Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 6.2. Financial Institutions and Services
Subtitle III. Other Regulated Providers of Financial Services
Chapter 18. Short-Term Loans
9/28/2022

Chapter 18. Short-Term Loans.

§ 6.2-1800. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Affiliate" means a person related to a licensee by common ownership or control, or any employee or agent of a licensee.

"Annual percentage rate" has the same meaning as in the federal Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. § 1601 et seq.) and its implementing regulations, as they may be amended from time to time. All fees and charges payable directly or indirectly by a borrower to a licensee as a condition to a loan, including interest and the monthly maintenance fees authorized under § 6.2-1817, shall be included in the computation of the annual percentage rate.

"Check" means a draft drawn on the account of an individual at a depository institution.

"Depository institution" means a bank, savings institution, or credit union.

"Interest" means all charges payable directly or indirectly by a borrower to a licensee as a condition to a loan, including fees, service charges, and renewal charges, and any ancillary product sold in connection with a loan, but does not include the monthly maintenance fees, deposit item return fees, or late charges authorized under § 6.2-1817.

"Licensee" means a person to whom a license has been issued under this chapter.

"Loan amount" means the principal amount of a loan, exclusive of fees or charges.

"Principal" means any person who, directly or indirectly, owns or controls (i) 10 percent or more of the outstanding stock of a stock corporation or (ii) a 10 percent or greater interest in a nonstock corporation or a limited liability company.

"Short-term loan" means a loan made pursuant to this chapter.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-444; 2005, c. 571; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1801. License requirement.

A. No person shall engage in the business of making loans to individuals for personal, family, household, or other nonbusiness purposes, and charge, contract for, or receive, directly or indirectly, on or in connection with any loan interest, charges, compensation, consideration, or expense that in the aggregate is greater than the interest permitted by § 6.2-303, whether or not the person has a location in the Commonwealth, except as provided and authorized by this chapter, Chapter 15 (§ 6.2-1500 et seq.), or Chapter 22 (§ 6.2-2200 et seq.) and without having first obtained a license under this chapter from the Commission.

B. No person shall engage in the business of arranging or brokering short-term loans for any consumer residing in the Commonwealth, whether or not the person has an office or conducts business at a location in the Commonwealth.

C. The provisions of subsection A shall apply to any person who seeks to evade its application by any device, subterfuge, or pretense whatsoever, including:

1. The loan, forbearance, use, or sale of (i) credit, as guarantor, surety, endorser, comaker, or otherwise; (ii) money; (iii) goods; or (iv) things in action;

2. The use of collateral or related sales or purchases of goods or services, or agreements to sell or purchase, whether real or pretended; receiving or charging compensation for goods or services, whether or not sold, delivered, or provided; and

3. The real or pretended negotiation, arrangement, or procurement of a loan through any use or activity of a third person, whether real or fictitious.

D. Any loan made in violation of this section is void, and no person shall have the right to collect, receive, or retain any principal, interest, fees, or other charges in connection with the loan.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-445; 2005, c. 571; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1802. Applicability.

The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any depository institution that does not elect to become licensed under this chapter. Electing to become licensed under this chapter shall constitute a waiver of the benefit of any and all laws of the Commonwealth and other states and federal laws preemptive of, or inconsistent with, the provisions of this chapter.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-446; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1803. Application for license; form; content; fee.

A. An application for a license under this chapter shall be made in writing, under oath and on a form provided by the Commissioner.

B. The application shall set forth:

1. The name and address of the applicant;

2. If the applicant is a firm or partnership, the name and address of each member of the firm or partnership;

3. If the applicant is a corporation or a limited liability company, the name and address of each officer, director, registered agent, and each principal;

4. The addresses of the locations of the offices to be approved; and

5. Such other information concerning the financial responsibility, background, experience and activities of the applicant and its members, officers, directors, and principals as the Commissioner may require.

C. The application shall be accompanied by payment of an application fee of $500 or other reasonable amount that the Commission prescribes by regulation.

D. The application fee shall not be refundable in any event. The fee shall not be abated by surrender, suspension, or revocation of the license.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-447; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1804. Bond required.

The application for a license shall be accompanied by a bond filed with the Commissioner with corporate surety authorized to execute such bond in the Commonwealth, in the sum of $10,000 per office, or such greater sum as the Commission may require, but not to exceed a total of $500,000. The form of such bond shall be approved by the Commission. The bond shall be continuously maintained thereafter in full force. The bond shall be conditioned upon the applicant or licensee performing all written agreements with borrowers or prospective borrowers, correctly and accurately accounting for all funds received by him in his licensed business, and conducting his licensed business in conformity with this chapter and all other applicable law. Any person who may be damaged by noncompliance of the licensee with any condition of such bond may proceed on such bond against the principal or surety thereon, or both, to recover damages. The aggregate liability under the bond shall not exceed the penal sum of the bond.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-448; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1805. Investigation of applications.

The Commissioner may make such investigations as he deems necessary to determine if the applicant has complied with all applicable provisions of law and regulations adopted thereunder.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-449; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1806. Qualifications.

A. Upon the filing and investigation of an application for a license, and compliance by the applicant with the provisions of §§ 6.2-1803 and 6.2-1804, the Commission shall issue and deliver to the applicant the license applied for to engage in business under this chapter at the offices specified in the application if it finds:

1. That the financial responsibility, character, reputation, experience, and general fitness of the applicant and its members, senior officers, directors, and principals are such as to warrant belief that the business will be operated efficiently and fairly, in the public interest and in accordance with law; and

2. That the applicant has unencumbered liquid assets per office available for the operation of the business of at least $25,000.

B. If the Commission fails to make such findings, no license shall be issued and the Commissioner shall notify the applicant of the denial and the reasons for such denial.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-450; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1807. Licenses; places of offices; changes.

A. Each license shall:

1. State the address of each approved office at which the business is to be conducted;

2. State fully the name of the licensee; and

3. Be prominently posted in each office of the licensee.

B. No licensee shall:

1. Use any name other than the name set forth on the license issued by the Commission; or

2. Open an additional office or relocate any office without prior approval of the Commission.

C. Applications for Commission approval to open an additional office or relocate any office shall be made in writing on a form provided by the Commissioner and shall be accompanied by payment of a $150 nonrefundable application fee or other reasonable amount as the Commission may prescribe by regulation. The application shall be approved unless the Commission finds that the applicant does not have the required liquid assets or has not conducted business under this chapter efficiently, fairly, in the public interest, and in accordance with law. The application shall be deemed approved if notice to the contrary has not been mailed by the Commission to the applicant within 30 days of the date the application is received by the Commission. After approval, the applicant shall give written notice to the Commissioner within 10 days of the commencement of business at the additional office or relocated office.

D. Every licensee shall within 10 days notify the Commissioner, in writing, of the closing of any office and of the name, address, and position of each new senior officer, member, partner, or director and provide such other information with respect to any such change as the Commissioner may reasonably require.

E. Licenses shall:

1. Not be transferable or assignable, by operation of law or otherwise; and

2. Remain in force until they have been surrendered, revoked, or suspended. The surrender, revocation, or suspension of a license shall not affect any preexisting legal right or obligation of the licensee.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-451; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1808. Acquisition of control; application.

A. Except as provided in this section, no person shall acquire, directly or indirectly, 25 percent or more of the voting shares of a corporation or 25 percent or more of the ownership of any other person licensed to conduct business under this chapter unless such person first:

1. Files an application with the Commission in such form as the Commissioner may prescribe from time to time;

2. Delivers such other information to the Commissioner as the Commissioner may require concerning the financial responsibility, background, experience, and activities of the applicant, its directors, senior officers, principals and members, and of any proposed new directors, senior officers, principals or members of the licensee; and

3. Pays such application fee as the Commission may prescribe.

B. Upon the filing and investigation of an application, the Commission shall permit the applicant to acquire the interest in the licensee if it finds that the applicant, its members if applicable, its directors, senior officers and principals, and any proposed new directors, members, senior officers and principals have the financial responsibility, character, reputation, experience and general fitness to warrant belief that the business will be operated efficiently and fairly, in the public interest, and in accordance with law. The Commission shall grant or deny the application within 60 days from the date a completed application accompanied by the required fee is filed unless the period is extended by order of the Commissioner reciting the reasons for the extension. If the application is denied, the Commission shall notify the applicant of the denial and the reasons for the denial.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to (i) the acquisition of an interest in a licensee, directly or indirectly, including an acquisition by merger or consolidation, by or with a person licensed by this chapter, (ii) the acquisition of an interest in a licensee, directly or indirectly, including an acquisition by merger or consolidation, by or with a person affiliated through common ownership with the licensee, or (iii) the acquisition of an interest in a licensee by a person by bequest, descent, survivorship or operation of law. The person acquiring an interest in a licensee in a transaction that is exempt from filing an application by this subsection shall send written notice to the Commissioner of such acquisition within 30 days of its closing.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-452; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1809. Retention of books, accounts, and records.

Every licensee shall maintain in its approved offices such books, accounts and records as the Commission may reasonably require in order to determine whether such licensee is complying with the provisions of this chapter and regulations adopted in furtherance thereof. Such books, accounts and records shall be maintained apart and separate from any other business in which the licensee is involved. Such records relating to short-term loans, including copies of checks given to a licensee as security for such loans, shall be retained for at least three years after final payment is made on any loan.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-453; 2004, c. 295; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1810. Loan database.

A. The Commission shall certify and contract with one or more third parties to develop, implement, and maintain a real-time, Internet-accessible database that contains such short-term loan information as the Commission may require from time to time by administrative rule or policy statement.

B. The following provisions shall apply to the database:

1. Before making a short-term loan, a licensee shall query the database through a Commission-certified database provider and shall retain evidence of the query for the Commission's supervisory review. The database shall allow a licensee to make a short-term loan only if making the loan is permissible under the provisions of this chapter. During any period that the database is unavailable due to technical problems beyond the licensee's control, a licensee may rely on the loan applicant's written representations, rather than the database's information, to verify that making the loan applied for is permissible under the provisions of this chapter. Because a licensee may rely on the accuracy of the applicant's representations and the database's information, a licensee is not subject to any administrative penalty or civil liability if that information is later determined to be inaccurate.

2. The database provider shall maintain the database, take all actions it deems necessary to protect the confidentiality and security of the information contained in the database, be responsible for the confidentiality and security of such information, and own the information contained in the database. The Commission shall have access to and utilize the database as a supervision and enforcement tool to ensure licensees' compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

3. Upon a licensee's query, the database shall advise the licensee whether the applicant is eligible for a new short-term loan and, if the applicant is ineligible, the reason for such ineligibility. If the database advises the licensee that the applicant is ineligible for a short-term loan, then the applicant shall direct any inquiry regarding the specific reason for such ineligibility to the database provider rather than to the licensee. The information contained in the database is confidential and exempt from the Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

4. If a licensee and borrower consummate a loan, then the licensee shall pay a fee to defray the costs of submitting the database inquiry. The amount of the database inquiry fee shall be calculated in accordance with a schedule set by the Commission. The schedule shall bear a reasonable relationship to actual cost of the operation of the database. If a licensee submits a database inquiry but does not consummate a loan with the applicant, then the licensee shall not pay the database inquiry fee. Each licensee shall remit all database inquiry fees directly to the database provider on a weekly basis.

5. If a borrower enters into a short-term loan or pays or otherwise satisfies a short-term loan in full, then the licensee making the loan shall report such event or other information to the database not later than the close of business on the date of such event.

2008, cc. 849, 876, § 6.1-453.1; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1811. Annual report.

A. Each licensee under this chapter shall annually, on or before March 25, file a written report with the Commissioner containing such information as the Commissioner may require concerning his business and operations during the preceding calendar year as to each approved office. Reports shall be made under oath and shall be in the form prescribed by the Commissioner.

B. The Commissioner shall publish annually and make available to the public an analysis of the information required under this section and other information the Commissioner may choose to include. The published analysis shall include all of the following:

1. The total number of borrowers, loans, defaulted loans, and charged-off loans and the total dollar value of the charged-off loans;

2. The average loan size, average contracted annual percentage rate, average contracted loan charges, average loan charges actually paid, total contracted loan charges, and total loan charges actually paid;

3. The total number of deposit item return fees and the total dollar value of those charges;

4. The total number of licensee business locations and the average number of borrowers per location; and

5. A summary of pending and completed enforcement actions, which shall include lists of suspended or revoked licenses, cease and desist orders, and civil penalties pursuant to this chapter.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-454; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1812. Other reporting requirements.

A. A licensee shall file a written report with the Commissioner within 15 days following the occurrence of any of the following:

1. The filing of bankruptcy, reorganization or receivership proceedings by or against the licensee;

2. The institution of administrative or regulatory proceedings against the licensee by any governmental authority;

3. Any felony indictments of the licensee or any of its members, partners, directors, officers, or principals;

4. Any felony conviction of the licensee or any of its members, partners, directors, officers, or principals; and

5. Such other event as the Commission may prescribe by regulation.

B. The report shall be in writing and describe the event and its expected impact on the business of the licensee.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-455; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1813. Investigations; examinations.

The Commission may, as often as it deems necessary, investigate and examine the affairs, business, premises and records of any person licensed or required to be licensed under this chapter or any person who may be violating § 6.2-1801. Examinations of licensees shall be conducted at least once in each three-year period. In the course of such investigations and examinations, the owners, members, officers, directors, partners, and employees of such person being investigated or examined shall, upon demand of the person making such investigation or examination, afford full access to all premises, books, records, and information that the person making such investigation or examination deems necessary. For the foregoing purposes, the person making such investigation or examination shall have authority to administer oaths, examine under oath all the aforementioned persons, and compel the production of papers and objects of all kinds.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-456; 2003, c. 593; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1814. Annual fees.

A. To defray the costs of examination, supervision and regulation, every licensee shall pay an annual fee calculated in accordance with a schedule set by the Commission. The schedule shall bear a reasonable relationship to the business volume of licensees, the actual costs of their examinations, and to other factors relating to their supervision and regulation. All such fees shall be assessed on or before September 15 for every calendar year. All such fees shall be paid by the licensee to the State Treasurer on or before October 15 following each assessment.

B. In addition to the annual fee prescribed in subsection A, when it becomes necessary to examine or investigate the books and records of a licensee at a location outside the Commonwealth, the licensee shall be liable for and shall pay to the Commission within 30 days of the presentation of an itemized statement, the actual travel and reasonable living expenses incurred on account of its examination, supervision and regulation, or shall pay at a reasonable per diem rate approved by the Commission.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-457; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1815. Regulations.

The Commission shall adopt such regulations as it deems appropriate to effect the purposes of this chapter. Before adopting any such regulation, the Commission shall give reasonable notice of its content and shall afford interested parties an opportunity to be heard, in accordance with the Commission's Rules.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-458; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1816. Required and prohibited business methods.

Each licensee shall comply with the following requirements and prohibitions:

1. A licensee shall not make a loan that does not comply with § 6.2-1816.1.

2. A licensee shall not charge, collect, or receive, directly or indirectly, credit insurance premiums, charges for any ancillary product sold, charges for disbursing loan proceeds or refunds including check-cashing charges and any other charges for negotiating forms of payment other than cash, charges for brokering or obtaining a loan, or any fees, interest, or charges in connection with a loan, other than fees and charges permitted by § 6.2-1817.

3. A licensee shall not obtain any agreement from the borrower (i) giving the licensee or any third person power of attorney or authority to confess judgment for the borrower; (ii) authorizing the licensee or any third party to bring suit against the borrower in a court outside the Commonwealth; or (iii) waiving the borrower's right to legal recourse or any other right the borrower has under any otherwise applicable provision of state or federal law.

4. A licensee shall not make a loan to a person if that person is obligated upon any loan to a person licensed under Chapter 22 (§ 6.2-2200 et seq.). Prior to making a loan, a licensee shall make a reasonable attempt to verify the borrower's eligibility under this subsection that includes reviewing the files of any affiliate that is licensed under Chapter 22. Unless the Commission requires otherwise by administrative rule or policy statement, a licensee may rely on the loan applicant's written representations with respect to the applicant's obligations to lenders that are licensed under Chapter 22 (§ 6.2-2200 et seq.) but are not affiliates of the licensee, and a licensee is not subject to any administrative penalty or civil liability if such representations are later determined to be inaccurate.

5. A licensee shall not cause any person to be obligated to the licensee in any capacity at any time in the principal amount of more than $2,500.

6. Except as provided in § 6.2-1818.1, a licensee shall not refinance, renew, or extend any short-term loan or make a loan to a person if the loan would cause the person to have more than one short-term loan from any licensee outstanding at the same time.

7. A licensee shall not cause a borrower to be obligated upon more than one loan at any time.

8. A check accepted by a licensee as security for any loan shall be dated no earlier than the date of the first required loan payment shown in the loan agreement.

9. Notwithstanding any provision of § 8.01-226.10 to the contrary, a licensee shall not threaten, or cause to be instigated, criminal proceedings against a borrower if a check given as security for a loan is dishonored or for any reason related to the borrower's failure to pay any sum due under a loan agreement.

10. A licensee shall not (i) accept the title or registration of a vehicle, real or personal property, or any interest in any property other than a check payable to the licensee as security for a loan; (ii) create or accept any remotely created check, as defined in 12 C.F.R. § 229.2(fff), in connection with a loan; (iii) draft funds electronically from a borrower's account without express written authorization from the borrower; or (iv) fail to stop attempts to draft funds electronically from a borrower's account upon request from the borrower or his agent. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the conversion of a negotiable instrument into an electronic form for processing through the automated clearing house system.

11. A licensee shall not present a check, negotiable order of withdrawal, share draft, or other negotiable instrument that has been previously presented by the licensee and subsequently returned dishonored for any reason, unless the licensee obtains new written authorization from the borrower to present the previously returned item.

12. A licensee shall not attempt to draft funds electronically from a borrower's account after two consecutive attempts have failed, unless the licensee obtains new written authorization from the borrower to transfer or withdraw funds electronically from the borrower's account.

13. A licensee shall not make a loan to a borrower to enable the borrower to (i) pay for any other product or service sold at the licensee's office location or (ii) repay any amount owed to the licensee or an affiliate of the licensee in connection with another credit transaction.

14. Loan proceeds shall be disbursed in cash or by the licensee's business check. No fee shall be charged by the licensee or an affiliate for cashing a loan proceeds check.

15. A check given as security for a loan shall not be negotiated to a third party.

16. Upon receipt of a check given as security for a loan, the licensee shall stamp the check with an endorsement stating: "This check is being negotiated as part of a short-term loan pursuant to Chapter 18 (§ 6.2-1800 et seq.) of Title 6.2 of the Code of Virginia, and any holder of this check takes it subject to all claims and defenses of the maker."

17. Before entering into a short-term loan, the licensee shall provide each borrower with a pamphlet, in form consistent with regulations adopted by the Commission, explaining in plain language the rights and responsibilities of the borrower and providing a toll-free number at the Commission for assistance with complaints.

18. Each licensee shall conspicuously post in each approved office (i) a schedule of fees and interest charges, which shall include examples using a $300 loan repaid in three months, a $500 loan repaid in five months, and a $1,000 loan repaid in 10 months, and (ii) a notice containing the following statement: "If you wish to file a complaint against us, you may contact the Bureau of Financial Institutions at [insert contact information]." The Commission shall furnish licensees with the appropriate contact information.

19. A licensee shall not knowingly make a short-term loan to a person who is a member of the military services of the United States or the spouse or other dependent of a member of the military services of the United States. Prior to making a short-term loan, every licensee shall inquire of every prospective borrower if he is a member of the military services of the United States or the spouse or other dependent of a member of the military services of the United States. The loan documents shall include verification that the borrower is not a member of the military services of the United States or the spouse or other dependent of a member of the military services of the United States.

20. In collecting or attempting to collect a short-term loan, a licensee shall comply with the restrictions and prohibitions applicable to debt collectors contained in the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (15 U.S.C. § 1692 et seq.) regarding harassment or abuse, false or misleading misrepresentations, and unfair practices in collections.

21. A licensee shall not contact a borrower for any reason other than (i) for the borrower's benefit regarding upcoming payments, options for obtaining loans, payment options, payment due dates, the effect of default, or, after default, receiving payments or other actions permitted by the licensee; (ii) to advise the borrower of missed payments or dishonored checks; or (iii) to assist the transmittal of payments via a third-party mechanism.

22. A short-term loan agreement shall not be sold or otherwise assigned to any other person who is not also a licensee, and if a loan agreement or its servicing is sold or assigned to another licensee, the buyer or assignee of the loan agreement shall be subject to the same obligations under this chapter that apply to the selling or assigning licensee. If a licensee sells or assigns a short-term loan or its servicing, the licensee shall provide to the borrower written notice and the information needed to make future payments no later than 10 days before the borrower's next payment due date.

23. A licensee shall not make a loan to a borrower that includes an acceleration clause or demand feature that permits the licensee, in the event the borrower fails to meet the repayment terms for any outstanding balance, to terminate the loan in advance of the original maturity date and to demand repayment of the entire outstanding balance, unless both of the following conditions are met: (i) not earlier than 10 days after the borrower's payment was due, the licensee provides written notice to the borrower of the termination of the loan and (ii) in addition to the outstanding balance, the licensee collects only prorated interest and the fees earned up to termination of the loan. For purposes of this subdivision, the outstanding balance and prorated interest and fees shall be calculated as if the borrower had voluntarily prepaid the loan in full on the date of termination.

24. A licensee may not file or initiate a legal proceeding of any kind against a borrower until 60 days after the date of default on a short-term loan, during which period the licensee and borrower may voluntarily enter into a repayment arrangement.

25. A licensee shall not recommend to a borrower that the borrower obtain a loan for a dollar amount that is higher than the borrower has requested.

26. A licensee may not engage in any unfair, misleading, deceptive, or fraudulent acts or practices in the conduct of its business.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-459; 2003, c. 593; 2004, c. 295; 2005, c. 571; 2008, cc. 849, 876; 2010, c. 794; 2016, c. 501; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1816.1. Loan terms and conditions.

A licensee may engage in the business of making short-term loans, provided that each loan meets all of the following conditions:

1. The total amount of the loan does not exceed $2,500.

2. The minimum duration of the loan is four months and the maximum duration of the loan is 24 months; however, the minimum duration of the loan may be less than four months if the total monthly payment on the loan does not exceed the greater of (i) an amount that is five percent of the borrower's verified gross monthly income or (ii) six percent of the borrower's verified net monthly income.

3. The loan is made pursuant to a written loan contract that sets forth the terms and conditions of the loan, which shall be signed by the borrower and a person authorized by the licensee to sign such agreements and dated the same day the loan is made and disbursed. A copy of the signed loan contract shall be provided to the borrower. The loan contract shall disclose in a clear and concise manner all of the following:

a. The principal amount of the loan and the total amount of fees and charges the borrower will be required to pay in connection with the loan pursuant to the loan contract;

b. The amount of each payment of principal and interest, when each payment is due, the total number of payments that the borrower will be required to make under the loan contract, and the loan's maturity date;

c. If the licensee receives a check as security for the loan, evidence of receipt from the borrower of a check, stating the amount of the check and terms upon which the check may be presented for payment;

d. A statement, printed in a minimum font size of 10 points, that informs the borrower that complaints regarding the loan or lender may be submitted to the Bureau and includes the correct telephone number, website address, and mailing address for the Bureau;

e. Any disclosures required under the federal Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. § 1601 et seq.) and its implementing regulations, as they may be amended from time to time;

f. The annual percentage rate;

g. A statement, printed in a minimum font size of 10 points, as follows: "This loan is made pursuant to Chapter 18 of Title 6.2 of the Code of Virginia. You have the right to rescind or cancel this loan by returning the loan proceeds check or the originally contracted loan amount by 5 p.m. of the third business day immediately following the day you enter into this contract.";

h. A statement, printed in a minimum font size of 10 points, as follows: "Electronic payment is optional. You have the right to revoke or remove your authorization for electronic payment at any time.";

i. The borrower's mailing address.

j. Such other information relating to the loan as the Commission shall determine, by regulation, is necessary to ensure that the borrower is provided adequate notice of the relevant provisions of the loan.

4. The loan is a precomputed loan and is payable in substantially equal installments consisting of principal, fees, and interest combined. For purposes of this section, "precomputed loan" means a loan in which the debt is a sum comprising the principal amount and the amount of fees and interest computed in advance on the assumption that all scheduled payments will be made when due.

5. The loan may be rescinded or canceled on or before 5 p.m. of the third business day immediately following the day of the loan transaction upon the borrower returning the original loan proceeds check or paying to the licensee, in the form of cash or other good funds instrument, the loan proceeds.

2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1817. Authorized fees and charges.

A. A licensee may charge, collect, and receive only the following fees and charges in connection with a short-term loan, provided such fees and charges are set forth in the written loan contract described in § 6.2-1816.1:

1. Interest at a simple annual rate not to exceed 36 percent;

2. Subject to § 6.2-1817.1, a monthly maintenance fee that does not exceed the lesser of eight percent of the originally contracted loan amount or $25, provided the fee is not added to the loan balance on which interest is charged;

3. Any deposit item return fee incurred by the licensee, not to exceed $25, if a borrower's check or electronic draft is returned because the account on which it was drawn was closed by the borrower or contained insufficient funds, or the borrower stopped payment of the check or electronic draft, provided that the terms and conditions upon which such fee will be charged to the borrower are set forth in the written loan contract described in § 6.2-1816.1; and

4. Damages and costs to which the licensee may become entitled to by law in connection with any civil action to collect a loan after default, except that the total amount of damages and costs shall not exceed the originally contracted loan amount.

B. A licensee may impose a late charge according to the provisions of § 6.2-400 provided, however, that the late charge shall not exceed $20.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-460; 2008, cc. 849, 876; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1817.1. Inflation adjustment of maximum monthly maintenance fee.

The Commission may, from time to time, by regulation, adjust the dollar amount of $25 specified in subsection A of § 6.2-1817 to reflect the rate of inflation from the previous date that the dollar amount was established, as measured by the Consumer Price Index or other method of measuring the rate of inflation that the Commission determines is reliable and generally accepted.

2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1818. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, cc. 1215 and 1258, cl. 2, effective January 1, 2021.

§ 6.2-1818.1. Refinancing of short-term loans.

Subject to subsection F of § 6.2-1818.2, a licensee may refinance a short-term loan, provided that the refinanced loan is also a short-term loan.

2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1818.2. Statement of balance due; repayment and refunds.

A. The licensee shall, upon the request of the borrower or his agent, provide a statement of balance due on a short-term loan.

B. A borrower shall be permitted to make partial payments, in increments of not less than $5, on the loan at any time prior to maturity, without charge. The licensee shall give the borrower dated receipts for each payment made, which shall state the updated balance due on the loan.

C. When providing a statement of balance due on the loan, the licensee shall state the amount required to discharge the borrower's obligation in full as of the date the notice is provided and for each of the next three business days following that date. If the licensee cannot reasonably supply a firm statement of balance due when requested or required, the licensee may provide a good faith estimate of the balance due immediately and provide to the borrower or his agent a firm statement of balance due within two business days.

D. The licensee shall provide any statement of balance due verbally and in writing, and shall not fail to provide the information by phone upon the request of the borrower or his agent.

E. A licensee shall not fail to accept cash or other good funds instrument from the borrower, or a third party when submitted on behalf of the borrower, for repayment of a short-term loan in full or in part. Payments shall be credited by the licensee on the date received.

F. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if a short-term loan is prepaid in full or refinanced prior to the loan's maturity date, the licensee shall refund to the borrower a prorated portion of fees and charges based on a ratio of the number of days the loan was outstanding and the number of days for which the loan was originally contracted. For purposes of this section, all charges made in connection with the loan shall be included when calculating the loan charges except for deposit item return fees and late charges authorized under § 6.2-1817.

G. If a licensee presents a check held as security for a loan, the licensee shall refund any amount received that is in excess of the payment due on the loan as of the day the licensee presents the check. For purposes of this subsection, the payment due on the loan shall be no more than the amount of unpaid payments and fees that have already come due according to the loan contract or, if applicable, the amount due according to a valid contractual acceleration clause or demand feature as described in subdivision 23 of § 6.2-1816.

H. The licensee shall provide any refund due to a borrower in the form of cash or business check as soon as reasonably possible and not later than two business days after receiving payment from the borrower.

I. Upon repayment of the loan in full, the licensee shall mark the original loan agreement with the word "paid" or "canceled," return it to the borrower, and retain a copy in its records.

2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1818.3. Restriction on certain fees and charges.

Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter to the contrary, a licensee shall not contract for, charge, collect, or receive in connection with a short-term loan a total amount of fees and charges that exceeds either (i) 50 percent of the originally contracted loan amount, if the originally contracted loan amount was $1,500 or less or (ii) 60 percent of the originally contracted loan amount, if the originally contracted loan amount was greater than $1,500. For purposes of this section, all charges made in connection with the loan shall be included when calculating the total loan charges except for deposit item return fees and late charges authorized under § 6.2-1817.

2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1818.4. Verification of borrower's income.

Before initiating a short-term loan transaction with a borrower, a licensee shall make a reasonable attempt to verify the borrower's income. At a minimum, the licensee shall obtain from the borrower one or more recent pay stubs or other written evidence of recurring income, such as a bank statement. The written evidence shall include at least one document that, when presented to the licensee, is dated not earlier than 45 days prior to the borrower's initiation of the short-term loan transaction.

2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1819. Advertising.

A. No person licensed or required to be licensed under this chapter shall use or cause to be published any advertisement that (i) contains any false, misleading or deceptive statement or representation; or (ii) identifies the person by any name other than the name set forth on the license issued by the Commission.

B. Any advertising materials used to promote short-term loans that includes the amount of any payment, expressed either as a percentage or dollar amount, or the amount of any finance charge, shall also include a statement of the interest, fees and charges, expressed as an annual percentage rate, payable using examples of a $300 loan repaid in three months, a $500 loan repaid in five months, and a $1,000 loan repaid in 10 months.

C. In any print media advertisement, including any website, used to promote short-term loans, the disclosure statements described in subsection B shall be conspicuous. "Conspicuous" shall have the meaning set forth in subdivision (a) (14) of § 59.1-501.2. If a single advertisement consists of multiple pages, folds, or faces, the disclosure requirement applies only to one page, fold, or face. In a television advertisement used to promote short-term loans, the visual disclosure legend shall include 20 scan lines in size. In a radio advertisement or advertisement communicated by telephone used to promote short-term loans, the disclosure statement shall last at least two seconds and the statement shall be spoken so that its contents may be easily understood.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-462; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1820. Other business.

No licensee shall conduct the business of making short-term loans under this chapter at any office, suite, room, or other place of business where any other business is solicited or conducted except a registered check cashing business, a motor vehicle title loan business licensed under Chapter 22 (§ 6.2-2200 et seq.), or such other business as the Commission determines should be permitted, and subject to such conditions as the Commission deems necessary and in the public interest. No such other business shall be allowed except as permitted by Commission regulation or upon the filing of a written application with the Commission, payment of a $300 fee or other reasonable amount that the Commission may set, and provision of such information as the Commission may deem pertinent. The Commission shall not, however, permit the sale of insurance or the enrolling of borrowers under group insurance policies. This section shall not apply to any other business that is transacted with persons residing solely outside the Commonwealth.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-463; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1821. Suspension or revocation of license.

A. The Commission may suspend or revoke any license issued under this chapter upon any of the following grounds:

1. Any ground for denial of a license under this chapter;

2. Any violation of the provisions of this chapter or regulations adopted by the Commission pursuant thereto, or a violation of any other law or regulation applicable to the conduct of the licensee's business;

3. A course of conduct consisting of the failure to perform written agreements with borrowers;

4. Conviction of a felony or misdemeanor involving fraud, misrepresentation or deceit;

5. Entry of a judgment against the licensee involving fraud, misrepresentation or deceit;

6. Entry of a federal or state administrative order against such licensee for violation of any law or any regulation applicable to the conduct of his business;

7. Refusal to permit an investigation or examination by the Commission;

8. Failure to pay any fee or assessment imposed by this chapter; or

9. Failure to comply with any order of the Commission.

B. For the purposes of this section, acts of any officer, director, member, partner, or principal shall be deemed acts of the licensee.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-464; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1822. Cease and desist orders.

If the Commission determines that any person has violated any provision of this chapter or any regulation adopted hereunder, the Commission may, upon 21 days' notice in writing, order such person to cease and desist from such practices and to comply with the provisions of this chapter. The notice shall be sent by certified mail to the principal place of business of such person or other address authorized under § 12.1-19.1 and shall state the grounds for the contemplated action. Within 14 days of mailing the notice, the person named therein may file with the clerk of the Commission a written request for a hearing. If a hearing is requested, the Commission shall not issue a cease and desist order except based upon findings made at such hearing. Such hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of Title 12.1. The Commission may enforce compliance with any such order issued under this section by imposition and collection of such fines and penalties as may be prescribed by law.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-465; 2003, c. 593; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1823. Notice of proposed suspension or revocation.

The Commission shall not revoke or suspend the license of any licensee upon any of the grounds set forth in § 6.2-1821 until it has given the licensee 21 days' notice in writing of the reasons for the proposed revocation or suspension and an opportunity to introduce evidence and be heard. The notice shall be sent by certified mail to the principal place of business of the licensee or other address authorized under § 12.1-19.1 and shall state with particularity the grounds for the contemplated action. Within 14 days of mailing the notice, the person named therein may file with the clerk of the Commission a written request for a hearing. If a hearing is requested, the Commission shall not suspend or revoke the license except based upon findings made at such hearing. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of Title 12.1.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-466; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1824. Civil penalties.

In addition to the authority conferred under §§ 6.2-1821 and 6.2-1822, the Commission may impose a civil penalty not exceeding $1,000 upon any person who it determines, in proceedings commenced in accordance with the Commission's Rules, has violated any of the provisions of this chapter, the regulations adopted by the Commission pursuant thereto, or any other law or regulation applicable to the conduct of the lender's business. For the purposes of this section, each separate violation shall be subject to the civil penalty herein prescribed, and in the case of a violation of § 6.2-1801, each loan made or arranged shall constitute a separate violation.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-467; 2003, c. 593; 2008, cc. 849, 876; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1825. Criminal penalties.

Any person violating § 6.2-1801 is guilty of a Class 6 felony. For the purposes of this section, each violation shall constitute a separate offense.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-468; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1826. Validity of noncompliant loan agreement; private right of action.

A. If any provision of a written loan agreement violates this chapter, such provision shall be unenforceable against the borrower.

B. Any person who suffers loss by reason of a violation of any provision of this chapter may bring a civil action to enforce such provision. Any person who is successful in such action shall recover reasonable attorney fees, expert witness fees, and court costs incurred by bringing such action.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-469; 2008, cc. 849, 876; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1827. Application of chapter to Internet loans.

A. The provisions of this chapter, including specifically the licensure requirements of § 6.2-1801, shall apply to persons making short-term loans over the Internet to Virginia residents or any individual in the Commonwealth, whether or not the person making the loan maintains a physical presence in the Commonwealth.

B. The Commission may, from time to time, by administrative rule or policy statement, set requirements that the Commission reasonably deems necessary to ensure compliance with this section.

2008, cc. 849, 876, § 6.1-469.1; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1828. Authority of Attorney General; referral by Commission to Attorney General.

A. If the Commission determines that a person is in violation of, or has violated, any provision of this chapter, the Commission may refer the information to the Attorney General and may request that the Attorney General investigate such violations. With or without such referral, the Attorney General is authorized to seek to enjoin violations of this chapter. The circuit court having jurisdiction may enjoin such violations notwithstanding the existence of an adequate remedy at law.

B. The Attorney General may also seek, and the circuit court may order or decree, damages and such other relief allowed by law, including restitution to the extent available to borrowers under applicable law. Persons entitled to any relief as authorized by this section shall be identified by order of the court within 180 days from the date of the order permanently enjoining the unlawful act or practice.

C. In any action brought by the Attorney General by virtue of the authority granted in this provision, the Attorney General shall be entitled to seek reasonable attorney fees and costs.

D. If the Attorney General files an action to enjoin violations of this chapter, the Attorney General shall give notice of such action to the Commission.

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-470; 2010, c. 794; 2020, cc. 1215, 1258.

§ 6.2-1829. Violation of the Virginia Consumer Protection Act.

Any violation of the provisions of this chapter shall constitute a prohibited practice in accordance with § 59.1-200 and shall be subject to any and all of the enforcement provisions of the Virginia Consumer Protection Act (§ 59.1-196 et seq.).

2002, c. 897, § 6.1-471; 2010, c. 794.