Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
5/20/2022

Part I. Definitions and General Program Requirements

9VAC25-740-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

"Beneficial use" means both instream and offstream uses. Instream beneficial uses include, but are not limited to, the protection of fish and wildlife resources and habitat, maintenance of waste assimilation, recreation, navigation, and cultural and aesthetic values. The preservation of instream flows for purposes of the protection of navigation, maintenance of waste assimilation capacity, the protection of fish and wildlife resources and habitat, recreation, cultural and aesthetic values is an instream beneficial use of Virginia's waters. Offstream beneficial uses include, but are not limited to, domestic (including public water supply), agricultural, electric power generation, commercial, and industrial uses.

"Biological nutrient removal" or "BNR" means treatment that achieves annual average concentrations less than or equal to 8.0 mg/l total nitrogen (N) and 1.0 mg/l total phosphorus (P).

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.

"Bulk irrigation reuse" means reuse of reclaimed water for irrigation of an area greater than five acres on one contiguous property.

"Conjunctive system" means a system consisting of a wastewater treatment works and reclamation system having no or minimal separation of treatment processes between the treatment works and the reclamation system.

"Controlled use" means a use of reclaimed water authorized in accordance with this chapter.

"Corrective action threshold" or "CAT" means a bacterial, turbidity, or total residual chlorine standard for reclaimed water at which measures shall be implemented to correct operational problems of the reclamation system within a specified period, or divert flow from the reclamation treatment process in accordance with this chapter.

"Design flow" means the capacity at which a treatment works is designed to reliably treat an average 24-hour influent flow rate, assessed over a period of a month for all months of operation within a year, including appropriate peak factors provided to meet applicable reliability and redundancy requirements. The average 24-hour influent flow rate shall be based on projected estimates of influent flow to be received by the treatment works.

"Designated design flow" means the design flow of a reclamation system that may be some percentage of or equal to the design flow of a treatment works providing source water to the reclamation system to produce reclaimed water.

"Direct beneficial use" means the use of reclaimed water in a manner protective of the environment and public health that involves transport of the reclaimed water from the point of reclamation treatment and production to the point of use without an intervening discharge to waters of the state.

"Direct injection" means the discharge of reclaimed water directly into groundwater.

"Direct potable reuse" means the discharge of reclaimed water directly into a drinking water treatment facility or into a drinking water distribution system. This includes storage facilities associated with the drinking water treatment facility or drinking water distribution system that are not surface or ground waters of the state.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or an authorized representative.

"Disinfection" means the destruction, inactivation, or removal of pathogenic microorganisms by chemical, physical, or biological means. Disinfection may be accomplished by chlorination, ozonation, or other chemical disinfectants; UV radiation; or other processes.

"Disposal" means the discharge of effluent to injection wells, effluent outfalls, subsurface drain fields, or other facilities utilized primarily for the release of effluents into the environment without deriving a direct beneficial use.

"Domestic sewage" means sewage derived from the normal family or household activities, including drinking, laundering, bathing, cooking, heating, cleaning and flushing toilets.

"Drip irrigation" means the slow and uniform above-ground application of water to individual plants and vegetated cover using tubing and drip devices or emitters. Drip irrigation may include below-ground applications of reclaimed water as specified in 9VAC25-740-90 B.

"Effluent," unless specifically stated otherwise, means treated wastewater that is not reused after flowing out of any treatment works.

"End user" means a person or entity that directly uses reclaimed water.

"Filtration" means the passing of wastewater through a conventional technology, such as sand, anthracite or cloth; or an advanced technology, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration or reverse osmosis membrane.

"Food crops commercially processed" means food crops that, prior to sale to the public or others, have undergone chemical or physical processing sufficient to remove or destroy pathogens.

"Food crops not commercially processed" means food crops that, prior to sale to the public or others, have not undergone chemical or physical processing sufficient to remove or destroy pathogens.

"Gray water" means untreated wastewater from bathtubs, showers, lavatory fixtures, wash basins, washing machines, and laundry tubs. It does not include wastewater from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks, dishwashers, or laundry water from soiled diapers.

"Groundwater" means any water, except capillary moisture, beneath the land surface in the zone of saturation or beneath the bed of any stream, lake, reservoir or other body of surface water wholly or partially within the boundaries of this Commonwealth, whatever the subsurface geologic structure in which such water stands, flows, percolates or otherwise occurs.

"Harvested rainwater" means rainwater that has been collected off of a rooftop through a system that concentrates the rooftop flow and conveys this to a storage device, container, or vessel with the intention of using this water before discharge to waterways via sanitary sewer systems, septic tank or other onsite treatment and disposal systems, or a land based discharge.

"Indirect nonpotable reuse" means the discharge of reclaimed water to a receiving surface water for the purpose of intentionally augmenting a water source, followed by withdrawal from the water source with or without mixing and transport to the withdrawal location, for reuse or distribution for reuse other than indirect potable reuse.

"Indirect potable reuse" or "IPR" means the discharge of reclaimed water to a receiving surface water for the purpose of intentionally augmenting a water supply source, with subsequent withdrawal after mixing with the ambient surface water and transport to the withdrawal location, followed by treatment and distribution for drinking water and other potable water purposes.

"Industrial wastewater" means wastewater resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Irrigation" means the application of water to land for plant use at a rate that undesirable plant water stress does not occur.

"Landscape impoundment" means a body of water that contains reclaimed water, is not intended for public contact, and is used primarily for aesthetic enjoyment. Landscape impoundments include, but are not limited to, decorative pools, fountains, ponds and lagoons; located outdoors or indoors.

"Level 1" means a degree of treatment at which reclaimed water has received, at a minimum, secondary treatment with filtration and higher-level disinfection, and meets all other applicable standards specified in 9VAC25-740-70.

"Level 2" means a degree of treatment at which reclaimed water has received, at a minimum, secondary treatment and standard disinfection, and meets all other applicable standards specified in 9VAC25-740-70.

"Municipal wastewater" means sewage.

"Nonbulk irrigation reuse" means the reuse of reclaimed water for irrigation of individual areas less than or equal to five acres.

"Nonpotable water" means any water, including reclaimed water, not meeting the definition of potable water.

"Nonsystem storage" means storage for reclaimed water that is other than system storage and is used at a location downstream of the service connection to the reclaimed water distribution system to equalize flow to end users.

"Nutrient management plan" or "NMP" means a plan prepared by a nutrient management planner certified by the Department of Conservation and Recreation to manage the amount, placement, timing, and application of plant nutrients from liquid, solid or semisolid manures, fertilizers, biosolids, or other materials, for the purpose of producing crops and reducing nutrient loss to the environment.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including, but not limited to, sanitation district commissions and authorities, and any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this or any other state or country, or any officer or agency of the United States, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group that owns, operates, charters, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or is responsible for the production or distribution of reclaimed water, or any facility or operation that produces or distributes reclaimed water.

"Permit" means an authorization, certificate, license, or equivalent control document issued by the board to implement the requirements of this chapter.

"Point of compliance" or "POC" means a point at which compliance with the standards of this chapter is required.

"Pollutants of concern" means any pollutants that might reasonably be expected to be discharged to a publicly or privately owned treatment works in sufficient amounts to pass through or interfere with the works, contaminate sludge generated by the works, cause problems in the collection system of the works, or jeopardize the health of employees at the works and the public.

"Potable water" means water fit for human consumption and domestic use that is sanitary and normally free of minerals, organic substances, and toxic agents in excess of reasonable amounts for domestic usage in the area served and normally adequate in quantity and quality for the minimum health requirements of the persons served.

"Public access area" means an area that is intended to be accessible to the general public, such as golf courses, cemeteries, parks, athletic fields, school yards, and landscape areas. Public access areas include private property that is not open to the public at large, but is intended for frequent use by many persons. Presence of authorized farm personnel or other authorized treatment plant, utilities system, or reuse system personnel does not constitute public access.

"Reclaimed water" means water resulting from the treatment of domestic, municipal or industrial wastewater that is suitable for a water reuse that would not otherwise occur. Specifically excluded from this definition is "gray water." For the purposes of this chapter, "harvested rainwater" and "stormwater" are also excluded from this definition.

"Reclaimed water agent" means a person or entity that holds a permit to distribute reclaimed water to one or more end users.

"Reclaimed water distribution system" means a network of pipes, pumping facilities, storage facilities, and appurtenances designed to convey and distribute reclaimed water from one or more reclamation systems to end uses.

"Reclamation" means the treatment of domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater or sewage to produce reclaimed water for a water reuse that would not otherwise occur.

"Reclamation system" means a treatment works that treats domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater or sewage to produce reclaimed water for a water reuse that would not otherwise occur.

"Reject water storage" means storage for water diverted by a reclamation system or satellite reclamation system that does not meet applicable reclaimed water standards.

"Reliability Class I" means a measure of reliability that requires a treatment works design to provide continuous satisfactory operation during power failures, flooding, peak loads, equipment failure, and maintenance shut-down. This class includes design features, such as additional electrical power sources, additional flow storage capacity, and additional treatment units that provide operation in accordance with the issued certificate or permit requirements. The definition of Reliability Class I contained in this chapter is in addition to but does not supersede the definition of Reliability Class I contained in the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790).

"Reuse" or "water reuse" means the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial use, an indirect potable reuse, an indirect nonpotable reuse, or a controlled use in accordance with this chapter.

"Reuse system" means an installation or method of operation that uses reclaimed water for a water reuse in accordance with this chapter.

"Restricted access" means limited access by humans to areas where nonpotable water, including reclaimed water, is used, resulting in minimal or no potential for human contact.

"Satellite reclamation system" or "SRS" means a conjunctive system that operates within or parallel to a sewage collection system to treat a portion of the available wastewater flow in the collection system to produce reclaimed water for reuse. Satellite reclamation systems do not have a discharge to surface waters, but may return their treatment process wastewater and residuals to the sewage collection system.

"Secondary treatment" means a biological treatment process for wastewater that achieves the minimum level of effluent quality defined by the federal secondary treatment regulation in 40 CFR 133.102 (2001).

"Service area" means a geographic area that receives reclaimed water from a reclaimed water distribution system or directly from a reclamation system for approved reuses within that area.

"Sewage" means the water-carried human wastes and nonwater-carried human excrement, kitchen, laundry, shower, bath or lavatory wastes, separately or together with such underground, surface, storm and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments or other places.

"Significant industrial user" or "SIU" shall have the meaning set forth in the VPDES Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31-10).

"Source water" means untreated or partially treated wastewater supplied for reclamation.

"State waters" or "waters of the state" means all water, on the surface and under the ground, wholly or partially within or bordering the Commonwealth or within its jurisdiction, including wetlands.

"State Water Control Law" or "Law" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Stormwater" means precipitation that is discharged across the land surface or through conveyances to one or more waterways and that may include stormwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage.

"Supplemental irrigation" means irrigation, which in combination with rainfall, meets but does not exceed the water necessary to maximize production or optimize growth of the irrigated vegetation.

"Surface waters" means all waters in the Commonwealth, except groundwater as defined in § 62.1-255 of the Code of Virginia.

"System storage" means storage on or off the site and considered part of a reclamation system, SRS, or reclaimed water distribution system that is used to store reclaimed water produced by the reclamation system or SRS and to equalize flow to or within a reclaimed water distribution system.

"Total maximum daily load" or "TMDL" shall have the meaning set forth in the Water Quality Management Planning Regulation (9VAC25-720).

"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste, or that are necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances, extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations thereof; or any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems.

"Underground aquifer" means an aquifer or portion of an aquifer that supplies any public water system or that contains a sufficient quantity of groundwater to supply a public water system, and currently supplies drinking water for human consumption, or that contains fewer than 10,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and is not an exempted aquifer.

"Unintentional reuse" means the unintentional or unplanned use of reclaimed water subsequent to discharge to surface waters of the state, including wetlands, pursuant to a VPDES permit.

"Unrestricted access" means unlimited or minimally limited access by humans to areas where nonpotable water, including reclaimed water, is used, resulting in a high potential for human contact.

"User" means end user.

"Virginia Pollution Abatement permit" or "VPA permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation (9VAC25-32), authorizing pollutant management activities under prescribed conditions.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit" or "VPDES permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to the Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31), authorizing, under prescribed conditions the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters and the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Under the approved state program, a VPDES permit is equivalent to an NPDES permit.

"Wastewater" means untreated liquid and water-carried industrial wastes and domestic sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities and institutions.

"Water reclamation" means the reclamation of wastewater or treated effluent for reuse.

"Waterworks" means a system that serves piped water for drinking or domestic use to (i) the public, (ii) at least 15 connections, or (iii) an average of 25 individuals for at least 60 days out of the year. The term "waterworks" shall include all structures, equipment, and appurtenances used in the storage, collection, purification, treatment, and distribution of pure water, except the piping and fixtures inside the building where such water is delivered.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

9VAC25-740-20. Purpose.

In accordance with §§ 62.1-44.2, 62.1-44.3 and 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia, it is the purpose of this chapter to promote and encourage the reclamation of wastewater, here after referred to as water reclamation, and water reuse in a manner that is protective of the environment and public health, and as an alternative to discharging treated effluent to state waters. For this purpose, the chapter establishes permitting requirements, general requirements for design, operation and maintenance; quality standards, monitoring requirements, and approved reuses for reclaimed water.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008.

9VAC25-740-30. Applicability and transition.

A. The requirements of this chapter shall apply to water reclamation systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, and water reuse unless specifically excluded under 9VAC25-740-50 A. The requirements shall apply to all new water reclamation systems, reclaimed water distribution systems and, as applicable, water reuses for which Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) or Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit applications are received after October 1, 2008. The requirements may also be applied to all existing permitted facilities producing, distributing or using reclaimed water through a permit modification or reissuance procedure and shall be applied when such facilities are to be modified or expanded unless specifically excluded under 9VAC25-740-50 A. The owners of existing water reclamation systems, reclaimed water distribution systems and, as applicable, water reuses that do not have a VPA or VPDES permit shall submit a complete VPA or VPDES permit application or other necessary information as prescribed under 9VAC25-740-40 within 180 days of being requested by the board.

B. For the purposes of this chapter:

1. The incorporation of standards, monitoring requirements and special conditions for water reclamation and reuse into a VPA permit shall be considered a minor modification unless they alter other conditions of the permit specifically related to the pollutant management activity for which the permit was originally issued.

2. Standards, monitoring requirements and special conditions for water reclamation and reuse may be authorized for a VPDES permit through:

a. A modification of the permit where such standards, monitoring requirements, and special conditions would effectively alter other conditions of the permit specifically related to the effluent discharge for which the permit was originally issued, or where the diversion of source water from the VPDES permitted discharge to water reclamation and reuse has the potential to cause a significant adverse impact to other beneficial uses of the receiving state water, or both; or

b. An administrative authorization where such standards, monitoring requirements, and special conditions would not alter other conditions of the permit specifically related to the effluent discharge for which the permit was originally issued, and where the diversion of source water from the VPDES permitted discharge to water reclamation and reuse does not have the potential to cause a significant adverse impact to other beneficial uses of the receiving state water. The administrative authorization shall have the full effect of the VPDES permit until such time that it is incorporated into the VPDES permit through reissuance or modification.

3. Modification of a VPA or VPDES permit or the issuance of an administrative authorization associated with a VPDES permit described in subdivisions 1 and 2 of this subsection shall require an application in accordance with 9VAC25-740-100.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

9VAC25-740-40. Permitting requirements.

A. The owner of the reclamation system and the owner of the reclaimed water distribution system or the reclaimed water agent shall obtain a VPDES or VPA permit to produce and distribute reclaimed water, unless otherwise excluded from the requirements of this chapter under 9VAC25-740-50 A. Where both the reclamation system and the reclaimed water distribution system are under common ownership and management, one permit may be issued to the owner. Permit coverage may be provided through modification or reissuance of an existing VPA permit, or reissuance of or administrative authorization for an existing VPDES permit to include standards, monitoring requirements and special conditions that address water reclamation and reuse.

B. The owner of a satellite reclamation system (SRS) shall obtain a VPA permit. Alternatively and at the discretion of the board, a SRS may be authorized under a VPA or VPDES permit issued to a wastewater treatment works that is under common ownership or management with the SRS and receives wastewater and residuals discharged by the SRS.

C. Each end user shall enter into a service agreement or contract with all reclaimed water agents from which the end user receives reclaimed water prior to receipt of such water. Monitoring and management of individual end users shall be by the reclaimed water agents with whom the end users have a service connection, and through the service agreements or contracts between the reclaimed water agents and the individual end users unless affected by a permit issued to an end user as described in subsection F of this section.

D. Where a reclamation system and a reclaimed water distribution system that receives reclaimed water from the reclamation system are under separate ownership and management, and the reclaimed water distribution system does not distribute reclaimed water to end users other than to the owner or management of that system, the reclaimed water distribution system may not require a permit provided a service agreement or contract is established between the reclamation system and the reclaimed water distribution system.

E. A separate permit may be required for end users receiving reclaimed water directly from more than one reclamation system, SRS, reclaimed water distribution system, or a combination thereof. An end user may be authorized under the permit issued to one of the reclamation systems, SRSs, or reclaimed water distribution systems that supply reclaimed water to the end user, provided the end user is under common ownership or management with the permitted system.

F. Property irrigated with reclaimed water from a reclamation system, SRS, or reclaimed water distribution system under common ownership or management with that property, shall be regulated by the permit issued to the reclamation system, SRS, or reclaimed water distribution system providing reclaimed water to the irrigated property.

G. A reclamation system shall not discharge reclaimed or reject water to surface waters of the state in lieu of providing storage, discharging to another permitted reuse system, if applicable; returning reclaimed or reject water to a wastewater treatment works; or suspending production of reclaimed water; without authorization to discharge under a VPDES permit.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

9VAC25-740-45. Emergency authorization for the production, distribution, or reuse of reclaimed water.

A. The board may issue an emergency authorization for the production, distribution, or reuse of reclaimed water when it finds that due to drought there is an insufficient public water supply that may result in a substantial threat to public safety. The emergency authorization may be issued only after:

1. Conservation measures mandated by local or state authorities have failed to protect public safety, and

2. The Virginia Department of Health has been notified of the application to issue an emergency authorization and has been provided not less than 14 days to submit comments or recommendations to the board on the application.

B. An emergency authorization may be issued in addition to an Emergency Virginia Water Protection Permit ( as provided in 9VAC25-210) for a new or increased public water supply withdrawal.

C. An emergency authorization may be issued to only existing VPDES or VPA permitted municipal treatment works that:

1. Are not currently authorized to produce, distribute, or reuse reclaimed water in accordance with 9VAC25-740-40;

2. Are currently capable of producing reclaimed water meeting minimum standard requirements of 9VAC25-740-90 for proposed reuses listed in the application for an emergency authorization; and

3. Do not have significant industrial users (SIUs), or do have SIUs and a pretreatment program developed, approved, and maintained in accordance with Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of the VPDES Permit Regulation.

D. An emergency authorization may be issued for only reuses of reclaimed water deemed necessary by the board. In no case shall an emergency authorization be issued in lieu of a VPDES permit action for a reuse that involves a discharge of reclaimed water to surface waters.

E. An application for an emergency authorization issued pursuant to this section shall provide the information specified in 9VAC25-740-105. No later than 180 days after the issuance of an emergency authorization, the holder of the authorization shall apply for coverage under a VPDES or VPA permit in accordance with 9VAC25-740-40. Thereafter, the emergency authorization shall remain in effect until the board acts upon the application for the VPDES or VPA permit in accordance with 9VAC25-740-30 B.

F. There shall be no public comment period for the issuance of an emergency authorization.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

9VAC25-740-50. Exclusions and prohibitions.

A. Exclusions. Exclusion from the requirements of this chapter does not relieve any owner of the operations identified in this section of the responsibility to comply with any other applicable federal, state, or local statutes, regulations, or ordinances. The following are excluded from the requirements of this chapter:

1. Activities permitted by the Virginia Department of Health (VDH), such as, but not limited to, septic tank drainfield systems and other onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems, and water treatment plant recycle flows. This exclusion does not apply to alternative onsite sewage systems as defined in 12VAC5-613 (Regulations for Alternative Onsite Sewage Systems) with an average daily sewage flow in excess of 1,000 gallons per day that are concurrently permitted by the board and VDH to allow sewage reclamation and reuse in addition to onsite sewage treatment and disposal.

2. Utilization of gray water, harvested rainwater, or stormwater.

3. Nonpotable water produced and utilized on-site by the same treatment works for facilities permitted through a VPDES or VPA permit. This includes the use of nonpotable water at the treatment works site for incidental landscape irrigation that is not identified as land treatment defined in the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790). The treatment works site shall include property that is either contiguous to or in the immediate vicinity of the parcel of land upon which the treatment works is located, provided such property is under common ownership or management with the treatment works. This exclusion does not apply to nonpotable water produced by treatment works authorized by the VPDES General Permit for Domestic Sewage Discharges Less Than or Equal to 1,000 Gallons Per Day (9VAC25-110).

4. Recycle flows within a treatment works.

5. Industrial effluents or other industrial water streams created prior to final treatment and used for water re-circulation, recycle, or reuse systems located on the same property as the industrial facility, provided:

a. The water used in these systems does not contain or is not expected to contain pathogens or other constituents in sufficient quantities and with a potential for human contact as may be harmful to human health;

b. These systems are closed or isolated to prevent worker contact with the water of the systems; or

c. Other measures are in place, including but not limited to, applicable federal and state occupational safety and health standards and requirements, to adequately inform and protect employees from pathogens or other constituents that may be harmful to human health in the water to be re-circulated, recycled or reused at the facility.

6. Land treatment systems described in the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790). Such use of wastewater effluent, either existing or proposed, must be authorized by a VPA or VPDES permit and must be on land owned or under the direct long-term control of the permittee.

7. Unintentional reuse.

8. Existing indirect nonpotable reuse projects that as of January 29, 2014, are authorized by a VPDES permit to discharge to surface waters of the state.

9. Existing indirect potable reuse projects that upon October 1, 2008, are authorized by a VPDES permit to discharge to surface waters of the state, and future expansions of these projects.

10. Direct injection of reclaimed water into any underground aquifer authorized by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act, Underground Injection Control Program (UIC), 40 CFR Part 144; or other applicable federal and state laws and regulations.

B. Prohibitions. The following are prohibited under this chapter:

1. Direct potable reuse;

2. The reuse of reclaimed water distributed to one-family or two-family dwellings. This prohibition does not apply to reuses of reclaimed water outside of and on the same property as one-family or two-family dwellings where the reclaimed water is not distributed to such reuses by way of plumbing within the dwellings;

3. The reuse of reclaimed water to fill residential swimming pools, hot tubs or wading pools;

4. The reuse of reclaimed water for food preparation or incorporation as an ingredient into food or beverage for human consumption;

5. Bypass of untreated or partially treated wastewater from the reclamation system or any intermediate unit process to the point of reuse unless the bypass complies with standards and requirements specified in 9VAC25-740-70 and is for essential maintenance to assure efficient operation;

6. The return of reclaimed water to the reclaimed water distribution system after the reclaimed water has been delivered to an end user; and

7. Reduction of the discharge from a VPDES permitted treatment works due to diversion of source water flow for reclamation and reuse such that the physical, chemical, or biological properties of the receiving state waters are affected in a manner that would cause a significant adverse impact to other beneficial uses.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

9VAC25-740-55. Variances.

A. The board may grant a variance to this chapter for design, construction, operation, or maintenance requirements contained in the chapter by following the appropriate procedures set forth in this section.

B. Any person or entity wishing to initiate a project for the production, distribution, or reuse of reclaimed water that is not excluded from the provisions of this chapter by 9VAC25-740-50 may apply for a variance to the design, construction, operation, or maintenance requirements of this chapter where requiring the project to comply with such requirements would be contrary to the purpose of State Water Control Law, specifically § 62.1-44.2 of the Code of Virginia. The board may grant a variance if it finds that the hardship imposed, which may be economic, outweighs the benefits of the project and that the granting of such variance would not adversely impact public health or the environment.

C. An application for a variance shall be made in writing and shall include the following:

1. A citation of the regulation from which a variance is requested;

2. The nature and duration of variance requested;

3. A statement of the hardship to the applicant and the anticipated impacts to public health and welfare or the environment if a variance were granted;

4. Suggested conditions that might be imposed on the granting of a variance that would limit any anticipated detrimental impacts on public health or the environment;

5. Other information, if any, believed to be pertinent by the applicant; and

6. Such other information as may be required to make the determination in accordance with subsection B of this section.

D. The board shall act on any application for a variance submitted pursuant to this section within 60 days of application receipt. In the board's decision to grant or deny a variance for a project to produce, distribute, or reuse reclaimed water, the board shall consider, at a minimum, the following:

1. The effect that such a variance would have on the adequate operation of the project, including operator safety (in accordance with the requirements of the Virginia Department of Labor and Industry, Occupation Safety and Health Administration);

2. The cost and other economic considerations imposed by the regulatory requirement for which the variance has been requested; and

3. The effect that such a variance would have on the protection of public health or the environment.

E. Disposition of a variance request.

1. If the board proposes to deny a variance request submitted pursuant to this section, the board shall provide the applicant an opportunity to an informal fact-finding proceeding in accordance with § 2.2-4019 of the Code of Virginia. Thereafter, the board may reject any application for a variance and shall notify the applicant in writing of this decision and the basis for the rejection. The board's notice, in this case, constitutes a case decision.

2. If the board proposes to grant a variance request submitted pursuant to this section, the applicant shall be notified in writing of this decision. Such notice shall:

a. Identify the project for which the variance has been granted;

b. Describe the variance;

c. Specify the period of time for which the variance will be effective; and

d. State that the variance shall be terminated when the project comes into compliance with the applicable design, construction, operation, or maintenance requirements of this chapter and may be terminated upon a finding by the board that the project has failed to comply with any requirements or schedules issued in conjunction with the variance.

3. The effective date of a variance described in subdivision 2 of this subsection shall be 15 days following the date of notice to the applicant.

F. All variances granted for the design, construction, operation, or maintenance of a project to produce, distribute, or reuse reclaimed water are nontransferable. Any requirements of the variance shall become part of the permit for the project subsequently issued, reissued, or modified by the board.

G. Where this chapter references the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790) for design, construction, operation, or maintenance requirements affecting components of a project to produce, distribute, or reuse reclaimed water, an application for a variance to such requirements shall be in accordance with variance procedures described in 9VAC25-790.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

9VAC25-740-60. Relationship to other board regulations.

A. Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation (9VAC25-32). The VPA Permit Regulation delineates the procedures and requirements to be followed in connection with the VPA permits issued by the board pursuant to the State Water Control Law. Any treatment works treating domestic, municipal or industrial wastewater that produces reclaimed water or a facility that distributes reclaimed water in a manner that does not result in a discharge to surface waters shall obtain a VPA permit. Design, operation, and maintenance standards prescribed by this chapter for water reclamation and reuse shall be incorporated into the VPA permit application and the VPA permit when applicable. Water reclamation and reuse requirements contained in a VPA permit shall be enforced through existing enforcement mechanisms of the permit.

B. Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31). The VPDES Permit Regulation delineates the procedures and requirements to be followed in connection with VPDES permits issued by the board pursuant to the Clean Water Act and the State Water Control Law. Any treatment works treating domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater that produces reclaimed water and has a discharge to surface waters or a reclaimed water distribution system that has a discharge to surface waters shall obtain a VPDES permit. Design, operation, and maintenance standards for water reclamation and reuse shall be incorporated into the VPDES permit application and the VPDES permit when applicable. Water reclamation and reuse requirements contained in a VPDES permit shall be enforced through existing enforcement mechanisms of the permit.

C. Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790). The Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations establish standards for the operation, construction, or modification of a sewerage system or treatment works, including land treatment systems. This chapter prescribes design, operation and maintenance standards for water reclamation and reuse.

D. Regulation for Nutrient Enriched Waters and Dischargers within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (9VAC25-40). Sections 62.1-44.19:12 through 62.1-44.19:19 of the Code of Virginia, which establishes the Regulation for Nutrient Enriched Waters and Dischargers within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (9VAC25-40), allows for credit to be given for reductions in total nitrogen and total phosphorus discharged loads through recycle or reuse of wastewater when determining technology requirements associated with new or expanded discharges.

E. General VPDES Watershed Permit Regulation for Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Discharges and Nutrient Trading in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in Virginia (9VAC25-820). The General VPDES Watershed Permit Regulation for Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Discharges and Nutrient Trading in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in Virginia regulates point sources of nutrients and establishes a framework for nutrient credit trading and offsets. Water reclamation and reuse provides an opportunity to reduce point source nutrient loads.

F. Local and Regional Water Supply Planning (9VAC25-780). The Local and Regional Water Supply Planning regulation requires every county, city, and town to develop a water plan in accordance with established planning criteria. Where appropriate, the plan may consider nontraditional means of increasing supplies such as interconnection, desalination, recycling and reuse.

G. Water Withdrawal Reporting (9VAC25-200). The Water Withdrawal Reporting regulation requires industrial VPDES permittees to annually report to the board the source and location of water withdrawals and the type of use information specified by 9VAC25-200. Where the VPDES permitted discharge volume deviates by greater than ± 10% of the water withdrawal volume, the permittee is required to report the deviation.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 9, eff. January 29, 2014.

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