Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
10/30/2020

Article 19. Estimated Tax.

§ 58.1-490. Declarations of estimated tax.

A. Every resident and nonresident individual shall make a declaration of his estimated tax for every taxable year, if his Virginia tax liability can reasonably be expected to exceed an amount, to be determined under regulations promulgated by the Tax Commissioner, which takes into account the additions, subtractions, and deductions set forth in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, 58.1-322.03, and 58.1-322.04, the credits set forth in Articles 3 (§ 58.1-332 et seq.) and 13.2 (§ 58.1-439.18 et seq.), and the filing exclusions set forth in § 58.1-321. Every estate with respect to any taxable year ending two or more years after the date of death of the decedent and every trust shall make a declaration of its estimated tax for every taxable year, if its Virginia taxable income can reasonably be expected to exceed the amount specified by regulation for individuals as set forth above.

B. For purposes of this article, "estimated tax" means the amount which an individual estimates to be his income tax under this chapter for the taxable year, less the amount which he estimates to be the sum of any credits allowable against the tax.

C. For purposes of this section, the declaration shall be the first voucher.

D. In the case of married individuals, a single declaration under this section may be made by them jointly, in which case the liability with respect to the estimated tax shall be joint and several. No joint declaration may be made if either spouse is a nonresident of the Commonwealth unless both are required by this chapter to file a return, if they are separated under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance, or if they have different taxable years. If a joint declaration is made but a joint return is not made for the taxable year, the estimated tax for such year may be treated as the estimated tax of either spouse, or may be divided between them.

E. A declaration of estimated tax of an individual other than a farmer, fisherman, or merchant seaman shall be filed on or before May 1 of the taxable year, except that if the requirements of subsection A are first met:

1. The declaration shall be filed on or before June 15; or

2. After June 1 and before September 2 of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before September 15; or

3. After September 1 of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before January 15 of the succeeding year.

F. A declaration of estimated tax of an individual having an estimated gross income from (i) farming (including oyster farming); (ii) fishing; or (iii) working as a merchant seaman for the taxable year, which is at least two-thirds of his total estimated gross income for the taxable year, may be filed at any time on or before January 15 of the succeeding year, in lieu of the time otherwise prescribed.

G. A declaration of estimated tax of an individual having a total estimated tax for the taxable year of $40 or less may be filed at any time on or before January 15 of the succeeding year under regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

H. An individual may amend a declaration under regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

I. If on or before March 1 of the succeeding taxable year an individual files his return for the taxable year for which the declaration is required, and pays therewith the full amount of the tax shown to be due on the return:

1. Such return shall be considered as his declaration if no declaration was required to be filed during the taxable year, but is otherwise required to be filed on or before January 15.

2. Such return shall be considered as the amendment permitted by subsection H to be filed on or before January 15 if the tax shown on the return is greater than the estimated tax shown in a declaration previously made.

J. This section shall apply to a taxable year other than a calendar year by the substitution of the months of such fiscal year for the corresponding months specified in this section.

K. An individual having a taxable year of less than 12 months shall make a declaration in accordance with regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

L. The declaration of estimated tax for an individual who is unable to make a declaration by reason of any disability shall be made and filed by his guardian, committee, fiduciary or other person charged with the care of his person or property (other than a receiver in possession of only a part of his property), or by his duly authorized agent.

M. The declaration of estimated tax for a trust or estate shall be made by the fiduciary. For purposes of the estimated tax imposed in this article, any reference to an "individual" shall be deemed to include the fiduciary required to file a declaration for a trust or estate. Any overpayment of estimated tax with respect to any trust or estate shall be refunded to the fiduciary. A beneficiary of a trust or estate shall not be entitled to a credit against the beneficiary's individual income tax for any overpayment of estimated tax by a trust or estate.

Code 1950, § 58-151.21; 1962, c. 612; 1970, c. 102; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 171, 261; 1978, c. 157; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, cc. 484, 599; 1988, c. 248; 1997, c. 257; 2000, c. 415; 2009, c. 34; 2011, c. 851; 2017, c. 444; 2020, c. 900.

§ 58.1-491. Payments of estimated tax.

A. The estimated tax with respect to which a declaration is required shall be paid as follows:

1. If the declaration is filed on or before May 1 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in four equal installments. The first installment shall be paid at the time of the filing of the declaration, and the second, third and fourth installments shall be paid on the following June 15, September 15, and January 15, respectively.

2. If the declaration is filed after May 1 and not after June 15 of the taxable year, and is not required to be filed on or before May 1 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in three equal installments. The first installment shall be paid at the time of the filing of the declaration, and the second and third installments shall be paid on the following September 15 and January 15, respectively.

3. If the declaration is filed after June 15 and not after September 15 of the taxable year, and is not required to be filed on or before June 15 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in two equal installments. The first installment shall be paid at the time of the filing of the declaration, and the second shall be paid on the following January 15.

4. If the declaration is filed after September 15 of the taxable year, and is not required to be filed on or before September 15 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in full at the time of the filing of the declaration.

5. If the declaration is filed after the time prescribed therefor, or after the expiration of any extension of time therefor, subdivisions 2, 3, and 4 of this subsection shall not apply, and there shall be paid at the time of such filing all installments of estimated tax payable at or before such time, and the remaining installments shall be paid at the times at which, and in the amounts in which, they would have been payable if the declaration had been filed when due.

B. If an individual referred to in subsection F of § 58.1-490 (relating to income from farming or fishing) makes a declaration of estimated tax after September 15 of the taxable year and on or before the following January 15, the estimated tax shall be paid in full at the time of the filing of the declaration.

C. If any amendment of a declaration is filed, the remaining installments, if any, shall be ratably increased or decreased (as the case may be) to reflect any increase or decrease in the estimated tax by reason of such amendment, and if any amendment is made after September 15 of the taxable year, any increase in the estimated tax by reason thereof shall be paid at the time of making such amendment.

D. This section shall apply to a taxable year of less than twelve months in accordance with regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

E. This section shall apply to a taxable year other than a calendar year by the substitution of the months of such fiscal year for the corresponding months specified in this section.

F. An individual may elect to pay any installment of his estimated tax prior to the date prescribed for its payment. An individual may also elect to file a declaration of estimated tax in the closing days of a calendar year for his taxable year about to begin, and may pay in full the amount of his estimated tax for such taxable year at the time he files the declaration.

G. Payment of the estimated tax, or any installment thereof, shall be considered payment on account of the tax for the taxable year.

H. The Tax Commissioner may grant a reasonable extension of time for payment of estimated tax (or any installment), or for filing any declaration pursuant to this article, on condition that the taxpayer shall pay interest on the amount involved at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the payment was due until the time of payment. Except for a taxpayer who is outside the United States, no such extension shall exceed six months.

Code 1950, § 58-151.22; 1962, c. 612; 1978, c. 157; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-491.1. Payments estimated by certain members of the armed services.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, estimated tax declarations and installment payments shall not be required of any individual qualifying for an extension under subdivision 1 or 2 of subsections F and G of § 58.1-344 during the period of such extension.

1991, cc. 346, 361; 1996, c. 401.

§ 58.1-492. Failure by individual, trust or estate to pay estimated tax.

A. In the case of any underpayment of estimated tax by an individual, trust or estate, except as provided in subsection C, there shall be added to the tax under this chapter for the taxable year an amount determined at the rate established for interest, under § 58.1-15, upon the amount of the underpayment (determined below), for the period of the underpayment (determined under subsection B). The amount of such addition to the tax shall be reported and paid at the time of filing the individual income tax return or the fiduciary income tax return for the taxable year.

The amount of the underpayment shall be the excess of:

1. The amount of the installment which would be required to be paid if the estimated tax were equal to ninety percent (sixty-six and two-thirds percent in the case of an individual referred to in § 58.1-490 F, relating to income from farming) of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year, or if no return was filed, ninety percent (sixty-six and two-thirds percent in the case of individuals referred to in § 58.1-490 F, relating to income from farming) of the tax for such year; or 100 percent of the tax shown on the return of the taxpayer for the preceding taxable year, whichever is less, over

2. The amount, if any, of the installment paid on or before the last date prescribed for such payment.

B. The period of the underpayment shall run from the date the installment was required to be paid to whichever of the following dates is the earlier:

1. May 1, if a calendar year, or the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of the taxable year, if a fiscal year.

2. With respect to any portion of the underpayment, the date on which such portion is paid. For purposes of this subdivision a payment of estimated tax on any installment date shall be considered a payment of any previous underpayment only to the extent such payment exceeds the amount of the installment determined under subdivision A 1 for such installment date.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and B, the addition to the tax with respect to any underpayment of any installment shall not be imposed if the total amount of all payments of estimated tax made on or before the last date prescribed for the payment of such installment equals or exceeds whichever of the following is the lesser:

1. The amount which would have been required to be paid on or before such date if estimated tax were whichever of the following is the least:

a. The tax shown on the return of the individual, trust or estate for the preceding taxable year, if a return showing a liability for tax was filed by the individual, trust or estate for the preceding taxable year and such preceding year was a taxable year of twelve months;

b. An amount equal to the tax computed, at the rates applicable to the taxable year, on the basis of the taxpayer's status with respect to personal exemptions for the taxable year, otherwise on the basis of the facts shown on his return for, and the law applicable to, the preceding year; or

c. An amount equal to ninety percent (sixty-six and two-thirds percent in the case of individuals referred to in § 58.1-490 F, relating to income from farming) of the tax for the taxable year computed by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the months in the taxable year ending before the month in which the installment is required to be paid. For purposes of this paragraph the taxable income shall be placed on an annualized basis by:

(i) Multiplying by twelve (or, in the case of a taxable year of less than twelve months, the number of months in the taxable year) the taxable income (computed without deduction of personal exemptions) for the months in the taxable year ending before the month in which the installment is required to be paid, or, for a trust or estate, the months in the taxable year ending before the date that is one month before the month in which the installment is required to be paid;

(ii) Dividing the resulting amount by the number of months in the taxable year ending before the month in which such installment date falls, or, for a trust or estate, the months in the taxable year ending before the date that is one month before the month in which the installment is required to be paid; and

(iii) Deducting from such amount the deductions for personal exemptions allowable for the taxable year (such personal exemptions being determined as of the last date prescribed for payment of the installment); or

2. An amount equal to ninety percent of the tax computed, at the rates applicable to the taxable year, on the basis of the actual taxable income for the months in the taxable year ending before the month in which the installment is required to be paid.

D. For purposes of applying this section:

1. The estimated tax shall be computed without any reduction for the amount which the individual estimates as his credit under § 58.1-480 (relating to tax withheld at source on wages);

2. The amount of the credit allowed under § 58.1-480 for the taxable year shall be deemed a payment of estimated tax, and an equal part of such amount shall be deemed paid on each installment date (determined under § 58.1-491) for such taxable year, unless the taxpayer establishes the dates on which all amounts were actually withheld, in which case the amounts so withheld shall be deemed payments of estimated tax on the dates on which such amounts were actually withheld; and

3. There shall be no addition to tax imposed for underpayment of estimated tax of $150 or less for the taxable year.

E. The application of this section to taxable years of less than twelve months shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 58-151.23; 1962, c. 612; 1972, c. 827; 1977, c. 396; 1983, c. 575; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, cc. 484, 599, 611; 1990, c. 335; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 2000, c. 388.

§ 58.1-493. Declarations of estimated tax to be filed with commissioner of revenue of county or city.

A. Every resident individual who is required by this article to file a declaration of estimated tax shall file his declaration with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which he resides, and every nonresident individual who is required by this article to file a declaration of estimated tax shall file his declaration with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which all or a part of his income from sources within the Commonwealth was derived. Forms for use by taxpayers in preparing their declarations of estimated tax shall be supplied by the Department to the commissioners of the revenue, who shall mail or deliver them to the taxpayers needing them so far as ascertainable not later than January 15 of each year. Failure of any taxpayer to receive any such form shall not relieve him of his obligation to file a declaration of estimated tax.

B. Every trust or estate which is required by this article to file a declaration of estimated tax shall file the declaration with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which the fiduciary qualified or, if there has been no qualification in this state, in the city or county in which the fiduciary resides, does business or has an office or wherein the beneficiaries or any of them may reside.

Code 1950, § 58-151.24; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 484.

§ 58.1-494. Sheets or forms for recording declarations of estimated tax; recording.

The commissioner of the revenue shall, for recording declarations of estimated tax, make out assessment sheets or forms daily as and when declarations are received, and shall continue so to make out such sheets or forms daily until all declarations so received by him have been entered on such sheets or forms. The commissioner of the revenue shall each day deliver the original and, if the Department so prescribes, one copy of each such sheet or form so made out that day to the treasurer of the county or city.

Code 1950, § 58-151.25; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 343; 1981, c. 96; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-495. Payment of estimated tax; notice of installment due; information to be transmitted to Department.

The estimated tax with respect to which a declaration is required by this article shall be paid as specified in § 58.1-491 to the treasurer of the county or city with whose commissioner of the revenue the taxpayer files his declaration of estimated tax.

In every case the taxpayer may make his first payment to the treasurer of the county or city by attaching such payment to his declaration when he files it with the commissioner of the revenue. The commissioner of the revenue shall transmit all such payments to the treasurer at the time he delivers to the treasurer the sheets or forms mentioned in § 58.1-494 or, if memorandum assessments are made, at the time such memorandum assessments are certified to the treasurer.

Within ten days after the close of each month each county and city treasurer shall transmit to the Department in such form as the Department may prescribe such information and data as may be required by the Department with respect to all collections of estimated tax throughout the next preceding month.

Code 1950, § 58-151.26; 1962, c. 612; 1977, c. 396; 1979, c. 33; 1981, c. 96; 1982, c. 530; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-496. Willful failure or refusal to file declaration of estimated tax, or making false and fraudulent statement, a misdemeanor.

Any person required under this article to file a declaration of estimated tax who willfully fails or refuses to file such declaration, at the time or times required by this article, and any person who, with intent to defraud the Commonwealth, makes any false statement in any such declaration, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-151.27; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-497. Section 58.1-306 applicable to declaration of estimated tax.

Section 58.1-306 (relating to special instances in which an individual taxpayer may file an income tax return with the Department of Taxation) shall also apply to a declaration of estimated tax.

Code 1950, § 58-151.28; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 565; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-498. Oaths or affirmations unnecessary on returns, declarations and reports; misdemeanor to file false return, declaration or report.

No return, declaration, or report filed under this article need be verified by the oath or affirmation of the person or persons who are required by law to file the same. Any such person who willfully files any such return, declaration or report which he does not believe to be true and correct as to every material matter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-151.30; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675; 1996, c. 315.

§ 58.1-499. Refunds to individual taxpayers; crediting overpayment against estimated tax for ensuing year.

A. In the case of any overpayment of any tax, addition to tax, interest or penalties imposed on an individual income taxpayer by this chapter, whether by reason of excessive withholding, overestimating and overpaying estimated tax, error on the part of the taxpayer, or an erroneous assessment of tax, the Tax Commissioner shall order a refund of the amount of the overpayment to the taxpayer. The overpayment shall be refunded out of the state treasury on the order of the Tax Commissioner upon the Comptroller.

B. If a refund of an overpayment of individual income tax payments is made payable jointly to married individuals who receive a final divorce decree after filing a joint income tax return, separate income tax returns on a single form, an amendment thereto, or other claim resulting in the issuance of a refund, the Tax Commissioner shall order the reissuance of the refund in separate checks to each spouse if the unnegotiated joint refund check is returned to Department with a certification, in a form satisfactory to the Department, made by one spouse that the other spouse refuses to endorse the joint refund check or cannot be located. In making such certification, the spouse returning the check shall agree to indemnify the Commonwealth for any amounts that the Commonwealth may be required to pay to the other spouse with respect to such refund. A certified copy of the final divorce decree, including any agreement with respect to the division of property between the spouses, shall be provided with the certification. If the final divorce decree addresses the apportionment or ownership of the refunded amount, the refund shall be apportioned and separate payments ordered as provided therein. If the final divorce decree does not address the apportionment or ownership of the refunded amount, the amount of the refund shall be divided equally between the spouses. The reissuance of refund payments pursuant to this subsection shall not affect the joint and several liability of the spouses for tax liabilities for the period for which the return or returns were filed.

C. Whenever the annual income tax return of an individual income taxpayer indicates in the place provided thereon that the taxpayer has overpaid his tax for the taxable year by reason of excessive withholding or overestimating and overpaying estimated tax, or both, the amount of the overpayment as shown on his return, subject to correction for error, may be credited against the estimated income tax for the ensuing year at the taxpayer's election and according to regulations prescribed by the Department and such overpayments by either spouse on a separate return may be credited to the tax for the ensuing year of either of them or may be credited to their joint tax at the election of the person to whom the overpayment is payable; or otherwise such amount shall be refunded to him as soon as practicable. Interest on such refund shall be allowed and computed in accordance with § 58.1-1833. The making of any refund shall not absolve any taxpayer of any income tax liability which may in fact exist and the Tax Commissioner may make an assessment for any deficiency in the manner provided by law.

D. No refund under this section, however, shall be made for any overpayment of less than $1 except on special written application of the taxpayer, nor shall any refund of any amount under this section be made, whether on discovery by the Department or on written application of the taxpayer, if such discovery is not made or such written application is not received within three years from the last day prescribed by law for the timely filing of the return, or within one year from the final determination date, as defined in § 58.1-311.2, for any change or correction in the liability of the taxpayer for any federal tax upon which the state tax is based, whichever is later.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of the Setoff Debt Collection Act (§ 58.1-520 et seq.), whenever any taxpayer is entitled to a refund under this section, or under § 58.1-309 or §§ 58.1-1821 through 58.1-1830 and such taxpayer owes the Commonwealth a past due income tax, or balance thereof, for any year, the amount of such refund may be credited on such past due income tax or balance, to the extent indicated.

Code 1950, § 58-151.31; 1962, c. 612; 1966, c. 244; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 250; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 355; 2020, cc. 900, 1030.

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