Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
6/15/2024

Part V. Water, Plumbing, and Waste

Article 1
Water

12VAC5-421-2050. Approved system.

Article 1
Water

Pure water shall be obtained from an approved water system defined as:

1. A waterworks constructed, maintained, and operated in compliance with 12VAC5-590;P or

2. A private well constructed, maintained, and operated in compliance with 12VAC5-630.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2060. System flushing and disinfection.

An approved water system shall be flushed and disinfected after construction, repair, or modification and after an emergency situation, such as a flood, that may introduce contaminants to the system. A sample shall be collected from the water system and the results of the analysis shall be total coliform negative prior to placing the water system into service.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2070. Bottled drinking water.

Bottled drinking water used or sold in a food establishment shall be obtained from approved sources in accordance with 21 CFR Part 129.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2080. Pure water standards.

Except as specified under 12VAC5-421-2090:

1. Water from a waterworks shall meet water quality and quantity standards in accordance with 12VAC5-590;P and

2. Water from a private well shall meet the water quality standards in accordance with 12VAC5-630-370 and not exceed 10 mg/L of nitrate (as N).P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2090. Nonpotable water.

A. A nonpotable water supply shall be used only if its use is approved by the department.P

B. Nonpotable water shall be used only for nonculinary purposes such as air conditioning, nonfood equipment cooling, and fire protection.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2100. Sampling.

Water from a private well shall be sampled and tested at least annually for nitrate and total coliform. Pf

1. If nitrate, which is reported as "N" on the test results, exceeds 10 mg/L (ppm), the owner shall notify the department within 24 hours from when the owner is notified of the nitrate positive test result.Pf

2. If a sample is total coliform positive, the positive culture medium shall be further analyzed to determine if E. coli is present. The owner shall notify the department within two calendar days from when the owner is notified of the coliform positive test result.Pf

3. If E. coli is present, the owner shall notify the department within 24 hours from when the owner is notified of the E. coli positive test result.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2110. Sample report.

All sample reports for the private well shall be retained on file in the food establishment for a minimum of five years and be made available to the department upon request.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2120. Capacity.

A. The approved water system capacity shall be of sufficient capacity to meet the maximum daily water demands and the peak hourly water demands of the food establishment.Pf

B. Hot water generation and distribution systems shall meet the peak hot water demands throughout the food establishment.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2130. Pressure.

Water under pressure shall be provided to all fixtures, equipment, and nonfood equipment that are required to use water except that water supplied as specified under subdivisions 1 and 2 of 12VAC5-421-2160 to a temporary food establishment or in response to a temporary interruption of a water supply need not be under pressure.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2140. Water System.

Water shall be received from the source through the use of:

1. An approved public water main;Pf or

2. One or more of the following that shall be constructed, maintained, and operated according to law: Pf

a. Nonpublic water main, water pumps, pipes, hoses, connections, and other appurtenances;Pf

b. Water transport vehicles;Pf or

c. Water containers.Pf

12VAC5-421-2150. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2160. Alternative water supply.

Water meeting the requirements specified under 12VAC5-421-2050 through 12VAC5-421-2130 shall be made available for a mobile facility, for a temporary food establishment without a permanent water supply, and for a food establishment with a temporary interruption of its water supply through:

1. A supply of containers of commercially bottled drinking water;Pf

2. One or more closed portable water containers;Pf

3. An enclosed vehicular water tank;Pf

4. An on-premises water storage tank;Pf or

5. Piping, tubing, or hoses connected to an adjacent approved system in a manner approved by the department.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

Article 2
Plumbing System

12VAC5-421-2170. Approved materials.

Article 2
Plumbing System

A. A plumbing system and hoses conveying water shall be constructed and repaired with approved materials according to law.P

B. A water filter shall be made of safe materials.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2180. Approved system and cleanable fixtures.

A. A plumbing system shall be designed, constructed, and installed according to law.P

B. A plumbing fixture such as a handwashing lavatory, toilet, or urinal shall be easily cleanable.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2190. Handwashing sinks, water temperature, and flow.

A. A handwashing sink shall be equipped to provide water at a temperature of at least 100°F (38°C) through a mixing valve or combination faucet.Pf

B. A steam mixing valve shall not be used at a handwashing sink.

C. A self-closing, slow-closing, or metering faucet shall provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

D. An automatic handwashing facility shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2200. Backflow prevention, air gap.

An air gap between the water supply inlet and the flood level rim of the plumbing fixture, equipment, or nonfood equipment shall be at least twice the diameter of the water supply inlet and shall not be less than one inch (25 mm).P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2210. Backflow prevention device, design standard.

A backflow or backsiphonage prevention device installed on a water supply system shall comply with the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63) for construction, installation, maintenance, inspection, and testing for that specific application and type of device.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2220. Conditioning device, design.

A water filter, screen, and other water conditioning device installed on water lines shall be designed to facilitate disassembly for periodic servicing and cleaning. A water filter element shall be of the replaceable type.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2230. Handwashing sinks, numbers, and capacities.

A. Except as specified in subsection B and C of this section, at least one handwashing sink, or the number of handwashing sinks necessary for their convenient use by employees in areas specified under 12VAC5-421-2280, and not fewer than the number of handwashing sinks required by law shall be provided.Pf

B. If approved and capable of removing the types of soils encountered in the food operations involved, automatic handwashing facilities may be substituted for handwashing sinks in a food establishment that has at least one handwashing sink.

C. If approved, when food exposure is limited and handwashing sinks are not conveniently available, such as in some mobile or temporary food establishments or at some vending machine locations, employees may use chemically treated towelettes for handwashing.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2240. Toilets and urinals.

At least one toilet and not fewer than the toilets required by law shall be provided. If authorized by law and urinals are substituted for toilets, the substitution shall be done as specified in law.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2250. Service sink.

A. At least one service sink or one curbed cleaning facility equipped with a floor drain shall be provided and conveniently located for the cleaning of mops or similar wet floor cleaning tools and for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.

B. Toilets and urinals shall not be used as a service sink for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2260. Backflow prevention device, when required.

A plumbing system shall be installed to preclude backflow of a solid, liquid, or gas contaminant into the water supply system at each point of use at the food establishment, including on a hose bibb (threaded faucet) if a hose is attached or on a hose bibb if a hose is not attached and backflow prevention is required by law by:

1. Providing an air gap as specified under 12VAC5-421-2200;P or

2. Installing an approved backflow prevention device as specified under 12VAC5-421-2210.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2270. Backflow prevention device, carbonator.

A. If not provided with an air gap as specified under 12VAC5-421-2200, a dual check valve with an intermediate vent preceded by a screen of not less than 100 mesh to 1 inch (100 mesh to 25.4mm) shall be installed upstream from a carbonating device and downstream from any copper in the water supply line.P

B. A dual check valve attached to the carbonator need not be of the vented type if an air gap or vented backflow prevention device has been otherwise provided as specified under subsection A of this section.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2280. Handwashing sinks, location.

A handwashing sink shall be located:

1. To allow convenient use by employees in food preparation, food dispensing, and warewashing areas;Pf and

2. In, or immediately adjacent to, toilet rooms.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2290. Backflow prevention device, location.

A backflow prevention device shall be located so that it may be serviced and maintained.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2300. Conditioning device, location.

A water filter, screen, and other water conditioning device installed on water lines shall be located to facilitate disassembly for periodic servicing and cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2310. Using a handwashing sink.

A. A handwashing sink shall be maintained so that it is accessible at all times for employee use.Pf

B. A handwashing sink shall not be used for purposes other than handwashing.Pf

C. An automatic handwashing facility shall be used in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2320. Prohibiting a cross connection.

A. A person shall not create a cross connection by connecting a pipe or conduit between the drinking water system and a nondrinking water system or a water system of unknown quality.P

B. The piping of a nondrinking water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that carries drinking water.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2330. Scheduling inspection and service for a water system device.

A device such as a water treatment device or backflow preventer shall be scheduled for inspection and service, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and as necessary to prevent device failure based on local water conditions, and records demonstrating inspection and service shall be maintained by the person in charge for a minimum of five years and made available to the department upon request.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2340. Water reservoir of fogging devices, cleaning.

A. A reservoir that is used to supply water to a device such as a produce fogger shall be:

1. Maintained in accordance with manufacturer's specifications;P and

2. Cleaned in accordance with manufacturer's specifications or according to the procedures specified under subsection B of this section, whichever is more stringent.P

B. Cleaning procedures shall include at least the following steps and shall be conducted at least once a week:

1. Draining and complete disassembly of the water and aerosol contact parts;P

2. Brush-cleaning the reservoir, aerosol tubing, and discharge nozzles with a suitable detergent solution;P

3. Flushing the complete system with water to remove the detergent solution and particulate accumulation;P and

4. Rinsing by immersing, spraying, or swabbing the reservoir, aerosol tubing, and discharge nozzles with at least 50 mg/L (ppm) hypochlorite solution.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2350. System maintained in good repair.

A plumbing system shall be :

1. Repaired according to law;P and

2. Maintained in good repair.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

Article 3
Mobile Water Tank and Mobile Food Establishment Water Tank

12VAC5-421-2360. Mobile water tank approved materials.

Article 3
Mobile Water Tank and Mobile Food Establishment Water Tank

Materials that are used in the construction of a mobile water tank, mobile food establishment water tank, and appurtenances shall be:

1. Safe;P

2. Durable, corrosion resistant, and nonabsorbent; and

3. Finished to have a smooth, easily cleanable surface.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2370. Enclosed system, sloped to drain.

A mobile water tank shall be:

1. Enclosed from the filling inlet to the discharge outlet; and

2. Sloped to an outlet that allows complete drainage of the tank.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2380. Inspection and cleaning port, protected and secured.

If a water tank is designed with an access port for inspection and cleaning, the opening shall be in the top of the tank and:

1. Flanged upward at least one-half inch (13 mm); and

2. Equipped with a port cover assembly that is:

a. Provided with a gasket and a device for securing the cover in place, and

b. Flanged to overlap the opening and sloped to drain.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2390. "V" type threads, use limitation.

A fitting with "V" type threads on a water tank inlet or outlet shall be allowed only when a hose is permanently attached.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2400. Tank vent, protected.

If provided, a water tank vent shall terminate in a downward direction and shall be covered with:

1. 16 mesh to 1-inch (16 mesh to 25.4 mm) screen or equivalent when the vent is in a protected area; or

2. A protective filter when the vent is in an area that is not protected from windblown dirt and debris.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2410. Inlet and outlet, sloped to drain.

A. A water tank and its inlet and outlet shall be sloped to drain.

B. A water tank inlet shall be positioned so that it is protected from contaminants such as waste discharge, road dust, oil, or grease.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2420. Hose, construction and identification.

A hose used for conveying potable water from a water tank shall be:

1. Safe;P

2. Durable, corrosion resistant, and nonabsorbent;

3. Resistant to pitting, chipping, crazing, scratching, scoring, distortion, and decomposition;

4. Finished with a smooth interior surface; and

5. Clearly and durably identified as to its use if not permanently attached.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2430. Filter, compressed air.

A filter that does not pass oil or oil vapors shall be installed in the air supply line between the compressor and potable water system when compressed air is used to pressurize the water tank system.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2440. Protective cover or device.

A cap and keeper chain, closed cabinet, closed storage tube, or other approved protective cover or device shall be provided for a water inlet, outlet, and hose.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2450. Mobile food establishment tank inlet.

A mobile food establishment's water tank inlet shall be:

1. Three-fourths inch (19.1 mm) in inner diameter or less; and

2. Provided with a hose connection of a size or type that will prevent its use for any other service.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2460. System flushing and disinfection.

A water tank, pump, and hoses shall be flushed and sanitized before being placed in service after construction, repair, modification, and periods of nonuse.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2470. Using a pump and hoses, backflow prevention.

A person shall operate a water tank, pump, and hoses so that backflow and other contamination of the water supply are prevented.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2480. Protecting inlet, outlet, and hose fitting.

If not in use, a water tank and hose inlet and outlet fitting shall be protected using a cover or device as specified under 12VAC5-421-2440.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2490. Tank, pump, and hoses, dedication.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, a water tank, pump, and hoses used for conveying drinking water shall be used for no other purpose.P

B. Water tanks, pumps, and hoses approved for liquid foods may be used for conveying drinking water if they are cleaned and sanitized before they are used to convey water.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

Article 4
Sewage, Other Liquid Waste, and Rainwater

12VAC5-421-2500. Mobile holding tank capacity and drainage.

Article 4
Sewage, Other Liquid Waste, and Rainwater

A sewage holding tank in a mobile food establishment shall be:

1. Sized 15% larger in capacity than the water supply tank; and

2. Sloped to a drain that is 1 inch (25 mm) in inner diameter or greater, equipped with a shut-off valve.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2505. Establishment drainage system.

Food establishment drainage systems, including grease traps, that convey sewage shall be designed and installed as specified under 12VAC5-421-2180 A.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2505. Establishment drainage system.

Food establishment drainage systems, including grease traps, that convey sewage shall be designed and installed as specified under 12VAC5-421-2180 A.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2505. Establishment drainage system.

Food establishment drainage systems, including grease traps, that convey sewage shall be designed and installed as specified under 12VAC5-421-2180 A.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2510. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

12VAC5-421-2520. Backflow prevention.

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, a direct connection may not exist between the sewage system and a drain originating from equipment in which food, portable equipment, or utensils are placed.P

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply to floor drains that originate in refrigerated spaces that are constructed as an integral part of the building.

C. If allowed by law, a warewashing machine may have a direct connection between its waste outlet and a floor drain when the machine is located within five feet (1.5 meters) of a trapped floor drain and the machine outlet is connected to the inlet side of a properly vented floor drain trap.

D. If allowed by law, a warewashing or culinary sink may have a direct connection.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2530. Grease trap.

If used, a grease trap shall be located to be easily accessible for cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2540. Conveying sewage.

Sewage shall be conveyed to the point of disposal through an approved sanitary sewage system or other system, including use of sewage transport vehicles, waste retention tanks, pumps, pipes, hoses, and connections that are constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2550. Removing mobile food establishment wastes.

No public health hazard or nuisance shall result when sewage and other liquid wastes are removed from a mobile food establishment at an approved waste servicing area or by a permitted sewage transport vehicle.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-2560. Flushing a waste retention tank.

A tank for liquid waste retention shall be thoroughly flushed and drained in a sanitary manner during the servicing operation.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2570. Approved sewage disposal system.

Sewage shall be disposed through an approved facility that is:

1. A public sewage treatment plant;P or

2. An individual sewage disposal system that is sized, constructed, maintained, and operated according to the State Board of Health's regulations promulgated pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 32.1-163 et seq.) of Title 32 of the Code of Virginia, including 12VAC5-610, Sewage Handling and Disposal Regulations, 12VAC5-613, Regulations for Alternative Onsite Sewage Systems, or otherwise according to law.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2580. Other liquid wastes and rainwater.

Condensate drainage and other nonsewage liquids and rainwater shall be drained from point of discharge to disposal according to law.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2590. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

Article 5
Refuse, Recyclables, and Returnables

12VAC5-421-2600. Outdoor storage surface.

Article 5
Refuse, Recyclables, and Returnables

An outdoor storage surface for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be constructed of nonabsorbent material such as concrete or asphalt and shall be smooth, durable, and sloped to drain.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2610. Outdoor enclosure.

If used, an outdoor enclosure for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be constructed of durable and cleanable materials.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2620. Receptacles.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables and for use with materials containing food residue shall be durable, cleanable, insect- and rodent-resistant, leakproof, and nonabsorbent.

B. Plastic bags and wet strength paper bags may be used to line receptacles for storage inside the food establishment, or within closed outside receptacles.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2630. Receptacles in vending machines.

Except for a receptacle for a beverage bottle crown closures, a refuse receptacle may not be located within a vending machine.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

12VAC5-421-2640. Outside receptacles.

A. Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables used with materials containing food residue and used outside the food establishment shall be designed and constructed to have tight-fitting lids, doors, or covers.

B. Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse and recyclables such as an on-site compactor shall be installed so that accumulation of debris and insect and rodent attraction and harborage are minimized and effective cleaning is facilitated around and, if the unit is not installed flush with the base pad, under the unit.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2650. Storage areas, rooms, and receptacles, capacity and availability.

A. An inside storage room and area and outside storage area and enclosure, and receptacles shall be of sufficient capacity to hold refuse, recyclables, and returnables that accumulate.

B. A receptacle shall be provided in each area of the food establishment or premises where refuse is generated or commonly discarded, or where recyclables or returnables are placed.

C. If disposable towels are used at handwashing lavatories, a waste receptacle shall be located at each lavatory or group of adjacent lavatories.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2660. Toilet room receptacle, covered.

A toilet room used by females shall be provided with a covered receptacle for sanitary napkins.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2670. Cleaning implements and supplies.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, suitable cleaning implements and supplies such as high pressure pumps, hot water, steam, and detergent shall be provided as necessary for effective cleaning of receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables.

B. If approved, off-premises-based cleaning services may be used if on-premises cleaning implements and supplies are not provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2680. Storage areas, redeeming machines, receptacles and waste handling units, location.

A. An area designated for refuse, recyclables, returnables, and, except as specified in subsection B of this section, a redeeming machine for recyclables or returnables shall be located so that it is separate from food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles and a public health hazard or nuisance is not created.

B. A redeeming machine may be located in the packaged food storage area or consumer area of a food establishment if food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles are not subject to contamination from the machines and a public health hazard or nuisance is not created.

C. The location of receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall not create a public health hazard or nuisance or interfere with the cleaning of adjacent space.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

12VAC5-421-2690. Storing refuse, recyclables, and returnables.

Refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be stored in receptacles or waste handling units so that they are inaccessible to insects and rodents.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2700. Areas, enclosures, and receptacles, good repair.

Storage areas, enclosures, and receptacles for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be maintained in good repair.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2710. Outside storage prohibitions.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, refuse receptacles not meeting the requirements specified under 12VAC5-421-2620 A such as receptacles that are not rodent-resistant, unprotected plastic bags and paper bags, or baled units that contain materials with food residue shall not be stored outside.

B. Cardboard or other packaging material that does not contain food residues and that is awaiting regularly scheduled delivery to a recycling or disposal site may be stored outside without being in a covered receptacle if it is stored so that it does not create a rodent harborage problem.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

12VAC5-421-2720. Covering receptacles.

1. Inside the food establishment if the receptacles and units :

a. Contain food residue and are not in continuous use; or

b. After they are filled; and

2. With tight-fitting lids or doors if kept outside the food establishment.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2730. Using drain plugs.

Drains in receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall have drain plugs in place.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2740. Maintaining refuse areas and enclosures.

A storage area and enclosure for refuse, recyclables, or returnables shall be maintained free of unnecessary items, as specified under 12VAC5-421-3300, and clean.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2750. Cleaning receptacles.

A. Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be thoroughly cleaned in a way that does not contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, or single-service and single-use articles, and waste water shall be disposed of as specified under 12VAC5-421-2540.

B. Soiled receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be cleaned at a frequency necessary to prevent them from developing a buildup of soil or becoming attractants for insects and rodents.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-2760. Removal frequency.

Refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be removed from the premises at a frequency that will minimize the development of objectionable odors and other conditions that attract or harbor insects and rodents.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2770. Receptacles or vehicles.

Refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be removed from the premises by way of:

1. Portable receptacles that are constructed and maintained according to law; or

2. A transport vehicle that is constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-2780. Community or individual facility.

Solid waste not disposed of through the sewage system such as through grinders and pulpers shall be recycled or disposed of in an approved public or private community recycling or refuse facility; or solid waste shall be disposed of in an individual refuse facility such as a landfill or incinerator which is sized, constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

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