Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 2.2. Administration of Government
5/21/2018

Article 2. Contract Formation and Administration.

§ 2.2-4303. Methods of procurement.

A. All public contracts with nongovernmental contractors for the purchase or lease of goods, or for the purchase of services, insurance, or construction, shall be awarded after competitive sealed bidding, or competitive negotiation as provided in this section, unless otherwise authorized by law.

B. Professional services shall be procured by competitive negotiation.

C. Goods, services other than professional services, and insurance may be procured by competitive sealed bidding or competitive negotiation.

Upon a written determination made in advance by (i) the Governor or his designee in the case of a procurement by the Commonwealth or by a department, agency or institution thereof or (ii) the local governing body in the case of a procurement by a political subdivision of the Commonwealth, that competitive negotiation is either not practicable or not fiscally advantageous, insurance may be procured through a licensed agent or broker selected in the manner provided for the procurement of things other than professional services set forth in § 2.2-4302.2. The basis for this determination shall be documented in writing.

D. Construction may be procured only by competitive sealed bidding, except that competitive negotiation may be used in the following instances:

1. By any public body on a fixed price design-build basis or construction management basis as provided in Chapter 43.1 (§ 2.2-4378 et seq.); or

2. By any public body for the construction of highways and any draining, dredging, excavation, grading or similar work upon real property upon a determination made in advance by the public body and set forth in writing that competitive sealed bidding is either not practicable or not fiscally advantageous to the public, which writing shall document the basis for this determination.

E. Upon a determination in writing that there is only one source practicably available for that which is to be procured, a contract may be negotiated and awarded to that source without competitive sealed bidding or competitive negotiation. The writing shall document the basis for this determination. The public body shall issue a written notice stating that only one source was determined to be practicably available, and identifying that which is being procured, the contractor selected, and the date on which the contract was or will be awarded. This notice shall be posted on the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website or other appropriate websites, and in addition, public bodies may publish in a newspaper of general circulation on the day the public body awards or announces its decision to award the contract, whichever occurs first. Posting on the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website shall be required of any state public body. Local public bodies are encouraged to utilize the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website to provide the public with centralized visibility and access to the Commonwealth's procurement opportunities.

F. In case of emergency, a contract may be awarded without competitive sealed bidding or competitive negotiation; however, such procurement shall be made with such competition as is practicable under the circumstances. A written determination of the basis for the emergency and for the selection of the particular contractor shall be included in the contract file. The public body shall issue a written notice stating that the contract is being awarded on an emergency basis, and identifying that which is being procured, the contractor selected, and the date on which the contract was or will be awarded. This notice shall be posted on the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website or other appropriate websites, and in addition, public bodies may publish in a newspaper of general circulation on the day the public body awards or announces its decision to award the contract, whichever occurs first, or as soon thereafter as is practicable. Posting on the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website shall be required of any state public body. Local public bodies are encouraged to utilize the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website to provide the public with centralized visibility and access to the Commonwealth's procurement opportunities.

G. A public body may establish purchase procedures, if adopted in writing, not requiring competitive sealed bids or competitive negotiation for single or term contracts for:

1. Goods and services other than professional services and non-transportation-related construction, if the aggregate or the sum of all phases is not expected to exceed $100,000; and

2. Transportation-related construction, if the aggregate or sum of all phases is not expected to exceed $25,000.

However, such small purchase procedures shall provide for competition wherever practicable.

Such purchase procedures may allow for single or term contracts for professional services without requiring competitive negotiation, provided the aggregate or the sum of all phases is not expected to exceed $60,000.

Where small purchase procedures are adopted for construction, the procedures shall not waive compliance with the Uniform State Building Code.

For state public bodies, purchases under this subsection that are expected to exceed $30,000 shall require the (a) written informal solicitation of a minimum of four bidders or offerors and (b) posting of a public notice on the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website or other appropriate websites. Posting on the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website shall be required of any state public body. Local public bodies are encouraged to utilize the Department of General Services' central electronic procurement website to provide the public with centralized visibility and access to the Commonwealth's procurement opportunities.

H. Upon a determination made in advance by a public body and set forth in writing that the purchase of goods, products or commodities from a public auction sale is in the best interests of the public, such items may be purchased at the auction, including online public auctions. Purchase of information technology and telecommunications goods and nonprofessional services from a public auction sale shall be permitted by any authority, department, agency, or institution of the Commonwealth if approved by the Chief Information Officer of the Commonwealth. The writing shall document the basis for this determination. However, bulk purchases of commodities used in road and highway construction and maintenance, and aggregates shall not be made by online public auctions.

I. The purchase of goods or nonprofessional services, but not construction or professional services, may be made by reverse auctioning. However, bulk purchases of commodities used in road and highway construction and maintenance, and aggregates shall not be made by reverse auctioning.

1982, c. 647, § 11-41; 1985, c. 164; 1986, cc. 332, 559; 1987, c. 456; 1988, cc. 40, 640; 1989, c. 296; 1991, c. 73; 1993, c. 242; 1996, cc. 827, 965, 1019; 1999, c. 178; 2000, cc. 637, 647, 664, 692; 2001, cc. 395, 844; 2003, cc. 644, 895; 2004, cc. 706, 874, 906; 2005, c. 394; 2006, cc. 464, 510; 2008, c. 78; 2009, c. 123; 2010, c. 567; 2011, cc. 332, 594, 612, 681; 2012, cc. 805, 836; 2013, cc. 502, 583; 2015, cc. 760, 776; 2016, cc. 228, 604; 2017, cc. 699, 704.

§ 2.2-4303.1. Architectural and professional engineering term contracting; limitations.

A. A contract for architectural or professional engineering services relating to multiple construction projects may be awarded by a public body, provided (i) the projects require similar experience and expertise, (ii) the nature of the projects is clearly identified in the Request for Proposal, and (iii) the contract is limited to a term of one year or when the cumulative total project fees reach the maximum authorized in this section, whichever occurs first.

Such contracts may be renewable for four additional one-year terms at the option of the public body. The fair and reasonable prices as negotiated shall be used in determining the cost of each project performed.

B. The sum of all projects performed in a one-year contract term shall not exceed $500,000, except that for:

1. A state agency, as defined in § 2.2-4347, the sum of all projects performed in a one-year contract term shall not exceed $1 million;

2. Any locality with a population in excess of 78,000 or school division within such locality, or any authority, sanitation district, metropolitan planning organization, transportation district commission, or planning district commission, or any city within Planning District 8, the sum of all projects performed in a one-year contract term shall not exceed $6 million and those awarded for any airport as defined in § 5.1-1 and aviation transportation projects, the sum of all such projects shall not exceed $1.5 million;

3. Architectural and engineering services for rail and public transportation projects by the Director of the Department of Rail and Public Transportation, the sum of all projects in a one-year contract term shall not exceed $2 million. Such contract may be renewable for two additional one-year terms at the option of the Director; and

4. Environmental location, design, and inspection work regarding highways and bridges by the Commissioner of Highways, the initial contract term shall be limited to two years or when the cumulative total project fees reach $5 million, whichever occurs first. Such contract may be renewable for two additional one-year terms at the option of the Commissioner, and the sum of all projects in each one-year contract term shall not exceed $5 million.

C. Competitive negotiations for such architectural or professional engineering services contracts may result in awards to more than one offeror, provided (i) the Request for Proposal so states and (ii) the public body has established procedures for distributing multiple projects among the selected contractors during the contract term. Such procedures shall prohibit requiring the selected contractors to compete for individual projects based on price.

D. The fee for any single project shall not exceed $150,000; however, for architectural or engineering services for airports as defined in § 5.1-1 and aviation transportation projects, the project fee of any single project shall not exceed $500,000, except that for:

1. A state agency as defined in § 2.2-4347, the project fee shall not exceed $200,000, as may be determined by the Director of the Department of General Services or as otherwise provided by the Restructured Higher Education Financial and Administrative Operations Act (§ 23.1-1000 et seq.); and

2. Any locality with a population in excess of 78,000 or school division within such locality, or any authority, transportation district commission, or sanitation district, or any city within Planning District 8, the project fee shall not exceed $2.5 million.

The limitations imposed upon single-project fees pursuant to this subsection shall not apply to environmental, location, design, and inspection work regarding highways and bridges by the Commissioner of Highways or architectural and engineering services for rail and public transportation projects by the Director of the Department of Rail and Public Transportation.

E. For the purposes of subsection B, any unused amounts from one contract term shall not be carried forward to any additional term, except as otherwise provided by the Restructured Higher Education Financial and Administrative Operations Act (§ 23.1-1000 et seq.).

2016, c. 294; 2017, cc. 343, 555.

§ 2.2-4303.2. Job order contracting; limitations.

A. A job order contract may be awarded by a public body for multiple jobs, provided (i) the jobs require similar experience and expertise, (ii) the nature of the jobs is clearly identified in the solicitation, and (iii) the contract is limited to a term of one year or when the cumulative total project fees reach the maximum authorized in this section, whichever occurs first. Contractors may be selected through either competitive sealed bidding or competitive negotiation.

B. Such contracts may be renewable for two additional one-year terms at the option of the public body. The fair and reasonable prices as negotiated shall be used in determining the cost of each job performed, and the sum of all jobs performed in a one-year contract term shall not exceed $5 million. Individual job orders shall not exceed $500,000.

C. For the purposes of this section, any unused amounts from one contract term shall not be carried forward to any additional term.

D. Order splitting with the intent of keeping a job order under the maximum dollar amounts prescribed in subsection B is prohibited.

E. No public body shall issue or use a job order, under a job order contract, solely for the purpose of receiving professional architectural or engineering services that constitute the practice of architecture or the practice of engineering as those terms are defined in § 54.1-400. However, professional architectural or engineering services may be included on a job order where such professional services (i) are incidental and directly related to the job, (ii) do not exceed $25,000 per job order, and (iii) do not exceed $75,000 per contract term.

F. Job order contracting shall not be used for construction, maintenance, or asset management services for a highway, bridge, tunnel, or overpass.

2015, cc. 760, 776.

§ 2.2-4304. Joint and cooperative procurement.

A. Any public body may participate in, sponsor, conduct, or administer a joint procurement agreement on behalf of or in conjunction with one or more other public bodies, or public agencies or institutions or localities of the several states, of the United States or its territories, the District of Columbia, the U.S. General Services Administration, or the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, for the purpose of combining requirements to increase efficiency or reduce administrative expenses in any acquisition of goods, services, or construction.

B. In addition, a public body may purchase from another public body's contract or from the contract of the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments or the Virginia Sheriffs' Association even if it did not participate in the request for proposal or invitation to bid, if the request for proposal or invitation to bid specified that the procurement was a cooperative procurement being conducted on behalf of other public bodies, except for:

1. Contracts for architectural or engineering services; or

2. Construction, except for the installation of artificial turf and track surfaces, including all associated and necessary construction, which shall not be subject to the limitations prescribed in this subdivision. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prohibit sole source or emergency procurements awarded pursuant to subsections E and F of § 2.2-4303.

In instances where any authority, department, agency, or institution of the Commonwealth desires to purchase information technology and telecommunications goods and services from another public body's contract and the procurement was conducted on behalf of other public bodies, such purchase shall be permitted if approved by the Chief Information Officer of the Commonwealth. Any public body that enters into a cooperative procurement agreement with a county, city, or town whose governing body has adopted alternative policies and procedures pursuant to subdivisions A 9 and A 10 of § 2.2-4343 shall comply with the alternative policies and procedures adopted by the governing body of such county, city, or town.

C. Subject to the provisions of §§ 2.2-1110, 2.2-1111, 2.2-1120 and 2.2-2012, any authority, department, agency, or institution of the Commonwealth may participate in, sponsor, conduct, or administer a joint procurement arrangement in conjunction with public bodies, private health or educational institutions or with public agencies or institutions of the several states, territories of the United States, or the District of Columbia, for the purpose of combining requirements to effect cost savings or reduce administrative expense in any acquisition of goods and services, other than professional services, and construction.

A public body may purchase from any authority, department, agency or institution of the Commonwealth's contract even if it did not participate in the request for proposal or invitation to bid, if the request for proposal or invitation to bid specified that the procurement was a cooperative procurement being conducted on behalf of other public bodies. In such instances, deviation from the procurement procedures set forth in this chapter and the administrative policies and procedures established to implement this chapter shall be permitted, if approved by the Director of the Division of Purchases and Supply.

Pursuant to § 2.2-2012, such approval is not required if the procurement arrangement is for telecommunications and information technology goods and services of every description. In instances where the procurement arrangement is for telecommunications and information technology goods and services, such arrangement shall be permitted if approved by the Chief Information Officer of the Commonwealth. However, such acquisitions shall be procured competitively.

Nothing herein shall prohibit the payment by direct or indirect means of any administrative fee that will allow for participation in any such arrangement.

D. As authorized by the United States Congress and consistent with applicable federal regulations, and provided the terms of the contract permit such purchases:

1. Any authority, department, agency, or institution of the Commonwealth may purchase goods and nonprofessional services, other than telecommunications and information technology, from a U.S. General Services Administration contract or a contract awarded by any other agency of the U.S. government, upon approval of the director of the Division of Purchases and Supply of the Department of General Services;

2. Any authority, department, agency, or institution of the Commonwealth may purchase telecommunications and information technology goods and nonprofessional services from a U.S. General Services Administration contract or a contract awarded by any other agency of the U.S. government, upon approval of the Chief Information Officer of the Commonwealth; and

3. Any county, city, town, or school board may purchase goods and nonprofessional services from a U.S. General Services Administration contract or a contract awarded by any other agency of the U.S. government.

1982, c. 647, § 11-40; 1984, c. 330; 1987, c. 583; 1991, c. 645; 1996, cc. 261, 280, 1019; 2001, c. 844; 2003, cc. 651, 895, 981, 1021; 2004, cc. 874, 906, 911, 936; 2005, c. 394; 2006, c. 100; 2010, c. 736; 2015, cc. 352, 760, 776; 2016, c. 629; 2017, c. 636.

§ 2.2-4305. Competitive procurement by localities on state-aid projects.

No contract for the construction of any building or for an addition to or improvement of an existing building by any local governing body or subdivision thereof for which state funds of not more than $50,000 in the aggregate or for the sum of all phases of a contract or project either by appropriation, grant-in-aid or loan, are used or are to be used for all or part of the cost of construction shall be let except after competitive sealed bidding or after competitive negotiation as provided under subsection D of § 2.2-4303 or Chapter 43.1 (§ 2.2-4378 et seq.). The procedure for the advertising for bids or for proposals and for letting of the contract shall conform, mutatis mutandis, to this chapter.

1982, c. 647, § 11-41.1; 1983, c. 436; 1987, c. 456; 1989, c. 296; 1997, c. 163; 2001, c. 844; 2010, c. 382; 2017, cc. 699, 704.

§ 2.2-4306. Repealed.

§§ 2.2-4306 through 2.2-4308. Repealed by Acts 2017, cc. 699 and 704, cl. 2.

§ 2.2-4308.1. Purchase of owner-controlled insurance in construction projects.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, a public body may purchase at its expense an owner-controlled insurance program in connection with any public construction contract where the amount of the contract or combination of contracts is more than $100 million, provided that no single contract valued at less than $50 million shall be combined pursuant to this section. The public body shall provide notice if it intends to use an owner-controlled insurance program, including the specific coverages of such program, in any request for proposal, invitation to bid, or other applicable procurement documents.

B. A public body shall not require a provider of architecture or professional engineering services to participate in the owner-controlled insurance program, except to the extent that the public body may elect to secure excess coverage. No contractor or subcontractor shall be required to provide insurance coverage for a construction project if that specified coverage is included in an owner-controlled insurance program in which the contractor or subcontractor is enrolled.

C. For the purposes of this section, "owner-controlled insurance program" means a consolidated insurance program or series of insurance policies issued to a public body that may provide for some or all of the following types of insurance coverage for any contractor or subcontractor working on or at a public construction contract or combination of such contracts: general liability, property damage, workers' compensation, employer's liability, pollution or environmental liability, excess or umbrella liability, builder's risk, and excess or contingent professional liability.

2006, cc. 569, 605.

§ 2.2-4308.2. Registration and use of federal employment eligibility verification program required; debarment.

A. For purposes of this section, "E-Verify program" means the electronic verification of work authorization program of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-208), Division C, Title IV, § 403(a), as amended, operated by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, or a successor work authorization program designated by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security or other federal agency authorized to verify the work authorization status of newly hired employees under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-603).

B. Any employer with more than an average of 50 employees for the previous 12 months entering into a contract in excess of $50,000 with any agency of the Commonwealth to perform work or provide services pursuant to such contract shall register and participate in the E-Verify program to verify information and work authorization of its newly hired employees performing work pursuant to such public contract.

C. Any such employer who fails to comply with the provisions of subsection B shall be debarred from contracting with any agency of the Commonwealth for a period up to one year. Such debarment shall cease upon the employer's registration and participation in the E-Verify program.

2011, cc. 573, 583.

§ 2.2-4309. Modification of the contract.

A. A public contract may include provisions for modification of the contract during performance, but no fixed-price contract may be increased by more than twenty-five percent of the amount of the contract or $50,000, whichever is greater, without the advance written approval of the Governor or his designee, in the case of state agencies, or the governing body, in the case of political subdivisions. In no event may the amount of any contract, without adequate consideration, be increased for any purpose, including, but not limited to, relief of an offeror from the consequences of an error in its bid or offer.

B. Any public body may extend the term of an existing contract for services to allow completion of any work undertaken but not completed during the original term of the contract.

C. Nothing in this section shall prevent any public body from placing greater restrictions on contract modifications.

D. The provisions of this section shall not limit the amount a party to a public contract may claim or recover against a public body pursuant to § 2.2-4363 or any other applicable statute or regulation. Modifications made by a political subdivision that fail to comply with this section are voidable at the discretion of the governing body, and the unauthorized approval of a modification cannot be the basis of a contractual claim as set forth in § 2.2-4363.

1982, c. 647, §§ 11-45, 11-55; 1984, c. 764; 1985, c. 286; 1987, cc. 194, 248; 1989, c. 235; 1990, c. 395; 1991, c. 175; 1993, cc. 110, 505, 638, 971; 1996, cc. 145, 897, 902, 950, 1038; 1998, cc. 222, 619, 666, 697, 791; 1999, cc. 160, 194, 1021, 1024; 2000, cc. 242, 637, 664, 696, 927; 2001, c. 844; 2015, c. 569.

§ 2.2-4310. Discrimination prohibited; participation of small, women-owned, minority-owned, and service disabled veteran-owned business and employment services organization.

A. In the solicitation or awarding of contracts, no public body shall discriminate against a bidder or offeror because of race, religion, color, sex, national origin, age, disability, status as a service disabled veteran, or any other basis prohibited by state law relating to discrimination in employment. Whenever solicitations are made, each public body shall include businesses selected from a list made available by the Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity, which list shall include all companies and organizations certified by the Department.

B. All public bodies shall establish programs consistent with this chapter to facilitate the participation of small businesses, businesses owned by women, minorities, and service disabled veterans, and employment services organizations in procurement transactions. The programs established shall be in writing and shall comply with the provisions of any enhancement or remedial measures authorized by the Governor pursuant to subsection C or, where applicable, by the chief executive of a local governing body pursuant to § 15.2-965.1, and shall include specific plans to achieve any goals established therein. State agencies shall submit annual progress reports on (i) small, women-owned, and minority-owned business procurement, (ii) service disabled veteran-owned business procurement, and (iii) employment services organization procurement to the Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity in a form specified by the Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity. Contracts and subcontracts awarded to employment services organizations shall be credited toward the small business, women-owned, and minority-owned business contracting and subcontracting goals of state agencies and contractors. The Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity shall make information on service disabled veteran-owned procurement available to the Department of Veterans Services upon request.

C. Whenever there exists (i) a rational basis for small business or employment services organization enhancement or (ii) a persuasive analysis that documents a statistically significant disparity between the availability and utilization of women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the Governor is authorized and encouraged to require state agencies to implement appropriate enhancement or remedial measures consistent with prevailing law. Any enhancement or remedial measure authorized by the Governor pursuant to this subsection for state public bodies may allow for small businesses certified by the Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity or a subcategory of small businesses established as a part of the enhancement program to have a price preference over noncertified businesses competing for the same contract award on designated procurements, provided that the bid of the certified small business or the business in such subcategory of small businesses established as a part of an enhancement program does not exceed the low bid by more than five percent.

D. In awarding a contract for services to a small, women-owned, or minority-owned business that is certified in accordance with § 2.2-1606, or to a business identified by a public body as a service disabled veteran-owned business where the award is being made pursuant to an enhancement or remedial program as provided in subsection C, the public body shall include in every such contract of more than $10,000 the following:

"If the contractor intends to subcontract work as part of its performance under this contract, the contractor shall include in the proposal a plan to subcontract to small, women-owned, minority-owned, and service disabled veteran-owned businesses."

E. In the solicitation or awarding of contracts, no state agency, department or institution shall discriminate against a bidder or offeror because the bidder or offeror employs ex-offenders unless the state agency, department or institution has made a written determination that employing ex-offenders on the specific contract is not in its best interest.

F. As used in this section:

"Employment services organization" means an organization that provides community-based employment services to individuals with disabilities that is an approved Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF) accredited vendor of the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services.

"Minority individual" means an individual who is a citizen of the United States or a legal resident alien and who satisfies one or more of the following definitions:

1. "African American" means a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Africa and who is regarded as such by the community of which this person claims to be a part.

2. "Asian American" means a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands, including but not limited to Japan, China, Vietnam, Samoa, Laos, Cambodia, Taiwan, Northern Mariana Islands, the Philippines, a U.S. territory of the Pacific, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, or Sri Lanka and who is regarded as such by the community of which this person claims to be a part.

3. "Hispanic American" means a person having origins in any of the Spanish-speaking peoples of Mexico, South or Central America, or the Caribbean Islands or other Spanish or Portuguese cultures and who is regarded as such by the community of which this person claims to be a part.

4. "Native American" means a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America and who is regarded as such by the community of which this person claims to be a part or who is recognized by a tribal organization.

"Minority-owned business" means a business that is at least 51 percent owned by one or more minority individuals who are U.S. citizens or legal resident aliens, or in the case of a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity, at least 51 percent of the equity ownership interest in the corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity is owned by one or more minority individuals who are U.S. citizens or legal resident aliens, and both the management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more minority individuals, or any historically black college or university as defined in § 2.2-1604, regardless of the percentage ownership by minority individuals or, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity, the equity ownership interest in the corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity.

"Service disabled veteran" means a veteran who (i) served on active duty in the United States military ground, naval, or air service, (ii) was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable, and (iii) has a service-connected disability rating fixed by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

"Service disabled veteran business" means a business that is at least 51 percent owned by one or more service disabled veterans or, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity, at least 51 percent of the equity ownership interest in the corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity is owned by one or more individuals who are service disabled veterans and both the management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more individuals who are service disabled veterans.

"Small business" means a business, independently owned and controlled by one or more individuals who are U.S. citizens or legal resident aliens, and together with affiliates, has 250 or fewer employees, or annual gross receipts of $10 million or less averaged over the previous three years. One or more of the individual owners shall control both the management and daily business operations of the small business.

"State agency" means any authority, board, department, instrumentality, institution, agency, or other unit of state government. "State agency" shall not include any county, city, or town.

"Women-owned business" means a business that is at least 51 percent owned by one or more women who are U.S. citizens or legal resident aliens, or in the case of a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company or other entity, at least 51 percent of the equity ownership interest is owned by one or more women who are U.S. citizens or legal resident aliens, and both the management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more women.

1982, c. 647, §§ 11-44, 11-48; 1984, c. 279; 2000, c. 628; 2001, c. 844; 2003, c. 226; 2004, cc. 865, 891; 2006, cc. 831, 921; 2007, c. 787; 2008, cc. 521, 767; 2009, c. 869; 2013, c. 482; 2015, cc. 733, 765, 775; 2016, c. 525; 2017, cc. 397, 407, 578.

§ 2.2-4310.1. Awards as a result of any authorized enhancement or remedial measure; requirements.

A. Any enhancement or remedial measure authorized by the Governor pursuant to subsection C of § 2.2-4310 for state public bodies shall include a provision that the procurement shall be conducted in accordance with such enhancement or remedial measure for businesses certified by the Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity. If such enhancement or remedial measure provides for an award priority for such businesses, then the contract shall be awarded in accordance with such priority if such priority business participated in the solicitation and requirements are met. If an award is not made based on the foregoing, then the contract shall be awarded in accordance with the next award priority and so on until a contract is awarded based on the established award priority.

B. If an award is not made pursuant to subsection A, the procurement award may be made without regard to such enhancement or remedial measure.

2016, c. 681.

§ 2.2-4310.2. State agency's goals for participation by small businesses; requirements.

Any state agency's goals under § 2.2-4310 for participation by small businesses shall include within the goals a minimum of three percent participation by service disabled veteran businesses as defined in §§ 2.2-2001 and 2.2-4310 when contracting for information technology goods and services.

As used in this section, "information technology" and "state agency" mean the same as those terms are defined in § 2.2-2006.

2016, c. 682.

§ 2.2-4310.3. Fiscal data pertaining to certain enhancement or remedial measures.

The Department of General Services shall make available a dashboard of purchase order reports from the Commonwealth's statewide electronic procurement system known as eVA. The dashboard shall include aggregated data showing (i) current fiscal year purchase orders, (ii) purchase orders from the previous fiscal year, and (iii) other relevant data derived from any enhancement or remedial measure implemented by the Governor pursuant to subsection C of § 2.2-4310.

2016, c. 578.

§ 2.2-4311. Employment discrimination by contractor prohibited; required contract provisions.

All public bodies shall include in every contract of more than $10,000 the following provisions:

1. During the performance of this contract, the contractor agrees as follows:

a. The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, religion, color, sex, national origin, age, disability, or other basis prohibited by state law relating to discrimination in employment, except where there is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the contractor. The contractor agrees to post in conspicuous places, available to employees and applicants for employment, notices setting forth the provisions of this nondiscrimination clause.

b. The contractor, in all solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor, will state that such contractor is an equal opportunity employer.

c. Notices, advertisements and solicitations placed in accordance with federal law, rule or regulation shall be deemed sufficient for the purpose of meeting the requirements of this section.

2. The contractor will include the provisions of the foregoing paragraphs a, b and c in every subcontract or purchase order of over $10,000, so that the provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or vendor.

1982, c. 647, § 11-51; 2000, c. 628; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4311.1. Compliance with federal, state, and local laws and federal immigration law; required contract provisions.

All public bodies shall provide in every written contract that the contractor does not, and shall not during the performance of the contract for goods and services in the Commonwealth, knowingly employ an unauthorized alien as defined in the federal Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.

2008, cc. 598, 702.

§ 2.2-4311.2. Compliance with state law; foreign and domestic businesses authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth.

A. All public bodies shall include in every written contract a provision that a contractor organized as a stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, business trust, or limited partnership or registered as a registered limited liability partnership shall be authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth as a domestic or foreign business entity if so required by Title 13.1 or Title 50 or as otherwise required by law.

B. Pursuant to competitive sealed bidding or competitive negotiation, all public bodies shall include in the solicitation a provision that requires a bidder or offeror organized or authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth pursuant to Title 13.1 or Title 50 to include in its bid or proposal the identification number issued to it by the State Corporation Commission. Any bidder or offeror that is not required to be authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth as a foreign business entity under Title 13.1 or Title 50 or as otherwise required by law shall include in its bid or proposal a statement describing why the bidder or offeror is not required to be so authorized.

C. Any bidder or offeror described in subsection B that fails to provide the required information shall not receive an award unless a waiver of this requirement and the administrative policies and procedures established to implement this section is granted by the Director of the Department of General Services or his designee or by the chief executive of a local governing body.

D. Any business entity described in subsection A that enters into a contract with a public body pursuant to this chapter shall not allow its existence to lapse or its certificate of authority or registration to transact business in the Commonwealth, if so required under Title 13.1 or Title 50, to be revoked or cancelled at any time during the term of the contract.

E. A public body may void any contract with a business entity if the business entity fails to remain in compliance with the provisions of this section.

2010, c. 634.

§ 2.2-4312. Drug-free workplace to be maintained by contractor; required contract provisions.

All public bodies shall include in every contract over $10,000 the following provisions:

During the performance of this contract, the contractor agrees to (i) provide a drug-free workplace for the contractor's employees; (ii) post in conspicuous places, available to employees and applicants for employment, a statement notifying employees that the unlawful manufacture, sale, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance or marijuana is prohibited in the contractor's workplace and specifying the actions that will be taken against employees for violations of such prohibition; (iii) state in all solicitations or advertisements for employees placed by or on behalf of the contractor that the contractor maintains a drug-free workplace; and (iv) include the provisions of the foregoing clauses in every subcontract or purchase order of over $10,000, so that the provisions will be binding upon each subcontractor or vendor.

For the purposes of this section, "drug-free workplace" means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific contract awarded to a contractor in accordance with this chapter, the employees of whom are prohibited from engaging in the unlawful manufacture, sale, distribution, dispensation, possession or use of any controlled substance or marijuana during the performance of the contract.

2000, c. 417, § 11-51.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4313. Petition for recycled goods and products; periodic review of procurement standards.

A. Any person who believes that particular goods or products with recycled content are functionally equivalent to the same goods or products produced from virgin materials may petition the Department of General Services or other appropriate agency of the Commonwealth to include the recycled goods or products in its procurement process. The petitioner shall submit, prior to or during the procurement process, documentation that establishes that the goods or products (i) contain recycled content and (ii) can meet the performance standards set forth in the applicable specifications. If the Department of General Services or other agency of the Commonwealth that receives the petition determines that the documentation demonstrates that the goods or products with recycled content will meet the performance standards set forth in the applicable specifications, it shall incorporate the goods or products into its procurement process.

B. The Department of General Services and all agencies of the Commonwealth shall review and revise their procurement procedures and specifications on a continuing basis to encourage the use of goods and products with recycled content and shall, in developing new procedures and specifications, encourage the use of goods and products with recycled content.

1993, c. 223, § 11-41.01; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4314. Petition for procurement of less toxic goods and products; periodic review of procurement standards.

A. As used in this section:

"Goods and products" means goods and products that are used or consumed by an agency of the Commonwealth in the performance of its statutory functions. The term shall include, but not be limited to (i) cleaning materials, (ii) paints and coatings, (iii) solvents, (iv) adhesives, (v) inks, and (vi) pesticides and herbicides. The term shall not include: (i) fuels, (ii) food and beverages, (iii) furniture and fixtures, (iv) tobacco products, and (v) packaging and containers.

"Less toxic goods and products" means goods and products that (i) are functionally equivalent to and (ii) contain, emit, produce, or generate, less toxic or hazardous substances, or other toxic or hazardous substances that pose less of a hazard to public health and safety, or both, than goods and products procured by the Department of General Services or other agency of the Commonwealth.

"Toxic or hazardous substance" means (i) a chemical identified on the Toxic Chemical List established pursuant to § 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 42 U.S.C. § 11001 et seq. (P.L. 99-499) or (ii) a chemical listed pursuant to §§ 101 (14) or 102 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9601 et seq. (P.L. 92-500).

B. Any person who manufactures, sells, or supplies goods or products may petition the Department of General Services or other appropriate agency of the Commonwealth for the inclusion of the less toxic goods and products in its procurement process. The petitioner shall submit, prior to or during the procurement process, documentation that establishes that the goods or products meet the performance standards set forth in the applicable specifications. If the Department of General Services or other agency of the Commonwealth that receives the petition determines that the documentation establishes that the less toxic goods or products meet the performance standards set forth in the applicable specifications, it shall incorporate such goods or products into its procurement process.

C. The Department of General Services and all agencies of the Commonwealth shall review and revise their procurement procedures and specifications on a continuing basis to encourage the use of less toxic goods and products. However, nothing in this section shall require the Department or other agencies to purchase, test or evaluate any particular goods or products. Nor shall this section require the Department to purchase goods or products other than those that would be purchased under regular procurement procedures.

1994, c. 946, § 11-41.02; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4315. Use of brand names.

Unless otherwise provided in the Invitation to Bid, the name of a certain brand, make or manufacturer shall not restrict bidders to the specific brand, make or manufacturer named and shall be deemed to convey the general style, type, character, and quality of the article desired. Any article that the public body in its sole discretion determines to be the equal of that specified, considering quality, workmanship, economy of operation, and suitability for the purpose intended, shall be accepted.

1982, c. 647, § 11-49; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4316. Comments concerning specifications.

Every public body awarding public contracts shall establish procedures whereby comments concerning specifications or other provisions in Invitations to Bid or Requests for Proposal can be received and considered prior to the time set for receipt of bids or proposals or award of the contract.

1982, c. 647, § 11-50; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4317. Prequalification generally; prequalification for construction.

A. Prospective contractors may be prequalified for particular types of supplies, services, insurance or construction, and consideration of bids or proposals limited to prequalified contractors. Any prequalification procedure shall be established in writing and sufficiently in advance of its implementation to allow potential contractors a fair opportunity to complete the process.

B. Any prequalification of prospective contractors for construction by a public body shall be pursuant to a prequalification process for construction projects adopted by the public body. The process shall be consistent with the provisions of this section.

The application form used in such process shall set forth the criteria upon which the qualifications of prospective contractors will be evaluated. The application form shall request of prospective contractors only such information as is appropriate for an objective evaluation of all prospective contractors pursuant to such criteria. The form shall allow the prospective contractor seeking prequalification to request, by checking the appropriate box, that all information voluntarily submitted by the contractor pursuant to this subsection shall be considered a trade secret or proprietary information subject to the provisions of subsection D of § 2.2-4342.

In all instances in which the public body requires prequalification of potential contractors for construction projects, advance notice shall be given of the deadline for the submission of prequalification applications. The deadline for submission shall be sufficiently in advance of the date set for the submission of bids for such construction so as to allow the procedures set forth in this subsection to be accomplished.

At least 30 days prior to the date established for submission of bids or proposals under the procurement of the contract for which the prequalification applies, the public body shall advise in writing each contractor who submitted an application whether that contractor has been prequalified. In the event that a contractor is denied prequalification, the written notification to the contractor shall state the reasons for the denial of prequalification and the factual basis of such reasons.

A decision by a public body denying prequalification under the provisions of this subsection shall be final and conclusive unless the contractor appeals the decision as provided in § 2.2-4357.

C. A public body may deny prequalification to any contractor only if the public body finds one of the following:

1. The contractor does not have sufficient financial ability to perform the contract that would result from such procurement. If a bond is required to ensure performance of a contract, evidence that the contractor can acquire a surety bond from a corporation included on the United States Treasury list of acceptable surety corporations in the amount and type required by the public body shall be sufficient to establish the financial ability of the contractor to perform the contract resulting from such procurement;

2. The contractor does not have appropriate experience to perform the construction project in question;

3. The contractor or any officer, director or owner thereof has had judgments entered against him within the past ten years for the breach of contracts for governmental or nongovernmental construction, including, but not limited to, design-build or construction management;

4. The contractor has been in substantial noncompliance with the terms and conditions of prior construction contracts with a public body without good cause. If the public body has not contracted with a contractor in any prior construction contracts, the public body may deny prequalification if the contractor has been in substantial noncompliance with the terms and conditions of comparable construction contracts with another public body without good cause. A public body may not utilize this provision to deny prequalification unless the facts underlying such substantial noncompliance were documented in writing in the prior construction project file and such information relating thereto given to the contractor at that time, with the opportunity to respond;

5. The contractor or any officer, director, owner, project manager, procurement manager or chief financial official thereof has been convicted within the past ten years of a crime related to governmental or nongovernmental construction or contracting, including, but not limited to, a violation of (i) Article 6 (§ 2.2-4367 et seq.) of this chapter, (ii) the Virginia Governmental Frauds Act (§ 18.2-498.1 et seq.), (iii) Chapter 4.2 (§ 59.1-68.6 et seq.) of Title 59.1, or (iv) any substantially similar law of the United States or another state;

6. The contractor or any officer, director or owner thereof is currently debarred pursuant to an established debarment procedure from bidding or contracting by any public body, agency of another state or agency of the federal government; and

7. The contractor failed to provide to the public body in a timely manner any information requested by the public body relevant to subdivisions 1 through 6 of this subsection.

D. If a public body has a prequalification ordinance that provides for minority participation in municipal construction contracts, that public body may also deny prequalification based on minority participation criteria. However, nothing herein shall authorize the adoption or enforcement of minority participation criteria except to the extent that such criteria, and the adoption and enforcement thereof, are in accordance with the Constitution and laws of the United States and the Commonwealth.

E. A state public body shall deny prequalification to any contractor who fails to register and participate in the E-Verify program as required by § 2.2-4308.2.

F. The provisions of subsections B, C, and D shall not apply to prequalification for contracts let under § 33.2-209, 33.2-214, or 33.2-221.

1982, c. 647, § 11-46; 1994, c. 918; 1995, c. 527; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 154; 2011, cc. 573, 583.

§ 2.2-4318. Negotiation with lowest responsible bidder.

Unless canceled or rejected, a responsive bid from the lowest responsible bidder shall be accepted as submitted, except that if the bid from the lowest responsible bidder exceeds available funds, the public body may negotiate with the apparent low bidder to obtain a contract price within available funds. However, the negotiation may be undertaken only under conditions and procedures described in writing and approved by the public body prior to issuance of the Invitation to Bid and summarized therein.

1982, c. 647, § 11-53; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4319. Cancellation, rejection of bids; waiver of informalities.

A. An Invitation to Bid, a Request for Proposal, any other solicitation, or any and all bids or proposals, may be canceled or rejected. The reasons for cancellation or rejection shall be made part of the contract file. A public body shall not cancel or reject an Invitation to Bid, a Request for Proposal, any other solicitation, bid or proposal pursuant to this section solely to avoid awarding a contract to a particular responsive and responsible bidder or offeror.

B. A public body may waive informalities in bids.

1982, c. 647, § 11-42; 1998, c. 753; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4320. Exclusion of insurance bids prohibited.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in the Commonwealth or approved to issue surplus lines insurance in the Commonwealth shall be excluded from presenting an insurance bid proposal to a public body in response to a request for proposal or an invitation to bid. Nothing in this section shall preclude a public body from debarring a prospective insurer pursuant to § 2.2-4321.

1996, c. 989, § 11-44.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4321. Debarment.

Prospective contractors may be debarred from contracting for particular types of supplies, services, insurance or construction, for specified periods of time. Any debarment procedure shall be established in writing for state agencies and institutions by the agency designated by the Governor and for political subdivisions by their governing bodies. Any debarment procedure may provide for debarment on the basis of a contractor's unsatisfactory performance for a public body.

1982, c. 647, § 11-46.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4321.1. Prohibited contracts; exceptions; determination by Department of Taxation; appeal; remedies.

A. No state agency shall contract for goods or services with a nongovernmental source if the source, or any affiliate of the source, is subject to the provisions of (i) § 58.1-612 and fails or refuses to collect and remit the tax on its sales delivered by any means to locations within the Commonwealth or (ii) Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) or Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of Title 58.1 and fails or refuses to remit any tax due thereunder. The provisions of clause (ii) shall not apply to any person that has (a) entered into a payment agreement with the Department of Taxation to pay the tax and is not delinquent under the terms of the agreement or (b) appealed the assessment of the tax in accordance with law and such appeal is pending.

B. A state agency may contract for goods or services with a source prohibited under subsection A in the event of an emergency or where the nongovernmental source is the sole source of such goods or services.

C. The determination of whether a source is a prohibited source shall be made by the Department of Taxation after providing the prohibited source with notice and an opportunity to respond to the proposed determination. The Department of Taxation shall notify the Department of General Services of its determination.

D. The Department of General Services shall post public notice of all prohibited sources on its public internet procurement website and on other appropriate websites.

E. The remedies provided in Article 5 (§ 2.2-4357 et seq.) of this chapter shall not apply to any determination made pursuant to this section and the sole remedy for any adverse determination shall be as provided in subsection F.

F. Any source aggrieved by a determination of the Department of Taxation made under this section may apply to the Tax Commissioner for correction of the determination. The Tax Commissioner shall respond within 30 days of receipt of the application for corrective action. Within 10 days after receipt of the Tax Commissioner's response, the aggrieved source may appeal to the Circuit Court for the City of Richmond. If it is determined that the determination of the Department of Taxation was arbitrary, capricious, or not in accordance with law, the sole relief shall be restoration of the source's eligibility to contract with state agencies. No claim for damages or attorney's fees shall be awarded.

G. Any action of the Department of Taxation, the Department of General Services, or of any state agency under this section shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

H. For the purposes of this section, "state agency" means any authority, board, department, instrumentality, institution, agency or other unit of state government. State agency shall not include any public institution of higher education or any county, city or town or any local or regional governmental authority.

2003, cc. 994, 1006; 2006, c. 408.

§ 2.2-4321.2. Public works contract requirements.

A. As used in this section:

"Public works" means the operation, erection, construction, alteration, improvement, maintenance, or repair of any public facility or immovable property owned, used, or leased by a state agency.

"State agency" means any authority, board, department, instrumentality, institution, agency, or other unit of state government. "State agency" shall not include any county, city, or town.

B. Except as provided in subsection F or as required by federal law, each state agency, when engaged in procuring products or services or letting contracts for construction, manufacture, maintenance, or operation of public works paid for in whole or in part by state funds, or when overseeing or administering such procurement, construction, manufacture, maintenance, or operation, shall ensure that neither the state agency nor any construction manager acting on behalf of the state agency shall, in its bid specifications, project agreements, or other controlling documents:

1. Require or prohibit bidders, offerors, contractors, or subcontractors to enter into or adhere to agreements with one or more labor organizations, on the same or related public works projects; or

2. Otherwise discriminate against bidders, offerors, contractors, subcontractors, or operators for becoming or refusing to become or remain signatories or otherwise to adhere to agreements with one or more labor organizations, on the same or other related public works projects.

Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit contractors or subcontractors from voluntarily entering into agreements described in subdivision 1.

C. A state agency issuing grants, providing financial assistance, or entering into cooperative agreements for the construction, manufacture, maintenance, or operation of public works shall ensure that neither the bid specifications, project agreements, nor other controlling documents therefor awarded by recipients of grants or financial assistance or by parties to cooperative agreements, nor those of any construction manager acting on behalf of such recipients, shall:

1. Require or prohibit bidders, offerors, contractors, or subcontractors to enter into or adhere to agreements with one or more labor organizations, on the same or related projects; or

2. Otherwise discriminate against bidders, offerors, contractors, subcontractors, or operators for becoming or refusing to become or remain signatories or otherwise to adhere to agreements with one or more labor organizations, on the same or other related projects.

D. If an awarding authority, a recipient of grants or financial assistance, a party to a cooperative agreement, or a construction manager acting on behalf of any of them performs in a manner contrary to the provisions of subsection B or C, the state agency awarding the contract, grant, or assistance shall be entitled to injunctive relief to prevent any violation of this section.

E. Any interested party, which shall include a bidder, offeror, contractor, subcontractor, or operator, shall have standing to challenge any bid specification, project agreement, neutrality agreement, controlling document, grant, or cooperative agreement that violates the provisions of this section. Furthermore, such interested party shall be entitled to injunctive relief to prevent any violation of this section.

F. The provisions of this section shall not:

1. Apply to any public-private agreement for any construction or infrastructure project in which the private body, as a condition of its investment or partnership with the state agency, requires that the private body have the right to control its labor relations policy and perform all work associated with such investment or partnership in compliance with all collective bargaining agreements to which the private party is a signatory and is thus legally bound with its own employees and the employees of its contractors and subcontractors in any manner permitted by the National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 151 et seq., or the Railway Labor Act, 45 U.S.C. § 151 et seq.;

2. Prohibit an employer or any other person covered by the National Labor Relations Act or the Railway Labor Act from entering into agreements or engaging in any other activity protected by law; or

3. Be interpreted to interfere with the labor relations of persons covered by the National Labor Relations Act or the Railway Labor Act.

2012, cc. 685, 732.

§ 2.2-4322. Acceptance of bids submitted to the Department of Transportation.

In a procurement by the Department of Transportation by competitive sealed bidding for highway construction and maintenance contracts, the Department may accept bids in response to an Invitation to Bid at the Department's central office or at district offices or other satellite locations designated in the Invitation to Bid, in accordance with specifications adopted by the Department. An Invitation to Bid may authorize agents of the Department to accept from bidders on a voluntary basis a supplemental submission referencing the total bid amount on a form prescribed by the Department. Information contained in any supplemental submission may be made available to the public by the Department after the time for receiving bids has expired and before the public opening and announcement of all sealed bids.

1997, c. 164, § 11-45.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4323. Purchase programs for recycled goods; agency responsibilities.

A. All state agencies shall implement a purchase program for recycled goods and shall coordinate their efforts so as to achieve the goals and objectives established in subsection C as well as those set forth in §§ 10.1-1425.6, 10.1-1425.7, 10.1-1425.8, 2.2-4313, 2.2-4324, and 2.2-4326.

B. The Department of Environmental Quality shall advise the Department of General Services concerning the designation of recycled goods. In cooperation with the Department of General Services, the Department of Environmental Quality shall increase the awareness of state agencies as to the benefits of using such products.

C. The Department of General Services shall:

1. Ensure that the Commonwealth's procurement guidelines for state agencies promote the use of recycled goods.

2. Promote the Commonwealth's interest in the use of recycled products to vendors.

3. Make agencies aware of the availability of recycled goods, including those that use post-consumer and other recovered materials processed by Virginia-based companies.

D. All state agencies shall, to the greatest extent possible, adhere to the procurement program guidelines for recycled products to be established by the Department of General Services.

1994, c. 553, § 11-47.01; 2001, c. 844; 2011, cc. 594, 681.

§ 2.2-4323.1. Purchase of flags of the United States and the Commonwealth by public bodies.

Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, whenever a state or local public body or school division purchases a flag of the United States or a flag of the Commonwealth for public use, such flag shall be made in the United States from articles, materials, or supplies that are grown, produced, and manufactured in the United States, if available.

2016, cc. 289, 297.

§ 2.2-4324. Preference for Virginia products with recycled content and for Virginia firms.

A. In the case of a tie bid, preference shall be given to goods produced in Virginia, goods or services or construction provided by Virginia persons, firms or corporations; otherwise the tie shall be decided by lot.

B. Whenever the lowest responsive and responsible bidder is a resident of any other state and such state under its laws allows a resident contractor of that state a percentage preference, a like preference shall be allowed to the lowest responsive and responsible bidder who is a resident of Virginia and is the next lowest bidder. If the lowest responsive and responsible bidder is a resident of any other state and such state under its laws allows a resident contractor of that state a price-matching preference, a like preference shall be allowed to responsive and responsible bidders who are residents of Virginia. If the lowest bidder is a resident contractor of a state with an absolute preference, the bid shall not be considered. The Department of General Services shall post and maintain an updated list on its website of all states with an absolute preference for their resident contractors and those states that allow their resident contractors a percentage preference, including the respective percentage amounts. For purposes of compliance with this section, all public bodies may rely upon the accuracy of the information posted on this website.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and B, in the case of a tie bid in instances where goods are being offered, and existing price preferences have already been taken into account, preference shall be given to the bidder whose goods contain the greatest amount of recycled content.

D. For the purposes of this section, a Virginia person, firm or corporation shall be deemed to be a resident of Virginia if such person, firm or corporation has been organized pursuant to Virginia law or maintains a principal place of business within Virginia.

1982, c. 647, § 11-47; 1993, c. 109; 2001, cc. 323, 844; 2005, c. 894; 2011, c. 343.

§ 2.2-4325. Preference for Virginia coal used in state facilities.

In determining the award of any contract for coal to be purchased for use in state facilities with state funds, the Department of General Services shall procure using competitive sealed bidding and shall award to the lowest responsive and responsible bidder offering coal mined in Virginia so long as its bid price is not more than four percent greater than the bid price of the low responsive and responsible bidder offering coal mined elsewhere.

1987, cc. 81, 91, § 11-47.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4326. Preference for recycled paper and paper products used by state agencies.

A. In determining the award of any contract for paper and paper products to be purchased for use by agencies of the Commonwealth, the Department of General Services shall procure using competitive sealed bidding and shall award to the lowest responsible bidder offering recycled paper and paper products of a quality suitable for the purpose intended, so long as the bid price is not more than ten percent greater than the bid price of the low responsive and responsible bidder offering a product that does not qualify under subsection B.

B. For purposes of this section, recycled paper and paper products means any paper or paper products meeting the EPA Recommended Content Standards as defined in 40 C.F.R. Part 247.

1989, c. 442, § 11-47.2; 1990, cc. 449, 857; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4327. Preference for community reinvestment activities in contracts for investment of funds.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any county, town, or city that is authorized to and has established affordable housing programs may provide by resolution that in determining the award of any contract for time deposits or investment of its funds, the treasurer or director of finance of such county, town, or city may consider, in addition to the typical criteria, the investment activities of qualifying institutions that enhance the supply of, or accessibility to, affordable housing within the jurisdiction, including the accessibility of such housing to employees of the county, town, or city or employees of the local school board. No more than 50 percent of the funds of the county, town, or city, calculated on the basis of the average daily balance of the general fund during the previous fiscal year, may be deposited or invested by considering such investment activities as a factor in the award of a contract. A qualifying institution shall meet the provisions of the Virginia Security for Public Deposits Act (§ 2.2-4400 et seq.) and all local terms and conditions for security, liquidity and rate of return.

For the purposes of this section, affordable housing means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-2201.

1993, c. 937, § 11-47.3; 1995, c. 206; 1997, c. 176; 1999, c. 708; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 681.

§ 2.2-4328. Preference for local products and firms; applicability.

A. The governing body of a county, city or town may, in the case of a tie bid, give preference to goods, services and construction produced in such locality or provided by persons, firms or corporations having principal places of business in the locality, if such a choice is available; otherwise the tie shall be decided by lot, unless § 2.2-4324 applies.

B. The provisions of this section shall apply only to bids submitted pursuant to a written Invitation to Bid.

1994, c. 882, § 11-47.4; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4329. Expired.

Expired.

§ 2.2-4329.1. Energy forward pricing mechanisms.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Energy" means natural gas, heating oil, propane, diesel fuel, unleaded fuel, and any other energy source except electricity.

"Forward pricing mechanism" means either: (i) a contract or financial instrument that obligates a public body to buy or sell a specified quantity of energy at a future date at a set price or (ii) an option to buy or sell the contract or financial instrument.

B. Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary but subject to available appropriation, a public body may use forward pricing mechanisms for budget risk reduction.

C. Forward pricing mechanism transactions shall be made only under the following conditions:

1. The quantity of energy affected by the forward pricing mechanism shall not exceed the estimated energy use for the public body for the same period, which shall not exceed 48 months from the trade date of the transaction; and

2. A separate account shall be established for operational energy for each public body using a forward pricing mechanism.

D. Before exercising the authority under this section, the public body shall develop written policies and procedures governing the use of forward pricing mechanisms and disclosure of the same to the public.

E. Before exercising authority under subsection B, the public body shall establish an oversight process that provides for review of the public body's use of forward pricing mechanisms. The oversight process shall include internal or external audit reviews; annual reports to, and review by, an internal investment committee; and internal management control.

2012, cc. 204, 359.

§ 2.2-4330. Withdrawal of bid due to error.

A. A bidder for a public construction contract, other than a contract for construction or maintenance of public highways, may withdraw his bid from consideration if the price bid was substantially lower than the other bids due solely to a mistake in the bid, provided the bid was submitted in good faith, and the mistake was a clerical mistake as opposed to a judgment mistake, and was actually due to an unintentional arithmetic error or an unintentional omission of a quantity of work, labor or material made directly in the compilation of a bid, which unintentional arithmetic error or unintentional omission can be clearly shown by objective evidence drawn from inspection of original work papers, documents and materials used in the preparation of the bid sought to be withdrawn.

If a bid contains both clerical and judgment mistakes, a bidder may withdraw his bid from consideration if the price bid would have been substantially lower than the other bids due solely to the clerical mistake, that was an unintentional arithmetic error or an unintentional omission of a quantity of work, labor or material made directly in the compilation of a bid that shall be clearly shown by objective evidence drawn from inspection of original work papers, documents and materials used in the preparation of the bid sought to be withdrawn.

B. One of the following procedures for withdrawal of a bid shall be selected by the public body and stated in the advertisement for bids:

1. The bidder shall give notice in writing of his claim of right to withdraw his bid within two business days after the conclusion of the bid opening procedure and shall submit original work papers with such notice; or

2. Where the public body opens the bids one day following the time fixed for the submission of bids, the bidder shall submit to the public body or designated official his original work papers, documents and materials used in the preparation of the bid at or prior to the time fixed for the opening of bids. The work papers shall be delivered by the bidder in person or by registered mail. The bidder shall have two hours after the opening of bids within which to claim in writing any mistake as defined herein and withdraw his bid. The contract shall not be awarded by the public body until the two-hour period has elapsed.

Under these procedures, the mistake shall be proved only from the original work papers, documents and materials delivered as required herein. The work papers, documents and materials submitted by the bidder shall, at the bidder's request, be considered trade secrets or proprietary information subject to the conditions of subsection F of § 2.2-4342.

C. A public body may establish procedures for the withdrawal of bids for other than construction contracts.

D. No bid shall be withdrawn under this section when the result would be the awarding of the contract on another bid of the same bidder or of another bidder in which the ownership of the withdrawing bidder is more than five percent.

E. If a bid is withdrawn in accordance with this section, the lowest remaining bid shall be deemed to be the low bid.

F. No bidder who is permitted to withdraw a bid shall, for compensation, supply any material or labor to or perform any subcontract or other work agreement for the person or firm to whom the contract is awarded or otherwise benefit, directly or indirectly, from the performance of the project for which the withdrawn bid was submitted.

G. The public body shall notify the bidder in writing within five business days of its decision regarding the bidder's request to withdraw its bid. If the public body denies the withdrawal of a bid under the provisions of this section, it shall state in such notice the reasons for its decision and award the contract to such bidder at the bid price, provided such bidder is a responsible and responsive bidder. At the same time that the notice is provided, the public body shall return all work papers and copies thereof that have been submitted by the bidder.

1982, c. 647, § 11-54; 1985, c. 286; 1994, c. 897; 1999, c. 344; 2001, c. 844; 2011, c. 717.

§ 2.2-4331. Contract pricing arrangements.

A. Except as prohibited in this section, public contracts may be awarded on a fixed price or cost reimbursement basis, or on any other basis that is not prohibited.

B. Except in case of emergency affecting the public health, safety, or welfare, no public contract shall be awarded on the basis of cost plus a percentage of cost.

C. The following contract pricing arrangements shall not be prohibited by this section:

1. A policy or contract of insurance or prepaid coverage having a premium computed on the basis of claims paid or incurred, plus the insurance carrier's administrative costs and retention stated in whole or part as a percentage of such claims; or

2. A cost plus a percentage of the private investment made by a private entity as a basis for the procurement of commercial or financial consulting services related to a qualifying transportation facility under the Public-Private Transportation Act of 1995 (§ 33.2-1800 et seq.) or a qualifying project under the Public-Private Education Facilities and Infrastructure Act of 2002 (§ 56-575.1 et seq.) where the commercial or financial consulting services are sought to solicit or to solicit and evaluate proposals for the qualifying transportation facility or the qualifying project. As used in this section, "private entity" and "qualifying transportation facility" mean the same as those terms are defined in § 33.2-1800 and "qualifying project" means the same as that term is defined in § 56-575.1.

1982, c. 647, § 11-43; 2001, c. 844; 2013, c. 496.

§ 2.2-4332. Workers' compensation requirements for construction contractors and subcontractors.

A. No contractor shall perform any work on a construction project of a department, agency or institution of the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions unless he (i) has obtained, and continues to maintain for the duration of the work, workers' compensation coverage required pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 8 (§ 65.2-800 et seq.) of Title 65.2 and (ii) provides prior to the award of contract, on a form furnished by the department, agency, or institution of the Commonwealth or political subdivision thereof, evidence of such coverage.

B. The Department of General Services shall provide the form to such departments, agencies, institutions, and political subdivisions. Failure of a department, agency, institution or political subdivision to provide the form prior to the award of contract shall waive the requirements of clause (ii) of subsection A.

C. No subcontractor shall perform any work on a construction project of a department, agency or institution of the Commonwealth unless he has obtained, and continues to maintain for the duration of such work, workers' compensation coverage required pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 8 (§ 65.2-800 et seq.) of Title 65.2.

1993, c. 642, § 11-46.3; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4333. Retainage on construction contracts.

A. In any public contract for construction that provides for progress payments in installments based upon an estimated percentage of completion, the contractor shall be paid at least ninety-five percent of the earned sum when payment is due, with no more than five percent being retained to ensure faithful performance of the contract. All amounts withheld may be included in the final payment.

B. Any subcontract for a public project that provides for similar progress payments shall be subject to the provisions of this section.

1982, c. 647, § 11-56; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4334. Deposit of certain retained funds on certain contracts with local governments; penalty for failure to timely complete.

A. Any county, city, town or agency thereof or other political subdivision of the Commonwealth when contracting directly with contractors for public contracts of $200,000 or more for construction of highways, roads, streets, bridges, parking lots, demolition, clearing, grading, excavating, paving, pile driving, miscellaneous drainage structures, and the installation of water, gas, sewer lines and pumping stations where portions of the contract price are to be retained, shall include in the Bid Proposal an option for the contractor to use an escrow account procedure for utilization of the political subdivision's retainage funds by so indicating in the space provided in the proposal documents. In the event the contractor elects to use the escrow account procedure, the escrow agreement form included in the Bid Proposal and Contract shall be executed and submitted to the political subdivision within fifteen calendar days after notification. If the escrow agreement form is not submitted within the fifteen-day period, the contractor shall forfeit his rights to the use of the escrow account procedure.

B. In order to have retained funds paid to an escrow agent, the contractor, the escrow agent, and the surety shall execute an escrow agreement form. The contractor's escrow agent shall be a trust company, bank or savings institution with its principal office located in the Commonwealth. The escrow agreement and all regulations adopted by the political subdivision entering into the contract shall be substantially the same as that used by the Virginia Department of Transportation.

C. This section shall not apply to public contracts for construction for railroads, public transit systems, runways, dams, foundations, installation or maintenance of power systems for the generation and primary and secondary distribution of electric current ahead of the customer's meter, the installation or maintenance of telephone, telegraph or signal systems for public utilities and the construction or maintenance of solid waste or recycling facilities and treatment plants.

D. Any such public contract for construction with a county, city, town or agency thereof or other political subdivision of the Commonwealth, which includes payment of interest on retained funds, may require a provision whereby the contractor, exclusive of reasonable circumstances beyond the control of the contractor stated in the contract, shall pay a specified penalty for each day exceeding the completion date stated in the contract.

E. Any subcontract for such public project that provides for similar progress payments shall be subject to the provisions of this section.

1989, c. 1, § 11-56.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4335. Public construction contract provisions barring damages for unreasonable delays declared void.

A. Any provision contained in any public construction contract that purports to waive, release, or extinguish the rights of a contractor to recover costs or damages for unreasonable delay in performing such contract, either on his behalf or on behalf of his subcontractor if and to the extent the delay is caused by acts or omissions of the public body, its agents or employees and due to causes within their control shall be void and unenforceable as against public policy.

B. Subsection A shall not be construed to render void any provision of a public construction contract that:

1. Allows a public body to recover that portion of delay costs caused by the acts or omissions of the contractor, or its subcontractors, agents or employees;

2. Requires notice of any delay by the party claiming the delay;

3. Provides for liquidated damages for delay; or

4. Provides for arbitration or any other procedure designed to settle contract disputes.

C. A contractor making a claim against a public body for costs or damages due to the alleged delaying of the contractor in the performance of its work under any public construction contract shall be liable to the public body and shall pay it for a percentage of all costs incurred by the public body in investigating, analyzing, negotiating, litigating and arbitrating the claim, which percentage shall be equal to the percentage of the contractor's total delay claim that is determined through litigation or arbitration to be false or to have no basis in law or in fact.

D. A public body denying a contractor's claim for costs or damages due to the alleged delaying of the contractor in the performance of work under any public construction contract shall be liable to and shall pay such contractor a percentage of all costs incurred by the contractor to investigate, analyze, negotiate, litigate and arbitrate the claim. The percentage paid by the public body shall be equal to the percentage of the contractor's total delay claim for which the public body's denial is determined through litigation or arbitration to have been made in bad faith.

1991, c. 701, § 11-56.2; 2001, cc. 324, 844.

§ 2.2-4336. Bid bonds.

A. Except in cases of emergency, all bids or proposals for nontransportation-related construction contracts in excess of $500,000 or transportation-related projects authorized under Article 2 (§ 33.2-208 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 33.2 that are in excess of $250,000 and partially or wholly funded by the Commonwealth shall be accompanied by a bid bond from a surety company selected by the bidder that is authorized to do business in Virginia, as a guarantee that if the contract is awarded to the bidder, he will enter into the contract for the work mentioned in the bid. The amount of the bid bond shall not exceed five percent of the amount bid.

B. For nontransportation-related construction contracts in excess of $100,000 but less than $500,000, where the bid bond requirements are waived, prospective contractors shall be prequalified for each individual project in accordance with § 2.2-4317. However, a locality may waive the requirement for prequalification of a bidder with a current Class A contractor license for contracts in excess of $100,000 but less than $300,000 upon a written determination made in advance by the local governing body that waiving the requirement is in the best interests of the locality. A locality shall not enter into more than 10 such contracts per year.

C. No forfeiture under a bid bond shall exceed the lesser of (i) the difference between the bid for which the bond was written and the next low bid, or (ii) the face amount of the bid bond.

D. Nothing in this section shall preclude a public body from requiring bid bonds to accompany bids or proposals for construction contracts anticipated to be less than $500,000 for nontransportation-related projects or $250,000 for transportation-related projects authorized under Article 2 (§ 33.2-208 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 33.2 and partially or wholly funded by the Commonwealth.

1982, c. 647, § 11-57; 1984, c. 160; 2001, c. 844; 2006, c. 925; 2011, c. 789; 2017, c. 789.

§ 2.2-4337. Performance and payment bonds.

A. Except as provided in subsection H, upon the award of any (i) public construction contract exceeding $500,000 awarded to any prime contractor; (ii) construction contract exceeding $500,000 awarded to any prime contractor requiring the performance of labor or the furnishing of materials for buildings, structures or other improvements to real property owned or leased by a public body; (iii) construction contract exceeding $500,000 in which the performance of labor or the furnishing of materials will be paid with public funds; or (iv) transportation-related projects exceeding $350,000 that are partially or wholly funded by the Commonwealth, the contractor shall furnish to the public body the following bonds:

1. A performance bond in the sum of the contract amount conditioned upon the faithful performance of the contract in strict conformity with the plans, specifications and conditions of the contract. For transportation-related projects authorized under Article 2 (§ 33.2-208 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 33.2, such bond shall be in a form and amount satisfactory to the public body.

2. A payment bond in the sum of the contract amount. The bond shall be for the protection of claimants who have and fulfill contracts to supply labor or materials to the prime contractor to whom the contract was awarded, or to any subcontractors, in furtherance of the work provided for in the contract, and shall be conditioned upon the prompt payment for all materials furnished or labor supplied or performed in the furtherance of the work. For transportation-related projects authorized under Article 2 (§ 33.2-208 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 33.2 and partially or wholly funded by the Commonwealth, such bond shall be in a form and amount satisfactory to the public body.

As used in this subdivision, "labor or materials" includes public utility services and reasonable rentals of equipment, but only for periods when the equipment rented is actually used at the site.

B. For nontransportation-related construction contracts in excess of $100,000 but less than $500,000, where the performance and payment bond requirements are waived, prospective contractors shall be prequalified for each individual project in accordance with § 2.2-4317. However, a locality may waive the requirement for prequalification of a contractor with a current Class A contractor license for contracts in excess of $100,000 but less than $300,000 upon a written determination made in advance by the local governing body that waiving the requirement is in the best interests of the locality. A locality shall not enter into more than 10 such contracts per year.

C. Each of the bonds shall be executed by one or more surety companies selected by the contractor that are authorized to do business in Virginia.

D. If the public body is the Commonwealth, or any agency or institution thereof, the bonds shall be payable to the Commonwealth of Virginia, naming also the agency or institution thereof. Bonds required for the contracts of other public bodies shall be payable to such public body.

E. Each of the bonds shall be filed with the public body that awarded the contract, or a designated office or official thereof.

F. Nothing in this section shall preclude a public body from requiring payment or performance bonds for construction contracts below $500,000 for nontransportation-related projects or $350,000 for transportation-related projects authorized under Article 2 (§ 33.2-208 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 33.2 and partially or wholly funded by the Commonwealth.

G. Nothing in this section shall preclude the contractor from requiring each subcontractor to furnish a payment bond with surety thereon in the sum of the full amount of the contract with such subcontractor conditioned upon the payment to all persons who have and fulfill contracts that are directly with the subcontractor for performing labor and furnishing materials in the prosecution of the work provided for in the subcontract.

H. The performance and payment bond requirements of subsection A for transportation-related projects that are valued in excess of $250,000 but less than $350,000 may only be waived by a public body if the bidder provides evidence, satisfactory to the public body, that a surety company has declined an application from the contractor for a performance or payment bond.

1982, c. 647, § 11-58; 1984, c. 160; 2001, c. 844; 2002, cc. 556, 643, 682; 2006, cc. 694, 925; 2011, c. 789; 2012, c. 783; 2017, c. 789.

§ 2.2-4338. Alternative forms of security.

A. In lieu of a bid, payment, or performance bond, a bidder may furnish a certified check, cashier's check, or cash escrow in the face amount required for the bond.

B. If approved by the Attorney General in the case of state agencies, or the attorney for the political subdivision in the case of political subdivisions, a bidder may furnish a personal bond, property bond, or bank or savings institution's letter of credit on certain designated funds in the face amount required for the bid, payment, or performance bond. Approval shall be granted only upon a determination that the alternative form of security proffered affords protection to the public body equivalent to a corporate surety's bond.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to the Department of Transportation.

1982, c. 647, § 11-61; 1989, c. 260; 1991, c. 574; 1992, c. 765; 1996, cc. 77, 827; 2001, c. 844; 2013, c. 141.

§ 2.2-4339. Bonds on other than construction contracts.

A public body may require bid, payment, or performance bonds for contracts for goods or services if provided in the Invitation to Bid or Request for Proposal.

1982, c. 647, § 11-62; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4340. Action on performance bond.

No action against the surety on a performance bond shall be brought unless within five years after completion of the work on the project to the satisfaction of the Department of Transportation, in cases where the public body is the Department of Transportation, or, in all other cases, within one year after (i) completion of the contract, including the expiration of all warranties and guarantees, or (ii) discovery of the defect or breach of warranty that gave rise to the action.

1982, c. 647, § 11-59; 1996, c. 827; 2001, c. 844.

§ 2.2-4341. Actions on payment bonds; waiver of right to sue.

A. Any claimant who has a direct contractual relationship with the contractor and who has performed labor or furnished material in accordance with the contract documents in furtherance of the work provided in any contract for which a payment bond has been given, and who has not been paid in full before the expiration of 90 days after the day on which the claimant performed the last of the labor or furnished the last of the materials for which he claims payment, may bring an action on the payment bond to recover any amount due him for the labor or material. The obligee named in the bond need not be named a party to the action.

B. Any claimant who has a direct contractual relationship with any subcontractor but who has no contractual relationship, express or implied, with the contractor, may bring an action on the contractor's payment bond only if he has given written notice to the contractor within 90 days from the day on which the claimant performed the last of the labor or furnished the last of the materials for which he claims payment, stating with substantial accuracy the amount claimed and the name of the person for whom the work was performed or to whom the material was furnished. Notice to the contractor shall be served by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, in an envelope addressed to such contractor at any place where his office is regularly maintained for the transaction of business. Claims for sums withheld as retainages with respect to labor performed or materials furnished, shall not be subject to the time limitations stated in this subsection.

C. Any action on a payment bond shall be brought within one year after the day on which the person bringing such action last performed labor or last furnished or supplied materials.

D. Any waiver of the right to sue on the payment bond required by this section shall be void unless it is in writing, signed by the person whose right is waived, and executed after such person has performed labor or furnished material in accordance with the contract documents.

1982, c. 647, § 11-60; 2001, cc. 412, 844; 2003, c. 255; 2011, c. 544.

§ 2.2-4342. Public inspection of certain records.

A. Except as provided in this section, all proceedings, records, contracts and other public records relating to procurement transactions shall be open to the inspection of any citizen, or any interested person, firm or corporation, in accordance with the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

B. Cost estimates relating to a proposed procurement transaction prepared by or for a public body shall not be open to public inspection.

C. Any competitive sealed bidding bidder, upon request, shall be afforded the opportunity to inspect bid records within a reasonable time after the opening of all bids but prior to award, except in the event that the public body decides not to accept any of the bids and to reopen the contract. Otherwise, bid records shall be open to public inspection only after award of the contract.

D. Any competitive negotiation offeror, upon request, shall be afforded the opportunity to inspect proposal records within a reasonable time after the evaluation and negotiations of proposals are completed but prior to award, except in the event that the public body decides not to accept any of the proposals and to reopen the contract. Otherwise, proposal records shall be open to public inspection only after award of the contract.

E. Any inspection of procurement transaction records under this section shall be subject to reasonable restrictions to ensure the security and integrity of the records.

F. Trade secrets or proprietary information submitted by a bidder, offeror or contractor in connection with a procurement transaction or prequalification application submitted pursuant to subsection B of § 2.2-4317 shall not be subject to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.); however, the bidder, offeror or contractor shall (i) invoke the protections of this section prior to or upon submission of the data or other materials, (ii) identify the data or other materials to be protected, and (iii) state the reasons why protection is necessary.

1982, c. 647, § 11-52; 1984, c. 705; 1994, c. 918; 2001, c. 844.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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