Administrative Code

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 5. State Air Pollution Control Board
Chapter 91. Regulations for the Control of Motor Vehicle Emissions in the Northern Virginia Area
9/18/2020

9VAC5-91-20. Terms Defined.

"Aborted test" means an emissions inspection procedure that has been initiated by the inspector but stopped and not completed due to inspector error or a vehicular problem that prevents completion of the test. Aborted tests are not tests that cannot be completed due to a "failed/invalid" result caused by an exhaust dilution problem or an engine condition that prevents the inspection from being completed.

"Acceleration Simulation Mode (ASM) 50-15 equipment" means dynamometer-based emissions test equipment used to perform an enhanced emissions test in one or more, discreet, simulated road speed and engine load modes.

"Acceleration Simulation Mode (ASM) 25-25 standards" means the standards utilized for one of the discreet modes of the ASM test of the enhanced emissions inspection program.

"Access code" means the security phrase or number which allows authorized station personnel, the department, and analyzer service technicians to perform specific assigned functions using the certified analyzer system, as determined by the department. Depending on the assigned function, the access code is a personal password, a state password, or a service password. Access code is not an identification number, but is used as an authenticator along with the identification number where such number is needed to perform specific tasks.

"Actual gross weight" means the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR).

"Administrator" means the administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or an authorized representative.

"Affected motor vehicle" means any motor vehicle or replica vehicle which:

1. Was manufactured or designated by the manufacturer as a model year less than 25 calendar years prior to January 1 of the present calendar year according to the formula, the current calendar year minus 24, except those identified by remote sensing as specified in subdivision 5 of this definition;

2. Is designed for the transportation of persons or property;

3. Is powered by an internal combustion engine;

4. For the Northern Virginia Emissions Inspection Program, has an actual gross weight of 10,000 pounds or less; and

5. For vehicles subject to the remote sensing requirements of 9VAC5-91-180, was designated by the manufacturer as model year 1968 or newer.

The term "affected motor vehicle" does not mean any:

1. Vehicle powered by a clean special fuel as defined in § 46.2-749.3 of the Code of Virginia, provided the federal Clean Air Act permits such exemptions for vehicles powered by clean special fuels;

2. Motorcycle or autocycle, unless such autocycle has been emissions certified with an on-board diagnostic system by the United States Environmental Protection Agency;

3. Vehicle that at the time of its manufacture was not designed to meet emissions standards set or approved by the federal government;

4. Any antique motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-100 of the Code of Virginia and licensed pursuant to § 46.2-730 of the Code of Virginia;

5. Firefighting equipment, rescue vehicle, or ambulance;

6. Vehicle for which no testing standards have been adopted by the board;

7. Tactical military vehicle;

8. Qualified hybrid motor vehicle if such vehicle obtains a rating from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of at least 50 miles per gallon, or 48 miles per gallon for model years 2008 or 2009, during city fuel economy tests unless identified by the remote sensing requirements of 9VAC5-91-180 as violating the on-road high emitter emissions standards for on-road testing;

9. Vehicle manufactured for the current model year or any of the three immediately preceding model years unless identified by the remote sensing requirements of 9VAC5-91-180 as violating the emissions standards for on-road testing; or

10. Military surplus motor vehicle, which means a multipurpose or tactical vehicle manufactured by or under the direction of the United States armed forces for off-road use and subsequently authorized for sale to civilians. A military surplus motor vehicle does not include specialized mobile equipment as defined in § 46.2-700 of the Code of Virginia, trailers, or semitrailers.

"Air intake systems" means those systems that allow for the induction of ambient air (to include preheated air) into the engine combustion chamber for the purpose of mixing with a fuel for combustion.

"Air pollution" means the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more substances which are or may be harmful or injurious to human health, welfare, or safety, to animal or plant life, or to property; or which unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment by the people of life or property.

"Air Pollution Control Law" means Chapter 13 (§ 10.1-1300 et seq.) of Title 10.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Air system" or "air injection system" means a system for providing supplementary air to promote further oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide gases and to assist catalytic reaction.

"Alternative fuel" means an internal combustion engine fuel other than (i) gasoline, (ii) diesel, or (iii) fuel mixtures containing more than 15% volume of gasoline.

"Alternative method" means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant that is not a reference method, but that has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the board, in specific cases, to produce results adequate for its determination of compliance.

"Authorized personnel" means department personnel, an individual designated by analyzer system manufacturer, station owner, licensed emissions inspector, program coordinator, station manager, or other person as designated by the station manager.

"Basic engine systems" means those parts or assemblies which provide for the efficient conversion of a compressed air and fuel charge into useful power to include valve train mechanisms, cylinder head to block integrity, piston-ring-cylinder sealing integrity, and post-combustion emissions control device integrity.

"Board" means the State Air Pollution Control Board or its designated representative.

"Calibration" means establishing or verifying the response curve of a measurement device using several different measurements having precisely known quantities.

"Calibration gases" means gases of precisely known concentrations that are used as references for establishing or verifying the response curve of a measurement device.

"Catalytic converter" means a post combustion device that oxidizes hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide gases, and may also reduce oxides of nitrogen.

"Certificate of emissions inspection" means a document, device, or symbol, whether recorded in written or electronic form, as prescribed by the director and issued pursuant to this chapter, which indicates that (i) an affected motor vehicle has satisfactorily complied with the emissions standards and passed the emissions inspection provided for in this chapter, (ii) the requirement of compliance with the emissions standards has been temporarily waived, or (iii) the affected motor vehicle has failed the emissions inspection.

"Certified emissions repair facility" means a facility, or portion of a facility, that has obtained a certification in accordance with Part VII (9VAC5-91-500 et seq.) to perform emissions related repairs on motor vehicles.

"Certified emissions repair technician" means a person who has obtained a certification in accordance with Part VIII (9VAC5-91-550 et seq.) to perform emissions related repairs on motor vehicles.

"Certified enhanced analyzer system" or "analyzer system" means the complete system that samples and reads concentrations of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, nitric oxides, and carbon monoxide gases or interrogates the vehicle OBD system or both, and that is approved by the department for use in the Enhanced Emissions Inspection Program in accordance with Part X (9VAC5-91-640 et seq.). The analyzer system includes the exhaust gas handling system, the exhaust gas analyzer, associated automation hardware and software, data media, the analyzer system cabinet, dynamometer control devices, vehicle identification equipment, printer, and calibration gases. The analyzer system does not include the dynamometer and associated cooling and exhaust fans that are supplied by the inspection station.

"Certified thermometer" means a laboratory grade ambient temperature-measuring device with a range of at least 20°F through 120°F, and an attested accuracy of at least 1°F with increments of 1°, with protective shielding.

"Chargeable inspection" means a completed inspection on an affected motor vehicle, for which the station owner is entitled to collect an inspection fee. No fee shall be paid for (i) inspections for which a certificate of emissions inspection has not been issued, (ii) inspections that are conducted by the department for referee purposes, (iii) inspections which were ordered due to on-road test failures but which result in an emissions inspection "pass" at an inspection station, or (iv) the first reinspection done at the same station that performed the initial inspection within 14 days. An inspection ordered by the department due to an on-road test failure that results in a confirmation test failure at an emissions inspection station is a chargeable inspection.

"Clean screen vehicle" means a vehicle that has been identified by the on-road inspector as having met the criteria in 9VAC5-91-185 A or B and is eligible to participate in the on-road clean screen program.

"Clean screen vehicle notification" means a document, device, or symbol, whether recorded in written or electronic form, as prescribed by the director and issued pursuant to this chapter, that (i) indicates that an affected motor vehicle has satisfactorily complied with the clean screen vehicle emissions standards for on-road testing, and (ii) may be used by the motor vehicle owner to voluntarily comply with the vehicle registration requirements of § 46.2-1183 of the Code of Virginia. The notification shall also indicate that the motor vehicle owner may obtain an emissions inspection from an emissions inspection station.

"Clean screen vehicle standard" means any provision of 9VAC5-91-185 that prescribes an emission limitation, or other criteria used to select clean screen vehicles.

"Confirmation test" means an emissions inspection required due to a determination that the vehicle exceeds the on-road high emitter emissions standards prescribed in 9VAC5-91-180 B. The confirmation emissions inspection procedure may include an exhaust test (ASM or TSI), OBD system test, or both.

"Consent order" means a mutual agreement between the department and any owner, operator, emissions inspector, or emissions repair technician that such owner or other person will perform specific actions for the purpose of diminishing or abating the causes of air pollution or for the purpose of coming into compliance with this chapter. A consent order may include agreed upon civil charges. Such orders may be issued without a formal hearing.

"Curb idle" means vehicle operation whereby the transmission is disengaged and the engine is operated with the throttle in the closed or idle stop position with the resultant engine speed between 400 and 1,250 revolutions per minute (rpm), or at another idle speed if so specified by the manufacturer.

"Data handling system" means all the computer hardware, software, and peripheral equipment used to conduct emissions inspections and manage the enhanced emissions inspection program.

"Data media" means the media contained in the certified analyzer system and used to electronically record test data.

"Day" means a 24-hour period beginning at midnight.

"Department" means any employee or other representative of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, as designated by the director.

"Director" means the director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality or a designated representative.

"Emissions control equipment" means any part, assembly, or equipment originally installed by the manufacturer in or on a motor vehicle for the sole or primary purpose of reducing emissions.

"Emissions control systems" means any system consisting of parts, assemblies, or equipment originally installed by the manufacturer in or on a motor vehicle for the primary purpose of reducing emissions.

"Emissions inspection" means an emissions inspection of a motor vehicle performed by an emissions inspector employed by or working at an emissions inspection station or fleet emissions inspection station, using the tests, procedures, and provisions set forth in this chapter.

"Emissions inspection station" means a facility or portion of a facility that has obtained an emissions inspection station permit from the director authorizing the facility to perform emissions inspections in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

"Emissions inspector" means, except for an on-road emissions inspector, a person licensed by the department to perform inspections of vehicles required under the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law and is qualified in accordance with this chapter.

"Emissions standard" means any provision of Part III (9VAC5-91-160 et seq.) or Part XIV (9VAC5-91-790 et seq.) that prescribes an emission limitation, or other emission control requirements for motor vehicle air pollution.

"Empty weight" or "EW" means that weight stated as the EW on a Virginia motor vehicle registration or derived from the motor vehicle title or manufacturer's certificate of origin. The EW may be used to determine emissions inspection standards.

"Enhanced emissions inspection program" means a motor vehicle emissions inspection system established by this chapter that designates, as the only authorized testing equipment for emissions inspection stations, (i) the use of the ASM 50-15 (acceleration simulation mode or method) together with an OBD-II (on-board diagnostic system) with wireless capability, (ii) the use of the ASM 50-15 together with the use of a dynamometer, and (iii) two-speed tailpipe testing equipment. Possession and availability of a dynamometer shall be required for enhanced emissions inspection stations. Only those computer software programs and emissions testing procedures necessary to comply with applicable provisions of Title I of the federal Clean Air Act shall be included. Such testing equipment shall be approvable for motor vehicle manufacturers' warranty repairs. An enhanced emissions inspection program shall include remote sensing and an on-road clean screen program as provided in this chapter.

"EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Equivalent test weight," "ETW," or "emissions test weight" means the weight of a motor vehicle as automatically determined by the emissions analyzer system based on vehicle make, model, body, style, model year, engine size, permanently installed equipment, and other manufacturer and aftermarket supplied information, and used for the purpose of assigning dynamometer resistance and exhaust emissions standards for the conduct of an exhaust emissions inspection.

"Exhaust gas analyzer" or "gas analyzer" means an exhaust gas handling system that is capable of measuring the concentrations of certain air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a motor vehicle.

"Facility" means something that is built, installed, or established to serve a particular purpose; includes buildings, installations, public works, businesses, commercial and industrial plants, shops and stores, apparatus, processes, operations, structures, and equipment of all types.

"Federal Clean Air Act" means Chapter 85 (§ 7401 et seq.) of Title 42 of the United States Code.

"Fleet" means 20 or more motor vehicles that are owned, operated, leased, or rented for use by a common owner.

"Fleet emissions inspection station" means any inspection facility operated under a permit issued to a qualified fleet owner or lessee as determined by the director.

"Formal hearing" means a board or department process that provides for the right of private parties to submit factual proofs as provided in § 2.2-4020 of the Administrative Process Act in connection with case decisions. Formal hearings do not include the factual inquiries of an informal nature provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act.

"Fuel control systems" means those mechanical, electro-mechanical, galvanic, or electronic parts or assemblies which regulate the air-to-fuel ratio in an engine for the purpose of providing a combustible charge.

"Gas span" means the adjustment of an exhaust gas analyzer to correspond with known concentrations of gases.

"Gas span check" means a procedure using known concentrations of gases to verify the gas span adjustment of a gas analyzer.

"Gross vehicle weight rating" or "GVWR" means the maximum recommended combined weight of the motor vehicle and its load as prescribed by the manufacturer and is (i) expressed on a permanent identification label affixed to the motor vehicle, (ii) stated on the manufacturer's certificate of origin, or (iii) coded in the vehicle identification number. If the GVWR can be determined it shall be one element used to determine emissions inspection standards and test type. If the GVWR is unavailable, the department may make a determination based on the best available evidence including manufacturer reference, information coded in the vehicle identification number, or other available sources of information from which to make the determination.

"Heavy duty gasoline vehicle" or "HDGV" means a heavy duty vehicle using gasoline as its fuel.

"Heavy duty vehicle" or "HDV" means any affected motor vehicle (i) which is rated at more than 8,500 pounds GVWR or (ii) which has a loaded vehicle weight or GVWR of more than 6,000 pounds and has a basic frontal area in excess of 45 square feet.

"High emitter value" means the values in Table III-B of 9VAC5-91-180 that are used to determine vehicles in violation of the on-road high emitter emissions standard.

"Identification number" means the number assigned by the department to uniquely identify department personnel, an emissions inspection station, a certified emissions repair facility, a licensed emissions inspector, a certified emissions repair technician, or other authorized personnel as necessary for specific tasks.

"Idle mode" means a condition where the vehicle engine is warm and running at the rate specified by the manufacturer as curb idle, where the engine is not propelling the vehicle, and where the throttle is in the closed or idle stop position.

"Ignition systems" means those parts or assemblies that are designed to cause and time the ignition of a compressed air and fuel charge.

"Implementation plan" means the plan, including any revision thereof, that has been submitted by the Commonwealth and approved in Subpart VV of 40 CFR Part 52 by the administrator under § 110 of the federal Clean Air Act, or promulgated in Subpart VV of 40 CFR Part 52 by the administrator under § 110(c) of the federal Clean Air Act, or promulgated or approved by the administrator pursuant to regulations promulgated under § 301(d) of the federal Clean Air Act and that implements the relevant requirements of the federal Clean Air Act.

"Informal fact finding" means an informal conference or consultation proceeding used to ascertain the fact basis for case decisions as provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act.

"Initial inspection" means the first complete emissions inspection of a motor vehicle conducted in accordance with the biennial inspection requirement and for which a valid vehicle emissions inspection report was issued. Any test following the initial inspection is a retest or reinspection.

"Inspection area" means in reference to an emissions inspection station, (i) the area that is occupied by the certified analyzer system and the vehicle being inspected or (ii) for only an OBD II test, the area within wireless range that is on the property on which the inspection station is located.

"Inspection fee" means the amount of money that (i) the emissions inspection station may collect from the motor vehicle owner for each chargeable inspection or (ii) an on-road emissions inspector may collect from the motor vehicle owner in response to a clean screen vehicle notification.

"Light duty gasoline vehicle" or "LDGV" means a light duty vehicle using gasoline as its fuel.

"Light duty gasoline truck" or "LDGT1" means a light duty truck 1 using gasoline as its fuel.

"Light duty gasoline truck" or "LDGT2" means a light duty truck 2 using gasoline as its fuel.

"Light duty truck" or "LDT" means any affected motor vehicle which (i) has a loaded vehicle weight or GVWR of 6,000 pounds or less and meets any one of the criteria below; or (ii) is rated at more than 6,000 pounds GVWR but less than 8,500 pounds GVWR and has a basic vehicle frontal area of 45 square feet or less; and meets one of the following criteria:

1. Designed primarily for purposes of transportation of property or is a derivation of such a vehicle.

2. Designed primarily for transportation of persons and has a capacity of more than 12 persons.

3. Equipped with special features enabling off-street or off-highway operation and use.

"Light duty truck 1" or "LDT1" means any light duty truck rated at 6,000 pounds GVWR or less. LDT1 is a subset of light duty trucks.

"Light duty truck 2" or "LDT2" means any light duty truck rated at greater than 6,000 pounds GVWR. LDT2 is a subset of light duty trucks.

"Light duty vehicle" or "LDV" means an affected motor vehicle that is a passenger car or passenger car derivative capable of seating 12 passengers or less.

"Loaded vehicle weight," "LVW," or "curb weight" means the weight of a vehicle and its standard equipment; that is, the empty weight as recorded on the vehicle's registration or the base shipping weight as recorded in the vehicle identification number, whichever is greater; plus the weight of any permanent attachments, the weight of a nominally filled fuel tank, plus 300 pounds.

"Locality" means a city, town, or county created by or pursuant to state law.

"Mobile fleet emissions inspection station" means a facility or entity that provides emissions inspection equipment or services to a fleet emissions inspection station on a temporary basis. Such equipment is not permanently installed at the fleet facility but is temporarily located at the fleet facility for the sole purpose of testing vehicles owned, operated, leased, or rented for use by a common owner.

"Model year" means, except as may be otherwise defined in this chapter, the motor vehicle manufacturer's annual production period which includes the time period from January 1 of the calendar year prior to the stated model year to December 31 of the calendar year of the stated model year; provided that, if the manufacturer has no annual production period, the term "model year" shall mean the calendar year of manufacture. For the purpose of this definition, model year is applied to the vehicle chassis, irrespective of the year of manufacture of the vehicle engine.

"Monitors" means those computer programs in the on-board vehicle computer that evaluate the various emissions components and systems to determine status of such components and systems.

"Motor vehicle" means any motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-100 of the Code of Virginia as a motor vehicle and that:

1. Is designed for the transportation of persons or property; and

2. Is powered by an internal combustion engine.

"Motor vehicle dealer" means a person who is licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles in accordance with §§ 46.2-1500 and 46.2-1508 of the Code of Virginia.

"Motor vehicle emissions" means any emissions related information that can be captured through (i) a basic test and repair inspection, (ii) enhanced emissions inspection, or (iii) on-road testing.

"Motor vehicle inspection report" means a printed certificate of emissions inspection that is a report of the results of an emissions inspection. It indicates whether the motor vehicle has (i) passed, (ii) failed, or (iii) obtained a temporary emissions inspection waiver. It may also indicate whether the emissions inspection could not be completed due to an exhaust dilution or an engine condition that prevents the inspection from being completed. The report shall accurately identify the motor vehicle and shall include inspection results, recall information provided by the department, warranty and repair information, and a unique identification number.

"Motor vehicle owner" means any person who owns, leases, operates, or controls a motor vehicle or fleet of motor vehicles.

"Nonconforming vehicle" means a vehicle not manufactured for sale in the United States to conform to emissions standards established by the federal government.

"Normal business hours" for emissions inspection stations, means a daily eight-hour period Monday through Friday, between the hours of 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., with the exception of national holidays, state holidays, temporary closures noticed to the department, and closures due to the inability to meet the requirements of this chapter. Nothing in this chapter shall prevent stations from performing inspections at other times in addition to the "normal business hours." Emissions inspection stations may, with the approval of the department, substitute a combined total of eight hours, between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m., over a weekend period for one weekday as their "normal business hours" for conducting emissions inspections. Emissions inspection stations shall post inspection hours.

"Northern Virginia emissions inspection program" means the emissions inspection program required by this chapter in the Northern Virginia program area.

"Northern Virginia program area" or "program area" means the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following localities: the counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, and Stafford; and the cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, and Manassas Park.

"On-board diagnostic system" or "OBD system" means the computerized emissions control diagnostic system installed on model year 1996 and newer affected motor vehicles.

"On-board diagnostic system test" or "OBD test" means an evaluation of the OBD system pursuant to either 40 CFR 86.094-17 (2009 CFR) or 40 CFR 86.099-17 as applicable, according to procedures specified in 40 CFR 85.2222 and this chapter.

"On-board diagnostic vehicle" or "OBD vehicle" means a model year 1996 and newer model affected motor vehicle equipped with an on-board diagnostic system and meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 85.2231.

"On-road clean screen program" means a program that allows a motor vehicle owner to voluntarily certify compliance with emissions standards by means of on-road remote sensing.

"On-road emissions inspector" means the entity or entities authorized by the Department of Environmental Quality to perform on-road testing, including on-road testing in accordance with the on-road clean screen program.

"On-road emissions measurement" means data obtained through on-road testing.

"On-road high emitter emissions standard" means any provision of 9VAC5-91-180 that prescribes an emission limitation, or other emission control requirements for motor vehicle emissions. The on-road high emitter emissions standard shall be determined by multiplying the high emitter value in Table III-B of 9VAC5-91-180 with the appropriate ASM 25-25 standard in 9VAC5-91-810 or the TSI standard in Table III-A of 9VAC5-91-160.

"On-road testing" means tests of motor vehicle emissions or emissions control devices by means of roadside pullovers or remote sensing devices.

"Operated primarily" means motor vehicle operation that constitutes routine operation into or within the program area as evidenced by observation using remote sensing equipment at least three times in a 60-day period with no less than 30 days between the first and last observation. The director may increase the number of observations required for compliance determination if, in his discretion, based on program experience, such an increase would not significantly adversely impact the objectives of this chapter. The term "operated primarily" shall be used to identify motor vehicle operation that is subject to the exhaust emission standards for on-road testing through remote sensing set forth in 9VAC5-91-180. The term "operated primarily" shall not be used to identify motor vehicle operation that will subject the vehicle to the compliance provisions set forth in 9VAC5-91-160 and 9VAC5-91-170 for biennial emissions inspections.

"Order" means any decision or directive of the board or the director, including orders, consent orders, and orders of all types rendered for the purpose of diminishing or abating the causes of air pollution or enforcement of this chapter. Unless specified otherwise in this chapter, orders shall only be issued after the appropriate administrative proceeding.

"Owner" means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a facility or motor vehicle.

"Party" means any person who actively participates in the administrative proceeding or offers comments through the public participation process and is named in the administrative record. The term "party" also means the department.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Pollutant" means any substance the presence of which in the outdoor atmosphere is or may be harmful or injurious to human health, welfare, or safety, to animal or plant life, or to property; or which unreasonably interferes with the enjoyment by the people of life or property.

"Program coordinator" means any person or corporation that has entered into a contract with the director to provide services in accordance with Part X (9VAC5-91-640 et seq.) and other services not to include remote sensing.

"Qualified hybrid motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle that (i) meets or exceeds all applicable regulatory requirements, (ii) meets or exceeds the applicable federal motor vehicle emissions standards for gasoline-powered passenger cars, and (iii) can draw propulsion energy both from gasoline or diesel fuel and a rechargeable energy storage system.

"Reconstructed vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under Title 46.2 (§ 46.2-100 et seq.) of the Code of Virginia, materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition or substitution of new or used essential parts. Such vehicles, at the discretion of the Department of Motor Vehicles, shall retain their original vehicle identification number, line-make, and model year.

"Referee station" or "referee facility" means those facilities operated or used by the department to (i) determine program effectiveness, (ii) resolve emissions inspection conflicts between motor vehicle owners and emissions inspection stations, and (iii) provide such other technical support and information, as appropriate, to emissions inspection stations and motor vehicle owners.

"Reference method" means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant as described in Appendix A of 40 CFR Part 60.

"Reinspection" or "retest" means a type of inspection selected by the department or the emissions inspector when a request for an inspection is due to a previous failure. Any inspection that occurs 120 days or less following the most recent chargeable inspection is a retest.

"Rejected" or "rejected from testing" means that the vehicle cannot be inspected due to conditions in accordance with 9VAC5-91-420 C or 9VAC5-91-420 G 3.

"Remote sensing" means the measurement of motor vehicle emissions through electronic or light-sensing equipment from a remote location such as the roadside. Remote sensing equipment may include devices to detect and record the vehicle's registration or other identification numbers.

"Replica vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under Title 46.2 (§ 46.2-100 et seq.) of the Code of Virginia not fully constructed by a licensed manufacturer but either constructed or assembled from components. Such components may be from a single vehicle, multiple vehicles, a kit, parts, or fabricated components. The kit may be made up of "major components" as defined in § 46.2-1600 of the Code of Virginia, a full body, or a full chassis, or a combination of these parts. The vehicle shall resemble a vehicle of distinctive name, line-make, model, or type as produced by a licensed manufacturer or manufacturer no longer in business and is not a reconstructed or specially constructed vehicle. Any vehicle registered as a replica vehicle shall meet emission requirements as established for the model year of which the vehicle is a replica.

"Sensitive mission vehicle" means any vehicle which, for law enforcement or national security reasons, cannot be tested in the public inspection system and must not be identified through the fleet testing system. For such vehicles, an autonomous fleet testing system may be established by agreement between the controlling agency and the director.

"Span gas" means gases of known concentration used as references to adjust or verify the accuracy of an exhaust gas analyzer that are approved by the department and are so labeled.

"Specially constructed vehicle" means any vehicle that was not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model, or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles and not a reconstructed vehicle as defined in this section.

"Specific engine family" means a group of motor vehicles with the same vehicle type, make, year, and engine size.

"Standardized instruments" or "standardizing instruments" means laboratory instruments calibrated with precision gases traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology and accepted by the department as the standards to be used for comparison purposes. All candidate instruments are compared in performance to the standardized instruments.

"Tactical military vehicle" means any motor vehicle designed to military specifications or a commercially designed motor vehicle modified to military specifications to meet direct transportation support of combat, tactical, or military relief operations, or training of personnel for such operations.

"Tampering" means to alter, remove, or otherwise disable or reduce the effectiveness of emissions control equipment on a motor vehicle.

"Test" means an emissions inspection of a vehicle, or any portion thereof, performed by an emissions inspector at an emissions inspection station, using the procedures and provisions set forth in this chapter.

"Test and repair" means motor vehicle emissions inspection stations that perform emissions inspections and may also perform vehicle repairs. No provision of this chapter shall bar emissions inspection stations from also performing vehicle repairs.

"Thermostatic air cleaner" means a system that supplies temperature-regulated air to the air intake system during engine operation.

"Two-speed idle test" or "TSI" means a vehicle exhaust emissions test, performed in accordance with section (II) of 40 CFR Part 51, Appendix B to Subpart S, which measures the concentrations of pollutants in the exhaust gases of an engine (i) while the motor vehicle transmission is not propelling the vehicle and (ii) while the engine is operated at both curb idle and at a nominal engine speed of 2,500 rpm.

"Vehicle emissions index" means the ranking of probable emissions inspection failure-rates of affected motor vehicles. Values within the index are determined by calculating a percentile of the historical emissions inspection failure-rates of a specific engine family, and comparing that to the historical emissions inspection failure-rates of all engine families in a specific model year group. Motor vehicles with the highest percentage of failure rates have the highest ranking on the index. Failure rates are based on the two most recent calendar years of emissions inspection test data from the Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Program.

"Vehicle specific power" or "VSP" means an indicator expressed as a function of vehicle speed, acceleration, drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and roadway grade that is used to characterize the load a vehicle is operating under at the time and place a vehicle is measured by remote sensing equipment. It is calculated using the following formula:

VSP = 4.39 x Sine (Site Grade in Degrees/57.3) x Speed + K1 x Speed x Acceleration + K2 x Speed + K3 x Speed3.

Where:

VSP = vehicle specific power indicator;

Sine = the trigonometric function that for an acute angle is the ratio between the side opposite the angle when it is considered part of a right triangle and the hypotenuse;

Site Grade in Degrees = slope of road where remote sensing measurement is taken;

K1, K2, and K3 = empirically determined coefficients specific to the weight class of the vehicle;

Speed = rate of motion in miles per hour of vehicle at the time remote sensing measurement is taken; and

Acceleration = change in speed in miles per hour per second.

For light duty vehicles the values for K1, K2, and K3 are respectively 0.22, 0.0954, and 0.0000272. Based on EPA guidance, the department may develop different values for K1, K2, and K3 that are applicable to heavy duty vehicles or to specific classes of light duty vehicles.

"Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Program" means the program for the inspection and control of motor vehicle emissions established by Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law.

"Virginia Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Law" means Article 22 (§ 46.2-1176 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 46.2 of the Code of Virginia.

"Visible smoke" means any air pollutant, other than visible water droplets, consisting of black, gray, blue, or blue-black airborne particulate matter emanating from the exhaust system or crankcase. Visible smoke does not mean steam.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1180 of the Code of Virginia; § 182 of the Clean Air Act; 40 CFR Part 51, Subpart S.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 13, Issue 05, eff. January 24, 1997; amended, Virginia Register Volume 14, Issue 03, eff. January 1, 1998; Volume 18, Issue 20, eff. October 1, 2002; Volume 21, Issue 19, eff. June 29, 2005; Volume 24, Issue 05, eff. December 12, 2007; Volume 25, Issue 06, eff. December 31, 2008; Volume 29, Issue 09, eff. December 15, 2012; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. August 28, 2013; Volume 31, Issue 23, eff. August 12, 2015; Volume 35, Issue 05, eff. November 28, 2018.

Website addresses provided in the Virginia Administrative Code to documents incorporated by reference are for the reader's convenience only, may not necessarily be active or current, and should not be relied upon. To ensure the information incorporated by reference is accurate, the reader is encouraged to use the source document described in the regulation.

As a service to the public, the Virginia Administrative Code is provided online by the Virginia General Assembly. We are unable to answer legal questions or respond to requests for legal advice, including application of law to specific fact. To understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.