Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 18. Executions and Other Means of Recovery
11/26/2020

Article 7. Garnishment.

§ 8.01-511. Institution of garnishment proceedings.

A. On a suggestion by the judgment creditor that, by reason of the lien of his writ of fieri facias, there is a liability on any person other than the judgment debtor or that there is in the hands of some person in his capacity as personal representative of some decedent a sum of money to which a judgment debtor is or may be entitled as creditor or distributee of such decedent, upon which sum when determined such writ of fieri facias is a lien, a summons in the form prescribed by § 8.01-512.3 may (i) be sued out of the clerk's office of the court from which an execution on the judgment is issued so long as the judgment shall remain enforceable as provided in § 8.01-251, (ii) be sued out of the clerk's office to which an execution issued thereon has been returned as provided in § 16.1-99 against such person, or (iii) be sued out of the clerk's office from which an execution issued as provided in § 16.1-278.18. If the judgment debtor does not reside in the city or county where the judgment was entered, the judgment creditor may have the case filed or docketed in the court of the city or county where the judgment debtor resides and such court may issue an execution on the judgment, provided that the judgment creditor (a) files with the court an abstract of the judgment rendered, (b) pays fees to the court in accordance with § 16.1-69.48:2 or subdivision 17 of § 17.1-275, and (c) files in both courts any release or satisfaction of judgment. The summons and the notice and claim for exemption form required pursuant to § 8.01-512.4 shall be served on the garnishee, and shall be served on the judgment debtor promptly after service on the garnishee. Service on the judgment debtor and the garnishee shall be made pursuant to subdivision 1 or 2 of § 8.01-296. When making an application for garnishment, the judgment creditor shall set forth on the suggestion for summons in garnishment the last known address of the judgment debtor, and shall furnish the clerk, if service is to be made by the sheriff, or shall furnish any other person making service with an envelope, with first-class postage attached, addressed to such address. A copy of the summons and the notice and claim for exemptions form required under § 8.01-512.4 shall be sent by the clerk to the sheriff or provided by the judgment creditor to the person making service, with the process to be served. Promptly after service on the garnishee, the person making service shall mail such envelope by first-class mail to the judgment debtor at his last known address. If the person making service is unable to serve the judgment debtor pursuant to subdivision 1 of § 8.01-296, such mailing shall satisfy the mailing requirements of subdivision 2 b of § 8.01-296. The person making service shall note on his return the date of such mailing which, with the notation "copy mailed to judgment debtor," shall be sufficient proof of the mailing of such envelope with the required copy of the summons and the notice and claim for exemption form with no examination of such contents being required nor separate certification by the clerk or judgment creditor that the appropriate documents have been so inserted. If the person making service is unable to serve the judgment debtor pursuant to subdivision 1 or 2 of § 8.01-296, such mailing shall constitute service of process on the judgment debtor. The judgment creditor shall furnish the social security number of the judgment debtor to the clerk, except as hereinafter provided.

B. The judgment creditor may require the judgment debtor to furnish his correct social security number by the use of interrogatories. However, use of such interrogatories shall not be a required condition of a judgment creditor's diligent good faith effort to secure the judgment debtor's social security number. Such remedy shall be in addition to all other lawful remedies available to the judgment creditor. Upon a representation by the judgment creditor, or his agent or attorney, that he has made a diligent good faith effort to secure the social security number of the judgment debtor and has been unable to do so, the garnishment shall be issued without the necessity for such number.

C. Except as provided herein, no summons shall be issued pursuant to this section for the garnishment of wages, salaries, commissions, or other earnings unless it: (i) is in the form prescribed by § 8.01-512.3; (ii) is directed to only one garnishee for the garnishment of only one judgment debtor; (iii) contains both the "TOTAL BALANCE DUE" and the social security number of the judgment debtor in the proper places as provided on the summons; and (iv) specifies that it is a garnishment against (a) the judgment debtor's wages, salary, or other compensation or (b) some other debt due or property of the judgment debtor. The garnishee shall not be liable to the judgment creditor for any property not specified in the summons as provided in (iv) above. Upon receipt of a summons not in compliance with this provision, the garnishee shall file a written answer to that effect and shall have no liability to the judgment creditor, such summons being void upon transmission of the answer.

D. The judgment creditor shall, in the suggestion, specify the amount of interest, if any, that is claimed to be due upon the judgment, calculated to the return day of the summons. He shall also set out such credits as may have been made upon the judgment.

All costs incurred by the judgment creditor after entry of the judgment, in aid of execution of the judgment and paid to a clerk of court, sheriff, or process server are chargeable against the judgment debtor, unless such costs are chargeable against the judgment creditor pursuant to § 8.01-475. Regardless of the actual amount of the fee paid by the judgment creditor, the fee for a process server chargeable against the judgment debtor shall not exceed the fee authorized for service by the sheriff. All such previous costs chargeable against the judgment debtor may be included by the judgment creditor as judgment costs in the garnishment summons form prescribed in § 8.01-512.3. This paragraph shall not be construed to limit any cost assessed by a court as part of the judgment.

E. In addition, the suggestion shall contain an allegation that:

1. The summons is based upon a judgment upon which a prior summons has been issued but not fully satisfied; or

2. No summons has been issued upon his suggestion against the same judgment debtor within a period of 18 months, other than under the provisions of subdivision 1; or

3. The summons is based upon a judgment granted against a debtor upon a debt due or made for necessary food, rent or shelter, public utilities including telephone service, drugs, or medical care supplied the debtor by the judgment creditor or to one of his lawful dependents, and that it was not for luxuries or nonessentials; or

4. The summons is based upon a judgment for a debt due the judgment creditor to refinance a lawful loan made by an authorized lending institution; or

5. The summons is based upon a judgment on an obligation incurred as an endorser or comaker upon a lawful note; or

6. The summons is based upon a judgment for a debt or debts reaffirmed after bankruptcy.

F. Any judgment creditor who knowingly gives false information upon any such suggestion or certificate made under this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 8-441; 1960, c. 502; 1966, c. 212; 1972, c. 104; 1976, c. 659; 1977, cc. 454, 617; 1978, cc. 321, 506; 1979, cc. 242, 345; 1980, c. 537; 1983, cc. 399, 468; 1984, c. 1; 1985, c. 524; 1991, c. 534; 1996, cc. 501, 608; 2006, c. 55; 2012, cc. 127, 129, 251, 409.

§ 8.01-511.1. Garnishee inability to determine whether it holds property of judgment debtor.

If a summons for the garnishment of property other than wages, salaries, commissions or other earnings does not contain sufficient or accurate information to enable the garnishee to reasonably identify the judgment debtor, the garnishee shall have no liability to the judgment creditor for failing to deliver the judgment debtor's property in response to the summons. If the summons contains either the social security number or taxpayer identification number of the judgment debtor as it appears in the records of the garnishee, or the name and address of the judgment debtor as they appear in the records of the garnishee, the summons shall be deemed to contain information sufficient to enable the garnishee to reasonably identify the judgment debtor.

If the summons contains sufficient or accurate information to enable the garnishee to reasonably identify the judgment debtor, the garnishee shall (i) answer to the summoning court and further state what the garnishee's records show as the last known address for the judgment debtor and any other information the garnishee deems relevant and (ii) send to the judgment debtor at the last known address a copy of its answer to the court.

No garnishee or creditor who proceeds under the terms of this statute in good faith shall be liable to any person therefor.

2002, c. 688.

§ 8.01-512. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1983, c. 399.

§ 8.01-512.2. Fee for garnishee-employers.

Garnishee-employers may charge and collect a fee of up to ten dollars from a judgment-debtor employee on account of such employers' expense in processing each garnishment summons served on such employers on account of the judgment-debtor employee.

1980, c. 537; 1994, c. 664.

§ 8.01-512.3. Form of garnishment summons.

Any garnishment issued pursuant to § 8.01-511 shall be in the following form:

(a) Front side of summons:

GARNISHMENT SUMMONS

(Court Name)

(Name, address and telephone number of judgment creditor except that when the judgment creditor's attorney's name, address and telephone number appear on the summons, only the creditor's name shall be used.)

(Name, address and telephone number of judgment creditor's attorney)

(Name, street address and social security number of judgment debtor)

(Name and street address of garnishee)

______________________________ Hearing Date and Time

This is a garnishment against (check only one of the designations below):

a

[ ] wages, salary, or other compensation.

[ ] some other debt due or property of the judgment debtor.

b

MAXIMUM PORTION OF DISPOSABLE
EARNINGS SUBJECT TO GARNISHMENT

STATEMENT

c[ ] SupportJudgment Principal$________
d

[ ] 50% [ ] 55% [ ] 60% [ ] 65%

Credits$________
e(if not specified, then 50%)

Interest

$________
f[ ] state taxes, 100%Judgment Costs$________
gIf none of the above is checked,Attorney's Fees$________
hthen § 34-29 (a) applies.Garnishment Costs$________
i TOTAL BALANCE DUE$________
j The garnishee shall rely on this amount.

________________________________________
Date of Judgment

TO ANY AUTHORIZED OFFICER: You are hereby commanded to serve this summons on the judgment debtor and the garnishee.

TO THE GARNISHEE: You are hereby commanded to

(1) File a written answer with this court, or

(2) Deliver payment to this court, or

(3) Appear before this court on the return date and time shown on this summons to answer the Suggestion for Summons in Garnishment of the judgment creditor that, by reason of the lien of writ of fieri facias, there is a liability as shown in the statement upon the garnishee.

As garnishee, you shall withhold from the judgment debtor any sums of money to which the judgment debtor is or may be entitled from you during the period between the date of service of this summons on you and the date for your appearance in court, subject to the following limitations:

(1) The maximum amount which may be garnished is the "TOTAL BALANCE DUE" as shown on this summons.

(2) If the sums of money being garnished are earnings of the judgment debtor, then the provision of "MAXIMUM PORTION OF DISPOSABLE EARNINGS SUBJECT TO GARNISHMENT" shall apply.

If a garnishment summons is served on an employer having 1,000 or more employees, then money to which the judgment debtor is or may be entitled from his or her employer shall be considered those wages, salaries, commissions, or other earnings which, following service on the garnishee-employer, are determined and are payable to the judgment debtor under the garnishee-employer's normal payroll procedure with a reasonable time allowance for making a timely return by mail to this court.

________________________________________
Date of Issuance of Summons

________________________________________
Clerk

________________________________________
Date of delivery of writ of fieri facias to sheriff if different from date of issuance of this summons.

(b) A plain language interpretation of § 34-29 shall appear on the reverse side of the summons as follows:

"The following statement is not the law but is an interpretation of the law which is intended to assist those who must respond to this garnishment. You may rely on this only for general guidance because the law itself is the final word. (Read the law, § 34-29 of the Code of Virginia, for a full explanation. A copy of § 34-29 is available at the clerk's office. If you do not understand the law, call a lawyer for help.)

An employer may take as much as 25 percent of an employee's disposable earnings to satisfy this garnishment. But if an employee makes the minimum wage or less for his week's earnings, the employee will ordinarily get to keep 40 times the minimum hourly wage."

But an employer may withhold a different amount of money from that above if:

(1) The employee must pay child support or spousal support and was ordered to do so by a court procedure or other legal procedure. No more than 65 percent of an employee's earnings may be withheld for support;

(2) Money is withheld by order of a bankruptcy court; or

(3) Money is withheld for a tax debt.

"Disposable earnings" means the money an employee makes after taxes and after other amounts required by law to be withheld are satisfied. Earnings can be salary, hourly wages, commissions, bonuses, or otherwise, whether paid directly to the employee or not. After those earnings are in the bank for 30 days, they are not considered earnings any more.

If an employee tries to transfer, assign, or in any way give his earnings to another person to avoid the garnishment, it will not be legal; earnings are still earnings.

An employee cannot be fired because he is garnished for one debt.

Financial institutions that receive an employee's paycheck by direct deposit do not have to determine what part of a person's earnings can be garnished.

1983, c. 399; 1994, c. 40; 1995, c. 379; 1996, c. 1051; 2006, c. 55; 2017, cc. 36, 143.

§ 8.01-512.4. Notice of exemptions from garnishment and lien.

No summons in garnishment shall be issued or served, nor shall any notice of lien be served on a financial institution pursuant to § 8.01-502.1, unless a notice of exemptions and claim for exemption form are attached. The notice shall contain the following statement:

NOTICE TO JUDGMENT DEBTOR

HOW TO CLAIM EXEMPTIONS FROM GARNISHMENT AND LIEN

The attached Summons in Garnishment or Notice of Lien has been issued on request of a creditor who holds a judgment against you. The Summons may cause your property or wages to be held or taken to pay the judgment.

The law provides that certain property and wages cannot be taken in garnishment. Such property is said to be exempted. A summary of some of the major exemptions is set forth in the request for hearing form. There is no exemption solely because you are having difficulty paying your debts.

If you claim an exemption, you should (i) fill out the claim for exemption form and (ii) deliver or mail the form to the clerk's office of this court. You have a right to a hearing within seven business days from the date you file your claim with the court. If the creditor is asking that your wages be withheld, the method of computing the amount of wages that are exempt from garnishment by law is indicated on the Summons in Garnishment attached. You do not need to file a claim for exemption to receive this exemption, but if you believe the wrong amount is being withheld you may file a claim for exemption.

On the day of the hearing you should come to court ready to explain why your property is exempted, and you should bring any documents that may help you prove your case. If you do not come to court at the designated time and prove that your property is exempt, you may lose some of your rights.

It may be helpful to you to seek the advice of an attorney in this matter.

REQUEST FOR HEARING-GARNISHMENT/LIEN EXEMPTION CLAIM

I claim that the exemption(s) from garnishment or lien that are checked below apply in this case:

MAJOR EXEMPTIONS UNDER FEDERAL AND STATE LAW

__ 1. Social Security benefits and Supplemental Security Income (SSI)(42 U.S.C. § 407).

__ 2. Veterans' benefits (38 U.S.C. § 5301).

__ 3. Federal civil service retirement benefits (5 U.S.C. § 8346).

__ 4. Annuities to survivors of federal judges (28 U.S.C. § 376(n)).

__ 5. Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. § 916).

__ 6. Black lung benefits.

Exemptions listed under 1 through 6 above may not be applicable in child support and alimony cases (42 U.S.C. § 659).

__ 7. Seaman's, master's or fisherman's wages, except for child support or spousal support and maintenance (46 U.S.C. § 11109).

__ 8. Unemployment compensation benefits (§ 60.2-600, Code of Virginia). This exemption may not be applicable in child support cases (§ 60.2-608, Code of Virginia).

__ 9. Portions or amounts of wages subject to garnishment (§ 34-29, Code of Virginia).

__ 10. Public assistance payments (§ 63.2-506, Code of Virginia).

__ 11. Homestead exemption of $5,000, or $10,000 if the debtor is 65 years of age or older, in cash, and, in addition, real or personal property used as the principal residence of the householder or the householder's dependents not exceeding $25,000 in value (§ 34-4, Code of Virginia). This exemption may not be claimed in certain cases, such as payment of spousal or child support (§ 34-5, Code of Virginia).

__ 12. Property of disabled veterans — additional $10,000 cash (§ 34-4.1, Code of Virginia).

__ 13. Workers' Compensation benefits (§ 65.2-531, Code of Virginia).

__ 14. Growing crops (§ 8.01-489, Code of Virginia).

__ 15. Benefits from group life insurance policies (§ 38.2-3339, Code of Virginia).

__ 16. Proceeds from industrial sick benefits insurance (§ 38.2-3549, Code of Virginia).

__ 17. Assignments of certain salary and wages (§ 8.01-525.10, Code of Virginia).

__ 18. Benefits for victims of crime (§ 19.2-368.12, Code of Virginia).

__ 19. Preneed funeral trusts (§ 54.1-2823, Code of Virginia).

__ 20. Certain retirement benefits (§ 34-34, Code of Virginia).

__ 21. Child support payments (§ 20-108.1, Code of Virginia).

__ 22. Support for dependent minor children (§ 34-4.2, Code of Virginia). To claim this exemption, the debtor shall attach to the claim for exemption form an affidavit that complies with the requirements of subsection B of § 34-4.2 and two items of proof showing that the debtor is entitled to this exemption.

__ 23. Other (describe exemption): $ ___________________________________________________________________________

I request a court hearing to decide the validity of my claim. Notice of the hearing should be given me at:

a__________________________________________________________________
b(address)(telephone no.)

The statements made in this request are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.

a__________________________________________________________________
b(date)(signature of judgment debtor)

1984, c. 1; 1986, c. 489; 1989, c. 684; 1994, c. 40; 2007, c. 872; 2009, cc. 332, 387, 388; 2010, c. 673; 2012, cc. 23, 79; 2020, c. 328.

§ 8.01-512.5. Hearing on claim of exemption from garnishment.

A judgment debtor shall have the right to a hearing on his claim of exemption from garnishment no later than seven business days from the date that the claim is filed with the court.

The clerk shall notify the parties of the date, time and place of the hearing and the exemption being claimed. The garnishee shall comply with the garnishment summons unless and until ordered otherwise in writing by the court. The order shall take effect upon receipt by the garnishee. The clerk is required to provide a copy of the order or other hearing disposition to the garnishee only if the garnishment summons is dismissed or is modified by the judge.

1984, c. 1.

§ 8.01-513. Service upon corporation or limited liability company.

A. If the person upon whom there is a suggestion of liability as provided in § 8.01-511 is a corporation, the summons shall be served upon an officer, an employee designated by the corporation other than an officer of the corporation, or, if there is no designated employee or the designated employee cannot be found, upon a managing employee of the corporation other than an officer of the corporation. If the judgment creditor or his attorney files with the court a certificate that he has used due diligence and that (i) no such officer or employee or other person authorized to accept such service can be found within the Commonwealth or (ii) such designated or managing employee found is also the judgment debtor, then such summons shall be served on the registered agent of the corporation or upon the clerk of the State Corporation Commission as provided in §§ 13.1-637, 13.1-766, 13.1-836 and 13.1-928. However, service on the corporation shall not be made upon a designated or managing employee who is also the judgment debtor. If the corporation intends to designate an employee for service, the corporation shall file a designation with the State Corporation Commission.

B. If the person upon whom there is a suggestion of liability as provided in § 8.01-511 is a limited liability company, the summons shall be served upon a member, manager, or employee designated by the limited liability company for the purpose of such service or, if there is no designated member, manager, or employee, or the designated member, manager, or employee cannot be found, upon a managing employee of the limited liability company. If the judgment creditor or his attorney files with the court a certificate that he has used due diligence and that (i) no such member, manager, or employee or other person authorized to accept such service can be found within the Commonwealth or (ii) such designated member, manager, employee, or managing employee found is also the judgment debtor, then such summons shall be served on the registered agent of the limited liability company or upon the clerk of the State Corporation Commission as provided in § 13.1-1018. However, service on the limited liability company shall not be made upon a designated member, manager, employee, or managing employee who is also the judgment debtor. If the limited liability company intends to designate a member, manager, or employee for service, the limited liability company shall file a designation with the State Corporation Commission.

C. For the purposes of this section, "managing employee" means an employee charged by the corporation or the limited liability company, as applicable, with the control of operations and supervision of employees at the business location of such corporation or limited liability company where process is sought to be served.

Code 1950, § 8-441.2; 1974, c. 561; 1977, c. 617; 1980, c. 514; 1997, c. 395; 1998, cc. 723, 737; 2004, c. 231; 2006, c. 912.

§ 8.01-514. When garnishment summons returnable.

The summons in garnishment, whether issued by a circuit court or a district court, may be directed to a sheriff of any county or city wherein the judgment debtor resides or where the garnishment defendant resides or where either may be found and shall be made returnable to the court that issued it within 90 days from the writ's issuance, except that, in the case of a wage garnishment, the summons shall be returnable not more than 180 days after such issuance.

Code 1950, § 8-442; 1976, c. 659; 1977, cc. 454, 617; 1979, c. 36; 2003, c. 234; 2006, c. 575.

§ 8.01-515. How garnishee examined; determining exemption from employee's withholding certificate; amount due pursuant to exemptions in § 34-29 (a).

A person so summoned shall appear in person and be examined on oath or he may file a statement. A corporation so summoned shall appear by an authorized agent who shall be examined on oath or may file a statement, not under seal of such authorized agent. Such statement shall show the amount the garnishee is indebted to the judgment debtor, if any, or what property or effects, if any, the garnishee has or holds which belongs to the judgment debtor, or in which he has an interest. Payment to the court of any amount by the garnishee shall have the same force and effect as a statement which contains the information required by this section. If the judgment debtor or judgment creditor disputes the verity or accuracy of such statement or amount and so desires, then summons shall issue requiring the appearance of such person or authorized agent for examination on oath, and requiring him to produce such books and papers as may be necessary to determine the fact.

In determining the exemption to which the employee is entitled, the employer may until otherwise ordered by the court rely upon the information contained in the employee's withholding exemption certificate filed by the employee for federal income tax purposes, and any person showing more than one exemption thereon shall be considered by him to be a householder or head of a family.

The employer may apply the exemptions provided in § 34-29 (a) unless otherwise specified on the summons, or unless otherwise ordered by the court.

Code 1950, § 8-443; 1954, c. 379; 1977, c. 617; 1979, c. 242; 1983, c. 399.

§ 8.01-516. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1983, c. 399.

§ 8.01-516.1. Garnishment dispositions.

A. If the amount of liability is not disputed and the garnishee admits liability to the court either by (i) examination on the return date of the summons, or (ii) written statement as provided by § 8.01-515 on or before the return date of the summons, the court shall order the delivery of such estate or payment of the value of such estate into court without entering judgment against the garnishee. Should a garnishee fail to comply with the order within thirty days after service of such order on the garnishee, then judgment may be entered against the garnishee.

B. Upon certification by the judgment creditor, its bona fide employee, or its attorney that its claim has been satisfied or that it desires its action against the garnishee to be dismissed for any other reason, the court, or clerk thereof, where the action has been filed, shall, by written order, which may be served by the sheriff, notify the garnishee to cease withholding assets of the judgment debtor, and to treat any funds previously withheld as if the original garnishment action had not been filed. The court in which the garnishment action was filed shall then dismiss the action on or before the return date.

1983, c. 399; 1993, c. 385.

§ 8.01-517. Exemption of portion of wages; payment of excess into court.

Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 8.01-515 and 8.01-516.1, any employer against whom any garnishment is served in connection with an action or judgment against an employee may pay to such employee when due wages or salary not exceeding the amount exempted by § 34-29 unless such exemptions shall have been specifically disallowed by the court and shall answer such garnishment summons by a written statement verified by affidavit, showing the amount of wages or salary due on the return date of the garnishment summons and the amount of wages or salary so exempted, and if there shall be an excess of wages or salary so due over the amount of the exemptions, the employer may pay the amount of such excess into the court where the garnishment summons is returnable, which payment when determined by the court to be correct will constitute a discharge of any liability of the employer to the employee for the wages or salary so withheld.

Code 1950, § 8-445; 1952, c. 377; 1954, c. 379; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-518. When garnishee is personal representative of decedent.

If the person so summoned be the personal representative of a decedent, he shall answer in writing whether or not there is in his hands in his fiduciary capacity, any sum of money owing to the judgment debtor, and if so, the amount thereof, if the same has been definitely determined, and when it will be payable by him; and if such amount has not been definitely ascertained, the court shall continue the case, with direction to him to thereafter, and as soon as such amount has been definitely determined, report the same to the court, and say when it will be payable by him. In either event, and when the amount so owing to the judgment debtor has been definitely fixed and determined, the court shall direct the disposition of such fund to the creditor of such other person or persons according as their rights may be determined.

Code 1950, § 8-446; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-519. Proceedings where garnishee fails to appear or answer, or to disclose his liability.

If the garnishee, after being served with the summons, fail to appear or answer personally, or if it be suggested that he has not fully disclosed his liability, the proceedings shall be according to §§ 8.01-564 and 8.01-565, mutatis mutandis, except that when the summons is before a general district court, the court shall proceed without a jury.

Code 1950, § 8-447; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-520. Payment, etc., by garnishee before return of summons.

Any person, summoned under § 8.01-511, before the return day of the summons, may pay what he is liable for to the clerk of the court issuing the summons and such clerk shall give a receipt, upon request, for what is so paid.

Code 1950, § 8-448; 1977, c. 617; 1983, c. 399.

§ 8.01-521. Judgments as to costs.

Unless the garnishee appear to be liable for more than is so delivered and paid, there shall be no judgment against him for costs. In other cases, judgment under §§ 8.01-516.1 and 8.01-519 may be for such costs, and against such party, as the court may deem just.

Code 1950, § 8-449; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-522. Wages and salaries of State employees.

Unless otherwise exempted, the wages and salaries of all employees of this Commonwealth, other than State officers, shall be subject to garnishment or execution upon any judgment rendered against them. Whenever the salary or wages of such employees as above mentioned shall be garnished under this section, the process shall be such as is usual in other cases of garnishment and shall be served on the judgment debtor and on the officer or supervisor who is head of the department, agency, or institution where the employee is employed, or other officer through whom the judgment debtor's salary or wages is paid, provided that process shall not be served upon the State Treasurer or the State Comptroller except as to employees of their respective departments, and upon such service the officer or supervisor shall, on or before the return day of process, transmit to the clerk of the court issuing the process a certificate showing the amount due from the Commonwealth to such judgment debtor, up to the return day of the process, which amount the officer or supervisor shall hold subject to order of the court issuing the process. Such certificate shall be evidence of all facts therein stated, unless the court direct that the deposition of the officer or supervisor, or such other officer through whom the judgment debtor's salary or wages be paid, be taken, in which event the deposition of the officer or supervisor shall be taken in his office and returned to the clerk of the court in which the garnishment is, just as other depositions are returned, and in no such case shall the officer or supervisor be required to leave his office to testify. In all proceedings under this section, if the judgment be for the plaintiff, the amount found to be due the judgment debtor by the Commonwealth shall be paid as directed by the court.

Code 1950, § 8-449.1; 1958, c. 430; 1973, c. 236; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-523. Service upon federal government.

A. If the suggestion of liability as provided in § 8.01-511 is against the United States of America, the summons shall be served upon the managing employee of the agency of the federal government which is alleged to be liable, or, if the judgment debtor is a member of the armed forces of the United States, upon the chief fiscal officer of the military post to which the judgment debtor was last assigned.

B. If service on the agents identified in subsection A for service of process on the United States cannot be made, then service may be made on a United States attorney or other agent in the manner set forth in Rule 4 (d) (4) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as from time to time amended.

Code 1950, § 8-441.3; 1976, c. 659; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-524. Wages and salaries of city, town and county officials, clerks and employees.

Unless otherwise exempt, the wages and salaries of all officials, clerks and employees of any city, town or county shall be subject to garnishment or execution upon any judgment rendered against them.

Code 1950, § 8-449.2; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-525. Who are officers and employees of cities, towns and counties.

All officers, clerks and employees who hold their office by virtue of authority from the General Assembly or by virtue of city, town or county authority whether by election or appointment and who receive compensation for their services from the moneys of such city, town or county shall, for the purposes of garnishment, be deemed to be, and are, officers, clerks or employees of such city, town or county.

Code 1950, § 8-449.3; 1977, c. 617.