Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 18. Executions and Other Means of Recovery

Article 1. Issue and Form; Motion to Quash.

§ 8.01-466. Clerk to issue fieri facias on judgment for money.

On a judgment for money, it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court in which such judgment was rendered, upon request of the judgment creditor, his assignee or his attorney, to issue a writ of fieri facias at the expiration of twenty-one days from the date of the entry of the judgment and place the same in the hands of a proper person to be executed and take his receipt therefor. The writ shall be issued together with the form for requesting a hearing on a claim of exemption from levy as provided in § 8.01-546.1. For good cause the court may order an execution to issue on judgments and decrees at an earlier period.

Code 1950, § 8-399; 1954, c. 620; 1976, c. 354; 1977, c. 617; 1986, c. 341; 1996, cc. 501, 608.

§ 8.01-467. What writs may not issue.

No writ of levari facias, writ of extendi facias, writ of elegit, writ of capias ad satisfaciendum, or writ of distringas shall be issued hereafter.

Code 1950, § 8-400; 1977, c. 617; 1984, c. 94.

§ 8.01-468. Executions against corporations.

Such executions as may issue against a natural person may issue against a corporation.

Code 1950, § 8-401; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-469. Executions on joint judgments.

When a judgment is against several persons jointly, executions thereon may be joint against all of them.

Code 1950, § 8-401; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-470. Writs on judgments for specific property.

On a judgment for the recovery of specific property, a writ of possession for personal property or a writ of eviction for real property may issue for the specific property pursuant to an order of possession entered by a court of competent jurisdiction, which shall conform to the judgment as to the description of the property and the estate, title, and interest recovered, and there may also be issued a writ of fieri facias for the damages or profits and costs. In cases of unlawful entry and detainer and of ejectment, the officer to whom a writ of eviction has been delivered to be executed shall, at least 72 hours before execution, serve notice of intent to execute, including the date and time of execution, as well as the rights afforded to tenants in §§ 55.1-1255 and 55.1-1416, together with a copy of the writ attached, on the defendant in person or, if the party to be served is not found at the specific property for which a writ of eviction has been issued, then service shall be effected by posting a copy of such process at the front door or at such other door as appears to be the main entrance of such property. The execution of the writ of eviction by the sheriff should occur within 15 calendar days from the date the writ of eviction is received by the sheriff, or as soon as practicable thereafter, but in no event later than 30 days from the date the writ of eviction is issued. An order of possession shall remain valid for 180 days from the date granted by the court. If a plaintiff cancels a writ of eviction, such plaintiff may request other writs of eviction during such 180-day period. In cases of unlawful entry and detainer and of ejectment, whenever the officer to whom a writ of eviction has been delivered to be executed finds the premises locked, he may, after declaring at the door the cause of his coming and demanding to have the door opened, employ reasonable and necessary force to break and enter the door and put the plaintiff in possession. The execution of the writ of eviction shall be effective against the tenants named in the writ of eviction and their authorized occupants, guests or invitees, and any trespassers in the premises. And an officer having a writ of possession for specific personal property, if he finds locked or fastened the building or place wherein he has reasonable cause to believe the property specified in the writ is located, may in the daytime, after notice to the defendant, his agent or bailee, break and enter such building or place for the purpose of executing such writ.

Code 1950, § 8-402; 1977, c. 617; 1991, c. 503; 2000, c. 640; 2001, c. 222; 2003, c. 259; 2007, c. 128; 2019, cc. 180, 700.

§ 8.01-471. Time period for issuing writs of eviction in unlawful entry and detainer; when returnable.

Writs of eviction, in case of unlawful entry and detainer, shall be issued within 180 days from the date of judgment for possession and shall be made returnable within 30 days from the date of issuing the writ. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a writ of eviction not executed within 30 days from the date of issuance shall be vacated as a matter of law without further order of the court that entered the order of possession, and no further action shall be taken by the clerk. No writ shall issue, however, in cases under the Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act (§ 55.1-1200 et seq.) if, following the entry of judgment for possession, the landlord has entered into a new written rental agreement with the tenant, as described in § 55.1-1250. A writ of eviction may be requested by the plaintiff or the plaintiff's attorney or agent.

Code 1950, § 8-403; 1977, c. 617; 1999, c. 683; 2003, c. 427; 2006, c. 667; 2013, c. 63; 2019, cc. 180, 700.

§ 8.01-472. Writs on judgments for personal property.

When the judgment is for personal property, the plaintiff may, at his option, have a fieri facias for the alternative value, instead of a writ of possession, and the damages and costs.

Code 1950, § 8-404; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-473. Judgment for benefit of other person than plaintiff; remedies of such person.

When an execution issues on a judgment, for the benefit, in whole or in part, of any person other than the plaintiff, if the fact appears by the record, the clerk shall, in the execution, or by an endorsement thereon, state the extent of the interest therein of such person; and such person, either in his own name or that of the plaintiff, may, as a party injured, prosecute a suit or motion against the officer.

Code 1950, § 8-405; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-474. What writ of fieri facias to command.

By a writ of fieri facias, the officer shall be commanded to make the money therein mentioned out of the goods and chattels of the person against whom the judgment is.

Code 1950, § 8-406; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-475. Subsequent executions.

Subject to the limitations prescribed by Chapter 17 (§ 8.01-426 et seq.) of this title, a party obtaining an execution may sue out other executions at his own costs, though the return day of a former execution has not arrived; and may sue out other executions at the defendant's costs, when on a former execution there is a return by which it appears that the writ has not been executed, or that it or any part of the amount thereof is not levied, or that property levied on has been discharged by legal process which does not prevent a new execution on the judgment. In no case shall there be more than one satisfaction for the same money or thing.

And the fact that a judgment creditor may have availed himself of the benefit of any other remedies under this chapter, shall not prevent him from issuing, from time to time, without impairing his lien under it, other executions upon his judgment until the same is satisfied.

Code 1950, § 8-407; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-476. New execution after loss of property sold under indemnifying bond.

When property sold under an execution, or its value, is recovered from an obligor on an indemnifying bond given before such sale, or from a purchaser having a right of action on such bond, the person having such execution, or his personal representative, may, by motion, after reasonable notice to the person, or the personal representative of the person, against whom the execution was, obtain a new execution against him, without credit for the amount for which the property was sold under the former execution. Such motion shall be made within the period of time prescribed by § 8.01-255.2.

Code 1950, § 8-408; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-477. When executions may be quashed; how proceedings thereon stayed.

A motion to quash an execution may, after reasonable notice to the adverse party, be heard and decided by the court which issued the execution. Such court, on the application of the plaintiff in the motion, may make an order staying the proceedings on the execution until the motion be heard and determined, the order not to be effectual until bond be given in such penalty and with such condition, and either with or without surety, as the court may prescribe. The clerk from whose office the execution issued, shall take the bond and make as many copies of the order as may be necessary and endorse thereon that the bond required has been given; and a copy shall be served on the plaintiff in the execution and on the officer in whose hands the execution is placed.

Code 1950, § 8-410; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-477.1. Claims of exemption from execution.

The procedures specified in § 8.01-546.2 shall govern further proceedings regarding claims of exemption from levy.

1986, c. 341.