or other personal representative, qualified in accordance with the law of the decedent's domicile, 30 days after the holder gives public notice of his intention to make such a transfer by publication thereof once a week for four successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the city, town, or county wherein the holder resides or has his principal place of business, provided that at the time of such payment or delivery, the holder has no actual notice of the appointment of a personal representative for such decedent in the Commonwealth and has received no legal notice of any lien or encumbrance upon such assets.

B. This section shall be construed as providing, as to the payment of money and the delivery of personal property belonging to nonresident decedents or their estates, optional methods of procedure in addition to those otherwise permitted or provided by law, including a comparable law of the state in which the nonresident decedents were domiciled, and shall not as to such matters add any limitations or restrictions to existing law.

Code 1950, § 64-123; 1956, c. 536; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-130; 1970, c. 244; 1988, c. 370; 1996, c. 549; 2001, c. 368; 2009, c. 250; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.

§ 64.2-610. When court may allow another to qualify on estate.

A. Except during the pendency of a suit to contest the decedent's will or during the infancy or absence of the executor, the court where the will was admitted to probate or that has jurisdiction to grant administration on the decedent's estate, or the clerk of such court, shall, if there has been no executor or administrator on the decedent's estate for more than two months and on the motion of any person, order any person of the county or city to take into his possession the estate of such decedent and administer the same after requiring such person post a proper bond. However, any sheriff so ordered may decline the appointment if the appointment interferes with his current duties or obligations. The person ordered to take possession of the decedent's estate shall be the administrator, or administrator de bonis non, of the decedent, with his will annexed, if there be a will, and shall be entitled to all the rights and bound to perform all the duties of such administrator.

B. The court may, on reasonable notice to the person appointed, revoke the order made by it or its clerk and the court may, after reasonable notice to the parties in interest, permit the person to resign and allow any other person to qualify as executor or administrator.

C. When an estate is committed to a person pursuant to subsection A on the motion of a creditor or other person, the state tax due for such administration shall be paid by the party who made the motion and such tax shall be repaid to him by the administrator so appointed out of the first funds received by him for such estate.

Code 1950, § 64-124; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-131; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 1980, c. 438; 1996, c. 317; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-611. Disposition by sheriff of property when no person entitled thereto.

If any sheriff has in his possession any money or personal property of a decedent and, after reasonable diligence, is unable to ascertain the identity of any person entitled to such property, the sheriff shall sell such property at public auction within two years of coming into possession of such property. The sheriff shall post notices of the date, time, and place of the sale at least 10 days before the sale in three or more public places in his jurisdiction, or shall advertise the date, time, and place of the sale at least 10 days before the sale in a newspaper published or having general circulation in his jurisdiction. The proceeds of the sale of personal property, together with any such money of the decedent in the sheriff's possession, after the payment of all necessary expenses, shall be paid into the state treasury to the credit of the Literary Fund.

Code 1950, § 64-125; 1968, c. 656, § 64.1-132; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 2012, c. 614.

Article 3. Uniform Transfers on Death (Tod) Security Registration Act.

§ 64.2-612. Definitions.

In this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

"Beneficiary form" means a registration of a security that indicates the present owner of the security and the intention of the owner regarding the person who will become the owner of the security upon the death of the owner.

"Devisee" means any person designated in a will to receive a disposition of real or personal property.

"Heirs" means those persons, including the surviving spouse, who are entitled under the laws of intestate succession to the property of a decedent.

"Personal representative" includes an executor, administrator, successor, personal representative, special administrator, and a person who performs substantially the same function under the law governing his status.

"Property" includes both real and personal property or any interest therein and means anything that may be the subject of ownership.

"Register," including its derivatives, means to issue a certificate showing the ownership of a certificated security or, in the case of an uncertificated security, to initiate or transfer an account showing ownership of securities.

"Registering entity" means a person who originates or transfers a security title by registration, and includes a broker maintaining security accounts for customers and a transfer agent or other person acting for or as an issuer of securities.

"Security" means a share, participation, or other interest in property, in a business, or in an obligation of an enterprise or other issuer, and includes a certificated security, an uncertificated security, and a security account.

"Security account" means (i) a reinvestment account associated with a security, a securities account with a broker, a cash balance in a brokerage account, cash, interest, earnings, or dividends earned or declared on a security in an account, a reinvestment account, or a brokerage account, whether or not credited to the account before the owner's death, or (ii) a cash balance or other property held for or due to the owner of a security as a replacement for or product of an account security, whether or not credited to the account before the owner's death.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.1; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-613. Registration in beneficiary form; sole or joint tenancy ownership; applicable law.

A. Only individuals whose registration of a security shows sole ownership by one individual or multiple ownership by two or more with right of survivorship, rather than as tenants in common, may obtain registration in beneficiary form. Multiple owners of a security registered in beneficiary form hold as joint tenants with right of survivorship, as tenants by the entireties, or as owners of community property held in survivorship form, and not as tenants in common.

B. A security may be registered in beneficiary form if the form is authorized by this article or a similar law of the state of organization of the issuer or registering entity, the location of the registering entity's principal office, the office of its transfer agent, or its office making the registration, or by a similar law of the state listed as the owner's address at the time of registration.

A registration governed by the law of a jurisdiction in which this article or a similar law is not in force or was not in force when a registration in beneficiary form was made is nevertheless presumed to be valid and authorized as a matter of contract law.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.2; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-614. Origination of registration in beneficiary form.

A security, whether evidenced by certificate or account, is registered in beneficiary form when the registration includes a designation of a beneficiary to take the ownership at the death of the owner or the deaths of all multiple owners.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.3; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-615. Form of registration in beneficiary form; effect.

A. Registration in beneficiary form may be shown by the words "transfer on death" or the abbreviation "TOD," or by the words "pay on death" or the abbreviation "POD," after the name of the registered owner and before the name of the beneficiary.

B. The designation of a TOD beneficiary on a registration in beneficiary form has no effect on ownership until the owner's death. A registration of a security in beneficiary form may be canceled or changed at any time by the sole owner or all then surviving owners without the consent of the beneficiary.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.4; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-616. Ownership on death of owner.

On death of a sole owner or the last to die of all multiple owners, ownership of securities registered in beneficiary form passes to any beneficiaries who survive all owners. On proof of death of all owners and compliance with any applicable requirements of the registering entity, a security registered in beneficiary form may be reregistered in the names of any beneficiaries who survived the death of all owners. Until division of the security after the death of all owners, multiple beneficiaries surviving the death of all owners hold their interests as tenants in common. If no beneficiary survives the death of all owners, the security belongs to the estate of the deceased sole owner or the estate of the last to die of all multiple owners.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.5; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-617. Protection of registering entity.

A. A registering entity is not required to offer or to accept a request for security registration in beneficiary form. If a registration in beneficiary form is offered by a registering entity, the owner requesting registration in beneficiary form assents to the protection given to the registering entity by this article.

B. By accepting a request for registration of a security in beneficiary form, the registering entity agrees that the registration will be implemented on death of the deceased owner as provided in this article.

C. A registering entity is discharged from all claims to a security by the estate, creditors, heirs, or devisees of a deceased owner if it registers a transfer of the security in accordance with § 64.2-616 and does so in good faith reliance (i) on the registration, (ii) on this article, and (iii) on information provided to it by affidavit of the personal representative of the deceased owner, or by the surviving beneficiary or by the surviving beneficiary's representative, or on other information available to the registering entity. The protections of this article do not extend to a reregistration or payment made after a registering entity has received written notice from any claimant to any interest in the security objecting to implementation of a registration in beneficiary form. No other notice or other information available to the registering entity affects its right to protection under this article.

D. The protection provided by this article to the registering entity of a security does not affect the rights of beneficiaries in disputes between themselves and other claimants to ownership of the security transferred or its value or proceeds.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.6; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-618. Nontestamentary transfer on death.

A transfer on death resulting from a registration in beneficiary form is effective by reason of the contract regarding the registration between the owner and the registering entity and this article, and is not testamentary.

This article does not limit the rights of creditors of security owners against beneficiaries and other transferees under other laws of the Commonwealth.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.7; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-619. Terms, conditions, and forms for registration; examples.

A. A registering entity offering to accept registrations in beneficiary form may establish the terms and conditions under which it will receive requests (i) for registrations in beneficiary form and (ii) for implementation of registrations in beneficiary form, including requests for cancellation of previously registered TOD beneficiary designations and requests for reregistration to effect a change of beneficiary. The terms and conditions so established may provide for proving death, avoiding or resolving any problems concerning fractional shares, designating primary and contingent beneficiaries, and substituting a named beneficiary's descendants to take in the place of the named beneficiary in the event of the beneficiary's death.

Substitution may be indicated by appending to the name of the primary beneficiary the letters LDPS, standing for "lineal descendants per stirpes." This designation substitutes a deceased beneficiary's descendants who survive the owner for a beneficiary who fails to so survive, the descendants to be identified and to share in accordance with the law of the beneficiary's domicile at the owner's death governing inheritance by descendants of an intestate. Other forms of identifying beneficiaries who are to take on one or more contingencies, and rules for providing proofs and assurances needed to satisfy reasonable concerns by registering entities regarding conditions and identities relevant to accurate implementation of registrations in beneficiary form, may be contained in a registering entity's terms and conditions.

B. The following are illustrations of registrations in beneficiary form which a registering entity may authorize:

1. Sole owner-sole beneficiary: John S. Brown TOD (or POD) John S. Brown, Jr.

2. Multiple owners-sole beneficiary: John S. Brown Mary B. Brown JT TEN TOD John S. Brown, Jr.

3. Multiple owners-primary and secondary (substituted) beneficiaries: John S. Brown Mary B. Brown JT TEN TOD John S. Brown, Jr. SUB BENE Peter Q. Brown or John S. Brown Mary B. Brown JT TEN TOD John S. Brown, Jr. LDPS.

1994, c. 422, § 64.1-206.8; 2012, c. 614.

Article 4. Nonprobate Transfers on Death.

§ 64.2-620. Nonprobate transfers on death.

A. A provision for a nonprobate transfer on death in an insurance policy, contract of employment, bond, mortgage, promissory note, certificated or uncertificated security, account agreement, custodial agreement, deposit agreement, compensation plan, pension plan, individual retirement plan, employee benefit plan, trust, conveyance, deed of gift, marital property agreement, or other written instrument of a similar nature is nontestamentary.

Nontestamentary transfers also include writings stating that (i) money or other benefits due to, controlled by, or owned by a decedent before death shall be paid after the decedent's death to a person whom the decedent designates either in the instrument or in a separate writing, including a will, executed either before or at the same time as the instrument, or later; (ii) money due or to become due under the instrument ceases to be payable in the event of death of the promisee or the promisor before payment or demand; or (iii) any property controlled by or owned by the decedent before death that is the subject of the instrument passes to a person the decedent designates either in the instrument or in a separate writing, including a will, executed either before or at the same time as the instrument, or later.

B. This section does not limit rights of creditors under other laws of the Commonwealth.

2001, c. 583, § 64.1-45.3; 2012, c. 614.

Article 5. Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act.

§ 64.2-621. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Beneficiary" means a person that receives property under a transfer on death deed.

"Designated beneficiary" means a person designated to receive property in a transfer on death deed.

"Joint owner" means an individual who owns property concurrently with one or more other individuals with a right of survivorship. "Joint owner" includes a joint tenant with the right of survivorship and tenant by the entirety with the right of survivorship. "Joint owner" does not include a tenant in common.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Property" means an interest in real property located in the Commonwealth that is transferable on the death of the owner.

"Transfer on death deed" means a deed authorized under this article.

"Transferor" means an individual who makes a transfer on death deed.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-622. Applicability.

This article applies to a transfer on death deed made before, on, or after July 1, 2013, by a transferor dying on or after July 1, 2013.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-623. Nonexclusivity.

This article does not affect any method of transferring property otherwise permitted under the law of the Commonwealth.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-624. Transfer on death deed authorized.

An individual may transfer property to one or more beneficiaries effective at the transferor's death by a transfer on death deed.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-625. Transfer on death deed revocable.

A transfer on death deed is revocable even if the deed or another instrument contains a contrary provision.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-626. Transfer on death deed nontestamentary.

A transfer on death deed is nontestamentary.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-627. Capacity of transferor.

The capacity required to make or revoke a transfer on death deed is the same as the capacity required to make a will.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-628. (Effective October 1, 2019) Requirements.

A transfer on death deed:

1. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2, shall contain the essential elements and formalities of a properly recordable inter vivos deed;

2. Shall state that the transfer to the designated beneficiary is to occur at the transferor's death;

3. Shall be recorded before the transferor's death in the land records of the clerk's office of the circuit court in the jurisdiction where the property is located;

4. Shall comply with the requirements for recordation set forth in Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.) of Title 55.1 and shall be indexed by the clerk of court under the name of the transferor as grantor;

5. Unless the transfer is for consideration, shall be exempt from recordation tax as provided by subsection J of § 58.1-811;

6. For property owned by joint owners to be effective, shall be executed by all joint owners; and

7. Shall be considered a deed for purposes of complying with the requirements of § 17.1-223.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-628. (Effective until October 1, 2019) Requirements.

A transfer on death deed:

1. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2, shall contain the essential elements and formalities of a properly recordable inter vivos deed;

2. Shall state that the transfer to the designated beneficiary is to occur at the transferor's death;

3. Shall be recorded before the transferor's death in the land records of the clerk's office of the circuit court in the jurisdiction where the property is located;

4. Shall comply with the requirements for recordation set forth in Chapter 6 ( § 55-106 et seq.) of Title 55 and shall be indexed by the clerk of court under the name of the transferor as grantor;

5. Unless the transfer is for consideration, shall be exempt from recordation tax as provided by subsection J of § 58.1-811;

6. For property owned by joint owners to be effective, shall be executed by all joint owners; and

7. Shall be considered a deed for purposes of complying with the requirements of § 17.1-223.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-629. Notice, delivery, acceptance, consideration not required.

A transfer on death deed is effective without:

1. Notice or delivery to or acceptance by the designated beneficiary during the transferor's life; or

2. Consideration.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-630. Revocation by instrument authorized; revocation by act not permitted.

A. Subject to subsection B, an instrument is effective to revoke a recorded transfer on death deed, or any part of it, only if the instrument:

1. Is one of the following:

a. A transfer on death deed that revokes the transfer on death deed or part of the transfer on death deed expressly;

b. A transfer on death deed that names a designated beneficiary that is inconsistent with the designated beneficiary in a prior transfer on death deed;

c. An instrument of revocation that expressly revokes the transfer on death deed or part of the transfer on death deed; or

d. An inter vivos deed that expressly revokes the transfer on death deed or part of the transfer on death deed.

2. Is acknowledged by the transferor after the acknowledgment of the transfer on death deed being revoked and recorded before the transferor's death in the land records of the clerk's office of the circuit court where the deed is recorded.

B. If a transfer on death deed is made by more than one transferor:

1. Revocation by a transferor does not affect the transfer on death deed as to the interest of another transferor; and

2. A transfer on death deed of joint owners is revoked only if it is revoked by all of the living joint owners.

C. After a transfer on death deed is recorded, it can be revoked only by an effective revocatory instrument recorded prior to the death of the transferor and may not be revoked by a revocatory act taken against or on the original or a copy of the recorded transfer on death deed.

D. This section does not limit the effect of an inter vivos transfer of the property.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-631. Effect of transfer on death deed during transferor's life.

During a transferor's life, a transfer on death deed does not:

1. Affect an interest or right of the transferor or any other owner, including the right to transfer or encumber the property;

2. Affect an interest or right of a transferee, even if the transferee has actual or constructive notice of the deed;

3. Affect an interest or right of a secured or unsecured creditor or future creditor of the transferor, even if the creditor has actual or constructive notice of the deed;

4. Affect the transferor's or designated beneficiary's eligibility for any form of public assistance;

5. Create a legal or equitable interest in favor of the designated beneficiary; or

6. Subject the property to claims or process of a creditor of the designated beneficiary.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-632. (Effective October 1, 2019) Effect of transfer on death deed at transferor's death.

A. Except as otherwise provided in the transfer on death deed, in this section, in § 64.2-302 or Article 1.1 (§ 64.2-308.1 et seq.) of Chapter 3, as applicable, or in Chapter 22 (§ 64.2-2200 et seq.) or 25 (§ 64.2-2500 et seq.), on the death of the transferor, the following rules apply to property that is the subject of a transfer on death deed and owned by the transferor at death:

1. Subject to subdivision 2, the interest in the property is transferred to and vests in the designated beneficiary at the death of the transferor in accordance with the deed.

2. The interest of a designated beneficiary is contingent on the designated beneficiary surviving the transferor. The interest of a designated beneficiary that fails to survive the transferor lapses.

3. Subject to subdivision 4, concurrent interests are transferred to the beneficiaries in equal and undivided shares with no right of survivorship.

4. If the transferor has identified two or more designated beneficiaries to receive concurrent interests in the property, the share of one that lapses or fails for any reason is transferred to the other, or to the others in proportion to the interest of each in the remaining part of the property held concurrently.

5. If, after making a transfer on death deed, the transferor is divorced a vinculo matrimonii or his marriage is annulled, the divorce or annulment revokes any transfer to a former spouse as designated beneficiary unless the transfer on death deed expressly provides otherwise.

B. Subject to Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.) of Title 55.1, a beneficiary takes the property subject to all conveyances, encumbrances, assignments, contracts, mortgages, liens, and other interests to which the property is subject at the transferor's death. For purposes of this subsection and Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.) of Title 55.1, the transfer and conveyance of the property subject to the transfer on death deed shall be deemed to be effective at the transferor's death.

C. If a transferor is a joint owner and is:

1. Survived by one or more other joint owners, the property that is the subject of a transfer on death deed belongs to the surviving joint owner or owners with right of survivorship but remains subject to the naming of the designated beneficiary in the transfer on death deed; or

2. The last surviving joint owner, the transfer on death deed is effective.

D. A transfer on death deed transfers property without covenant or warranty of title even if the deed contains a contrary provision.

2013, c. 390; 2016, cc. 187, 269.

§ 64.2-632. (Effective until October 1, 2019) Effect of transfer on death deed at transferor's death.

A. Except as otherwise provided in the transfer on death deed, in this section, in § 64.2-302 or Article 1.1 (§ 64.2-308.1 et seq.) of Chapter 3, as applicable, or in Chapter 22 (§ 64.2-2200 et seq.) or 25 (§ 64.2-2500 et seq.), on the death of the transferor, the following rules apply to property that is the subject of a transfer on death deed and owned by the transferor at death:

1. Subject to subdivision 2, the interest in the property is transferred to and vests in the designated beneficiary at the death of the transferor in accordance with the deed.

2. The interest of a designated beneficiary is contingent on the designated beneficiary surviving the transferor. The interest of a designated beneficiary that fails to survive the transferor lapses.

3. Subject to subdivision 4, concurrent interests are transferred to the beneficiaries in equal and undivided shares with no right of survivorship.

4. If the transferor has identified two or more designated beneficiaries to receive concurrent interests in the property, the share of one that lapses or fails for any reason is transferred to the other, or to the others in proportion to the interest of each in the remaining part of the property held concurrently.

5. If, after making a transfer on death deed, the transferor is divorced a vinculo matrimonii or his marriage is annulled, the divorce or annulment revokes any transfer to a former spouse as designated beneficiary unless the transfer on death deed expressly provides otherwise.

B. Subject to Chapter 6 (§ 55-106 et seq.) of Title 55, a beneficiary takes the property subject to all conveyances, encumbrances, assignments, contracts, mortgages, liens, and other interests to which the property is subject at the transferor's death. For purposes of this subsection and Chapter 6 (§ 55-106 et seq.) of Title 55, the transfer and conveyance of the property subject to the transfer on death deed shall be deemed to be effective at the transferor's death.

C. If a transferor is a joint owner and is:

1. Survived by one or more other joint owners, the property that is the subject of a transfer on death deed belongs to the surviving joint owner or owners with right of survivorship but remains subject to the naming of the designated beneficiary in the transfer on death deed; or

2. The last surviving joint owner, the transfer on death deed is effective.

D. A transfer on death deed transfers property without covenant or warranty of title even if the deed contains a contrary provision.

2013, c. 390; 2016, cc. 187, 269.

§ 64.2-633. Disclaimer.

A beneficiary may disclaim all or part of the beneficiary's interest as provided by Chapter 26 (§ 64.2-2600 et seq.).

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-634. Liability for creditor claims and statutory allowances.

A. After the death of the transferor, and subject to the transferor's right to direct the source from which liabilities will be paid, property transferred at the transferor's death by a transfer on death deed is subject to claims of the transferor's creditors, costs of administration of the transferor's estate, the expenses of the transferor's funeral and disposal of remains, and statutory allowances to a surviving spouse and children of the transferor including the family allowance, the right to exempt property, and the homestead allowance to the extent the transferor's probate estate is inadequate to satisfy those claims, costs, expenses, and allowances.

B. If more than one property is transferred by one or more transfer on death deeds, the liability under subsection A is apportioned among the properties in proportion to their net values at the transferor's death.

C. A proceeding to enforce the liability under this section shall be commenced not later than one year after the transferor's death.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-635. Optional form of transfer on death deed.

The following form may be used to create a transfer on death deed. The other sections of this article govern the effect of this or any other instrument used to create a transfer on death deed:

THIS DEED MUST BE RECORDED BEFORE THE DEATH OF THE OWNER(S), OR IT WILL NOT BE EFFECTIVE.

THIS DEED IS EXEMPT FROM RECORDATION TAXES UNDER § 58.1-811(J) OF THE CODE OF VIRGINIA OF 1950, AS AMENDED.

REVOCABLE TRANSFER ON DEATH DEED

THIS REVOCABLE TRANSFER ON DEATH DEED, dated as of the __________ day of _______________, is made by TRANSFEROR or TRANSFERORS (the Grantor(s)), whose address is ________________________________________.

This Revocable Transfer on Death Deed is made pursuant to the provisions of the Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act, Virginia Code § 64.2-621 et seq. In accordance with the provisions of the Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act, at my death, I transfer and convey my interest in the below described property to my designated beneficiaries as follows:

PRIMARY BENEFICIARY

I designate ____________________ as the designated beneficiary of the property if ____________________ survives me.

ALTERNATE BENEFICIARY -- Optional

If my primary designated beneficiary does not survive me, I designate ____________________ as my alternate designated beneficiary if my alternate designated beneficiary survives me.

PROPERTY:

The legal description of the real property that shall be transferred at my death pursuant to this Revocable Transfer on Death Deed is as follows:

INSERT LEGAL DESCRIPTION

RIGHT TO REVOKE AND METHOD TO REVOKE DEED:

Before my death, I have the right to revoke this deed.

Under the Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act, an instrument is effective to revoke a recorded transfer on death deed, or any part of it, only if the instrument:

1. Is one of the following:

a. A transfer on death deed that revokes the transfer on death deed or part of the transfer on death deed expressly;

b. A transfer on death deed that names a designated beneficiary that is inconsistent with the designated beneficiary in a prior transfer on death deed;

c. An instrument of revocation that expressly revokes the transfer on death deed or part of the transfer on death deed; or

d. An inter vivos deed that expressly revokes the transfer on death deed or part of the transfer on death deed.

2. Is acknowledged by the transferor after the acknowledgment of the transfer on death deed being revoked and recorded before the transferor's death in the land records of the clerk's office of the circuit court where the deed is recorded.

After this transfer on death deed is recorded, it can be revoked only by an effective revocatory instrument recorded prior to the death of the transferor and may not be revoked by a revocatory act taken against or on the original or a copy of the recorded transfer on death deed.

The execution and recordation of this transfer on death deed does not limit the effect of an inter vivos transfer of the property.

At my death, a beneficiary takes the property subject to all conveyances, encumbrances, assignments, contracts, mortgages, liens, and other interests to which the property is subject at my death.

Witness the following signature and seals:

________________________________________ (SEAL)
TRANSFEROR

COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA

CITY/COUNTY OF ____________________, to wit:

The foregoing instrument was acknowledged before me in the City/County of ____________________, Virginia this __________ day of _______________, by TRANSFEROR.

________________________________________
Notary Public

My commission expires: ____________________

Registration number: ____________________

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-636. Optional form of revocation.

The following form may be used to create an instrument of revocation under this article.

THIS REVOCATION MUST BE RECORDED BEFORE YOU DIE OR IT WILL NOT BE EFFECTIVE. THIS REVOCATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY AS TO THE INTERESTS IN THE PROPERTY OF OWNERS WHO SIGN THIS REVOCATION.

THIS DEED IS EXEMPT FROM RECORDATION TAXES UNDER § 58.1-811(J) OF THE CODE OF VIRGINIA OF 1950, AS AMENDED.

REVOCATION OF TRANSFER ON DEATH DEED

THIS REVOCATION OF TRANSFER ON DEATH DEED, dated as of the __________ day of _______________, is made by TRANSFEROR OR TRANSFERORS (the Grantor(s)), whose address is ________________________________________.

This Revocation of Transfer on Death Deed is made pursuant to the provisions of the Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act, Virginia Code, § 64.2-621 et seq.

In accordance with the provisions of the Uniform Real Property Transfer on Death Act, I revoke all my previous transfers of the below described property by transfer on death deed:

INSERT LEGAL DESCRIPTION

Witness the following signature and seals:

________________________________________ (SEAL)
TRANSFEROR

COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA

CITY/COUNTY OF ____________________, to wit:

The foregoing instrument was acknowledged before me in the City/County of ____________________, Virginia this __________ day of _______________, by TRANSFEROR.

________________________________________
Notary Public

My commission expires: ____________________

Registration number: ____________________

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-637. Uniformity of application and construction.

In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration shall be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among the states that enact it.

2013, c. 390.

§ 64.2-638. Relation to federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.

This article modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7001 et seq., but does not modify, limit, or supersede § 101(c) of that Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7001(c), or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in § 103(b) of that Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7003 (b).

2013, c. 390.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

The Virginia General Assembly is offering access to the Code of Virginia on the Internet as a service to the public. We are unable to assist users of this service with legal questions nor respond to requests for legal advice or the application of the law to specific facts. Therefore, to understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.

The Code of Virginia online database excludes material copyrighted by the publisher, Michie, a division of Matthew Bender. Copyrighted material includes annotations and revisors' notes, which may be found in the print version of the Code of Virginia. Annotated print copies of the Code of Virginia are available in most Virginia public library systems, from LexisNexis (1-800-446-3410), and from West, a Thomson-Reuters business (1-800-344-5008).