Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
11/14/2019

Chapter 14. Evidence.

Article 1. Judicial Notice.

§ 8.01-385. Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

1. The term "United States" shall be deemed to refer to the United States of America and to include any of its territories, commonwealths, insular possessions, the District of Columbia, and any of its other political subdivisions other than states.

2. The term "court" shall be deemed to include the courts of this Commonwealth, any other person or body appointed by it or acting under its process or authority in a judicial or quasi-judicial capacity, and any other judicial, quasi-judicial, or fact-finding body acting pursuant to the laws of the Commonwealth, including without limitation, the State Corporation Commission and the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission.

3. The term "political subdivision" shall: (i) as applied to the United States, include any other political subdivision other than states and including without limitation the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (ii) as applied to other countries, include without limitation states, counties, cities, towns, boroughs, and any division thereof recognized and vested with the authority to enact or promulgate ordinances, rules, and regulations having the force or effect of law; (iii) as applied to this Commonwealth and other states of the United States, include without limitation counties, cities, towns, boroughs, and any other division thereof recognized and vested with the authority to enact or promulgate ordinances, rules, and regulations having the force or effect of law.

4. The term "agency" shall be deemed to include without limitation any department, division, commission, association, board, or other administrative body established pursuant to the laws of a jurisdiction.

5. The term "official publication" includes any registry or listing of licenses, permits, or registrations posted on the official website of an agency or political subdivision.

6. The term "publish" includes posting by an agency or political subdivision on its official website.

7. The term "required to be published pursuant to the laws thereof" includes being subject to disclosure under § 54.1-108.

1977, c. 617; 2011, c. 81.

§ 8.01-386. Judicial notice of laws (Supreme Court Rule 2:202 derived in part from this section).

A. Whenever, in any civil action it becomes necessary to ascertain what the law, statutory or otherwise, of this Commonwealth, of another state, of the United States, of another country, or of any political subdivision or agency of the same is, or was, at any time, the court shall take judicial notice thereof whether specially pleaded or not.

B. The court, in taking such notice, may consult any book, record, register, journal, or other official document or publication purporting to contain, state, or explain such law, and may consider any evidence or other information or argument that is offered on the subject.

Code 1950, §§ 8-264, 8-270, 8-273; 1960, c. 504; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-387. Notice by courts and officers of signatures of judges and Governor.

All courts and officers shall take notice of the signature of any of the judges, or of the Governor of this Commonwealth, to any judicial or official document.

Code 1950, § 8-274; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-388. Judicial notice of official publications (Supreme Court Rule 2:203 derived from this section).

The court shall take judicial notice of the contents of all official publications of this Commonwealth and its political subdivisions and agencies required to be published pursuant to the laws thereof, and of all such official publications of other states, of the United States, of other countries, and of the political subdivisions and agencies of each published within those jurisdictions pursuant to the laws thereof.

1977, c. 617.

Article 2. Laws, Public Records, and Copies of Original Records As Evidence.

§ 8.01-389. Judicial records as evidence; full faith and credit; recitals in deeds, deeds of trust, and mortgages; "records" defined; certification.

A. The records of any judicial proceeding and any other official records of any court of this Commonwealth shall be received as prima facie evidence provided that such records are certified by the clerk of the court where preserved to be a true record. For the purposes of this section, judicial proceeding shall include the review of a petition and issuance of a temporary detention order under § 16.1-340.1 or 37.2-809.

A1. The records of any judicial proceeding and any other official record of any court of another state or country, or of the United States, shall be received as prima facie evidence provided that such records are certified by the clerk of the court where preserved to be a true record.

B. Every court of this Commonwealth shall give such records of courts not of this Commonwealth the full faith and credit given to them in the courts of the jurisdiction from whence they come.

B1. In any instance in which a court not of this Commonwealth shall have entered an order of injunction limiting or preventing access by any person to the courts of this Commonwealth without that person having had notice and an opportunity for a hearing prior to the entry of such foreign order, that foreign order is not required to be given full faith and credit in any Virginia court. The Virginia court may, in its discretion, hold a hearing to determine the adequacy of notice and opportunity for hearing in the foreign court.

C. Specifically, recitals of any fact in a deed or deed of trust of record conveying any interest in real property shall be prima facie evidence of that fact.

D. "Records" as used in this article, shall be deemed to include any memorandum, report, paper, data compilation, or other record in any form, or any combination thereof.

E. The use of the term "copy teste," "true copy," or "certified copy" or a substantially similar term on a certification affixed or annexed to a copy of an official record maintained by a clerk of court that bears the signature of the clerk or any deputy clerk, and that has the name of the court where such record is preserved on the document or on the certification, shall be prima facie proof that such record is certified by such clerk to be a true copy of the official record kept in the office of the clerk. Nothing herein shall be construed to require or prevent a clerk from using an official seal or prevent a clerk from using any other acceptable method of certification for a court record.

F. The certification of any record pursuant to this section shall automatically authenticate such record for the purpose of its admission into evidence in any trial, hearing, or proceeding.

Code 1950, §§ 8-271, 8-275, 8-276, 8-276.1; 1977, c. 617; 1980, c. 453; 1995, c. 594; 1996, c. 417; 2008, c. 786; 2010, cc. 778, 825; 2013, c. 263.

§ 8.01-390. Nonjudicial records as evidence (Subdivision (10)(a) of Supreme Court Rule 2:803 derived from subsection C of this section).

A. Copies of records of this Commonwealth, of another state, of the United States, of another country, or of any political subdivision or agency of the same, other than those located in a clerk's office of a court, shall be received as prima facie evidence, provided that such copies are authenticated to be true copies either by the custodian thereof or by the person to whom the custodian reports, if they are different. A digitally certified copy of a record provided pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 38.2 (§ 2.2-3817 et seq.) of Title 2.2, whether in electronic form or in print form with visible assurance of the digital signature, shall be deemed to be authenticated by the custodian of the record unless evidence is presented to the contrary.

B. Records and recordings of 911 emergency service calls shall be deemed authentic transcriptions or recordings of the original statements if they are accompanied by a certificate that meets the provisions of subsection A and the certificate contains the date and time of the incoming call and the incoming phone number, if available, associated with the call.

C. An affidavit signed by an officer deemed to have custody of such an official record, or by his deputy, stating that after a diligent search, no record or entry of such record is found to exist among the records in his office is admissible as evidence that his office has no such record or entry.

1977, c. 617; 1996, c. 668; 2000, c. 334; 2014, c. 353; 2017, c. 738.

§ 8.01-390.1. School records as evidence.

In a proceeding where a minor's school records are material and otherwise admissible, copies of such school records shall be received as evidence in any matter, provided that such copies are authenticated to be true and accurate copies by the custodian thereof, or by the person to whom the custodian reports if they are different. An affidavit signed by the custodian of such records, or by the person to whom the custodian reports if they are different, stating that such records are true and accurate copies of such records shall be valid authentication for the purposes of this section. Except for copies of report cards and letters previously sent to parents, subjective information, including observations, comments or opinions shall be redacted, by the court, from any records prior to admittance of the records into evidence pursuant to this section. Any party seeking to introduce records authenticated by affidavit under this section shall deliver notice and a copy of such records to the other parties so that they are received not less than seven days prior to the introduction of such records.

2000, c. 558; 2009, c. 212; 2012, c. 499.

§ 8.01-390.2. Reports by Chief Medical Examiner received as evidence.

Reports of investigations made by the Chief Medical Examiner, his assistants or medical examiners, and the records and certified reports of autopsies made under the authority of Title 32.1, shall be received as evidence in any court or other proceeding, and copies of photographs, laboratory findings and reports in the office of the Chief Medical Examiner or any medical examiner, when duly attested by the Chief Medical Examiner or an Assistant Chief Medical Examiner, shall be received as evidence in any court or other proceeding for any purpose for which the original could be received without proof of the official character or the person whose name is signed thereto.

2003, c. 459.

§ 8.01-390.3. Business records as evidence (Subdivision (6) of Supreme Court Rule 2:902 derived in part from this section).

A. In any proceeding where a business record is material and otherwise admissible, authentication of the record and the foundation required by subdivision (6) of Rule 2:803 of the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia may be laid by (i) witness testimony, (ii) a certification of the authenticity of and foundation for the record made by the custodian of such record or other qualified witness either by affidavit or by declaration pursuant to § 8.01-4.3, or (iii) a combination of witness testimony and a certification.

B. The proponent of a business record shall (i) give written notice to all other parties if a certification under this section will be relied upon in whole or in part in authenticating and laying the foundation for admission of such record and (ii) provide a copy of the record and the certification to all other parties, so that all parties have a fair opportunity to challenge the record and certification. The notice and copy of the record and certification shall be provided no later than 15 days in advance of the trial or hearing, unless an order of the court specifies a different time. Objections shall be made within five days thereafter, unless an order of the court specifies a different time. If any party timely objects to reliance upon the certification, the authentication and foundation required by subdivision (6) of Rule 2:803 of the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia shall be made by witness testimony unless the objection is withdrawn.

C. A certified business record that satisfies the requirements of this section shall be self-authenticating and requires no extrinsic evidence of authenticity.

D. A copy of a business record may be offered in lieu of an original upon satisfaction of the requirements of subsection D of § 8.01-391 by witness testimony, a certification, or a combination of testimony and a certification.

2014, c. 398; 2017, c. 223.

§ 8.01-391. Copies of originals as evidence (Subdivision (6) of Supreme Court Rule 2:902 derived in part from subsection D of this section and Supreme Court Rule 2:1005 derived from this section).

A. Whenever the original of any official publication or other record has been filed in an action or introduced as evidence, the court may order the original to be returned to its custodian, retaining in its stead a copy thereof. The court may make any order to prevent the improper use of the original.

B. If any department, division, institution, agency, board, or commission of this Commonwealth, of another state or country, or of the United States, or of any political subdivision or agency of the same, acting pursuant to the law of the respective jurisdiction or other proper authority, has copied any record made in the performance of its official duties, such copy shall be as admissible into evidence as the original, whether the original is in existence or not, provided that such copy is authenticated as a true copy either by the custodian of said record or by the person to whom said custodian reports, if they are different, and is accompanied by a certificate that such person does in fact have the custody.

C. If any court or clerk's office of a court of this Commonwealth, of another state or country, or of the United States, or of any political subdivision or agency of the same, has copied any record made in the performance of its official duties, such copy shall be admissible into evidence as the original, whether the original is in existence or not, provided that such copy is authenticated as a true copy by a clerk or deputy clerk of such court.

D. If any business or member of a profession or calling in the regular course of business or activity has made any record or received or transmitted any document, and again in the regular course of business has caused any or all of such record or document to be copied, the copy shall be as admissible in evidence as the original, whether the original exists or not, provided that such copy is satisfactorily identified and authenticated as a true copy by a custodian of such record or by the person to whom said custodian reports, if they be different, and is accompanied by a certificate that said person does in fact have the custody. Such identification and authentication may be made through witness testimony or a certificate by affidavit or by declaration pursuant to § 8.01-4.3, or a combination of witness testimony and a certificate. Copies in the regular course of business shall be deemed to include reproduction at a later time, if done in good faith and without intent to defraud. Copies in the regular course of business shall include items such as checks which are regularly copied before transmission to another person or bank, or records which are acted upon without receipt of the original when the original is retained by another party.

E. The original of which a copy has been made may be destroyed unless its preservation is required by law or its validity has been questioned.

F. The introduction in an action of a copy under this section precludes neither the introduction or admission of the original nor the introduction of a copy or the original in another action.

G. Copy, as used in this section, shall include photographs, microphotographs, photostats, microfilm, microcard, printouts or other reproductions of electronically stored data, or copies from optical disks, electronically transmitted facsimiles, or any other reproduction of an original from a process which forms a durable medium for its recording, storing, and reproducing.

Code 1950, §§ 8-266, 8-267, 8-268, 8-278, 8-279, 8-279.1, 8-279.2; 1950, pp. 604, 640; 1954, c. 333; 1968, c. 723; 1972, cc. 441, 549, 645, 786; 1973, c. 177; 1977, cc. 532, 617; 1978, c. 75; 1979, c. 447; 1989, c. 212; 1990, c. 355; 1991, c. 145; 1992, c. 393; 2000, c. 334; 2012, c. 802; 2014, c. 398.

Article 2.1. Check Clearing for the 21St Century Evidence Act.

§ 8.01-391.1. Substitute checks as evidence (Supreme Court Rule 2:1003 derived from subsections A and B of this section).

A. A substitute check created pursuant to the federal Check Clearing for the 21st Century Evidence Act (Check 21 Act), 12 U.S.C. § 5001 et seq., shall be admissible in evidence in any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, to the same extent the original check would be.

B. A document received from a banking institution that is designated as a "substitute check" and that bears the legend "This is a legal copy of your check. You can use it the same way you would use the original check" shall be presumed to be a substitute check created pursuant to the Check 21 Act.

C. Any person who shall forge a substitute check or utter or attempt to employ as true any forged substitute check shall be punished as provided in § 18.2-172.

2006, c. 127.

Article 3. Establishing Lost Records, Etc.

§ 8.01-392. When court order book or equivalent is lost or illegible, what matters may be reentered.

When any book, microfilm record, or record in other form containing judgments, decrees, orders or proceedings of a court is lost, destroyed, or illegible, and there can be again entered correctly, by means of any writing, any matters which were in such book, such court may cause its clerk to have such matters reentered, and such reentries shall have the same effect as the original entries.

Code 1950, § 8-280; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-393. When book or paper or equivalent in clerk's office lost, destroyed, or illegible to be again recorded.

When any such book, or any book, microfilm record, or record in other form containing the record of wills, deeds, or other papers, or any other paper filed in a clerk's office, is lost, destroyed, or is illegible, the clerk in whose office such book or paper was, upon the production to him of any original paper which was recorded in such book, or of an attested copy of the record thereof, or of anything else in such book, or of any paper so filed, shall, on application, record the same anew. The record shall show whether it is made from an original or a copy, and how the paper from which it was made was authenticated or attested. Such record shall have, as far as may be, the same effect that the record or paper for which it is substituted would have had.

Code 1950, § 8-281; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-394. How contents of any such lost record, etc., proved.

A. Any person desirous of proving the contents of any such book, record, or other paper as is mentioned in either § 8.01-392 or § 8.01-393, may file before the circuit court of the county or city in which such record, book, or other paper was a petition in writing, stating the nature of the record, book, or paper, the contents of which he desires to prove, and what persons may be affected by such proof. Thereupon the court shall appoint a time and place for proceeding on such petition, of which reasonable notice shall be given by him to all parties named in such petition, or interested in the proceedings, and to any others who shall be known to the court, or who shall claim to be so interested. If any party interested other than the petitioner, or who may be affected by the proof, be a person under a disability, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem to represent his interest in the proceeding.

B. The evidence upon said petition shall be in writing and filed, and the court shall make such order in respect to such record, book, or other paper, or anything therein, as may be necessary to secure the benefits thereof to the parties interested, or such other order as may be proper in the case.

Before such court shall make such order, the petitioner shall cause to be served on the persons interested a notice in writing that he will apply for such order, in the manner provided by § 8.01-296, at least ten days before such order is to be made; but if such persons, or any of them, do not reside in this Commonwealth, or after due diligence cannot be found therein, an order of publication may be issued as provided by §§ 8.01-316 and 8.01-317.

Code 1950, §§ 8-282, 8-283; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-395. Validating certain proceedings under § 8.01-394.

All proceedings had in any case, under the provisions of § 8.01-394, wherein a final judgment or decree has stood unimpeached for more than twenty years are declared to be valid and binding in all respects.

Code 1950, § 8-284; 1977, c. 617.

Article 4. Witnesses Generally.

§ 8.01-396. No person incompetent to testify by reason of interest, or because a party.

No person shall be incompetent to testify because of interest, or because of his being a party to any civil action; but he shall, if otherwise competent to testify, and subject to the rules of evidence and practice applicable to other witnesses, be competent to give evidence in his own behalf and be competent and compellable to attend and give evidence on behalf of any other party to such action; but, in any case, the court, for good cause shown, may require any such person to attend and testify ore tenus and, upon his failure to so attend and testify, may exclude his deposition.

Code 1950, § 8-285; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-396.1. Competency of witness.

No child shall be deemed incompetent to testify solely because of age.

1993, cc. 441, 605.

§ 8.01-397. Corroboration required and evidence receivable when one party incapable of testifying (subdivision (b)(5) of Supreme Court Rule 2:804 derived from this section).

In an action by or against a person who, from any cause, is incapable of testifying, or by or against the committee, trustee, executor, administrator, heir, or other representative of the person so incapable of testifying, no judgment or decree shall be rendered in favor of an adverse or interested party founded on his uncorroborated testimony. In any such action, whether such adverse party testifies or not, all entries, memoranda, and declarations by the party so incapable of testifying made while he was capable, relevant to the matter in issue, may be received as evidence in all proceedings including without limitation those to which a person under a disability is a party. The phrase "from any cause" as used in this section shall not include situations in which the party who is incapable of testifying has rendered himself unable to testify by an intentional self-inflicted injury.

For the purposes of this section, and in addition to corroboration by any other competent evidence, an entry authored by an adverse or interested party contained in a business record may be competent evidence for corroboration of the testimony of an adverse or interested party. If authentication of the business record is not admitted in a request for admission, such business record shall be authenticated by a person other than the author of the entry who is not an adverse or interested party whose conduct is at issue in the allegations of the complaint.

Code 1950, § 8-286; 1977, c. 617; 1988, c. 426; 2013, cc. 61, 637.

§ 8.01-397.1. Evidence of habit or routine practice; defined (Supreme Court Rule 2:406 derived from this section).

A. Admissibility. Evidence of the habit of a person or of the routine practice of an organization, whether corroborated or not and regardless of the presence of eye witnesses, is relevant to prove that the conduct of the person or organization on a particular occasion was in conformity with the habit or routine practice. Evidence of prior conduct may be relevant to rebut evidence of habit or routine practice.

B. Habit and routine practice defined. A "habit" is a person's regular response to repeated specific situations. A "routine practice" is a regular course of conduct of a group of persons or an organization in response to repeated specific situations.

C. The provisions of this section are applicable only in civil proceedings.

2000, c. 1026.

§ 8.01-398. Privileged marital communications (Subsection (a) of Supreme Court Rule 2:504 derived from this section).

Husband and wife shall be competent witnesses to testify for or against each other in all civil actions.

In any civil proceeding, a person has a privilege to refuse to disclose, and to prevent anyone else from disclosing, any confidential communication between his spouse and him during their marriage, regardless of whether he is married to that spouse at the time he objects to disclosure. This privilege may not be asserted in any proceeding in which the spouses are adverse parties, or in which either spouse is charged with a crime or tort against the person or property of the other or against the minor child of either spouse. For the purposes of this section, "confidential communication" means a communication made privately by a person to his spouse that is not intended for disclosure to any other person.

Code 1950, §§ 8-287, 8-289; 1977, c. 617; 2005, c. 809.

§ 8.01-399. Communications between physicians and patients (Supreme Court Rule 2:505 derived from this section).

A. Except at the request or with the consent of the patient, or as provided in this section, no duly licensed practitioner of any branch of the healing arts shall be permitted to testify in any civil action, respecting any information that he may have acquired in attending, examining or treating the patient in a professional capacity.

B. If the physical or mental condition of the patient is at issue in a civil action, the diagnoses, signs and symptoms, observations, evaluations, histories, or treatment plan of the practitioner, obtained or formulated as contemporaneously documented during the course of the practitioner's treatment, together with the facts communicated to, or otherwise learned by, such practitioner in connection with such attendance, examination or treatment shall be disclosed but only in discovery pursuant to the Rules of Court or through testimony at the trial of the action. In addition, disclosure may be ordered when a court, in the exercise of sound discretion, deems it necessary to the proper administration of justice. However, no order shall be entered compelling a party to sign a release for medical records from a health care provider unless the health care provider is not located in the Commonwealth or is a federal facility. If an order is issued pursuant to this section, it shall be restricted to the medical records that relate to the physical or mental conditions at issue in the case. No disclosure of diagnosis or treatment plan facts communicated to, or otherwise learned by, such practitioner shall occur if the court determines, upon the request of the patient, that such facts are not relevant to the subject matter involved in the pending action or do not appear to be reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. Only diagnosis offered to a reasonable degree of medical probability shall be admissible at trial.

C. This section shall not (i) be construed to repeal or otherwise affect the provisions of § 65.2-607 relating to privileged communications between physicians and surgeons and employees under the Workers' Compensation Act; (ii) apply to information communicated to any such practitioner in an effort unlawfully to procure a narcotic drug, or unlawfully to procure the administration of any such drug; or (iii) prohibit a duly licensed practitioner of the healing arts, or his agents, from disclosing information as required by state or federal law.

D. Neither a lawyer nor anyone acting on the lawyer's behalf shall obtain, in connection with pending or threatened litigation, information concerning a patient from a practitioner of any branch of the healing arts without the consent of the patient, except through discovery pursuant to the Rules of Supreme Court as herein provided. However, the prohibition of this subsection shall not apply to:

1. Communication between a lawyer retained to represent a practitioner of the healing arts, or that lawyer's agent, and that practitioner's employers, partners, agents, servants, employees, co-employees or others for whom, at law, the practitioner is or may be liable or who, at law, are or may be liable for the practitioner's acts or omissions;

2. Information about a patient provided to a lawyer or his agent by a practitioner of the healing arts employed by that lawyer to examine or evaluate the patient in accordance with Rule 4:10 of the Rules of Supreme Court; or

3. Contact between a lawyer or his agent and a nonphysician employee or agent of a practitioner of healing arts for any of the following purposes: (i) scheduling appearances, (ii) requesting a written recitation by the practitioner of handwritten records obtained by the lawyer or his agent from the practitioner, provided the request is made in writing and, if litigation is pending, a copy of the request and the practitioner's response is provided simultaneously to the patient or his attorney, (iii) obtaining information necessary to obtain service upon the practitioner in pending litigation, (iv) determining when records summoned will be provided by the practitioner or his agent, (v) determining what patient records the practitioner possesses in order to summons records in pending litigation, (vi) explaining any summons that the lawyer or his agent caused to be issued and served on the practitioner, (vii) verifying dates the practitioner treated the patient, provided that if litigation is pending the information obtained by the lawyer or his agent is promptly given, in writing, to the patient or his attorney, (viii) determining charges by the practitioner for appearance at a deposition or to testify before any tribunal or administrative body, or (ix) providing to or obtaining from the practitioner directions to a place to which he is or will be summoned to give testimony.

E. A clinical psychologist duly licensed under the provisions of Chapter 36 (§ 54.1-3600 et seq.) of Title 54.1 shall be considered a practitioner of a branch of the healing arts within the meaning of this section.

F. Nothing herein shall prevent a duly licensed practitioner of the healing arts, or his agents, from disclosing any information that he may have acquired in attending, examining or treating a patient in a professional capacity where such disclosure is necessary in connection with the care of the patient, the protection or enforcement of a practitioner's legal rights including such rights with respect to medical malpractice actions, or the operations of a health care facility or health maintenance organization or in order to comply with state or federal law.

Code 1950, § 8-289.1; 1956, c. 446; 1966, c. 673; 1977, c. 617; 1993, c. 556; 1996, cc. 937, 980; 1998, c. 314; 2002, cc. 308, 723; 2005, cc. 649, 692; 2009, c. 714.

§ 8.01-400. Communications between ministers of religion and persons they counsel or advise (Supreme Court Rule 2:503 derived in part from this section).

No regular minister, priest, rabbi, or accredited practitioner over the age of eighteen years, of any religious organization or denomination usually referred to as a church, shall be required to give testimony as a witness or to relinquish notes, records or any written documentation made by such person, or disclose the contents of any such notes, records or written documentation, in discovery proceedings in any civil action which would disclose any information communicated to him in a confidential manner, properly entrusted to him in his professional capacity and necessary to enable him to discharge the functions of his office according to the usual course of his practice or discipline, wherein such person so communicating such information about himself or another is seeking spiritual counsel and advice relative to and growing out of the information so imparted.

Code 1950, § 8-289.2; 1962, c. 466; 1977, c. 617; 1979, c. 3; 1994, c. 198.

§ 8.01-400.1. Privileged communications by interpreters for the deaf (Supreme Court Rule 2:507 derived in part from this section).

Whenever a deaf person communicates through an interpreter to any person under such circumstances that the communication would be privileged, and such person could not be compelled to testify as to the communications, this privilege shall also apply to the interpreter.

1978, c. 601.

§ 8.01-400.2. Communications between certain mental health professionals and clients (Supreme Court Rule 2:506 derived from this section).

Except at the request of or with the consent of the client, no licensed professional counselor, as defined in § 54.1-3500; licensed clinical social worker, as defined in § 54.1-3700; licensed psychologist, as defined in § 54.1-3600; or licensed marriage and family therapist, as defined in § 54.1-3500, shall be required in giving testimony as a witness in any civil action to disclose any information communicated to him in a confidential manner, properly entrusted to him in his professional capacity and necessary to enable him to discharge his professional or occupational services according to the usual course of his practice or discipline, wherein such person so communicating such information about himself or another is seeking professional counseling or treatment and advice relative to and growing out of the information so imparted; provided, however, that when the physical or mental condition of the client is at issue in such action, or when a court, in the exercise of sound discretion, deems such disclosure necessary to the proper administration of justice, no fact communicated to, or otherwise learned by, such practitioner in connection with such counseling, treatment or advice shall be privileged, and disclosure may be required. The privileges conferred by this section shall not extend to testimony in matters relating to child abuse and neglect nor serve to relieve any person from the reporting requirements set forth in § 63.2-1509.

1982, c. 537; 2005, c. 110.

§ 8.01-401. How adverse party may be examined; effect of refusal to testify (subsection (b) of Supreme Court Rule 2:607 and subsection (c) of Supreme Court Rule 2:611 derived from subsection A of this section).

A. A party called to testify for another, having an adverse interest, may be examined by such other party according to the rules applicable to cross-examination.

B. If any party, required by another to testify on his behalf, refuses to testify, the court, officer, or person before whom the proceeding is pending, may, in addition to punishing said party as for contempt, dismiss the action, or other proceeding of the party so refusing, as to the whole or any part thereof, or may strike out and disregard the plea, answer, or other defense of such party, or any part thereof, as justice may require.

Code 1950, §§ 8-290, 8-291; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-401.1. Opinion testimony by experts; hearsay exception (subsection (a) of Supreme Court Rule 2:703, subsection (a) of Supreme Court Rule 2:705, and subsection (a) of Supreme Court Rule 2:706 derived from this section).

In any civil action any expert witness may give testimony and render an opinion or draw inferences from facts, circumstances or data made known to or perceived by such witness at or before the hearing or trial during which he is called upon to testify. The facts, circumstances or data relied upon by such witness in forming an opinion or drawing inferences, if of a type normally relied upon by others in the particular field of expertise in forming opinions and drawing inferences, need not be admissible in evidence.

The expert may testify in terms of opinion or inference and give his reasons therefor without prior disclosure of the underlying facts or data, unless the court requires otherwise. The expert may in any event be required to disclose the underlying facts or data on cross-examination.

To the extent called to the attention of an expert witness upon cross-examination or relied upon by the expert witness in direct examination, statements contained in published treatises, periodicals or pamphlets on a subject of history, medicine or other science or art, established as a reliable authority by testimony or by stipulation, shall not be excluded as hearsay. If admitted, the statements may be read into evidence but may not be received as exhibits. If the statements are to be introduced through an expert witness upon direct examination, copies of the specific statements shall be designated as literature to be introduced during direct examination and provided to opposing parties 30 days prior to trial unless otherwise ordered by the court.

If a statement has been designated by a party in accordance with and satisfies the requirements of this section, the expert witness called by that party need not have relied on the statement at the time of forming his opinion in order to read the statement into evidence during direct examination at trial.

1982, c. 392; 1994, c. 328; 2013, c. 379.

§ 8.01-401.2. Chiropractor, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant as expert witness.

A. A doctor of chiropractic, when properly qualified, may testify as an expert witness in a court of law as to etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, treatment plan, and disability, including anatomical, physiological, and pathological considerations within the scope of the practice of chiropractic as defined in § 54.1-2900.

B. A physician assistant or nurse practitioner, when properly qualified, may testify as an expert witness in a court of law as to etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, treatment plan, and disability, including anatomical, physiological, and pathological considerations within the scope of his activities as authorized pursuant to § 54.1-2952 or 54.1-2957, respectively. However, no physician assistant or nurse practitioner shall be permitted to testify as an expert witness for or against (i) a defendant doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine in a medical malpractice action regarding the standard of care of a doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine or (ii) a defendant health care provider in a medical malpractice action regarding causation.

1984, c. 569; 2014, cc. 361, 391; 2015, cc. 295, 306; 2017, c. 413.

§ 8.01-401.2:1. Podiatrist as an expert witness.

A podiatrist shall not be permitted to testify as an expert witness against a doctor of medicine or osteopathic medicine in connection with a medical malpractice civil court proceeding or a medical malpractice review panel in any case where the doctor or osteopath is a defendant in such proceeding.

2010, cc. 715, 725.

§ 8.01-401.3. Opinion testimony and conclusions as to facts critical to civil case resolution (Supreme Court Rule 2:701 derived from subsection B of this section, subdivision (a)(i) of Supreme Court Rule 2:702 derived from subsection A of this section, and subsection (a) of Supreme Court Rule 2:704 derived from subsections B and C of this section).

A. In a civil proceeding, if scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise.

B. No expert or lay witness while testifying in a civil proceeding shall be prohibited from expressing an otherwise admissible opinion or conclusion as to any matter of fact solely because that fact is the ultimate issue or critical to the resolution of the case. However, in no event shall such witness be permitted to express any opinion which constitutes a conclusion of law.

C. Except as provided by the provisions of this section, the exceptions to the "ultimate fact in issue" rule recognized in the Commonwealth prior to enactment of this section shall remain in full force.

1993, c. 909.

§ 8.01-402. Members of Department of Motor Vehicles' Crash Investigation Team not to be required to give evidence in certain cases.

No member of the Department of Motor Vehicles' Crash Investigation Team shall be required to give evidence concerning any statements made to him in the course of such investigation before any court or grand jury in any case involving a motor vehicle crash on the highways of the Commonwealth in which any member or members of such Crash Investigation Team made or took part in any investigation pursuant to a directive from the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles for purposes of research and evaluation of the Commonwealth's highway safety program.

Code 1950, § 8-296.1; 1974, c. 390; 1977, c. 617; 1992, c. 108.

§ 8.01-403. Witness proving adverse; contradiction; prior inconsistent statement (Subsection (c) of Supreme Court Rule 2:607 and subdivision (a)(i) of Supreme Court Rule 2:613 derived from this section).

A party producing a witness shall not be allowed to impeach his credit by general evidence of bad character, but he may, in case the witness shall in the opinion of the court prove adverse, by leave of the court, prove that he has made at other times a statement inconsistent with his present testimony; but before such last mentioned proof can be given the circumstances of the supposed statement, sufficient to designate the particular occasion, must be mentioned to the witness, and he must be asked whether or not he has made such statement. In every such case the court, if requested by either party, shall instruct the jury not to consider the evidence of such inconsistent statements, except for the purpose of contradicting the witness.

Code 1950, § 8-292; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-404. Contradiction by prior inconsistent writing (Subdivision (b)(i) of Supreme Court Rule 2:613 derived in part from this section and subdivision (b)(ii) of Supreme Court Rule 2:613 derived from this section).

A witness may be cross-examined as to previous statements made by him in writing or reduced into writing, relative to the subject matter of the civil action, without such writing being shown to him; but if it is intended to contradict such witness by the writing, his attention must, before such contradictory proof can be given, be called to the particular occasion on which the writing is supposed to have been made, and he may be asked if he did not make a writing of the purport of the one to be offered to contradict him, and if he denies making it, or does not admit its execution, it shall then be shown to him, and if he admits its genuineness, he shall be allowed to make his own explanation of it; but it shall be competent for the court at any time during the trial to require the production of the writing for its inspection, and the court may thereupon make such use of it for the purpose of the trial as it may think best. This section is subject to the qualification, that in an action to recover for a personal injury or death by wrongful act or neglect, no ex parte affidavit or statement in writing other than a deposition, after due notice, of a witness and no extrajudicial recording made at any time other than simultaneously with the wrongful act or negligence at issue of the voice of such witness, or reproduction or transcript thereof, as to the facts or circumstances attending the wrongful act or neglect complained of, shall be used to contradict him as a witness in the case. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the use of any such ex parte affidavit or statement in an action on an insurance policy based upon a judgment recovered in a personal injury or death by wrongful act case.

Code 1950, § 8-293; 1958, c. 380; 1960, c. 114; 1964, c. 356; 1977, c. 617; 2007, c. 598.

§ 8.01-405. Who may administer oath to witness.

Any person before whom a witness is to be examined may administer an oath to such witness. In addition, a clerk or deputy clerk may administer an oath to a witness in the presence and at the direction of a judge before whom the witness is to be examined.

Code 1950, § 8-294; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 536.

§ 8.01-406. Interpreters; recording testimony of deaf witness (Supreme Court Rule 2:604 derived from this section).

Interpreters shall be sworn truly so to do. In any judicial proceeding, the judge on his own motion or on the motion of a party to the proceeding may order all of the testimony of a deaf individual and the interpretation thereof to be visually electronically recorded for use in verification of the official transcript of the proceedings.

Code 1950, § 8-295; 1977, c. 617; 1978, c. 601.

Article 5. Compelling Attendance of Witnesses, Etc.

§ 8.01-407. How summons for witness issued, and to whom directed; prior permission of court to summon certain officials and judges.

A. A summons may be issued, directed as prescribed in § 8.01-292, commanding the officer to summon any person to attend on the day and at the place that such attendance is desired, to give evidence before a court, grand jury, arbitrators, magistrate, notary, or any commissioner or other person appointed by a court or acting under its process or authority in a judicial or quasi-judicial capacity. The summons may be issued by the clerk of the court if the attendance is desired at a court or in a proceeding pending in a court. The clerk shall not impose any time restrictions limiting the right to properly request a summons up to and including the date of the proceeding:

If attendance is desired before a commissioner in chancery or other commissioner of a court, the summons may be issued by the clerk of the court in which the matter is pending, or by such commissioner in chancery or other commissioner;

If attendance is desired before a notary or other officer taking a deposition, the summons may be issued by such notary or other officer at the instance of the attorney desiring the attendance of the person sought;

If attendance is sought before a grand jury, the summons may be issued by the attorney for the Commonwealth, or the clerk of the court, at the instance of the attorney for the Commonwealth.

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, if attendance is desired in a civil proceeding pending in a court or at a deposition in connection with such proceeding, including medical malpractice review panels, and a claim before the Workers' Compensation Commission, a summons may be issued by an attorney-at-law who is an active member of the Virginia State Bar at the time of issuance, as an officer of the court. An attorney-issued summons shall be on a form approved by the Supreme Court, signed by the attorney and shall include the attorney's address. The summons and any transmittal sheet shall be deemed to be a pleading to which the provisions of § 8.01-271.1 shall apply. A copy of the summons and, if served by a sheriff, all service of process fees, shall be mailed or delivered to the clerk's office of the court in which the case is pending or the Workers' Compensation Commission, as applicable, on the day of issuance by the attorney. The law governing summonses issued by a clerk shall apply mutatis mutandis. When an attorney-at-law who is an active member of the Virginia State Bar transmits one or more attorney-issued subpoenas to a sheriff to be served in his jurisdiction, such subpoenas shall be accompanied by a transmittal sheet. The transmittal sheet, which may be in the form of a letter, shall contain for each subpoena (i) the person to be served, (ii) the name of the city or county in which the subpoena is to be served, in parentheses, (iii) the style of the case in which the subpoena was issued, (iv) the court in which the case is pending, and (v) the amount of fees tendered or paid to each clerk in whose court the case is pending together with a photocopy of either (a) the payment instrument and a photocopy of the letter sent to the clerk's office that accompanied such payment instrument or (b) the clerk's receipt. If copies of the same transmittal sheet are used to send subpoenas to more than one sheriff for service of process, then subpoenas shall be grouped by the jurisdiction in which they are to be served. For each person to be served, an original subpoena and copy thereof shall be included. If the attorney desires a return copy of the transmittal sheet as proof of receipt, he shall also enclose an additional copy of the transmittal sheet together with an envelope addressed to the attorney with sufficient first class postage affixed. Upon receipt of such transmittal, the transmittal sheet shall be date-stamped and, if the extra copy and above-described envelope are provided, the copy shall also be date-stamped and returned to the attorney-at-law in the above-described envelope.

However, when such transmittal does not comply with the provisions of this section, the sheriff may promptly return such transmittal if accompanied by a short description of such noncompliance. An attorney may not issue a summons in any of the following civil proceedings: (a) habeas corpus under Article 3 (§ 8.01-654 et seq.) of Chapter 25 of this title, (b) delinquency or abuse and neglect proceedings under Article 3 (§ 16.1-241 et seq.) of Chapter 11 of Title 16.1, (c) civil forfeiture proceedings, (d) habitual offender proceedings under Article 9 (§ 46.2-351 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of Title 46.2, (e) administrative license suspension pursuant to § 46.2-391.2, and (f) petition for writs of mandamus or prohibition in connection with criminal proceedings. A sheriff shall not be required to serve an attorney-issued subpoena that is not issued at least five business days prior to the date that attendance is desired.

In other cases, if attendance is desired, the summons may be issued by the clerk of the circuit court of the county or city in which the attendance is desired.

A summons shall express on whose behalf, and in what case or about what matter, the witness is to attend. Failure to respond to any such summons shall be punishable by the court in which the proceeding is pending as for contempt. When any subpoena is served less than five calendar days before appearance is required, the court may, after considering all of the circumstances, refuse to enforce the subpoena for lack of adequate notice. If any subpoena is served less than five calendar days before appearance is required upon any judicial officer generally incompetent to testify pursuant to § 19.2-271, such subpoena shall be without legal force or effect unless the subpoena has been issued by a judge.

B. No subpoena shall, without permission of the court first obtained, issue for the attendance of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, or Attorney General of this Commonwealth, a judge of any court thereof; the President or Vice President of the United States; any member of the President's Cabinet; any ambassador or consul; or any military officer on active duty holding the rank of admiral or general.

Code 1950, §§ 8-296, 8-297; 1952, c. 122; 1977, c. 617; 1992, c. 506; 2000, c. 813; 2002, c. 463; 2004, c. 335; 2007, c. 199; 2010, cc. 302, 486; 2016, c. 173; 2019, c. 519.

§ 8.01-407.1. Identity of persons communicating anonymously over the Internet.

A. In civil proceedings where it is alleged that an anonymous individual has engaged in Internet communications that are tortious, any subpoena seeking information held by a nongovernmental person or entity that would identify the tortfeasor shall be governed by the following procedure unless more expedited scheduling directions have been ordered by the court upon consideration of the interests of each person affected thereby:

1. At least thirty days prior to the date on which disclosure is sought, a party seeking information identifying an anonymous communicator shall file with the appropriate circuit court a complete copy of the subpoena and all items annexed or incorporated therein, along with supporting material showing:

a. That one or more communications that are or may be tortious or illegal have been made by the anonymous communicator, or that the party requesting the subpoena has a legitimate, good faith basis to contend that such party is the victim of conduct actionable in the jurisdiction where the suit was filed. A copy of the communications that are the subject of the action or subpoena shall be submitted.

b. That other reasonable efforts to identify the anonymous communicator have proven fruitless.

c. That the identity of the anonymous communicator is important, is centrally needed to advance the claim, relates to a core claim or defense, or is directly and materially relevant to that claim or defense.

d. That no motion to dismiss, motion for judgment on the pleadings, or judgment as a matter of law, demurrer or summary judgment-type motion challenging the viability of the lawsuit of the underlying plaintiff is pending. The pendency of such a motion may be considered by the court in determining whether to enforce, suspend or strike the proposed disclosure obligation under the subpoena.

e. That the individuals or entities to whom the subpoena is addressed are likely to have responsive information.

f. If the subpoena sought relates to an action pending in another jurisdiction, the application shall contain a copy of the pleadings in such action, along with the mandate, writ or commission of the court where the action is pending that authorizes the discovery of the information sought in the Commonwealth.

2. Two copies of the subpoena and supporting materials set forth in subdivision A. 1. a. through f. shall be served upon the person to whom it is addressed along with payment sufficient to cover postage for mailing one copy of the application within the United States by registered mail, return receipt requested.

3. Except where the anonymous communicator has consented to disclosure in advance, within five business days after receipt of a subpoena and supporting materials calling for disclosure of identifying information concerning an anonymous communicator, the individual or entity to whom the subpoena is addressed shall (i) send an electronic mail notification to the anonymous communicator reporting that the subpoena has been received if an e-mail address is available and (ii) dispatch one copy thereof, by registered mail or commercial delivery service, return receipt requested, to the anonymous communicator at his last known address, if any is on file with the person to whom the subpoena is addressed.

4. At least seven business days prior to the date on which disclosure is sought under the subpoena, any interested person may file a detailed written objection, motion to quash, or motion for protective order. Any such papers filed by the anonymous communicator shall be served on or before the date of filing upon the party seeking the subpoena and the party to whom the subpoena is addressed. Any such papers filed by the party to whom the subpoena is addressed shall be served on or before the date of filing upon the party seeking the subpoena and the anonymous communicator whose identifying information is sought. Service is effective when it has been mailed, dispatched by commercial delivery service, transmitted by facsimile, or delivered to counsel of record and to parties having no counsel.

5. Any written objection, motion to quash, or motion for protective order shall set forth all grounds relied upon for denying the disclosure sought in the subpoena and shall also address to the extent feasible (i) whether the identity of the anonymous communicator has been disclosed in any way beyond its recordation in the account records of the party to whom the subpoena is addressed, (ii) whether the subpoena fails to allow a reasonable time for compliance, (iii) whether it requires disclosure of privileged or other protected matter and no exception or waiver applies, or (iv) whether it subjects a person to undue burden.

6. The party to whom the subpoena is addressed shall not comply with the subpoena earlier than three business days before the date on which disclosure is due, to allow the anonymous communicator the opportunity to object. If any person files a written objection, motion to quash, or motion for protective order, compliance with the subpoena shall be deferred until the appropriate court rules on the obligation to comply. If an objection or motion is made, the party serving the subpoena shall not be entitled to inspect or copy the materials except pursuant to an order of the court on behalf of which the subpoena was issued. If an objection or motion has been filed, any interested person may notice the matter for a hearing. Two copies of any such notice shall be served upon the subpoenaed party, who shall mail one copy thereof, by registered mail or commercial delivery service, return receipt requested, to the anonymous communicator whose identifying information is the subject of the subpoena at that person's last known address.

B. The party requesting or issuing a subpoena for information identifying an anonymous Internet communicator shall serve along with each copy of such subpoena notices in boldface capital letters in substantially this form:

NOTICE TO INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER

WITHIN FIVE BUSINESS DAYS AFTER RECEIPT OF THIS SUBPOENA CALLING FOR IDENTIFYING INFORMATION CONCERNING YOUR CLIENT, SUBSCRIBER OR CUSTOMER, EXCEPT WHERE CONSENT TO DISCLOSURE HAS BEEN GIVEN IN ADVANCE, YOU ARE REQUIRED BY § 8.01-407.1 OF THE CODE OF VIRGINIA TO MAIL ONE COPY THEREOF, BY REGISTERED MAIL OR COMMERCIAL DELIVERY SERVICE, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED, TO THE CLIENT, SUBSCRIBER OR CUSTOMER WHOSE IDENTIFYING INFORMATION IS THE SUBJECT OF THE SUBPOENA. AT LEAST SEVEN BUSINESS DAYS PRIOR TO THE DATE ON WHICH DISCLOSURE IS SOUGHT YOU MAY, BUT ARE NOT REQUIRED TO, FILE A DETAILED WRITTEN OBJECTION, MOTION TO QUASH OR MOTION FOR PROTECTIVE ORDER. ANY SUCH OBJECTION OR MOTION SHALL BE SERVED UPON THE PARTY INITIATING THE SUBPOENA AND UPON THE CLIENT, SUBSCRIBER OR CUSTOMER WHOSE IDENTIFYING INFORMATION IS SOUGHT.

IF YOU CHOOSE NOT TO OBJECT TO THE SUBPOENA, YOU MUST ALLOW TIME FOR YOUR CLIENT, SUBSCRIBER OR CUSTOMER TO FILE HIS OWN OBJECTION, THEREFORE YOU MUST NOT RESPOND TO THE SUBPOENA ANY EARLIER THAN THREE BUSINESS DAYS BEFORE THE DISCLOSURE IS DUE.

IF YOU RECEIVE NOTICE THAT YOUR CLIENT, SUBSCRIBER OR CUSTOMER HAS FILED A WRITTEN OBJECTION, MOTION TO QUASH OR MOTION FOR PROTECTIVE ORDER REGARDING THIS SUBPOENA, OR IF YOU FILE A MOTION TO QUASH THIS SUBPOENA, NO DISCLOSURE PURSUANT TO THE SUBPOENA SHALL BE MADE EXCEPT PURSUANT TO AN ORDER OF THE COURT ON BEHALF OF WHICH THE SUBPOENA WAS ISSUED.

NOTICE TO INTERNET USER

THE ATTACHED PAPERS MEAN THAT ____________________ (INSERT NAME OF PARTY REQUESTING OR CAUSING ISSUANCE OF THE SUBPOENA) HAS EITHER ASKED THE COURT TO ISSUE A SUBPOENA, OR A SUBPOENA HAS BEEN ISSUED, TO YOUR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER ____________________ (INSERT NAME OF INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER) REQUIRING PRODUCTION OF INFORMATION REGARDING YOUR IDENTITY. UNLESS A DETAILED WRITTEN OBJECTION IS FILED WITH THE COURT, THE SERVICE PROVIDER WILL BE REQUIRED BY LAW TO RESPOND BY PROVIDING THE REQUIRED INFORMATION. IF YOU BELIEVE YOUR IDENTIFYING INFORMATION SHOULD NOT BE DISCLOSED AND OBJECT TO SUCH DISCLOSURE, YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO FILE WITH THE CLERK OF COURT A DETAILED WRITTEN OBJECTION, MOTION TO QUASH THE SUBPOENA OR MOTION TO OBTAIN A PROTECTIVE ORDER. YOU MAY ELECT TO CONTACT AN ATTORNEY TO REPRESENT YOUR INTERESTS. IF YOU ELECT TO FILE A WRITTEN OBJECTION, MOTION TO QUASH, OR MOTION FOR PROTECTIVE ORDER, IT SHOULD BE FILED AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, AND MUST IN ALL INSTANCES BE FILED NO LESS THAN SEVEN BUSINESS DAYS BEFORE THE DATE ON WHICH DISCLOSURE IS DUE (LISTED IN THE SUBPOENA). IF YOU ELECT TO FILE A WRITTEN OBJECTION OR MOTION AGAINST THIS SUBPOENA, YOU MUST AT THE SAME TIME SEND A COPY OF THAT OBJECTION OR MOTION TO BOTH YOUR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER AND THE PARTY WHO REQUESTED THE SUBPOENA. IF YOU WISH TO OPPOSE THE ATTACHED SUBPOENA, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, YOU OR YOUR ATTORNEY MAY FILE A WRITTEN OBJECTION, A MOTION TO QUASH THE SUBPOENA, OR A MOTION FOR A PROTECTIVE ORDER OR YOU MAY USE THE FORM BELOW, WHICH MUST BE FILED WITH THE COURT AND SERVED UPON THE PARTY REQUESTING THE SUBPOENA AND THE INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER BY MAILING AT LEAST SEVEN BUSINESS DAYS PRIOR TO THE DATE SET IN THE SUBPOENA FOR DISCLOSURE:

__________________________________________________
Name of Court Listed on Subpoena

__________________________________________________
Name of Party Seeking Information

Case No. ____________________

OBJECTION TO SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

I object to the Subpoena Duces Tecum addressed to ____________________ for the following reasons:

[Name of Internet Service Provider to Whom the Subpoena is Addressed]

(Please PRINT. Set forth, in detail, all reasons why the subpoena should not be complied with, and in addition, state (i) whether the identity of the anonymous communicator has been disclosed in any fashion, (ii) whether the subpoena fails to allow a reasonable time for compliance, (iii) whether it requires disclosure of privileged or other protected matter and no exception or waiver applies, or (iv) whether it subjects a person to undue burden.)

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

(attach additional sheets if needed)

Respectfully Submitted,

__________________________________________________
John Doe

__________________________________________________
Enter e-mail nickname or other alias used in communicating via the Internet service provider to whom the subpoena is addressed.

CERTIFICATE

I hereby certify that a true copy of the above Objection to Subpoena Duces Tecum was mailed this _____ day of ____________________, (month, year), to

__________________________________________________
(Name and address of party seeking information) and

__________________________________________________
(Name and address of Internet Service Provider)

__________________________________________________
John Doe

__________________________________________________
Enter e-mail nickname or other alias used in communicating via the Internet service provider to whom the subpoena is addressed.

2002, c. 875.

§ 8.01-408. Recognizance taken upon continuance of case.

Upon the continuance of any civil case in a court, the court shall at the request of any party litigant require such party's witnesses then present to enter into recognizance in such penalty as the court may deem proper, either with or without security, for their appearance to give evidence in such case on such day as may then be fixed for the trial thereof, such recognizance to be taken, conditioned, and entered of record in the same manner provided in §§ 19.2-135 to 19.2-137, for taking recognizance.

Code 1950, § 8-298; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-409. When court may have process for witness executed by its own officer in another county or city.

Whenever on the calling or during the trial of a civil case in any court it appears to the court that it is necessary to have a witness from a county or city other than that of trial, the summons, rule, or attachment issued for such witness from the trial court may, when the court so orders, be executed by its officers in any county or city of the Commonwealth, for which services the officer shall be allowed a reasonable compensation by the court.

Code 1950, § 8-299; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-410. Inmates as witnesses in civil actions.

Whenever any party in a civil action in any circuit court in this Commonwealth requires as a witness in his behalf, an inmate in a state or local correctional facility as defined in § 53.1-1, the court, on the application of such party or his attorney may, in its discretion and upon consideration of the importance of the personal appearance of the witness and the nature of the offense for which he is imprisoned, issue an order to the Director of the Department of Corrections to deliver such witness to the sheriff of the jurisdiction of the court issuing the order. If authorized by the court, the clerk of the circuit court or a deputy clerk may issue these orders on behalf of the court. The sheriff shall transport the inmate to the court to testify as such witness, and after he has testified and been released as such witness, the sheriff shall return the witness to the custody of the Department.

If necessary the sheriff may confine the inmate for the night in any convenient local correctional facility.

Under such rules and regulations as the superintendent of such an institution may prescribe, any party to a civil action in any circuit court in this Commonwealth may take the deposition of an inmate in the facility, which deposition, when taken, may be admissible in evidence as other depositions in civil actions.

The party seeking the testimony of such inmate shall advance a sum sufficient to defray the expenses and compensation of the correctional officers and sheriff, which the court shall tax as other costs.

For the purposes of this section, "correctional officers" shall have the same meaning as provided in § 53.1-1.

Code 1950, § 8-300.1; 1952, c. 487; 1966, c. 227; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1977, c. 617; 1998, c. 596; 2001, c. 513; 2002, cc. 515, 544.

Article 6. Uniform Foreign Depositions Act.

§ 8.01-411. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 701, cl. 2.

Article 6.1. Uniform Audio-Visual Deposition Act.

§ 8.01-412.2. Authorization of audio-visual deposition; official record; uses.

Any deposition may be recorded by audio-visual means without a stenographic record. Any party may make, at his own expense, a simultaneous stenographic or audio record of the deposition. Upon request and at his own expense, any party is entitled to an audio or audio-visual copy of the audio-visual recording.

The audio-visual recording is an official record of the deposition. A transcript prepared by a court reporter shall also be deemed an official record of the deposition. An audio-visual deposition may be used for any purpose and under any circumstances in which a stenographic deposition may be used.

For purposes of this article, "audio-visual" shall include video conferencing and teleconferencing.

1983, c. 305; 2000, c. 821.

§ 8.01-412.3. Notice of audio-visual deposition.

The notice for taking an audio-visual deposition and the subpoena for attendance at that deposition shall state that the deposition will be recorded by audio-visual means.

1983, c. 305.

§ 8.01-412.4. Procedure.

The taking of audio-visual depositions shall be in accordance with the rules of the Supreme Court generally applicable to depositions. However, the following procedure shall be observed in recording an audio-visual deposition:

The deposition must begin with an oral or written statement on camera which includes (i) each operator's name and business address or, if applicable, the identity of the video conferencing or teleconferencing proprietor and locations participating in the video conference or teleconference; (ii) the name and business address of the operator's employer; (iii) the date, time and place of the deposition; (iv) the caption of the case; (v) the name of the witness; (vi) the party on whose behalf the deposition is being taken; (vii) with respect to video conferencing or teleconferencing, the identities of persons present at the deposition and the location of each such person; and (viii) any stipulations by the parties.

In addition, all counsel present on behalf of any party or witness shall identify themselves on camera. The oath for witnesses shall be administered on camera. If the length of a deposition requires the use of more than one recording unit, the end of each unit and the beginning of each succeeding unit shall be announced on camera. At the conclusion of a deposition, a statement shall be made on camera that the deposition is concluded. A statement may be made on camera setting forth any stipulations made by counsel concerning the custody of the audio-visual recording and exhibits or other pertinent matters.

All objections must be made as in the case of stenographic depositions. In any case where the court orders the audio-visual recording to be edited prior to its use, the original recording shall not be altered but shall be maintained as is.

Unless otherwise stipulated by the parties, the original audio-visual recording of a deposition, any copy edited pursuant to an order of the court, and exhibits shall be filed with the clerk of the court in accordance with the rules of the Supreme Court.

1983, c. 305; 1993, c. 208; 2000, c. 821.

§ 8.01-412.5. Costs.

In any case where a deposition taken pursuant to this article does not conform to the requirements for use of such deposition as provided in the rules of the Supreme Court, the expense of conforming the recording shall be borne by the proponent of the deposition.

1983, c. 305; 1984, c. 95.

§ 8.01-412.6. Promulgation of rules for standards and guidelines.

The Supreme Court may promulgate rules establishing standards for audio-visual equipment and guidelines for taking and using audio-visual depositions.

1983, c. 305.

§ 8.01-412.7. Short title.

This article may be cited as the "Uniform Audio-Visual Deposition Act."

1983, c. 305.

Article 6.2. Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act.

§ 8.01-412.8. Short title.

This article may be cited as the Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act.

2009, c. 701.

§ 8.01-412.9. Definitions.

For purposes of this article, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Foreign jurisdiction" means a state other than the Commonwealth.

"Foreign subpoena" means a subpoena issued under authority of a court of record of a foreign jurisdiction.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government, or governmental subdivision, agency or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

"Subpoena" means a document, however denominated, issued under the authority of a court of record requiring a person to:

1. Attend and give testimony at a deposition;

2. Produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, documents, records, electronically stored information, or tangible things in the possession, custody, or control of the person; or

3. Permit inspection of premises under the control of the person.

2009, c. 701.

§ 8.01-412.10. Issuance of subpoena.

A. To request the issuance of a subpoena under this article, a party shall submit to the clerk of court in the circuit in which discovery is sought to be conducted in the Commonwealth (i) a foreign subpoena and (ii) a written statement that the law of the foreign jurisdiction grants reciprocal privileges to citizens of the Commonwealth for taking discovery in the jurisdiction that issued the foreign subpoena.

B. When a party submits a foreign subpoena to a clerk of court in the Commonwealth, the clerk, in accordance with that court's procedure, shall promptly issue a subpoena for service upon the person to which the foreign subpoena is directed.

C. A subpoena under subsection B shall:

1. Incorporate the terms used in the foreign subpoena; and

2. Contain or be accompanied by the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of all counsel of record in the proceeding to which the subpoena relates and of any party not represented by counsel.

D. A request for the issuance of a subpoena under this article does not constitute an appearance in the courts of the Commonwealth, and no civil action need be filed in the circuit court of the Commonwealth.

E. The provisions of this article shall be in addition to other procedures authorized in the Code of Virginia and the rules of court for obtaining discovery, except that no subpoena issued in the Commonwealth pursuant to this article may be issued by any person other than the applicable circuit court clerk of court in the Commonwealth, in accordance with subsections A and B.

2009, c. 701; 2018, c. 530.

§ 8.01-412.11. Service of subpoena.

A subpoena issued by a clerk of court under this article shall be served in compliance with the applicable statutes of the Commonwealth for service of a subpoena.

2009, c. 701.

§ 8.01-412.12. Deposition, production, and inspection.

Statutes and rules applicable in actions pending in the circuit courts of the Commonwealth with respect to compliance with subpoenas to attend and give testimony, produce designated books, documents, records, electronically stored information, or tangible things, or permit inspection of premises, shall apply to subpoenas issued under § 8.01-412.10.

2009, c. 701.

§ 8.01-412.13. Application to court.

An application to the court for a protective order or to enforce, quash, or modify a subpoena issued by a clerk of court under § 8.01-412.10 shall comply with the statutes and rules of court of the Commonwealth and be submitted to the court in the circuit in which discovery is to be conducted. A separate civil action need not be filed.

2009, c. 701.

§ 8.01-412.14. Uniformity of application and construction; reciprocal privileges.

In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration shall be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it. The privilege extended to persons in other states for discovery under this article shall only apply if the jurisdiction where the action is pending has extended a similar privilege to persons in the Commonwealth, by that jurisdiction's enactment of the Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act, a predecessor uniform act, or another comparable law or rule of court providing substantially similar mechanisms for use by out-of-state parties.

2009, c. 701.

§ 8.01-412.15. Application to pending actions.

This article applies to requests for discovery submitted on or after July 1, 2009.

2009, c. 701.

Article 7. Medical Evidence.

§ 8.01-413. Certain copies of health care provider's records or papers of patient admissible; right of patient, his attorney and authorized insurer to copies of such records or papers; subpoena; damages, costs and attorney fees.

A. In any case where the health care provider's original records or papers of any patient in a hospital or institution for the treatment of physical or mental illness are admissible or would be admissible as evidence, any typewritten copy, photograph, photostatted copy, or microphotograph or printout or other hard copy generated from computerized or other electronic storage, microfilm, or other photographic, mechanical, electronic, imaging, or chemical storage process thereof shall be admissible as evidence in any court of the Commonwealth in like manner as the original, if the printout or hard copy or microphotograph or photograph is properly authenticated by the employees having authority to release or produce the original records or papers.

Any health care provider whose records or papers relating to any such patient are subpoenaed for production as provided by law may comply with the subpoena by a timely mailing to the clerk issuing the subpoena or in whose court the action is pending properly authenticated copies, photographs or microphotographs in lieu of the originals. The court whose clerk issued the subpoena or, in the case of an attorney-issued subpoena, in which the action is pending, may, after notice to such health care provider, enter an order requiring production of the originals, if available, of any stored records or papers whose copies, photographs or microphotographs are not sufficiently legible.

Except as provided in subsection G, the party requesting the subpoena duces tecum or on whose behalf an attorney-issued subpoena duces tecum was issued shall be liable for the reasonable charges of the health care provider for the service of maintaining, retrieving, reviewing, preparing, copying, and mailing the items produced pursuant to subsections B2, B3, B4, and B6, as applicable.

B. Copies of a health care provider's records or papers shall be furnished within 30 days of receipt of such request to the patient, his attorney, his executor or administrator, or an authorized insurer upon such patient's, attorney's, executor's, administrator's, or authorized insurer's written request, which request shall comply with the requirements of subsection E of § 32.1-127.1:03. If a health care provider is unable to provide such records or papers within 30 days of receipt of such request, such provider shall notify the requester of such records or papers in writing of the reason for the delay and shall have no more than 30 days after the date of such written notice to comply with such request.

However, copies of a patient's records or papers shall not be furnished to such patient when the patient's treating physician or clinical psychologist, in the exercise of professional judgment, has made a part of the patient's records or papers a written statement that in his opinion the furnishing to or review by the patient of such records or papers would be reasonably likely to endanger the life or physical safety of the patient or another person, or that such records or papers make reference to a person, other than a health care provider, and the access requested would be reasonably likely to cause substantial harm to such referenced person. In any such case, if requested by the patient or his attorney or authorized insurer, such records or papers shall be furnished within 30 days of the date of such request to the patient's attorney or authorized insurer, rather than to the patient.

If the records or papers are not provided to the patient in accordance with this section, then, if requested by the patient, the health care provider denying the request shall comply with the patient's request to either (i) provide a copy of the records or papers to a physician or clinical psychologist of the patient's choice whose licensure, training, and experience, relative to the patient's condition, are at least equivalent to that of the treating physician or clinical psychologist upon whose opinion the denial is based, who shall, at the patient's expense, make a judgment as to whether to make the records or papers available to the patient or (ii) designate a physician or clinical psychologist, whose licensure, training, and experience, relative to the patient's condition, are at least equivalent to that of the treating physician or clinical psychologist upon whose opinion the denial is based and who did not participate in the original decision to deny the patient's request for his records or papers, who shall, at the expense of the provider denying access to the patient, review the records or papers and make a judgment as to whether to make the records or papers available to the patient. In either such event, the health care provider denying the request shall comply with the judgment of the reviewing physician or clinical psychologist.

Except as provided in subsection G, a reasonable charge may be made by the health care provider maintaining the records or papers for the cost of the services relating to the maintenance, retrieval, review, and preparation of the copies of the records or papers, pursuant to subsections B2, B3, B4, and B6, as applicable. Any health care provider receiving such a request from a patient's attorney or authorized insurer shall require a writing signed by the patient confirming the attorney's or authorized insurer's authority to make the request, which shall comply with the requirements of subsection G of § 32.1-127.1:03, and shall accept a photocopy, facsimile, or other copy of the original signed by the patient as if it were an original.

B1. A health care provider shall produce the records or papers in either paper, hard copy, or electronic format, as requested by the requester. If the health care provider does not maintain the items being requested in an electronic format and does not have the capability to produce such items in an electronic format, such items shall be produced in paper or other hard copy format.

B2. When the records or papers requested pursuant to subsection B1 are produced in paper or hard copy format from records maintained in (i) paper or other hard copy format or (ii) electronic storage, a health care provider may charge the requester a reasonable fee not to exceed $0.50 per page for up to 50 pages and $0.25 per page thereafter for such copies, $1 per page for hard copies from microfilm or other micrographic process, and a fee for search and handling not to exceed $20, plus all postage and shipping costs.

B3. When the records or papers requested pursuant to subsection B1 are produced in electronic format from records or papers maintained in electronic storage, a health care provider may charge the requester a reasonable fee not to exceed $0.37 per page for up to 50 pages and $0.18 per page thereafter for such copies and a fee for search and handling not to exceed $20, plus all postage and shipping costs. Except as provided in subsection B4, the total amount charged to the requester for records or papers produced in electronic format pursuant to this subsection, including any postage and shipping costs and any search and handling fee, shall not exceed $150 for any request made on and after July 1, 2017, but prior to July 1, 2021, or $160 for any request made on or after July 1, 2021.

B4. When any portion of records or papers requested to be produced in electronic format is stored in paper or other hard copy format at the time of the request and not otherwise maintained in electronic storage, a health care provider may charge a fee pursuant to subsection B2 for the production of such portion, and such production of such portion is not subject to any limitations set forth in subsection B3, whether such portion is produced in paper or other hard copy format or converted to electronic format as requested by the requester. Any other portion otherwise maintained in electronic storage shall be produced electronically. The total search and handling fee shall not exceed $20 for any production made pursuant to this subsection where the production contains both records or papers in electronic format and records or papers in paper or other hard copy format.

B5. Upon request, a patient's account balance or itemized listing of charges maintained by a health care provider shall be supplied at no cost up to three times every 12 months to either the patient or the patient's attorney.

B6. When the record requested is an X-ray series or study or other imaging study and is requested to be produced electronically, a health care provider may charge the requester a reasonable fee, which shall not exceed $25 per X-ray series or study or other imaging study, and a fee for search and handling, which shall not exceed $10, plus all postage and shipping costs. When an X-ray series or study or other imaging study is requested to be produced in hard copy format, or when a health care provider does not maintain such X-ray series or study or other imaging study being requested in an electronic format or does not have the capability to produce such X-ray series or study or other imaging study in an electronic format, a health care provider may charge the requester a reasonable fee, which may include a fee for search and handling not to exceed $10 and the actual cost of supplies for and labor of copying the requested X-ray series or study or other imaging study, plus all postage and shipping costs.

B7. Upon request by the patient, or his attorney, of records or papers as to the cost to produce such records or papers, a health care provider shall inform the patient, or his attorney, of the most cost-effective method to produce such a request pursuant to subsection B2, B3, B4, or B6, as applicable.

B8. Production of records or papers to the patient, or his attorney, requested pursuant to this section shall not be withheld or delayed solely on the grounds of nonpayment for such records or papers.

C. Upon the failure of any health care provider to comply with any written request made in accordance with subsection B within the period of time specified in that subsection and within the manner specified in subsections E and F of § 32.1-127.1:03, the patient, his attorney, his executor or administrator, or authorized insurer may cause a subpoena duces tecum to be issued. The subpoena may be issued (i) upon filing a request therefor with the clerk of the circuit court wherein any eventual suit would be required to be filed, and upon payment of the fees required by subdivision A 18 of § 17.1-275, and fees for service or (ii) by the patient's attorney in a pending civil case in accordance with § 8.01-407 without payment of the fees established in subdivision A 23 of § 17.1-275.

A sheriff shall not be required to serve an attorney-issued subpoena that is not issued at least five business days prior to the date production of the record is desired.

No subpoena duces tecum for records or papers shall set a return date by which the health care provider must comply with such subpoena earlier than 15 days from the date of the subpoena, except by order of a court or administrative agency for good cause shown. When a court or administrative agency orders that records or papers be disclosed pursuant to a subpoena duces tecum earlier than 15 days from the date of the subpoena, a copy of such order shall accompany such subpoena.

As to a subpoena duces tecum issued with at least a 15-day return date, if no motion to quash is filed within 15 days of the issuance of the subpoena, the party requesting the subpoena duces tecum or the party on whose behalf the subpoena was issued shall certify to the subpoenaed health care provider that (a) the time for filing a motion to quash has elapsed and (b) no such motion was filed. Upon receipt of such certification, the subpoenaed health care provider shall comply with the subpoena duces tecum by returning the specified records or papers by either (1) the return date on the subpoena or (2) five days after receipt of such certification, whichever is later.

The subpoena shall direct the health care provider to produce and furnish copies of the records or papers to the requester or clerk, who shall then make the same available to the patient, his attorney, or his authorized insurer.

If the court finds that a health care provider willfully refused to comply with a written request made in accordance with subsection B, either (A) by failing over the previous six-month period to respond to a second or subsequent written request, properly submitted to the health care provider in writing with complete required information, without good cause or (B) by imposing a charge in excess of the reasonable expense of making the copies and processing the request for records or papers, the court may award damages for all expenses incurred by the patient or authorized insurer to obtain such copies, including a refund of fees if payment has been made for such copies, court costs, and reasonable attorney fees.

If the court further finds that such subpoenaed records or papers, subpoenaed pursuant to this subsection, or requested records or papers, requested pursuant to subsection B, are not produced for a reason other than compliance with § 32.1-127.1:03 or an inability to retrieve or access such records or papers, as communicated in writing to the subpoenaing party or requester within the time period required by subsection B, such subpoenaing party or requester shall be entitled to a rebuttable presumption that expenses and attorney fees related to the failure to produce such records or papers shall be awarded by the court.

D. The provisions of this section shall apply to any health care provider whose office is located within or outside the Commonwealth if the records pertain to any patient who is a party to a cause of action in any court in the Commonwealth, and shall apply only to requests made by the patient, his attorney, his executor or administrator, or any authorized insurer, in anticipation of litigation or in the course of litigation.

E. As used in this section, "health care provider" has the same meaning as provided in § 32.1-127.1:03 and includes an independent medical copy retrieval service contracted to provide the service of retrieving, reviewing, and preparing such copies for distribution.

F. Notwithstanding the authorization to admit as evidence patient records in the form of microphotographs, prescription dispensing records maintained in or on behalf of any pharmacy registered or permitted in the Commonwealth shall only be stored in compliance with §§ 54.1-3410, 54.1-3411 and 54.1-3412.

G. The provisions of this section governing fees that may be charged by a health care provider whose records are subpoenaed or requested pursuant to this section shall not apply in the case of any request by a patient for a copy of his own records, which shall be governed by subsection J of § 32.1-127.1:03. This subsection shall not be construed to affect other provisions of state or federal statute, regulation or any case decision relating to charges by health care providers for copies of records requested by any person other than a patient when requesting his own records pursuant to subsection J of § 32.1-127.1:03.

Code 1950, § 8-277.1; 1954, c. 329; 1976, c. 50; 1977, cc. 208, 617; 1981, c. 457; 1982, c. 378; 1990, cc. 99, 320; 1992, c. 696; 1994, cc. 390, 572; 1995, c. 586; 1997, c. 682; 1998, c. 470; 2000, cc. 813, 923; 2001, c. 567; 2002, cc. 463, 654; 2004, cc. 65, 335, 742, 1014; 2005, cc. 642, 697; 2009, c. 270; 2017, c. 457.

§ 8.01-413.01. Authenticity and reasonableness of medical bills; presumption.

A. In any action for personal injuries, wrongful death, or for medical expense benefits payable under a motor vehicle insurance policy issued pursuant to § 38.2-124 or § 38.2-2201, the authenticity of bills for medical services provided and the reasonableness of the charges of the health care provider shall be rebuttably presumed upon identification by the plaintiff of the original bill or a duly authenticated copy and the plaintiff's testimony (i) identifying the health care provider, (ii) explaining the circumstances surrounding his receipt of the bill, (iii) describing the services rendered, and (iv) stating that the services were rendered in connection with treatment for the injuries received in the event giving rise to the action. If the court finds the plaintiff is unable to provide such testimony, the plaintiff's guardian, agent under an advance directive, or agent under a power of attorney may identify the bill or an authenticated copy and provide testimony in lieu of the plaintiff. The presumption herein shall not apply unless the opposing party or his attorney has been furnished such medical records at least 30 days prior to the trial.

B. Where no medical bill is rendered or specific charge made by a health care provider to the insured, an insurer, or any other person, the usual and customary fee charged for the service rendered may be established by the testimony or the affidavit of an expert having knowledge of the usual and customary fees charged for the services rendered. If the fee is to be established by affidavit, the affidavit shall be submitted to the opposing party or his attorney at least 30 days prior to trial. The testimony or the affidavit is subject to rebuttal and may be admitted in the same manner as an original bill or authenticated copy described in subsection A.

1993, c. 610; 1996, c. 516; 1997, c. 503; 2016, c. 243.

§ 8.01-413.02. Admissibility of written reports or records of blood alcohol tests conducted in the regular course of providing emergency medical treatment.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the written reports or records of blood alcohol tests conducted upon persons receiving medical treatment in a hospital or emergency room are admissible in evidence as a business records exception to the hearsay rule in any civil proceeding.

B. The provisions of law pertaining to confidentiality of medical records and medical treatment shall not be applicable to reports or records of blood alcohol tests sought or admitted as evidence under the provisions of this section. Owners or custodians of such reports or records may disclose them, in accordance with regulations concerning patient privacy promulgated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, without obtaining consent or authorization for such disclosure. No person who is involved in taking blood or conducting blood alcohol tests shall be liable for civil damages for breach of confidentiality or unauthorized release of medical records because of the evidentiary use of blood alcohol test results under this section, or as a result of that person's testimony given pursuant to this section.

2005, c. 801.

Article 7.1. Employment Evidence.

§ 8.01-413.1. Certain copies of employment records or papers admissible; right of employee or his attorney to copies of such records or papers; subpoena; damages, costs and attorney's fees.

A. In any case where the original wage or salary records or papers of any employee are admissible or would be admissible as evidence, any typewritten copy, photograph, photostatic copy, or microphotograph thereof shall be admissible as evidence in any court of this Commonwealth in like manner as the original, provided the typewritten copy, photograph, photostatic copy or microphotograph is properly authenticated by the individual who would have authority to release or produce in court the original records. Any employer whose records or papers relating to any such employee are subpoenaed for production may comply with the subpoena by a timely mailing to the clerk issuing the subpoena properly authenticated copies, photographs or microphotographs in lieu of the originals. The court whose clerk issued the subpoena may, after notice to such employer, enter an order requiring production of the originals, if available, of any records or papers whose copies, photographs or microphotographs are not sufficiently legible. The party requesting the subpoena shall be liable for the reasonable charges of the employer for copying and mailing the items produced.

B. Every employer shall, upon receipt of a written request from a current or former employee or employee's attorney, furnish a copy of all records or papers retained by the employer in any format, reflecting (i) the employee's dates of employment with the employer; (ii) the employee's wages or salary during the employment; (iii) the employee's job description and job title during the employment; and (iv) any injuries sustained by the employee during the course of the employment with the employer. Such records or papers shall be provided within 30 days of receipt of such a written request.

If the employer is unable to provide such records or papers within 30 days, the employer shall notify the requester of such records or papers in writing of the reason for the delay and shall have no more than 30 days after the date of such written notice to comply with such request. If the records or papers are kept in paper or hard copy format, the employer may charge a reasonable fee per page for copying. If the records or papers are kept in electronic format, the employer may charge a reasonable fee for the electronic records.

C. Upon failure of any employer to comply with a written request made in accordance with subsection B, the employee or his attorney may cause a subpoena duces tecum to be issued. The subpoena may be issued (i) upon filing a request therefor with the clerk of the circuit court wherein any eventual suit would be required to be filed and upon payment of the fees required by subdivision A 18 of § 17.1-275 and fees for service or (ii) by the employee's attorney in a pending civil case in accordance with § 8.01-407 without payment of the fees established in subdivision A 23 of § 17.1-275.

D. If the court finds that an employer willfully refused to comply with a written request made in accordance with subsection B, either (i) by failing to respond to a second or subsequent written request, properly submitted by the employee in writing, without good cause or (ii) by imposing a charge in excess of the reasonable expense of making the copies and processing the request for records or papers, the court may award damages for all expenses incurred by the employee to obtain such copies, including a refund of fees if payment has been made for such copies, court costs, and reasonable attorney fees.

E. The provisions of this section shall not require copies of an employee's records or papers to be furnished to such employee when the employee's treating physician or clinical psychologist, in the exercise of his professional judgment, has made a part of the employee's records or papers a written statement that in his opinion the furnishing to or review by the employee of such records or papers would be reasonably likely to endanger the life or physical safety of the employee or another person, or that such records or papers make reference to a person, other than a health care provider, and the access requested would be reasonably likely to cause substantial harm to such referenced person. In any such case, if requested by the employee or his attorney or authorized insurer, such records or papers shall be furnished within 30 days of the date of such request to the employee's attorney or authorized insurer, rather than to the employee.

1987, c. 503; 2019, c. 733.

Article 8. Certain Affidavits.

§ 8.01-414. Affidavit prima facie evidence of nonresidence.

In any action, an affidavit that a witness or party resides out of this Commonwealth, or is out of it, shall be prima facie evidence of the fact, although such affidavit be made by a party, and without previous notice.

Code 1950, § 8-328; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-415. Affidavit evidence of publication.

When anything is authorized or required by law to be published in a newspaper, the certificate of the editor, publisher, business manager or assistant business manager, or the affidavit of any other person, shall be admitted as evidence of what is stated herein as to the publication.

Code 1950, § 8-329; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-416. Affidavit re damages to motor vehicle.

A. In a civil action in any court, whether sounding in contract or tort, to recover for damages to a motor vehicle in excess of $2,500, evidence as to such damages may be presented by an itemized estimate or appraisal sworn to by a person who also makes oath (i) that he is a motor vehicle repairman, estimator or appraiser qualified to determine the amount of such damage or diminution in value; (ii) as to the approximate length of time that he has engaged in such work; and (iii) as to the trade name and address of his business and employer. Such estimate shall not be admitted unless by consent of the adverse party or his counsel, or unless a true copy thereof is mailed or delivered to the adverse party or his counsel not less than seven days prior to the date fixed for trial.

B. In a civil action in any court, whether sounding in contract or tort, to recover for damages to a motor vehicle of $2,500 or less, evidence as to such damages may be presented by an itemized estimate or appraisal sworn to by a person who also makes oath (i) that he is a motor vehicle repairman, estimator or appraiser qualified to determine the amount of such damage or diminution in value; (ii) as to the approximate length of time that he has engaged in such work; and (iii) as to the trade name and address of his business and employer.

1977, c. 617; 1980, c. 183; 1990, c. 724; 2010, c. 343.

Article 9. Miscellaneous Provisions.

§ 8.01-417. Copies of written statements or transcriptions of verbal statements by injured person to be delivered to him; copies of subpoenaed documents to be provided to other party; disclosure of insurance policy limits.

A. Any person who takes from a person who has sustained a personal injury a signed written statement or voice recording of any statement relative to such injury shall deliver to such injured person a copy of such written statement forthwith or a verified typed transcription of such recording within 30 days from the date such statement was given or recording made, when and if the statement or recording is transcribed or in all cases when requested by the injured person or his attorney.

B. Unless otherwise ordered for good cause shown, when one party to a civil proceeding subpoenas documents, the subpoenaing party, upon receipt of the subpoenaed documents, shall, if requested in writing, provide true and full copies of the same to any other party or to the attorney for any other party, provided the other party or attorney for the other party pays the reasonable cost of copying or reproducing the subpoenaed documents. This provision does not apply where the subpoenaed documents are returnable to and maintained by the clerk of court in which the action is pending.

C. After he gives written notice that he represents an injured person, an attorney, or an individual injured in a motor vehicle accident if he is not represented by counsel, may, prior to the filing of a civil action for personal injuries sustained as a result of a motor vehicle accident, request in writing that the insurer disclose (i) the limits of liability of any motor vehicle liability or any personal injury liability insurance policy that may be applicable to the claim and (ii) the physical address, if known, of the alleged tortfeasor who is insured by the insurer, if not previously reported to the requesting party. The requesting party shall provide the insurer with the date of the motor vehicle accident, the name and last known address of the alleged tortfeasor if it has been reported to the requesting party, a copy of the accident report, if any, and the claim number, if available. The insurer shall provide the alleged tortfeasor's physical address within 30 days of the receipt of the request. When requesting the limits of liability, the requesting party shall also submit to the insurer the injured person's medical records, medical bills, and wage-loss documentation, if applicable, pertaining to the claimed injury. If (a) the total of the medical bills and wage losses submitted equals or exceeds $12,500 or (b) regardless of the amount of losses, the alleged tortfeasor was convicted of an offense under § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, 18.2-266.1, or 46.2-341.24 and the injured person's injuries arose from the same incident that resulted in such conviction, the insurer shall respond in writing within 30 days of receipt of the request and shall disclose the limits of liability at the time of the accident of all such policies, regardless of whether the insurer contests the applicability of the policy to the injured person's claim, and the insured's address. Disclosure of the policy limits under this section shall not constitute an admission that the alleged injury or damage is subject to the policy. Information concerning the insurance policy is not by reason of disclosure pursuant to this subsection admissible as evidence at trial.

D. After he gives written notice that he represents the personal representative of the estate of a decedent who died as a result of a motor vehicle accident, an attorney, or the personal representative of the estate of the decedent who died as a result of a motor vehicle accident if he is not represented by counsel, may, prior to the filing of a civil action for wrongful death as a result of a motor vehicle accident, request in writing that the insurer disclose (i) the limits of liability of any motor vehicle liability insurance policy or any personal injury liability insurance policy that may be applicable to the claim and (ii) the physical address, if known, of the alleged tortfeasor who is insured by the insurer, if not previously reported to the requesting party. The requesting party shall provide the insurer with the date of the motor vehicle accident, the name and last known address of the alleged tortfeasor if it has been reported to the requesting party, a copy of the accident report, if any, and the claim number, if available. The insurer shall provide the alleged tortfeasor's physical address within 30 days of the receipt of the request. When requesting the limits of liability, the requesting party shall submit to the insurer the death certificate of the decedent; the certificate of qualification of the personal representative of the decedent's estate; the names and relationships of the statutory beneficiaries of the decedent; medical bills, if any, supporting a claim for damages under subdivision 3 of § 8.01-52; and, if at the time the request is made a claim for damages under clause (i) of subdivision 2 of § 8.01-52 is anticipated, a description of the source, amount, and payment history of the claimed income loss for each beneficiary. The insurer shall respond in writing within 30 days of receipt of the request and shall disclose the limits of liability at the time of the accident of all such policies, regardless of whether the insurer contests the applicability of the policy to the personal representative's claim, and the insured's address. Disclosure of the policy limits under this section shall not constitute an admission that the alleged death or other damage is subject to the policy. Information concerning the insurance policy is not by reason of disclosure pursuant to this subsection admissible as evidence at trial.

E. For purposes of subsections C and D, if the alleged tortfeasor has insurance coverage from a self-insured locality for a motor vehicle accident, as described in this section, and the locality is authorized by the alleged tortfeasor to accept service of process on behalf of the alleged tortfeasor and agrees to do so, the locality, in its discretion and instead of disclosing the alleged tortfeasor's home address, may disclose the insured's work address and the name and address of the person who shall accept service of process on behalf of the alleged tortfeasor. If the locality makes such a disclosure, the locality shall not be required to disclose the alleged tortfeasor's home address.

F. As used in subsections C and D, "insurer" does not include the insurance agency or the insurance agent representing the alleged tortfeasor as the authorized representative or agent with respect to the alleged tortfeasor's motor vehicle insurance policy.

Code 1950, § 8-628.2; 1954, c. 390; 1977, c. 617; 2004, c. 345; 2005, c. 211; 2008, c. 819; 2010, cc. 354, 435; 2015, c. 711; 2016, cc. 241, 267; 2018, c. 479.

§ 8.01-417.01. Disclosure of certain homeowners insurance and personal injury liability insurance policy limits.

A. After written notice of representation by an attorney of an individual injured at the residence of another, such attorney, or an individual injured at the residence of another if such individual is not represented by counsel, may, prior to the filing of a civil action for personal injuries sustained at the residence of another, request in writing that the insurer of the residence disclose the limits of liability of any homeowners insurance policy or any personal injury liability insurance policy that may be applicable to the claim. The requesting party shall provide the insurer with the date the injury was sustained; the address of the residence at which the injury was sustained; the name of the owner of the residence; and the claim number, if available. The requesting party shall also submit to the insurer the injured person's medical records, medical bills, and wage-loss documentation, if applicable, pertaining to the claimed injury. If the total of the medical bills and wage losses submitted equals or exceeds $12,500, the insurer shall respond in writing within 30 days of receipt of the request and shall disclose the limits of liability at the time the injury was sustained of all such policies, regardless of whether the insurer contests the applicability of the policy to the injured person's claim. Disclosure of the policy limits under this section shall not constitute an admission that the alleged injury or damage is subject to the policy. Information concerning the insurance policy is not by reason of disclosure pursuant to this subsection admissible as evidence at trial.

B. After written notice of representation by an attorney of the personal representative of the estate of a decedent who died as a result of an injury sustained at the residence of another, such attorney, or the personal representative of the estate of a decedent who died as a result of an injury sustained at the residence of another if such personal representative is not represented by counsel, may, prior to the filing of a civil action for wrongful death as a result of an injury sustained at the residence of another, request in writing that the insurer of the residence disclose the limits of liability of any homeowners insurance policy or any personal injury liability insurance policy that may be applicable to the claim. The requesting party shall provide the insurer with the date the injury was sustained; the address of the residence at which the injury was sustained; the name of the owner of the residence; and the claim number, if available. The requesting party shall also submit to the insurer the death certificate of the decedent; the certificate of qualification of the personal representative of the decedent's estate; the names and relationships of the statutory beneficiaries of the decedent; medical bills, if any, supporting a claim for damages under subdivision 3 of § 8.01-52; and, if at the time the request is made a claim for damages under clause (i) of subdivision 2 of § 8.01-52 is anticipated, a description of the source, amount, and payment history of the claimed income loss for each beneficiary. The insurer shall respond in writing within 30 days of receipt of the request and shall disclose the limits of liability at the time the injury was sustained of all such policies, regardless of whether the insurer contests the applicability of the policy to the personal representative's claim. Disclosure of the policy limits under this section shall not constitute an admission that the alleged death or other damage is subject to the policy. Information concerning the insurance policy is not by reason of disclosure pursuant to this subsection admissible as evidence at trial.

C. As used in subsections A and B, "insurer" does not include the insurance agency or the insurance agent representing the homeowner as the authorized representative or agent with respect to any homeowners insurance policy or any personal injury liability insurance policy.

2017, c. 44.

§ 8.01-417.1. Use of portions of documents in evidence (Subsection (b) of Supreme Court Rule 2:106 derived from this section).

To expedite trial proceedings in civil cases, upon appropriate and timely motion by counsel, the court may permit the reading to the jury, or the introduction into evidence, of relevant portions of lengthy and complex documents without the necessity of having the jury read or receive the entire document. The court, in its discretion, may permit the entire document to be received by the jury, or may order the parties to edit from any such document admitted into evidence information that is irrelevant to the proceedings.

1992, c. 720.

§ 8.01-418. When plea of guilty or nolo contendere or forfeiture in criminal prosecution or traffic case admissible in civil action; proof of such plea.

Whenever, in any civil action, it is contended that any party thereto pled guilty or nolo contendere or suffered a forfeiture in a prosecution for a criminal offense or traffic infraction which arose out of the same occurrence upon which the civil action is based, evidence of said plea or forfeiture as shown by the records of the criminal court shall be admissible. Where the records of the court in which such prosecution was had are silent or ambiguous as to whether or not such plea was made or forfeiture occurred the court hearing the civil case shall admit such evidence on the question of such plea or forfeiture as may be relevant, and the question of whether such plea was made or forfeiture suffered shall be a question for the court to determine.

Code 1950, § 8-267.1; 1970, c. 354; 1977, c. 617; 1986, c. 46.

§ 8.01-418.1. Evidence of subsequent measures taken not admissible to prove negligence (Supreme Court Rule 2:407 derived from this section).

When, after the occurrence of an event, measures are taken which, if taken prior to the event would have made the event less likely to occur, evidence of such subsequently taken measures is not admissible to prove negligence or culpable conduct as a cause of the occurrence of the event; provided, that evidence of subsequent measures taken shall not be required to be excluded when offered for another purpose for which it may be admissible, including, but not limited to, proof of ownership, control, feasibility of precautionary measures if controverted, or for impeachment.

1978, c. 165.

§ 8.01-418.2. Evidence of polygraph examination inadmissible in any proceeding.

The analysis of any polygraph test charts produced during any polygraph examination administered to a party or witness shall not be admissible in any proceeding conducted pursuant to § 2.2-1202.1 or conducted by any county, city or town over the objection of any party except as to disciplinary or other actions taken against a polygrapher.

1993, c. 570; 1995, cc. 770, 818; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 8.01-418.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2007, c. 250, cl. 2.

§ 8.01-419. Table of life expectancy.

Whenever, in any case not otherwise specifically provided for, it is necessary to establish the expectancy of continued life of any person from any period of such person's life, whether he be living at the time or not, the following table shall be received in all courts and by all persons having power to determine litigation as evidence, with other evidence as to the health, constitution and habits of such person, of such expectancy represented by the figures in the following columns:

aBOTH
bAGESEXESMALEFEMALE
c077.474.780
d17774.379.5
e27673.378.5
f37572.477.6
g47471.476.6
h573.170.475.6
i672.169.474.6
j771.168.473.6
k870.167.472.6
l969.166.571.6
m1068.165.570.6
n1167.164.569.6
o1266.163.568.7
p1365.162.567.7
q1464.261.566.7
r1563.260.565.7
s1662.259.664.7
t1761.258.663.7
u1860.357.762.8
v1959.356.761.8
w2058.455.860.8
x2157.454.959.8
y2256.55458.9
z2355.55357.9
aa2454.652.156.9
ab2553.651.256
ac2652.750.355
ad2751.749.354
ae2850.848.453
af2949.847.452.1
ag3048.946.551.1
ah3147.945.650.1
ai324744.649.2
aj334643.748.2
ak3445.142.847.2
al3544.141.846.3
am3643.240.945.3
an3742.34044.4
ao3841.339.143.4
ap3940.438.142.5
aq4039.537.241.5
ar4138.636.340.6
as4237.635.439.7
at4336.734.538.7
au4435.833.637.8
av4534.932.836.9
aw463431.936
ax4733.13135.1
ay4832.330.234.1
az4931.429.333.2
ba5030.528.532.3
bb5129.627.631.4
bc5228.826.830.6
bd5327.92629.7
be5427.125.128.8
bf5526.224.327.9
bg5625.423.527
bh5724.622.726.2
bi5823.821.925.3
bj592321.224.5
bk6022.220.423.7
bl6121.419.622.8
bm6220.618.922
bn6319.818.221.2
bo6419.117.520.4
bp6518.416.819.7
bq6617.616.118.9
br6716.915.418.1
bs6816.214.717.4
bt6915.514.116.7
bu7014.813.415.9
bv7114.212.815.2
bw7213.512.214.5
bx7312.911.613.8
by7412.31113.2
bz7511.710.512.5
ca7611.19.911.9
cb7710.59.411.3
cc78108.910.7
cd799.48.410.1
ce808.97.99.5
cf818.47.59
cg827.978.4
ch837.56.67.9
ci8476.37.4
cj856.65.97
ck866.25.56.6
cl875.85.26.1
cm885.54.95.7
cn895.14.65.4
co904.84.35
cp914.544.7
cq924.23.84.4
cr9343.54.1
cs943.73.33.8
ct953.53.13.5
cu963.22.93.3
cv9732.73.1
cw982.82.52.9
cx992.62.42.7
cy100+2.52.22.5

Code 1950, § 8-263.1; 1966, c. 472; 1977, c. 617; 1986, c. 317; 1996, c. 394; 2009, c. 454.

§ 8.01-419.1. Motor vehicle value.

Whenever in any case not otherwise specifically provided for the value of an automobile is in issue, either civilly or criminally, the tabulated retail values set forth in the National Automobile Dealers' Association (NADA) "yellow" or "black" books or any vehicle valuation service regularly used and recognized in the automobile industry that is in effect on the relevant date, shall be admissible as evidence of fair market value on the relevant date.

The determination of value shall be subject to such other creditable evidence as any party may offer to demonstrate that the value as set forth in the NADA publication or any vehicle valuation service utilized by another party fails to reflect the actual condition of the vehicle and that therefore the value may be greater or less than that shown by the NADA publication or any vehicle valuation service.

1993, c. 759; 2006, c. 402.

§ 8.01-420. Depositions as basis for motion for summary judgment or to strike evidence.

A. Except as provided in subsections B and C, no motion for summary judgment or to strike the evidence shall be sustained when based in whole or in part upon any discovery depositions under Rule 4:5, unless all parties to the suit or action shall agree that such deposition may be so used. Notwithstanding the foregoing, requests for admissions for which the responses are submitted in support of a motion for summary judgment may be based in whole or in part upon any discovery depositions under Rule 4:5 and may include admitted facts learned or referenced in such a deposition, provided that any such request for admission shall not reference the deposition or require the party to admit that the deponent gave specific testimony.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, a motion for summary judgment seeking dismissal of any claim or demand for punitive damages may be sustained, as to the punitive damages claim or demand only, when based in whole or in part upon any discovery depositions under Rule 4:5. However, such a motion may not be based upon discovery depositions under Rule 4:5 with respect to any claim or demand for punitive damages based on the operation of a motor vehicle by a person while under the influence of alcohol, any narcotic drug, or any other self-administered intoxicant or drug.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, discovery depositions under Rule 4:5 and affidavits may be used in support of or in opposition to a motion for summary judgment in any action when the only parties to the action are business entities and the amount at issue is $50,000 or more.

Code 1950, § 8-315.1; 1973, c. 483; 1977, c. 617; 1978, c. 417; 2013, c. 76; 2019, cc. 10, 128.

§ 8.01-420.01. Limiting further disclosure of discoverable materials and information; protective order.

A. A protective order issued to prevent disclosure of materials or information related to a personal injury action or action for wrongful death produced in discovery in any cause shall not prohibit an attorney from voluntarily sharing such materials or information with an attorney involved in a similar or related matter, with the permission of the court, after notice and an opportunity to be heard to any party or person protected by the protective order, and provided the attorney who receives the material or information agrees, in writing, to be bound by the terms of the protective order.

B. The provisions of this section shall apply only to protective orders issued on or after July 1, 1989.

1989, c. 702.

§ 8.01-420.1. Abolition of common-law perpetuation of testimony.

The common-law proceeding to perpetuate testimony is abolished.

1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-420.2. Limitation on use of recorded conversations as evidence.

No mechanical recording, electronic or otherwise, of a telephone conversation shall be admitted into evidence in any civil proceeding unless (i) all parties to the conversation were aware the conversation was being recorded or (ii) the portion of the recording to be admitted contains admissions that, if true, would constitute criminal conduct which is the basis for the civil action, and one of the parties was aware of the recording and the proceeding is not one for divorce, separate maintenance or annulment of a marriage. The parties' knowledge of the recording pursuant to clause (i) shall be demonstrated by a declaration at the beginning of the recorded portion of the conversation to be admitted into evidence that the conversation is being recorded. This section shall not apply to emergency reporting systems operated by police and fire departments and by emergency medical services agencies, nor to any communications common carrier utilizing service observing or random monitoring pursuant to § 19.2-62.

1983, c. 503; 1992, c. 567; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

§ 8.01-420.3. Court reporters to provide transcripts; when recording may be stopped; use of transcript as evidence.

Upon the request of any counsel of record, or of any party not represented by counsel, and upon payment of the reasonable cost thereof, the court reporter covering any proceeding shall provide the requesting party with a copy of the transcript of such proceeding or any requested portion thereof.

The court shall not direct the court reporter to cease recording any portion of the proceeding without the consent of all parties or of their counsel of record.

Whenever a party seeks to introduce the transcript or record of the testimony of a witness at an earlier trial, hearing or deposition, it shall not be necessary for the reporter to be present to prove the transcript or record, provided the reporter duly certifies, in writing, the accuracy of the transcript or record.

1983, c. 505; 1990, c. 77.

§ 8.01-420.4. Taking of depositions.

A. Party Depositions. -- A deposition of a party, or any witness designated under Rule 4:5(b)(6) to testify on behalf of a party, shall be taken in the county or city in which suit is pending, in an adjacent county or city, at a place upon which the parties agree, or at a place that the court may, for good cause, designate. Good cause may include the expense or inconvenience of a non-resident party defendant appearing in one of the locations specified in this subsection. The restrictions as to parties set forth in this subsection shall not apply where no responsive pleading has been filed or an appearance otherwise made.

B. Non-party Witness Depositions. -- Unless otherwise provided by the law of the jurisdiction where a non-party witness resides, a deposition of a non-party witness shall be taken in the county or city where the non-party witness resides, is employed, or has his principal place of business; at a place upon which the witness and the parties to the litigation agree; or at a place that the court may, for good cause, designate.

1989, c. 209; 1991, c. 81; 1993, cc. 428, 940; 2005, c. 597.

§ 8.01-420.4:1. Taking of depositions; corporate officers.

A. For the purposes of this section, "officer" means the president, chief executive officer, chief operating officer, or chief financial officer of a publicly traded company or of a subsidiary of such company that employs 250 or more people.

B. In any action in which an officer's publicly traded company is a party, if a party issues a witness subpoena for the deposition of an officer prior to taking the deposition of a corporate representative pursuant to Supreme Court Rule 4:5(b)(6), and the officer, or company on the officer's behalf, files a motion for a protective order asserting that the discovery sought is obtainable from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive, in order to defeat such motion for a protective order, the burden is on the party seeking the deposition to show that (i) the officer's deposition is reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence, (ii) the officer may have personal knowledge of discoverable information that cannot reasonably be discovered through other means, and (iii) a deposition of a representative other than the officer or other methods of discovery are unsatisfactory, insufficient, or inadequate.

C. A motion for a protective order filed pursuant to subsection B shall include one or more proposed corporate employees available to be deposed instead of the officer, along with a description of the employee's role in the corporation, his knowledge relevant to the subject matter of the litigation, and the source of such knowledge, provided that the party opposing the motion has stated with reasonable particularity the matters on which the officer's examination is requested.

D. If a protective order is issued and the party seeking the deposition subsequently learns that the requirements set forth in subsection B can be met, then the party seeking the deposition may file for modification or lifting of the protective order.

E. The provisions of this section apply to a subpoena issued pursuant to the Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act (§ 8.01-412.8 et seq.) consistent with the provisions of subsection E of § 8.01-412.10.

2019, cc. 9, 50.

§ 8.01-420.5. Estoppel effect of judicial determination of employment status.

A final, unappealed order entered by a circuit court of this Commonwealth that a person is or is not an employee of another for the purpose of obtaining jurisdiction shall estop either of said parties from asserting otherwise in any subsequent action between such parties upon the same claim or cause of action before a court of this Commonwealth or the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission.

1997, c. 333.

§ 8.01-420.6. Number of witnesses whose depositions may be taken.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law or rule of court, there shall be no limit on the number of witnesses whose depositions may be taken by a party except by order of the court for good cause shown.

2001, c. 595.

§ 8.01-420.7. Attorney-client privilege and work product protection; limitations on waiver.

A. When disclosure of a communication or information covered by the attorney-client privilege or work product protection made in a proceeding or to any public body as defined in § 2.2-3701 operates as a waiver of the privilege or protection, the waiver extends to an undisclosed communication or information only if:

1. The waiver is intentional;

2. The disclosed and undisclosed communications or information concern the same subject matter; and

3. The disclosed and undisclosed communications or information ought in fairness be considered together.

B. Disclosure of a communication or information covered by the attorney-client privilege or work product protection made in a proceeding or to any public body as defined in § 2.2-3701 does not operate as a waiver of the privilege or protection if:

1. The disclosure is inadvertent;

2. The holder of the privilege or protection took reasonable steps to prevent disclosure; and

3. The holder promptly took reasonable steps to rectify the error, including, if applicable, complying with the provisions of subdivision (b) (6) (ii) of Rule 4:1 of the Rules of the Supreme Court.

C. A court may order that the privilege or protection is not waived by the disclosure connected with the litigation pending before the court, in which case the disclosure does not operate as a waiver in any other proceeding.

D. An agreement on the effect of the disclosure in a proceeding is binding only on the parties to the agreement, unless it is incorporated into a court order.

E. This section shall not limit any otherwise applicable waiver of attorney-client privilege or work product protection by an inmate who files an action challenging his conviction or sentence.

2010, c. 350.

§ 8.01-420.8. Protection of confidential information in court files.

A. Whenever a party files, or causes to be filed, with the court a motion, pleading, subpoena, exhibit, or other document containing a social security number or other identification number appearing on a driver's license, credit card, debit card, bank account, or other electronic billing and payment system, the party shall make reasonable efforts to redact all but the last four digits of the identification number.

B. The provisions of subsection A apply to all civil actions in circuit and district court, unless there is a specific statute to the contrary that applies to the particular type of proceeding in which the party is involved.

C. Nothing in this section shall create a private cause of action against the party or lawyer who filed the document or any court personnel, the clerk, or any employees of the clerk's office who received it for filing.

2014, c. 427.

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