Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
2/26/2024

Part III. Manual of Practice for Waterworks Design

Article 1
General [Repealed]

12VAC5-590-640. General design considerations.

A. Waterworks shall conform to the Public Water Supply Law, Article 2 of Chapter 6 of Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia. Community waterworks shall be designed to provide for the estimated water demand for 10 to 30 years hence under predicted growth conditions. All waterworks shall be designed so that they can readily be increased in capacity except where circumstances preclude the probability of expansion. Expansion by modular steps should be considered.

B. Waterworks design shall be based on sound engineering practice substantiated in the engineer's design and approved by the department. Historical data or typical usage figures of waterworks with similar service area characteristics and appropriate peaking factors shall be used to support the design. USBC and design standards may be referenced for noncommunity waterworks, as appropriate.

1. Community waterworks shall be designed to meet or exceed the estimated maximum daily water demand of the service area at the design year. The design shall account for diurnal demand patterns and special demands placed on the waterworks such as firefighting, industrial use, and wholesale customers.

2. Noncommunity waterworks shall be designed to meet or exceed the peak hour demand of the proposed services. Either pump capacity or storage capacity or both may be utilized to meet the peak hour demand.

3. Effective storage.

a. Community waterworks shall provide sufficient finished water effective storage to enable the waterworks to meet the estimated maximum daily water demand at the design year. Compliance with this requirement is normally determined by the use of a hydraulic model. In the absence of a hydraulic model, effective storage shall be a minimum of one-half of estimated maximum daily water demand of the waterworks at the design year.

b. There is no minimum finished water effective storage requirement for noncommunity waterworks.

c. Effective storage of atmospheric storage tanks shall be the volume available to store finished water in atmospheric reservoirs or tanks, measured as the difference between the overflow elevation, or the normal maximum operating level, and the minimum storage elevation. For atmospheric tanks that use a portion of their volume to generate distribution system pressure, the minimum storage elevation is that elevation of water in the tank that can provide a minimum pressure of 20 psig throughout that tank's service area under distribution system-wide maximum daily water demand.

d. Effective storage of pressure storage tanks shall be one-third of the nominal pressure vessel storage capacity.

C. Waterworks shall be designed to provide a minimum residual pressure of 20 psig at all service connections. Design shall be based on the most restrictive conditions, defaulting to the greater of peak hour demand or maximum daily water demand plus applicable fire flows. Fire flow design values shall be identified by the engineer after coordination among the owner, local and state building officials, and fire officials. Distribution system hydraulic modeling may be used to demonstrate compliance with this requirement.

D. Materials used in the construction of waterworks that are in contact with the product water shall comply with NSF/ANSI/CAN Standard 61-2020 or an approved equivalent.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.01 § 3.1, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-650. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.02 § 3.2, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-660. Site location.

A. Wells and water treatment plants shall be located above the projected 100-year flood elevation. A lower elevation may be considered if it can be adequately shown that the wells or treatment plants can be protected from flooding. Site grading and adequate drainage shall be provided. Springs subject to flooding shall not be approved. See 12VAC5-590-840 E for additional well location requirements.

B. The waterworks pumping and treatment facilities shall be readily accessible in all seasons. Access roads shall be provided.

C. Functional aspects of the site shall be considered in design, including the convenience of transportation facilities to the site and the availability of electric power from more than one source.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.03 § 3.3, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-670. Site size.

A. The area reserved around a well or spring site shall conform to 12VAC5-590-840 D and 12VAC5-590-840 E.

B. The treatment plant site shall be of ample size to accommodate expansion, and ample space shall be provided at the treatment site for adequate handling of treatment plant residuals.

C. The disposal of water treatment plant residuals shall conform to the State Water Control Law, Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.04 § 3.4, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-680. Treatment process selection and BAT.

A. The following shall be considered when selecting treatment processes: (i) the quality and variability of the source water and (ii) possible future changes in the quality and quantity of the source water.

B. The design shall employ best available technologies (BAT) for achieving compliance with the PMCLs for organic chemicals listed in 40 CFR 141.61 and BAT for achieving compliance with the PMCLs for inorganic chemicals listed in 40 CFR 141.62.

C. The design shall employ BAT for achieving compliance with the PMCLs for radionuclides listed in 40 CFR 141.66, including radium-226, radium-228, uranium, gross alpha particle activity, beta particle, and photon radioactivity. The design shall consider the system size and use limitations for specific technologies listed in 40 CFR 141.66.

D. Alternative technologies may be employed when approved by the department.

E. When treatment technique requirements have been established instead of PMCLs or ALs, the design shall employ processes specified by these requirements.

F. POU devices shall not be used to achieve compliance with the treatment technique for microbial contaminants. POE or POU devices may be considered for short-term interim use when approved as a condition of a variance or exemption issued by the commissioner.

G. For softening, TDS removal, organics removal, and other treatment purposes, the use of RO and NF shall be in accordance with ANSI/AWWA Standard B114-16, or as allowed by the department on a case-by-case basis.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.05 § 3.5, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-690. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.06 § 3.6, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-700. Metering total water production.

A. The design of all community waterworks shall provide metering of total water production.

B. The design of all NTNCs that provide treatment or have a design capacity of greater than 300,000 gallons per month shall provide metering of total water production.

C. The design of all TNCs that provide treatment or have a design capacity of greater than 300,000 gallons per month shall provide metering of total water production.

D. If the waterworks treatment process results in a waste flow, including filter backwash, ion exchange regenerate, or residual solids, then the design shall provide metering of total source water withdrawn and finished water produced.

E. Metering of total water production at waterworks that do not meet the conditions found in subsections A through D of this section should be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.07 § 3.7, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-710. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.08 § 3.8, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-720. Building design and construction.

A. In accordance with the USBC, Chapter 6 (§ 36.97 et seq.) of Title 36 of the Code of Virginia, and the Statewide Fire Prevention Code (§ 27.94 et seq.) of Title 27 of the Code of Virginia, all waterworks building design and construction shall include necessary features that will assure a functional and safe environment, including adequate ventilation, lighting, heating, drainage, dehumidification, and accessibility to equipment for operation and maintenance.

B. Consistent with subdivision A of this section, the waterworks building design and layout shall incorporate safety provisions to protect waterworks operators and other personnel, in accordance with Article 1 (§ 40.1-22) of Chapter 3 of Title 40.1 of the Code of Virginia. These provisions must comply with federal occupational safety and health standards and regulations promulgated under 29 USC § 651 et seq. and shall include separation of incompatible chemicals, confined space entry, handrails and guards, ladders, lighting, warning signs, smoke detectors, chlorine leak detectors, protective equipment, safety showers, eye washes, and fire extinguishers.

C. Positive identification of the contents of a piping system shall be by lettered legend giving the name of the contents. Arrows shall be used to indicate the direction of flow. Legends shall be applied close to valves, adjacent to changes in direction and branches, where pipes pass through walls and floors, and at frequent intervals on straight pipe runs. The lettering shall be of such color, size, and location so as to be clearly visible and readable.

D. Common division walls between basins or conduits containing nonpotable water and potable water are prohibited. Vertical double division walls, where separated sufficiently to permit ready access for inspection, are permissible where the division walls are monolithic in construction and are properly keyed into their footings or are cast monolithically with their footings.

E. Shop space and storage facilities shall be provided.

F. Wherever pipes pass through walls of concrete structures, extra wall castings to facilitate expansion and future uses shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.09 § 3.9, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-725. Automated monitoring and control systems.

The design of computers, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems if used to monitor and control water treatment and distribution system facilities, shall meet the following general requirements:

1. Data security.

a. Automated systems used to display and record data or control functions that are connected to the internet shall be secure.

b. Backup power supply shall be provided to allow orderly shutdown of the computer system and prevent corruption of data. The protection shall also power associated communications equipment.

c. Adequate hardware shall be in place to allow a high degree of SCADA and computer system reliability and data security.

d. Adequate hardware and associated facilities shall be provided for data archiving.

2. Equipment protection. SCADA and computer systems shall have adequate protection from voltage surges and spikes on the power supply, external data links, and environmental conditions.

3. Data displaying and recording.

a. SCADA and computer systems used to meet the continuous recording requirements of this chapter shall record an observation on a minimum frequency of once per 15 minutes, unless a greater recording frequency is required.

b. SCADA and computer systems used to meet the indicating and recording requirements of this chapter shall provide displays that show a minimum 24-hour trend of results for each parameter. The display panel shall be located in an area where it can be routinely viewed by the waterworks operators.

c. SCADA and computer systems used to meet the indicating and recording requirements of this chapter shall monitor the values and provide alerts for the operator by visual display and audible alarms. Alarm conditions shall be recorded into an alarm log.

4. Waterworks pumps, chemical feeders, and other essential electrical equipment controlled through a SCADA or an automated control system shall have the capability for independent manual operation. Where a high degree of reliability is required, a backup control system shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-730. Alternate power sources.

A. An emergency management plan for extended power outages shall be developed for each community waterworks as specified in 12VAC5-590-505.

B. Alternative power sources at all waterworks shall be considered in the design to maintain a minimum level of service during an electrical power outage.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.10 § 3.10, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-740. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.11 § 3.11, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-750. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.12 § 3.12, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-760. Laboratory facilities.

A. The design of laboratory facilities shall be compatible with the equipment provided, the water supply, and the design and complexity of the water treatment.

B. The design of community waterworks and NTNCs shall provide for adequate floor and bench space, adequate ventilation, adequate light, adequate separation of incompatible activities, adequate environmental controls, and auxiliary facilities sufficient to carry out reliable testing.

C. Certified analytical laboratory facilities analyzing drinking water shall comply with 1VAC30-41.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.13 § 3.13, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-770. Sampling and monitoring equipment.

A. Sample taps shall be provided so that water samples can be obtained from each source water and each entry point to the distribution system. At waterworks providing treatment, sample taps shall be provided at the entrance and exit of each unit treatment process and at the entry point to the distribution system.

1. For surface water treatment plants, a master control sink shall monitor source water, chemically treated water, settled water, combined filter water, and at the entry point to the distribution system.

2. All sample taps shall discharge in the downward direction and be provided with a suitable air gap to prevent cross-connection.

B. Continuous monitoring instrumentation shall have electronic sensors that continuously read the parameter and shall display results in real time. Continuous recording equipment shall be provided with the monitoring instrument to store in memory or print one data point at least every 15 minutes. Each result shall be a single result at that time; if signal averaging is applied, the averaging period shall not exceed 30 seconds. The recording equipment shall be capable of producing a paper copy or equivalent electronic file showing daily trends, including maximum, minimum, and average values.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.14 § 3.14, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-780. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.15 § 3.15, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-790. Process water.

Process water shall be taken from the finished water. An approved backflow prevention assembly or device shall be installed on the process water supply pipe before connection to the treatment process or equipment.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.16 § 3.16, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993.

12VAC5-590-800. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.17 § 3.17, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-810. Components, materials, and products.

All components, materials, and products that will be in contact with source water, partially treated water, finished water, or water treatment chemicals shall comply with NSF/ANSI/CAN Standard 61-2020.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-007.18 § 3.18, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

Article 2
Source Development [Repealed]

12VAC5-590-820. New source water selection and sampling.

A. Preference shall be given to the best available sources of supply that present minimal risks of contamination from point and nonpoint pollution sources that contain a minimum of impurities that may be hazardous to health and that give the greatest potential of ensuring a sufficient quantity of potable water.

B. In all cases, sources shall be selected and maintained on a basis that will assure that the water is continuously amenable to available treatment processes. In selecting the source of water to be developed, the owner shall prove to the satisfaction of the department that the water to be delivered to the consumers will comply with 12VAC5-590-340.

C. All water samples for bacteriological, chemical, physical, and radiological analyses shall be submitted to the DCLS or to a testing laboratory certified by the DCLS. Analytical methods shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-440.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-008.01 § 3.19, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 22, Issue 24, eff. September 6, 2006.

12VAC5-590-830. Surface water sources; quantity; quality; development structures.

A. A surface water source includes all tributary streams and drainage basins, natural lakes, and artificial reservoirs or impoundments above the point of water supply intake.

1. The quantity of water at the source shall:

a. Be adequate to supply the water demand of the service area;

b. Provide a reasonable surplus for anticipated growth; and

c. Be adequate to compensate for all losses, including evaporation, seepage, flow-by requirements, etc.

2. The safe yield of the source shall be determined as follows:

a. Simple intake (free-flowing stream). The safe yield is defined as the minimum withdrawal rate available during a day and recurring every 30 years (30 year - one day low flow). To generate the report for this, data is to be used to illustrate the worst drought of record in Virginia since 1930. If actual gauge records are not available for this, gauges are to be correlated from similar watersheds and numbers are to be synthesized; and

b. Complex intake (impoundments in conjunction with streams). The safe yield is defined as the minimum withdrawal rate available to withstand the worst drought of record in Virginia since 1930. If actual gauge records are not available, correlation is to be made with a similar watershed and numbers synthesized in order to develop the report.

Note: Local governments may request this aid from the State Water Control Board (SWCB) by contacting either the Health Department's Office of Water Programs or the SWCB's headquarters office in Richmond.

B. The owner shall conduct, or have conducted, a sanitary survey and a study of the factors, both natural and man-made, which will affect the quality of the water at the source. The results of the sanitary survey shall be submitted to the division. Such survey and study shall include, but shall not be limited to:

1. Obtaining samples over a sufficient period of time to assess the bacteriological, physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the water;

2. Determining future uses and effects of impoundments or reservoirs;

3. Determining the degree of control over the watershed that may be exercised by the owner; and

4. Assessing degree of hazard to the source by possible spillage of materials that may be toxic, harmful, or detrimental to treatment processes.

C. Intake structures shall provide for:

1. Withdrawal of water from at least three levels in impoundments or reservoirs. Withdrawal of water from more than one level may be required in run-of-the stream intakes if the quality varies with depth;

2. Separate facilities for release of less desirable water held in storage;

3. Screens on intake ports with provisions for adequate cleaning;

4. Prevention of flooding of access walkways and control valves of intakes on multiple purpose reservoirs; and

5. Velocity of flow through inlet structure such that frazil ice will be held to a minimum.

D. A detention reservoir is a structure into which water is stored for pretreatment to improve water quality prior to other treatment. Where a detention reservoir is required, the development shall assure that:

1. Water quality is protected by controlling runoff into reservoir;

2. Dikes are structurally sound and protected against wind action and erosion;

3. Point of influent flow is separated from the point of withdrawal; and

4. Sufficient detention time is provided in the reservoir as recommended by the designer and approved by the division.

E. In order to protect the public health and guarantee a supply of pure water, terminal reservoirs shall not be utilized for body contact recreation and boats powered by gasoline engines. Large terminal reservoirs may be used for body contact recreation and boats powered by gasoline engines provided a buffer zone acceptable to the division and water purveyor is furnished. Site preparation shall include but not be limited to the removal of brush and trees to the high water elevation, and protection from floods during construction.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-008.02 § 3.20, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993.

12VAC5-590-840. Groundwater sources.

A. A groundwater source includes all water obtained from drilled wells and springs. Wells and springs shall be protected from contamination during construction. All wells intended to serve a waterworks shall be constructed by a certified water well system provider. All wells shall be constructed in a manner to protect groundwater resources by preventing contaminated water or water having undesirable physical, chemical, or radiological characteristics from entering aquifers.

B. All wells located within the Eastern Virginia or the Eastern Shore Groundwater Management Areas shall be constructed in a manner to protect groundwater resources by preventing blending or cross contamination of the aquifers.

1. Wells shall not be constructed with screens in multiple aquifers.

2. Geophysical logging and formation sampling shall be required for all wells during construction, in addition to submitting a Uniform Water Well Completion Report, Form GW-2.

3. Observation and production wells shall be constructed with gravel packs and grout in a manner that prevents movement between aquifers. Gravel pack shall be terminated close to the top of the well screens and shall not extend above the top of the screened aquifer. The remainder of the annular space shall be filled with grout material.

4. Pump intake setting shall be documented and the pump intake shall not be set below the top of a confined aquifer or the bottom of an unconfined aquifer that supplies water to the well.

C. All groundwater sources must be analyzed for chemical, physical, radiological, and bacteriological quality as described in 12VAC5-590-840 K.

D. Wells intended for use as a community waterworks shall be located on a well lot meeting the following minimum requirements:

1. The well lot shall provide a distance of at least 50 feet from the well to all property lines;

2. The owner shall consider the need for a larger well lot for future expansion, the need to provide security measures such as lot fencing, and the need to establish additional well lots for future use;

3. If the well lot does not adjoin a public road, then an access road shall be provided and an access easement recorded as part of the well lot;

4. The well lot shall be graded to divert surface runoff away from the well and to prevent ponding on the well lot; and

5. The well lot and access to the lot shall be located by a survey, and a final plat plan and dedication document prepared and recorded as described in 12VAC5-590-200.

E. Minimum well location requirements:

1. The horizontal distance from the well to any septic tank, sanitary drainfield, pit privy, cesspool, barnyard, animal feed lot, cemetery, geothermal well or source of similar contamination, and all surface runoff from actual or potential sources of contamination shall be at least 50 feet.

2. The horizontal distances from the well to any pipe carrying sewage or pipe in which sewage can back up shall be at least 50 feet.

3. A minimum separation distance of 50 feet shall be maintained between a fuel storage tank and a well; however, a lesser distance may be allowed if the fuel is propane or natural gas, or if it is liquid fuel meeting the following requirements:

a. Liquid fuel tanks shall be located above grade.

b. Liquid fuel tanks shall be double-walled with an inner wall leak-detection alarm or single-walled with a full-capacity containment system constructed of compatible material.

c. Liquid fuel lines shall be located above grade or enclosed in a protective casing if below grade, and liquid fuel tanks shall be provided with a paved and curbed parking pad at the tank filling location.

4. The department shall require a spill response plan if the fuel is stored within 50 feet of the well.

F. The class of well to be constructed shall be determined by the department. A Uniform Water Well Completion Report, Form GW-2, shall be completed and submitted to the department with the project documents, in accordance with procedures in 12VAC5-590-200.

1. Minimum construction requirements for Class I wells:

a. The well shall be drilled and cased to a depth sufficient to exclude undesirable groundwater, but in no case shall this depth be less than 100 feet below finished grade.

b. The diameter of the drill hole shall be at least three inches greater than the outside diameter of the couplings of the casing to be used.

c. For wells constructed in consolidated formations, the lower end of the casing shall terminate in solid rock or other impervious formation when practical to do so.

d. The annular space around the casing shall be grouted to a depth of at least 100 feet in a manner satisfactory to the department. When the outer casing cannot be removed, the annular spacing between the drill hole and the outer casing shall also be sealed in a manner approved by the department.

2. Minimum construction requirements for Class II wells.

a. The well shall be drilled and cased to a depth sufficient to exclude undesirable groundwater, but in no case shall this depth be less than 50 feet below finished grade.

b. The diameter of the drill hole shall be at least three inches greater than the outside diameter of the couplings of the casing to be used.

c. For wells constructed in consolidated formations, the lower end of the enlarged portion of the drill hole should terminate in solid rock or other impervious formation when practical to do so.

d. The annular space around the casing shall be grouted to a depth of at least 50 feet in a manner satisfactory to the department. When the outer casing cannot be removed, the annular spacing between the drill hole and the outer casing shall be sealed in a manner approved by the department.

G. Well construction materials and development.

1. Water used in well construction shall be from a potable water source or from the well under construction.

2. Casing and liner pipe.

a. Steel casing and liner pipe shall meet ASTM, NSF/ANSI/CAN, or AWWA specifications and standards applicable to wells. Steel pipe dimensions shall conform to Table 840.1.

TABLE 840.1
Steel Well Casing Pipe

STEEL PIPES

SIZE (inches)

DIAMETER (inches)

THICKNESS (inches)

WEIGHT PER FOOT (pounds)

External

Internal

Plain Ends

With Threads and Couplings

4

4.5

4.026

0.237

10.79

11.0

6

6.625

6.065

0.280

18.97

19.18

8

8.625

7.981

0.322

28.55

29.35

10

10.750

10.020

0.365

40.48

41.85

12

12.750

12.000

0.375

49.56

51.15

14

14.000

13.250

0.375

54.57

57.00

16

16.000

15.250

0.375

62.58

18

18.000

17.250

0.375

70.59

20

20.000

19.250

0.375

78.60

22

22.000

21.000

0.500

114.81

24

24.000

23.000

0.500

125.49

26

26.000

25.000

0.500

136.17

28

28.000

27.000

0.500

146.85

30

30.000

29.000

0.500

157.53

32

32.000

31.000

0.500

168.21

34

34.000

33.000

0.500

178.89

36

36.000

35.000

0.500

189.57

b. Plastic well casing shall be PVC meeting ASTM F480-14,, NSF/ANSI/CAN Standard 61-2020, or AWWA Standard A100-20. Depths shall not exceed the published resistance to hydraulic collapse pressure of the PVC casing, taking into account the installation techniques and grouting methods. Well casing wall thickness shall be sufficient to withstand anticipated formation and hydrostatic pressures and mechanical forces imposed during installation, well development, and use. PVC well casing shall meet the requirements of ASTM, NSF/ANSI/CAN, and AWWA, as applicable.

c. Heavyweight casing pipe may be required under certain geologic and hydrostatic conditions.

d. Where corrosive conditions exist, materials such as coated casings, stainless steel, bronze, or plastic may be used as casings or linings subject to approval by the department, and meeting the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN Standard 61-2020.

3. Packers or other well construction materials shall be of a material that will not impart taste, odors, toxic substances, or bacterial contamination to the water in the well. No lead is to be used in packers, flux, piping, etc.

4. Screens, where required, shall:

a. Be constructed of material that will not be damaged by chemical action of groundwater or future cleaning operations;

b. Have size of openings to be based on sieve analysis of the formation to be screened, and shall be adequate to pass flows at a velocity of 0.1 ft/sec or less; and

c. Be installed so that exposure above the pumping level will not occur.

5. Grouting requirements.

a. Neat cement grout shall consist of Portland cement and water with not more than six gallons of water per 94-pound sack of cement, and shall be in place within 48 hours of well construction. A maximum of 6.0%, by weight, bentonite and 2.0%, by weight, calcium chloride, may be added. Other grout mixes may be approved by the department where special conditions warrant.

b. Application.

(1) Grout shall be installed by means of continuous pressure grouting from the bottom of the annular opening upward in one continuous operation until the annular opening is filled.

(2) Sufficient annular opening shall be provided to permit a minimum of 1-1/2 inches of grout around the protective casing, including couplings, if used.

(3) Before grouting wells, suitable fill material such as bentonite, low-strength cement and sand mix, or similar materials that have been approved by the department shall be added to the annular opening below the grout zone to seal and stabilize these areas. Instead of this requirement, the casing may be grouted for its entire depth.

c. Casing shall be provided with sufficient centralizers attached to the casing to allow unobstructed flow and uniform thickness of the grout.

d. Where plastic well casing is used, the heat of hydration of cement mixtures and the hydraulic collapse pressure of the casing shall be taken into consideration when choosing grout composition and placement in accordance with DEQ guidelines.

6. To prevent tampering and contamination of the source water, unused wells shall be capped and locked. Watertight welded metal plates, set screw caps, or screw-on caps are acceptable for temporarily capping a well until the pumping equipment is installed.

H. A well yield and drawdown test shall be performed in accordance with requirements of this subsection. The department may require additional pumping wells, observation wells, or longer duration tests where site conditions warrant.

1. The yield and drawdown test duration shall be a minimum of 48 hours. Data to be collected during the yield and drawdown test shall be recorded on the Well Yield and Recovery Report form provided by the department. When the source water requirements for a noncommunity waterworks are determined to be three gpm or less over normal hours of operation, the 48-hour minimum drawdown test may be reduced to no less than 12 hours. Any reduction shall be approved by the department before conducting the test.

2. Discharge from the pumping well shall be conveyed away from the test site to avoid recharge.

3. Where multiple wells are intended to be used, the location and geology of each well in the vicinity shall be evaluated. The department shall require that:

a. The yield and drawdown test be performed simultaneously on the multiple wells, or

b. During the yield and drawdown test of the pumping well, the water levels of the neighboring wells shall be monitored. If the water level of the neighboring wells declines in response to the pumping well, then additional evaluation shall be required by a professional engineer or a professional geologist with experience in groundwater source evaluations.

4. The department may consider alternative testing methods and analyses as proposed by professional engineers or professional geologists with experience in groundwater source evaluations. Where geological conditions exist that prohibit an accurate determination of well yield using methods prescribed in this subsection, additional testing procedures shall be required on an individual basis and approved by the department.

5. When an aquifer test is required by DEQ for a well located in a GWMA, the yield and drawdown test may be incorporated into the aquifer test plan protocol if approved by the department before conducting the test.

I. Well appurtenances.

1. A sanitary seal shall be provided on the top of the well casing, or a watertight well cap shall be provided when a pitless adapter is installed.

2. The well casing shall extend at least 12 inches above the concrete floor or apron.

3. Where aprons are used, they shall be centered on the well and measure at least six feet by six feet by six inches thick.

4. Provisions shall be made for venting the well casing to the atmosphere. Where vertical turbine pumps are used, vents into the side of the casing may be necessary to provide adequate venting.

5. Each well casing shall be provided with equipment and appurtenances for measuring the water level elevation in the well. Corrosion-resistant materials shall be used. Where necessary, the appurtenances shall be attached firmly to the drop pipe or pump column and in a manner as to prevent entrance of foreign materials.

6. All pitless well units, adapters, and watertight caps shall be listed by the Water Systems Council as certified products, or as approved by the department.

J. Every new, modified, or reconditioned groundwater well or spring shall be disinfected after placement of the final pumping equipment. Wells shall be disinfected in accordance with AWWA Standard C654-13.

K. Water quality tests. Water quality sampling and analysis shall be conducted for every new, modified, or reconditioned well or spring to determine what treatment, if any, is required. All samples shall be analyzed by DCLS or a testing laboratory certified by DCLS. Water quality analytical methods shall conform to requirements contained in 12VAC5-590-440.

1. Bacteriological quality.

a. Bacteriological samples for new or deepened wells shall consist of a series of 20 samples collected at a minimum of 30-minute intervals during the last 10 hours of the yield and drawdown test. These samples shall be analyzed for both total coliform density and E. coli density. See 12VAC5-590-380 G for groundwater disinfection treatment requirements, and see 12VAC5-590-430 for surface water influence determinations.

b. Bacteriological samples for modified or reconditioned wells shall consist of two samples collected at least 30 minutes apart, at a minimum, while the pump is in continuous operation. These samples shall be analyzed for both total coliform density and E. coli density. More samples may be required by the department, depending on the work performed.

2. Samples for new wells shall be collected for chemical, physical, and radiological contaminants listed in Tables 340.1 through 340.4. SOC tests may be waived by the department if supported by the source water assessment of vulnerability to contamination. Chemical sampling analysis for a TNC may be limited to nitrate and nitrite only. Samples shall be collected at the end of the yield and drawdown test and after the well water has shown no further change in the clarity of the water. Chemical, physical, and radiological constituent testing for modified or reconditioned wells shall be determined on an individual basis by the department.

L. Observation wells:

1. Shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of DEQ if they are constructed in a GWMA. Otherwise, they shall be constructed in accordance with 12VAC5-630-420 if they are to remain in service as observation wells after completion of the groundwater study.

2. Shall be protected to preclude the entrance of contamination.

M. Sealing of select zones. All zones containing water of undesirable quality or zones to be protected but excluded from final well completion shall be grouted from a point at least five feet above the zone to a point at least five feet below the zone.

N. Gravel packed wells:

1. The gravel utilized shall be free of foreign material, properly sized, washed, and then disinfected before or during placement.

2. The gravel refill pipes, when used, shall be incorporated within the pump foundation or concrete apron and terminated with screwed or welded caps at least 12 inches above the pump house floor or concrete apron.

3. The gravel refill pipes in the grouted annular opening shall be surrounded by a minimum of 1-1/2 inches of grout.

4. A means for the prevention of leakage of grout into the gravel pack of the screen shall be provided.

5. The minimum protective casing and grouted depth shall be acceptable to the department.

6. Wells located in a GWMA shall have gravel packing installed in accordance with 12VAC5-590-840 B 3.

O. Radial water collector systems shall be considered on an individual basis by the department.

P. Flowing artesian wells located outside a GWMA will be considered on an individual basis by the department.

1. The well shall be equipped with a pitless adapter specifically designed for pressurized artesian wells.

2. Special well construction, casing, and sealing may need to be considered for flowing artesian wells.

Q. Capacity determination of wells used for community waterworks shall meet the daily water demand.

1. Capacity of wells located in consolidated rock formations shall be determined by the well sustainable yield, and the actual installed (production) well pump capacity, whichever value is less. The sustainable yield shall be calculated as follows:

(A x 1440 min/day) / 1.8 = gpd well sustainable yield, where A = well yield (gpm) determined by the yield and drawdown test conducted in accordance with 12VAC5-590-840 H.

2. Capacity of wells located in unconsolidated formations shall be determined by the well yield and the actual installed (production) well pump capacity, whichever value is less.

R. Waterworks serving 50 or more residential connections employing only wells providing the source water shall include at least two wells. If only two wells are provided, then the second well shall be rated for at least 30% of the waterworks permit capacity.

S. The owner of a waterworks serving fewer than 50 residential connections with a single well providing the source water shall provide or have ready access to a replacement pump and other components and materials needed for pump replacement. Instead of this requirement, the owner may provide 48 hours of total finished water storage volume based on the maximum daily water demand.

T. Springs.

1. The water quality of spring sources shall be established by obtaining samples over a period of time agreeable to the department to assess the bacteriological, physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics.

2. Springs shall be housed in a permanent structure and protected from entry of surface water.

3. The amount of land required for protection of the spring source shall be determined by the owner and approved by the department.

4. The design of spring sources shall provide for continuous disinfection.

5. The capacity of spring sources shall be determined using actual flow data.

a. Sufficient daily flow data shall be collected to conduct a frequency distribution analysis. The capacity of a spring source is defined as the low flow rate for one day with a projected recurrence period of 30 years (i.e., 30-year, one-day low flow).

b. The Log-Pearson Type III method of frequency distribution analysis shall be used to make the determination, with a minimum of 1,000 daily flow measurements.

c. If sufficient data is not available to conduct the analysis specified in this subsection, then the lowest recorded daily flow rate may be considered to be the spring capacity. Sufficient flow records shall be available to capture the spring flow during drought conditions, and shall be acceptable to the department.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-008.03 § 3.21, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993.</p.

Article 3
Processes and Devices [Repealed]

12VAC5-590-850. Appropriate treatment.

A. The design of water treatment facilities shall depend upon the evaluation of the nature and quality of the particular source water to be treated and the required quality of the finished water. Treatment process selection shall follow the requirements of 12VAC5-590-680.

B. The design of water treatment facilities shall address safety considerations as required in 12VAC5-590-560.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.01 § 3.22, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-860. Chemical application.

A. Plans and specifications shall be submitted for evaluation and approval, as required in Part I (12VAC5-590-200 through 12VAC5-590-220), and shall include:

1. Descriptions of feed equipment, including maximum and minimum feed ranges;

2. Location of feeders, piping layout, and points of application;

3. Chemical storage and handling facilities;

4. Specifications for chemicals to be used;

5. Operating and control features; and

6. Descriptions of testing equipment and procedures.

B. Chemicals shall be applied to the water at such points and by such means as to:

1. Assure maximum efficiency of treatment;

2. Provide maximum protection to the consumer;

3. Provide maximum safety to operators;

4. Assure satisfactory mixing of the chemicals with the water;

5. Provide maximum flexibility of operation through various points of application, when appropriate;

6. Prevent backflow or backsiphonage between multiple points of feed through common manifolds; and

7. Provide for the application of pH-affecting chemicals to the source water before the addition of the coagulant in turbidity removal processes.

C. Feed equipment.

1. Where chemical feed is necessary for the treatment of the source water, such as chlorination, coagulation, or other essential processes, a standby feeder or combination of feeders shall be available to provide the required chemical dose with the largest feeder out of service.

2. Feeders shall be of such design and capacity to meet the following requirements:

a. Feeders shall be able to supply the necessary amounts of chemical at an accurate rate throughout the range of feed at all times.

b. Proportioning of chemical feed to the rate of flow shall be provided where the water flow is not constant or where specifically required by the department.

c. Positive displacement type solution feed pumps, or gravity feed through rotameters, shall be used to feed liquid chemicals, but should not normally be used to feed chemical slurries.

d. Chemical contact materials and surfaces shall be resistant to the aggressiveness of the chemical solution.

e. Dry chemical feeders shall:

(1) Measure chemicals volumetrically or gravimetrically;

(2) Provide effective solution of the chemical in the solution pot;

(3) Provide gravity feed from solution pots; and

(4) Completely enclose chemicals to prevent emission of dust to the room.

f. No direct connection shall exist between any sewer and a drain or overflow from the feeder or solution chamber or tank.

g. A separate chemical waste tank should be considered.

3. Chemical feed equipment:

a. Shall be located near points of application to minimize length of feed lines;

b. Shall be readily accessible for servicing and repair, and observation of operation; and

c. Shall be located within a protective curbing so that chemicals resulting from equipment failure, spillage, or accidental drainage shall not enter the water in conduits or treatment or storage basins.

4. Control.

a. Feeders shall be capable of both manual and automatic control with the automatic control reverting to manual control as necessary;

b. Feeders shall be manually started following shutdown, unless otherwise approved by the department; and

c. Automatic chemical dose controls with residual analyzers shall provide alarms for critical values and shall include indicating and recording equipment.

5. Solution tanks. All solution tanks shall be manufactured of materials suitable for food contact or that meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-810.

a. Means shall be provided to maintain uniform strength of solution, consistent with the nature of the chemical solution. Continuous agitation shall be provided to maintain slurries in suspension.

b. Solution tanks shall be of sufficient number and capacity to assure continuous chemical application during tank servicing, and the access openings shall be curbed and fitted with tight covers.

c. Each tank exceeding 30 gallons in capacity or fixed in place shall be provided with a drain unless other means of dewatering the tank are provided.

(1) Direct connection between any tank or drain and a sewer is prohibited.

(2) All drains shall terminate at least two pipe diameters, but not less than two inches, above the rim of the receiving sump, conduit, or waste receptacle.

d. Means shall be provided to indicate the solution level in the tank.

e. Process water shall enter the tank above the rim at a distance of two pipe diameters but not less than two inches.

f. Chemical solutions shall be kept covered.

g. Buried or subsurface chemical storage or solution tanks are prohibited.

h. Overflow pipes, when provided, shall:

(1) Be turned downward, and when located outside, be provided with an appropriately sized screened end to prevent entry of insects and small animals;

(2) Have free discharge;

(3) Be located where noticeable; and

(4) Be directed so as not to contaminate the water or be a hazard to operating personnel.

6. Weighing scales.

a. Shall be provided for weighing cylinders at all water treatment plants utilizing chlorine gas; for large water treatment plants, indicating and recording type are desirable;

b. Shall be provided for fluorosilicic acid feed systems in conjunction with a loss-of-weight recorder;

c. Shall be considered for volumetric dry chemical feeders; and

d. Shall be accurate to measure increments of 0.5% of load.

7. Feed lines.

a. Shall be as short as possible in length of run and be:

(1) Of durable, corrosion-resistant material;

(2) Easily accessible throughout the entire length;

(3) Protected against freezing; and

(4) Readily cleanable;

b. Shall slope upward from chemical source to feeder, when conveying gases.

c. Shall introduce corrosive chemicals in a manner as to minimize potential for corrosion.

d. Shall be designed consistent with scale forming solids depositing properties of the water, chemical solution, or mixture conveyed.

e. Shall not carry chlorine gas beyond the chlorine feeder room unless the chlorine is under vacuum.

f. Shall be designed so that liquid alum does not mix with water before the point of application.

8. Process water.

a. Water used for dissolving dry chemicals, diluting liquid chemicals, or operating chemical feeders shall be:

(1) From a safe, approved source;

(2) Protected from contamination by appropriate means;

(3) Ample in supply and adequate in pressure;

(4) Provided with means for measurement when preparing specific solution concentrations by dilution; and

(5) Properly treated for hardness when necessary.

b. Where a booster pump is required, a spare pump shall be provided.

c. Backflow prevention shall be achieved by appropriate means such as:

(1) An air gap between the fill pipe and overflow rim of the solution or dissolving tank, and equivalent to two pipe diameters but not less than two inches;

(2) An approved reduced pressure zone backflow preventer, consistent with the degree of hazard, aggressiveness of chemical solution, back pressure sustained, location, and available means for maintaining and testing the device; or

(3) A satisfactory vacuum relief device.

D. Chemicals.

1. Storage.

a. Space shall be provided where at least 30 days of chemical supply can be stored, based on the average dose and average annual water treatment plant flow rate. Storage shall be at a location that is convenient for efficient handling and safety. Lesser storage capacity may be approved if the owner can demonstrate that the local suppliers or other conditions will provide an uninterrupted source of chemicals.

b. Cylinders of chlorine gas shall be:

(1) Isolated from operating areas;

(2) Restrained in position to prevent upset; and

(3) Stored in rooms separate from ammonia storage.

c. Liquid chemical storage tanks shall:

(1) Have a liquid level indicator; and

(2) Have an overflow and a receiving basin or drain capable of receiving accidental spills or overflows.

d. Special precautions shall be taken with sodium chlorite to eliminate any danger of explosion.

e. Activated carbon. The following special precautions shall be taken in areas where activated carbon is stored, handled, and fed.

(1) Isolated, cool, and dry areas free from sources of ignition shall be provided for activated carbon storage;

(2) Electrical equipment, devices, and materials shall comply with applicable codes;

(3) Ventilation in areas associated with the storage, handling, and feeding of activated carbon shall be localized so as not to cause dust or material to be drawn into other areas; and

(4) Activated carbon shall not be stored with strong oxidants such as ozone, liquid chlorine (i.e., compressed chlorine gas), and permanganate.

f. Chemicals shall be stored in covered or unopened shipping containers, unless the chemical is transferred into an approved covered storage unit.

g. Solution storage or day tanks supplying feeders directly should have sufficient capacity for one day of operation.

h. Acid storage tanks shall be vented to the outside atmosphere, but not through vents in common with day tanks.

2. Handling.

a. Provisions shall be made for measuring quantities of chemicals used to prepare feed solutions.

b. Storage tanks and pipelines for liquid chemicals shall be specific to the chemicals and not for alternates.

c. Chemicals that are incompatible shall not be fed, stored, or handled together.

d. Provisions shall be made for the proper transfer of dry chemicals from shipping containers to storage bins or hoppers to mitigate the quantity of dust that may enter the room in which the equipment is installed. Control shall be provided by use of:

(1) Vacuum pneumatic equipment or closed conveyor systems;

(2) Facilities for emptying shipping containers in special enclosures; or

(3) Exhaust fans and dust filters that put the hoppers or bins under negative pressure.

e. Precautions shall be taken with electrical equipment to prevent explosions and other hazards.

f. Acids shall:

(1) Be kept in closed, acid-resistant shipping containers or storage units; and

(2) Not be handled in open vessels, but should be pumped in undiluted form from original containers, through a suitable hose, to the point of treatment or to a covered day tank.

g. Carts, elevators, and other appropriate means shall be provided for lifting chemical containers to mitigate excessive lifting by operators.

h. Provisions shall be made for disposing of empty containers by an approved procedure that will mitigate exposure to the chemical.

E. Housing.

1. Structures, rooms, and areas accommodating chemical feed equipment shall provide convenient access for servicing, repair, and observation of operation.

2. Floor surfaces shall be smooth and impervious, slip-proof, and well drained.

3. Open basins, tanks, and conduits shall be protected from chemical spills or accidental drainage.

F. Operator safety. Safety provisions shall protect people at the waterworks from chemical exposures in accordance with VOSH laws and regulations.

1. Gases from feeders, storage, and equipment exhausts shall be conveyed to the outside atmosphere, above grade, and remote from air intakes.

2. See 12VAC5-590-1000 and 12VAC5-590-1001 for special provisions for handling and storing chlorine.

3. A plastic bottle of hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid in commercial form) shall be available for ammonia leak detection where ammonia gas is used or stored.

4. At least one pair of rubber gloves with long gauntlets, a dust respirator of a type that complies with VOSH laws and regulations for toxic dusts, and an apron or other protective clothing shall be provided for each operator in any shift who will handle dry chemicals.

5. Facilities such as emergency eye wash and showers shall be provided for washing of the face, gloves, and protective equipment.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.02 § 3.23, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-865. Conventional filtration treatment.

A. Conventional filtration treatment is generally used for surface water sources. It is defined as a series of four processes: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. The specific design parameters shall consider the water supply characteristics and variability in quality due to seasonal and climatic events.

B. Conventional filtration treatment plants shall provide staged, multiple treatment process units to allow individual units to be taken out of service without disrupting operation.

C. The department may require presedimentation of waters containing high turbidity or organics (as measured by TOC).

1. Presedimentation basins utilizing a coagulant feed shall have hoppered bottoms or shall be provided with continuous sludge removal equipment. The minimum hydraulic detention time shall be three hours. The department may require greater detention times depending on the source water quality and the level of pretreatment required.

2. Presedimentation basins without coagulant feed shall provide a minimum hydraulic detention time of 24 hours. The design shall address future needs for solids removal and handling.

3. Incoming water shall be dispersed across the full width of the line of travel as quickly as possible. Short circuiting shall be minimized. The department may require baffling on large basins.

4. Provisions for bypassing presedimentation basins shall be provided.

5. Surface runoff shall be prevented from entering presedimentation basins or reservoirs.

6. Dikes shall be structurally sound and protected against wind action and erosion.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-870. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.03 § 3.24, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-871. Coagulation and flocculation.

A. Rapid mixing is the rapid dispersion of chemicals throughout the water to be treated, usually by violent agitation, to promote coagulation.

1. Rapid mix basins or inline static mixers shall be provided.

2. Basins shall be equipped with mechanical mixing devices. Other arrangements, such as baffling, may be acceptable under special conditions and only when approved by the department. Where mechanical mixing devices are utilized, duplicate units or spare mixing equipment shall be provided.

3. Rapid mix basins with mechanical mixers should be based upon the mean temporal velocity gradient "G" (expressed as units of seconds-1). The owner's engineer shall submit the basis for the selected velocity gradient considering the chemicals to be added and water temperature. Typical values for G and T are:

TABLE 871.1

Rapid Mix Basin GT Values

T (seconds)

G (seconds-1)

20

1,000

30

900

40

700

60

600

a. The point of application of the coagulant shall be at the point of maximum mixing intensity;

b. The physical configuration of the mixing basin shall be designed to eliminate vortexing; and

c. Mechanical mixers should be designed to allow speed variation with a highest speed of at least three times the lowest speed.

B. Flocculation mixing is the agitation of treated water at low velocity gradients for sufficient time to agglomerate coagulated particles.

1. Basin inlet and outlet design shall prevent short circuiting and destruction of floc. A drain and overflow shall be provided. Multiple units shall be provided for continuous operability, and each basin shall be designed so that individual basins may be isolated without disrupting plant operation. Basins shall be arranged to allow for either series or parallel operation.

2. Design parameters:

a. The minimum detention time shall be 30 minutes for water treatment plants employing rapid rate gravity filters, and 20 minutes for water treatment plants using high rate gravity filters. Basin flow-through velocity should not be less than 0.5 ft/min or greater than 1.5 ft/min.

b. The design of the flocculation units shall be based upon the value of GT, which is ordinarily in the range of 20,000 to 200,000. The owner's engineer should establish the value of GT through experimentation.

c. Agitators shall be driven by variable speed drive units with peripheral tip speed of the paddles ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft/sec.

d. To control short circuiting in mechanical flocculators, at least three successive compartments should be provided. In addition, special attention should be given to the ports between compartments to further suppress short circuiting.

e. To accomplish maximum power input and reduce particle shearing, tapered flocculation should be provided.

f. In basins utilizing vertical shaft flocculators, wing walls, or stators shall be provided to prevent vortexing.

3. Flocculation and sedimentation basins shall be as close together as possible. The velocity gradient of the flocculated water through pipes or conduits to settling basins shall not be greater than the velocity gradient utilized in flocculating the water. Where velocity gradient is not used as a design parameter, the linear velocity in pipes and conduits from the flocculators to the settling basin shall not exceed 0.5 ft/sec unless otherwise approved by the department. Allowances shall be made to minimize turbulence at bends and changes in direction.

4. Baffling may be used for flocculation in small water treatment plants only when approved by the department. The design should allow the velocity gradients noted in subdivision B 3 of this subsection to be maintained.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-872. Sedimentation.

A. The water treatment plant capacity, source water quality, and filtration process used shall be considered in determining the number and design of sedimentation basins.

B. The minimum settling time shall be four hours for water treatment plants employing rapid rate gravity filters, and a minimum of three hours for water treatment plants using high rate gravity filters. Reduced settling times may be approved by the department where effective settling is demonstrated. Effective settling time shall be calculated using the volume of the basins from the stilling wall to the submerged effluent orifice or weir, including the volume under launders or finger weirs.

C. Inlets shall be designed to distribute the water equally and at uniform velocities. Open ports, submerged ports, stilling walls, and similar entrance arrangements are required. Port velocities should be in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 ft/sec. Where stilling walls are not provided, a baffle shall be constructed across the basin close to the inlet and shall project several feet below the water surface to dissipate inlet velocities and provide uniform flows across the basin.

D. Outlet weirs or submerged orifices shall be designed to maintain settling velocities in the basin and minimize short circuiting. Outlet weirs and submerged orifices shall be designed as follows:

1. The rate of flow over the outlet weir shall not exceed 20,000 gpd/ft of the outlet launder.

2. Submerged orifices shall not be located lower than three feet below the normal water surface.

3. The entrance velocity through the submerged orifices shall not exceed 0.5 ft/sec.

E. The linear velocity in pipes and conduits from settling basins shall not exceed 1.0 ft/sec.

F. Rectangular sedimentation basins shall be designed with a length-to-width ratio of at least 4:1.

G. Surface overflow rates shall be within the range of 0.25 to 0.38 gpm/ft2 in water treatment plants using rapid rate filters, and a maximum of 0.5 gpm/ft2 for water treatment plants using high rate filters. Increased surface overflow rates and reduced settling times may be approved by the department where effective settling is demonstrated. The length and area between launders and finger weirs may be included in determining length-to-width ratio and overflow rates.

H. Basins shall be provided with a means for dewatering. Basin bottoms shall slope toward the drain not less than one foot in 12 feet unless mechanical sludge collection equipment is provided.

I. In areas where settling basins are subject to high and frequent cross winds, windbreaks shall be considered. Covers or enclosures shall be considered in locations subject to freezing.

J. The velocity through settling basins shall not exceed 1.0 ft/min. The basins shall be designed to minimize short circuiting. Baffles shall be provided as necessary to minimize short circuiting.

K. Multiple basins shall be provided for continuous operability, and each basin shall be designed so that individual basins may be isolated without disrupting plant operation.

L. Mechanical sludge collecting equipment shall be considered for all plants.

M. Sedimentation basins with tube or plate settlers shall meet the following design requirements:

1. Inlet and outlets shall be designed to maintain velocities suitable for settling in the basin and minimize short circuiting. Plate units shall be designed to ensure even flow distribution across the units.

2. Drain piping from the settler units shall be sized to facilitate a quick flush of the basin and to prevent flooding other portions of the plant.

3. Where units are located outdoors, adequate freeboard shall be provided above the top of the settlers to prevent freezing.

4. The maximum loading for tube settlers shall be two gpm/ft2 of cross-sectional area unless higher rates are demonstrated through pilot plant or in-plant demonstration studies.

5. The maximum loading for plate settlers shall be 0.5 gpm/ft2 based upon 80% of the projected horizontal plate area.

6. Flushing lines shall be provided to facilitate maintenance and shall be properly protected against backflow or backsiphonage.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-873. Solids contact treatment units.

A. Solids contact units shall be acceptable for combined flocculation and clarification where source water characteristics are not variable and flow rates are uniform. When approved, these units shall be designed for the maximum uniform rate and shall be adjustable to changes in flow that are less than the design rate and for changes in water characteristics.

B. A minimum of two units shall be provided.

C. A rapid mix device designed in accordance with 12VAC5-590-871 A shall be provided. Mixing devices shall be constructed to:

1. Provide good mixing of the source water with previously formed sludge particles; and

2. Prevent deposition of solids in the mixing zone.

D. Flocculation equipment designed in accordance with 12VAC5-590-871 B shall:

1. Be equipped with an adjustable drive mechanism;

2. Ensure that coagulation occurs in a separate chamber or baffled zone within the unit; and

3. Provide a flocculation period of at least 20 minutes.

E. The sludge equipment shall provide either internal or external sludge concentrators in order to obtain a concentrated sludge with a minimum of waste water. Sludge removal systems shall provide:

1. Sludge pipe sizes of not less than three inches in diameter;

2. Piping arrangements to prevent clogging and to facilitate cleaning;

3. Valves that are located outside the tank for accessibility;

4. A means to observe or sample sludge being withdrawn from the unit;

5. A time clock with proportional timer with automatic blowoff; and

6. Suitable controls for sludge withdrawal.

F. Cross-connections.

1. Blowoff outlets and drains shall terminate and discharge at a place satisfactory to the department; and

2. Cross-connection control shall be included for the potable water mains used to flush sludge lines.

G. The detention time shall be established on the basis of the source water characteristics and other local conditions that affect the operation of the unit. The minimum detention time shall be two hours for suspended solids contact clarifiers.

H. Orifices shall produce uniform rising rates over the entire area of the tank and shall provide for an exit velocity not to exceed 1.0 ft/sec.

I. Upflow rates shall not exceed 1.0 gpm/ft² of area at the sludge separation line.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-874. Gravity filtration.

A. At least two gravity filter units shall be provided in conventional filtration treatment plants and direct filtration treatment plants.

B. Filter loading rates shall not exceed 2.0 gpm/ft2 of filter area for rapid rate filters and shall not exceed 4.0 gpm/ft2 for high rate filters, during normal operation. Alternative loading rates may be approved by the department when effective filtration is demonstrated.

C. The filter structure shall be so designed as to comply with the following:

1. The walls within the filter shall be vertical;

2. The filter walls shall not protrude into the filter media;

3. There shall be no common wall between filtered or finished water and any lesser quality water;

4. The filter shall be covered by a superstructure if determined necessary under local climatic conditions;

5. There shall be head room to allow normal inspection and operation;

6. A curb at least four inches high shall surround each filter to prevent floor drainage into the filter;

7. The maximum velocity gradient of treated water in pipes and conduits to the filters shall not exceed that used in flocculation. Where velocity gradient is not used as a design parameter, the linear velocity in pipes and conduits from settling basins to filters shall not exceed 1.0 ft/sec;

8. Influent pipes or conduits, where solids loading is heavy, shall be straight and equipped with cleanouts;

9. Backwash water drain capacity shall be sufficient to carry the maximum flow;

10. Access in the form of walkways not less than 24 inches in width shall be provided to each filter; and

11. The normal operating water surface on a filter shall be at the same hydraulic grade level as the sedimentation basin, if no intermediate treatment process is provided.

D. Backwash water troughs shall be so designed as to provide:

1. Bottom elevation of the trough above the maximum level of expanded media during backwashing;

2. At least a two-inch freeboard inside the trough at the maximum rate of wash;

3. A level top or edge;

4. Spacing so that each trough serves an equal area of each filter; and

5. Maximum horizontal travel of suspended particles to reach the trough not to exceed 3.0 ft.

E. Filter media shall be free from detrimental chemical or bacterial contaminants. Acceptable filter media shall include anthracite coal, silica sand, garnet sand, and GAC. Other natural or synthetic media may be approved by the department when pilot-scale or full-scale demonstration studies demonstrate that the media is capable of meeting the filter effluent turbidity treatment technique requirements in Part II (12VAC5-590-395) of this chapter.

1. Filters may be of single media, dual media, or multimedia design depending upon the water to be treated and the specific filtration process employed. A total media depth of not less than 27 inches shall be provided after cleaning and scraping.

2. Types of filter media:

a. Anthracite coal. A sieve analysis shall be provided. Anthracite media shall have:

(1) An effective size from 0.45 to 0.55 mm with a uniformity coefficient not greater than 1.65 when used alone.

(2) An effective size from 0.8 to 1.2 mm with a uniformity coefficient not greater than 1.85 when used in dual or multimedia filters.

b. Silica sand. A sieve analysis shall be provided. The media shall be clean silica sand having an effective size from 0.35 to 0.55 mm and a uniformity coefficient not greater than 1.65.

c. Garnet sand. A sieve analysis shall be provided. The media shall have an effective size from 0.15 to 0.35 mm.

d. Granular activated carbon (GAC) may be used as a media for filtration. The department may require pilot studies where precursor or organics removal is a treatment objective. The design shall include the following:

(1) GAC media shall meet the basic specifications for filter media contained in this section, except the uniformity coefficient shall not be greater than 2.0. The department may allow larger size media based upon pilot-scale or full-scale demonstration testing. The department may require that a layer of sand media be placed below the GAC.

(2) Provisions shall be made for periodic treatment of GAC filter material for the control of bacteria and other growths.

(3) Provisions shall be made for GAC media replacement or regeneration.

(4) Only materials suitable for use with GAC media filters shall be utilized.

F. Support media.

1. Sand. A sieve analysis shall be provided. A three-inch layer of sand shall be used as a supporting media for the filter media where supporting gravel is used and shall have an effective size from 0.8 to 2.0 mm and a uniformity coefficient not greater than 1.7.

2. Gravel. When used as the supporting media, gravel shall consist of hard, rounded particles and shall not include flat or elongated particles. The coarsest gravel shall be 2-1/2 inches in size when the gravel rests directly on the strainer system and shall extend above the top of the perforated laterals or strainer nozzles. Not less than four layers of gravel shall be provided in accordance with the size and depth distribution specified in Table 874.1.

3. Changes of gravel depths and sizes may be considered by the department where proprietary filter bottoms are proposed.

TABLE 874.1
Gravity Filter Gravel Support Bed

SIZE

DEPTH

2-1/2 - 1-1/2 inches

5 - 8 inches

1-1/2 - 3/4 inches

3 - 5 inches

3/4 - 1/2 inches

3 - 5 inches

1/2 - 3/16 inches

2 - 3 inches

3/16 - 3/32 inches

2 - 3 inches

G. Filter bottoms and strainer systems. The department may allow deviations from requirements of this subdivision for high rate filters and for proprietary filter bottoms. Porous plate bottoms shall not be used where iron, manganese, or hard water may result in clogging. The design of manifold-type collection systems shall:

1. Minimize loss of head in the manifold and laterals;

2. Assure even distribution of backwash water and an even rate of filtration over the entire area of the filter;

3. Provide a ratio of the area of the final openings of the strainer systems to the area of the filter of about 0.003;

4. Provide a total cross-sectional area of the laterals at about twice the total area at the final openings; and

5. Provide a manifold that has a cross-sectional area which is 1-1/2 to two times the total area of the laterals.

H. Surface wash or air scouring of filters shall be provided.

1. All rotary surface wash devices shall be designed with:

a. Provisions for water pressures of at least 45 psig;

b. A vacuum breaker or other device or assembly to prevent backsiphonage; and

c. Adequate surface wash water to provide 0.5 - 1.0 gpm/ft2 of filter area.

2. Air scouring shall provide for:

a. An air flow rate of three to five scfm/ft2 of filter area when air is introduced in the underdrain. A lower air flow rate shall be used when the air scour distribution system is placed above the underdrain.

b. A method for avoiding loss of filter media during backwashing.

c. A fluidization backwash following air scour sufficient to restratify the filter media. The backwash water delivery system shall be in accordance with this section except the rate of flow should not exceed 8.0 gpm/ft2 unless operating experience demonstrates that a higher rate is necessary to remove scoured particles from the filter media.

I. Turbidity monitoring.

1. Indicating and recording turbidimeters meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for:

a. The source water;

b. The settled water from each sedimentation basin;

c. The filter effluent from each filter; and

d. The CFE.

2. Finished water indicating and recording turbidimeters shall be considered if chemical pH adjustment occurs following filtration.

3. The location of the turbidity sample tap shall allow turbidity to be monitored for both the filtered water and the filter-to-waste water.

4. The design may incorporate an operator selected filter effluent high turbidity alarm.

J. Appurtenances.

1. A sampling tap shall be placed between each filter and the effluent rate-of-flow controller to sample filtered water and filter-to-waste water. The location of sample taps shall allow turbidity to be monitored of both the filtered water and the filter-to-waste water.

2. Indicating and recording loss-of-head gauges shall be provided on all filters having a capacity of greater than 100 gpm. An indicating loss-of-head gauge shall be provided on all filters having a capacity of 100 gpm or less.

3. Indicating and recording rate-of-flow gauges shall be provided on all filters having a capacity of greater than 100 gpm. An indicating and totalizing water meter may be used instead of an indicating and recording gauge on filters having a capacity of 100 gpm or less.

4. Effluent rate-of-flow controllers of the direct acting, indirect acting, or constant rate types shall be provided on each filter.

a. All control devices used shall incorporate an auxiliary shutoff valve in the filter effluent line. Indirect and direct acting effluent rate-of-flow control devices shall start operation from the closed position. Failure of indirect acting controllers shall not result in any increase in the rate of flow.

b. Filter effluent rate-of-flow control that simply maintains a constant water level on the filter is prohibited.

c. Control devices shall be configured to prevent exceeding the design filter hydraulic loading rate when any filter is taken out of service.

5. Provisions for draining the filter-to-waste (rewash) with appropriate backflow prevention and rate control shall be provided on each filter. The filter-to-waste design flow rate shall be equal to the filtration rate.

6. A high pressure hose and hose rack shall be provided to allow washing down filter walls.

K. Backwash provisions.

1. Filtered or finished water shall be applied uniformly across the filter in an upflow direction to provide at least 50% media expansion during all operating conditions. This will normally require backwash flow rates of up to 20 gpm/ft2 depending on media size, media specific gravity, uniformity coefficient, and water temperature.

2. The backwash water shall be provided at the required rate by backwash pumps, backwash water tanks, the high service main, or a combination of these methods. Consideration should be given to including provisions to obtain backwash water from the distribution system or other sources and to supply backwash water during plant start-up or during catastrophic events.

3. At least two backwash water pumps shall be installed unless an alternate means of obtaining backwash water is available.

4. The volume of backwash water provided shall be sufficient to backwash one filter at the design backwash flow rate and duration during the warmest water temperature. This backwash water volume shall be in addition to any other water storage requirements.

5. A backwash water controller or valve shall be provided on the main backwash water supply line to obtain the desired rate of filter wash with the backwash water valves on the individual filters open wide.

6. Consideration shall be given to provide for seasonal adjustments of the backwash flow rate to ensure proper backwashing while preventing media loss and to conserve water.

7. The rate-of-flow indicator on the main backwash water supply line shall be located so that it may easily be read by the operator during the backwashing process.

8. Where backwash water pumps are provided, a means for air release shall be installed between the backwash water pump and the backwash water valve.

L. Other design considerations.

1. Roof drains shall not discharge into the filter or basins and conduits preceding the filters.

2. Provision shall be made for continuous operation of all other filtering units while one filtering unit is out of operation.

3. High rate filtration shall be provided with precise coagulation control. A multiple six-gang stirring machine for performing jar tests shall be provided in addition to one or more of the following means of controlling the coagulation process:

a. Zeta potential, as measured by microelectrophoresis.

b. Pilot filters. Where dual pilot filters are used, two units shall be provided. Each pilot filter shall consist of a small filter (about six inches in diameter) containing the same type and depth of media as the plant filters. The pilot filter shall be equipped with recording turbidimeters on the effluent to measure the filterability of the water as reflected by turbidity monitoring.

c. Streaming current monitor, defined as a continuous sampling instrument that measures the electric current generated when water flows past suspended particles contained in the water.

4. High rate filtration shall be provided with indicating and recording pH monitoring equipment for:

a. The source water;

b. The rapid mix effluent; and

c. The finished water leaving the treatment plant.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-875. Direct filtration.

A. Direct filtration is defined as a series of treatment processes, including coagulation and filtration but excluding sedimentation. Direct filtration shall be considered only for treatment of high quality and seasonally consistent surface water sources or GUDI sources.

B. An in-plant demonstration study or pilot study shall be required to demonstrate acceptable performance of direct filtration. The study shall be conducted over a sufficient time to treat all expected source water conditions throughout the year. The pilot plant filter shall be of a similar type and operated in the same manner as proposed for full-scale operation.

C. The department may require presedimentation meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-590-865 C to be provided (in the treatment sequence) to direct filtration treatment plants.

D. Rapid mix coagulation and flocculation shall be provided, meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-590-871.

E. Filters shall be dual media or multimedia gravity filters. Design of filtration units shall meet requirements for rapid rate or high rate gravity filters in 12VAC5-590-874, including filter structure, filter media, support gravel, backwash provisions, rate-of-flow control, surface wash, or air scour. Alternative designs may be considered by the department.

F. Turbidity monitoring.

1. Indicating and recording turbidimeters meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for:

a. The source water;

b. The filter effluent from each filter; and

c. The CFE.

2. Finished water indicating and recording turbidimeters shall be considered if chemical softening occurs following filtration.

G. Where automatic unit process control is provided, manual override of all automatic features shall be provided.

1. Automatic start-up of treatment plant unit processes is prohibited.

2. Valve actuators shall be provided with manual override capability.

H. The plant design should allow for the future installation of sedimentation basins.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-880. Diatomaceous earth filtration.

A. Diatomaceous earth filtration shall be limited to treatment of a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both with low turbidity and low bacterial contamination, and may be used for iron removal from groundwater.

B. Pilot plant study. Installation of a diatomaceous earth filtration system shall be preceded by a pilot plant study on the water to be treated.

C. Types of filters. Pressure or vacuum diatomaceous earth filtration units will be considered for approval.

D. Treated water storage. Treated water storage capacity in excess of normal requirements shall be provided to:

1. Allow operation of the filters at a uniform rate during all conditions of system demand at or below the approved filtration rate, and

2. Guarantee continuity of service during adverse source water conditions without bypassing the system.

E. Number of units. At least two filtering units shall be provided at plants having a rated capacity of more than 100 gpm.

F. Precoat.

1. Application. A uniform precoat shall be applied hydraulically to each septum by introducing a slurry to the tank influent line and employing a filter-to-waste or recirculation system.

2. Quantity. Diatomaceous earth in the amount of 0.2 lb/ft2 of filter area.

G. Body feed. A body feed system to apply additional amounts of diatomaceous earth slurry during the filter run is required.

1. Quantity. Rate of body feed is dependent on source water quality and characteristics and must be determined in the pilot plant study.

2. Adequate accessibility to the feed system and slurry lines is required.

3. Continuous mixing of the body feed slurry is required.

4. Consideration should be given to providing a coagulant coating (alum or suitable polymer) of the body feed.

H. Rate of filtration. The hydraulic loading rate shall not exceed 1.5 gpm/ft2 of filter area. The filtration rate shall be controlled.

I. Head loss. The head loss shall not exceed 30 psi for pressure diatomaceous earth filters, or a vacuum of 15 inches of mercury for a vacuum system.

J. Recirculation. A recirculation or holding pump shall be employed to maintain a differential pressure across the filter when the unit is not in operation to prevent the filter cake from dropping off the filter elements. A minimum recirculation rate of 0.1 gpm/ft§ filter area shall be provided.

K. Septum or filter element. The filter elements shall be structurally capable of withstanding maximum pressure and velocity variations during filtration and backwash cycles, and shall be spaced so that no less than one inch is provided between elements or between any element and a wall. Means shall be provided to check the septum for cleanliness or damage. Consideration should be given to providing septum assemblies where an individual septum can be removed, cleaned, repaired, and replaced.

L. Inlet design. The filter influent shall be designed to prevent scour of the diatomaceous earth from the filter element.

M. Backwash. Provision shall be made for periodic backwashing of the filter. A satisfactory method to thoroughly remove and dispose of spent filter cake shall be provided.

N. Appurtenances. The following shall be provided for every filter:

1. Sampling taps for source and filtered water;

2. A loss-of-head or a differential pressure gauge;

3. A rate-of-flow indicator, preferable with totalizer; and

4. A throttling valve used to reduce rates below normal during adverse source water conditions.

O. Turbidity monitoring. Indicating and recording turbidimeters meeting requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for:

1. The source water;

2. The effluent from each filter unit; and

3. The CFE.

P. An operation and maintenance manual shall be provided for all diatomaceous earth filtration units. The manual shall include the following:

1. A detailed description of the treatment units and the control of each unit for optimal performance;

2. A preventative maintenance schedule;

3. The manual adjustment and override procedures for all automatic control features; and

4. A troubleshooting guide for typical problems.

Q. The owner shall require the equipment manufacturer to provide onsite start-up and follow-up training.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.04 § 3.25, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-881. Slow sand filtration.

A. Slow sand filters shall be approved only after a pilot study demonstrates that the water supply contains sufficient nutrients for use of this treatment technology.

B. At least two filters shall be provided. In all cases, the filters shall be capable of meeting the design maximum daily water demand with one filter out of service.

C. Sand shall be clean silica sand that meets the following criteria:

1. The effective size shall be between 0.15 mm and 0.35 mm;

2. The uniformity coefficient shall not exceed 2.5; and

3. The sand depth shall not exceed 55 inches. A minimum depth of 30 inches is required for normal operation.

D. Supporting media gravel shall meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-874 F.

E. Structural details.

1. All slow sand filters shall be covered.

2. Sufficient head room shall be provided for normal movement on the filter by operating personnel for periodic sand removal operations.

3. Adequate manholes and access ports shall be provided for moving sand off and onto the filter.

4. There shall be no common wall between the finished water and any water of lesser quality.

5. All filters shall be protected from freezing.

F. General design requirements.

1. Filter to waste shall be provided for all slow sand filters.

2. Water entering the filter shall be distributed in a manner so that the surface of the filter shall not be disturbed in any way.

3. The nominal rate of filtration range shall be from 45 to 150 gpd/ft2 (0.031 to 0.10 gpm/ft2) of sand area.

4. The minimum depth of water over the filters shall be three feet. The maximum depth of water over the filters shall not exceed five feet. An overflow capable of handling the maximum flow to the filter shall be provided at the maximum filter water level.

5. Underdrains shall be provided to assure an even rate of filtration across the filter surface. The maximum velocity of water in the lateral underdrains shall be 0.75 ft/sec. The underdrain spacing shall not exceed three feet.

6. Each filter shall be capable of being filled with water from the bottom up.

7. Each filter shall be equipped with a loss-of-head gauge; a rate-of-flow control device such as an orifice, weir, or butterfly valve; a weir or effluent pipe designed to assure that the water level over the filter never drops below the sand surface; and filtered water sample taps.

8. Monitoring, indicating, and recording turbidimeters meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for:

a. The source water;

b. The filter effluent from each filter unit; and

c. The CFE.

9. The filters shall be designed to operate to waste after scraping or replacement of the sand, until the ripening process is complete and the turbidity meets the requirements of 12VAC5-590-395 A 2 b (3).

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-882. Membrane filtration.

A. Applicability. This section pertains to the use of membrane filtration as follows:

1. For pathogen and turbidity log removal credits in accordance with Table 500.1 in 12VAC5-590-500, the use of MF and UF are allowed.

2. For softening, total dissolved solids (TDS) removal, organics removal, and other treatment purposes, reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are allowed in accordance with 12VAC5-590-680 G.

B. Membrane filtration systems shall meet all requirements contained in 12VAC5-590-401 E 6 b to be granted removal credit for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium.

C. A demonstration study shall be conducted on the water to be treated before the installation of a membrane filtration system unless the owner can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the department that the source water quality range over all four seasons of a year will be adequately treated by the proposed design.

D. All membrane treatment units for pathogen and turbidity removal shall employ MF or UF using hollow fiber, positive pressure-driven membrane filtration technology. They may employ either an inside-to-outside or outside-to-inside flow direction.

E. The number of membrane units shall be a function of the overall treatment facility capacity, waterworks capacity, and water demand. Multiple membrane units shall be provided where the treatment facility design capacity exceeds 0.5 MGD.

F. Approved materials and chemicals.

1. All membrane materials, associated piping, and other components in contact with the water shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-810.

2. Chemicals used in any membrane cleaning process shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-515.

G. Turbidity monitoring. Continuous indicating and recording equipment meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for the following locations:

1. Source water;

2. Pretreated water, such as by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation (if applicable);

3. Filtrate from each membrane unit; and

4. Combined filter effluent, where more than one membrane unit is installed.

H. Indicating and recording equipment for entry point chlorine residual monitoring shall be provided. Indicating and recording equipment for filtered water temperature monitoring shall be provided.

I. Pressure monitoring:

1. Indicating equipment shall be provided for monitoring the pressure drop across any prefilter.

2. Indicating and recording equipment shall be provided for monitoring the pressure drop across membrane modules, (i.e., transmembrane pressure).

3. Integrity monitoring. Indicating and recording equipment for direct integrity test monitoring shall be provided and shall document the date, time, and results of every test performed on each unit.

J. Flow measurement. Equipment shall be provided for measuring or calculating the following flows:

1. Source water, gpm and totalized;

2. Filtrate from each unit, gpm and totalized;

3. Flux from each unit, gpd/sf;

4. Recirculation to each unit, gpd or percent of feed flow, if applicable;

5. Entry point, gpm and totalized; and

6. Waste.

K. An alarm system shall be provided that will report alarm conditions and shut down the treatment plant and entry point flow as necessary.

1. All alarms shall be reported to a location manned 24 hours per day or to a person on call and shall report alarm conditions audio-visually at the water treatment plant.

2. At a minimum, the following points shall be monitored by the alarm system. Alarm and shut down set point conditions will be determined by the department on an individual basis.

a. Feed water flow;

b. Feed water turbidity, if required by the department;

c. Filtrate turbidity from each unit exceeding operational control criteria;

d. Membrane direct integrity test initiation, failure, and exceeding operational control criteria; and

e. Entry point disinfectant residual.

L. Sample taps shall be provided to monitor the following:

1. Source water;

2. Source water storage tank effluent;

3. Feed water after prefiltration;

4. Filtrate from each membrane unit;

5. Combined filtrate from all units;

6. Entry point; and

7. Additional sample taps to monitor the presence of cleaning solutions used in either the backwash or cleaning operations.

M. Equipment shall be provided, using variable frequency drive or other suitable means to adjust the feed pump output in order not to exceed the design flux in the event modules are taken off line.

N. Pressure gauges.

1. A portable, pocket-type pressure gauge of the correct range and accuracy for the application and with the capability of being calibrated shall be provided to check the pressure readings of the pressure transducers installed on the membrane units.

2. At each location of a pressure transducer, a 1/4-inch diameter pressure gauge with American National Standard Taper Threads (NPT) connection shall be provided to facilitate the connection of a portable, pocket-type test gauge.

O. Clean-in-place systems, including tanks, piping, all joints, and valves, shall be compatible with the cleaning solution and shall be corrosion resistant.

P. An operation and maintenance manual shall be provided for all membrane filtration treatment units. The operation and maintenance manual shall include the following:

1. A maintenance schedule for each piece of equipment.

2. Operation procedures, including software user instructions.

3. A troubleshooting guide.

4. Identification of specific proprietary equipment or software not available to the owner or operator.

5. A service call number.

6. DIT requirements.

7. Chemical cleaning instructions.

8. A detailed description of the treatment units and the control of each unit for optimal performance.

Q. A means shall be provided to isolate a compromised module or fiber or both. A means to visually inspect modules while simultaneously conducting the DIT shall be provided. Alternatively, sonic testing equipment that provides a relative accelerometer reading shall be provided where visual inspection cannot be performed.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-883. Bag and cartridge filtration.

A. Bag or cartridge filtration shall be limited to treating a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both with low turbidity.

B. A pilot plant study shall be conducted on the water to be treated before the installation of a bag or cartridge filter system.

C. Bag and cartridge filtration systems shall be granted removal credit for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in accordance with 12VAC5-590-401 E 6 a, provided that they meet the requirements of this section.

D. General design requirements.

1. All system components such as housing, bags, cartridges, gaskets, O-rings, and other components in contact with water shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-810. All cartridge filter housing shall be certified by the ASME certification program, or equivalent, for pressure vessels and stamped with the appropriate certification mark.

2. Indicating and recording turbidimeters meeting requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for the source water and the CFE. The department may require indicating and recording effluent turbidimeters for each filter unit.

3. The maximum flux rate across the final filter shall not exceed 0.2 gpm/ft2.

4. Maximum differential pressure across the cartridge filter shall not exceed 20 psi.

5. Pressure gauges and sampling taps shall be provided before and after each bag or cartridge filter.

6. Provisions to accomplish filter-to-waste shall be provided.

7. Automatic start-up of bag or cartridge filters is prohibited.

8. An alarm system shall be provided that will report alarm conditions and shut down the treatment plant and entry point flow.

a. All alarms shall be reported to a location manned 24 hours per day or to a person on call and shall report alarm conditions audio-visually at the water treatment plant.

b. The following shall be monitored by the alarm system:

(1) Source water turbidity;

(2) Feed water flow;

(3) If applicable, filtrate turbidity from each unit exceeding operational control criteria;

(4) Combined filter effluent turbidity exceeding operational control criteria;

(5) Differential pressure at each unit; and

(6) Entry point disinfectant residual.

9. At least two filtering units shall be provided at plants having a rated capacity of greater than 100 gpm.

E. Operation and maintenance documents shall be provided for all bag or cartridge filter units and shall include:

1. Detailed description of the bag or cartridge treatment units and the control of each unit for optimal performance.

2. Procedural criteria, such as pressure differential, turbidity, and other parameters, and expected frequency of bag or cartridge filter replacement.

3. A preventative maintenance schedule.

4. Manual adjustment and override procedures for any automatic control features.

5. Troubleshooting guide for typical problems.

F. The owner shall require the equipment manufacturer to provide onsite start-up and follow-up training.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-890. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.05 § 3.26, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-895. Pre-engineered package treatment units.

A. Pre-engineered package treatment units are defined as predesigned, factory built, and transported virtually assembled to the operation site. The provisions of 12VAC5-590-290 shall apply.

B. General design considerations.

1. A rapid mix unit process shall be provided. The design shall meet requirements of 12VAC5-590-871 A.

2. Flocculation units shall meet requirements of 12VAC5-590-871 B or as identified and justified in the approved PER.

3. Sedimentation units shall meet requirements of 12VAC5-590-872 or as identified and justified in the approved PER.

4. Filters shall be dual media or multimedia gravity filters. Design of filtration units shall meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-874 or as identified and justified in the approved PER.

5. Indicating and recording turbidimeters meeting requirements of 12VAC5-590-770 B shall be provided for the:

a. Source water;

b. Applied water to each filter;

c. Filter effluent from each filter; and

d. CFE.

6. Sufficient overflows and drains shall be provided to maintain a maximum water level within the plant, including the depth of water over the filters, and to facilitate complete draining of the package unit.

7. Where automatic unit process control is provided, operator adjustment of chemical feed rates, times, and sequences shall be provided as well as a manual override of all automatic features.

a. Automatic start-up of water treatment unit processes is prohibited.

b. Valve actuators shall be provided with manual override capability.

8. Treatment units installed at ground level shall be provided with stairways, walkways, or other suitable means to allow access for operation and maintenance and observation of all treatment process units. Filters shall be adequately accessible to facilitate evaluation of the entire filter bed for media condition and placement, fluidization during backwashing, and evaluation of compaction during filtration.

C. An operation and maintenance manual shall be provided for all pre-engineered package treatment units. The operation and maintenance manual shall include the following:

1. A detailed description of the treatment units and the control of each unit for optimal performance.

2. A preventative maintenance schedule.

3. Manual adjustment and override procedures for any automatic control features.

4. A troubleshooting guide for typical problems.

D. The owner shall require the equipment manufacturer to provide onsite start-up and follow-up training.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-900. Cation exchange softening.

A. The softening design selected shall be based upon the mineral qualities of the source water and the desired finished water quality in conjunction with requirements for disposal of sludge or brine water, cost of the plant, cost of the chemicals, and the plant location.

B. Iron, manganese, or a combination of the two, in the oxidized state or unoxidized state, shall not exceed 0.3 mg/L in the water applied to the cation exchange material.

C. The units shall be of pressure or gravity type of either an upflow or downflow design, using automatic or manual regeneration.

D. The design capacity for hardness removal shall not exceed 20,000 grains/ft3 when the resin is regenerated with 0.3 pounds of salt per kilograin of hardness removed.

E. The depth of the cation exchange material shall not be less than three feet.

F. The hydraulic loading rate should not exceed seven gpm/ft2 and the backwash rate should be six to eight gpm/ft. 2

G. The freeboard shall depend upon the specific gravity of the media and the direction of the water flow.

H. The bottoms, strainer systems, and support for the cation exchange material shall conform to criteria provided for rapid rate gravity filters. See also 12VAC5-590-874.

I. Facilities shall be included for even distribution of brine over the entire surface of both upflow and downflow units. Backwash, rinse, and air relief discharge pipes shall be installed in a manner as to prevent any possibility of backsiphonage.

J. A bypass shall be provided around the cation exchange units to produce a blended water of desirable hardness. Meters shall be installed to measure total water delivered to the distribution system and on each softener unit. An automatic proportioning or regulating device and shutoff valve should be provided on the bypass line. In some installations, it may be necessary to treat the bypassed water to obtain acceptable levels of iron and manganese in the finished water.

K. Waters having turbidity of five NTUs or more shall not be applied directly to the cation exchange softener. Silica gel materials should be used for water having a pH above 8.4 and should not be used when iron is present. When the applied water contains a chlorine residual, the cation exchange material shall be a type that is not damaged by the chlorine residual. Phenolic resin shall not be used.

L. Sampling taps shall be provided for the collection of representative samples for both bacteriological and chemical analyses. The taps shall be located to provide for sampling of the softener influent, softener effluent, and the blended water. The sampling taps for the blended water shall be at least 20 feet downstream from the point of blending.

M. Brine measuring or salt-dissolving tanks and wet salt storage facilities shall be covered. The makeup water inlet shall have a free fall discharge of two pipe diameters but not less than two inches above the maximum liquid level of the unit or be protected from backsiphonage. Water for filling the tank should be distributed over the entire surface by pipes above the maximum brine level in the tank. The salt shall be supported on graduated layers of gravel under which is a suitable means of collecting the brine. Wet salt storage basins must be equipped with manhole or hatchway openings having raised curbs and watertight covers with overhanging edges similar to those required for finished water reservoirs. Overflows, where provided, shall be turned down, have a proper free fall discharge and be protected with noncorrodible screens or self-closing flap valves.

N. Wet salt storage basins shall have sufficient capacity to store at least a 30-day operating supply.

O. Stabilization of the finished water for corrosion control shall be considered.

P. Suitable disposal must be provided for the brine waste.

Q. Pipes and contact materials shall be resistant to the aggressiveness of the salt.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.06 § 3.27, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-910. Aeration.

A. Aeration treatment is acceptable for oxidation, separation of gases, or for taste and odor control. General design requirements include the following:

1. The aerated water shall be chlorinated following aeration.

2. The equipment shall incorporate materials resistant to deterioration and corrosion and shall be designed to eliminate the potential for fouling problems from calcium carbonate and iron precipitation and from algae, slime, and bacteriological growth. Disinfection capability shall be provided before the aeration treatment units.

3. The equipment shall be easily accessed and serviced.

4. The air introduced into the treatment units shall be filtered and shall be free of insects, obnoxious fumes, dust, dirt, and other contaminants. If blowers are located inside a building, then the air intakes shall extend to the outside and be furnished with appropriate air filters.

5. Air exhaust outlets shall be located to avoid induced contaminants, particularly at or near occupied areas or blower intakes.

6. Duplicate blowers, motors, or multiple treatment units shall be required for treatment processes designed to meet the drinking water quality standards in 12VAC5-590-340.

B. Natural, forced, or induced draft aeration units shall be designed to provide an adequate liquid distribution and countercurrent of air through the enclosed aeration column, and adequately seal the water outlet to prevent unwanted loss of air.

C. Pressure aeration means the injection of compressed air into the water to be treated, typically for oxidation. Pressure aeration shall not be approved for removal of dissolved gases. Filters following pressure aeration shall have adequate exhaust devices for the release of air. Pressure aeration devices shall be designed to provide thorough mixing of compressed air with the water being treated.

D. Packed tower aeration (air stripping) is suitable for removing VOCs, THMs, carbon dioxide, and radon.

1. Justification shall be provided for the selected design parameters (e.g., height and diameter of the unit, air-to-water ratio, packing depth, surface loading rate, and other features). The design shall consider the effects of temperature change and the resulting impact in contaminant removal efficiency. Pilot plant studies may be required to substantiate the design.

2. The packing material used shall be resistant to the aggressiveness of the water, dissolved gases, and cleaning materials, and shall meet requirements of 12VAC5-590-810.

3. Water shall be evenly distributed at the top of the tower using spray nozzles or orifice-type distributor trays that will prevent short circuiting. A mist eliminator above the water distribution system may be required.

4. A means to allow for discharge and wasting of water or chemicals used to clean the tower shall be provided.

5. Sample taps shall be provided in the influent and effluent piping.

6. The design shall prevent freezing of the influent riser and effluent piping.

7. An overflow pipe discharging 12 to 24 inches above the ground and over a drainage inlet structure or splash pad shall be provided.

8. A sufficient number of access ports with a minimum diameter of 24 inches shall be provided to facilitate inspection, media replacement, media cleaning, and maintenance of the unit interior.

9. A positive air flow sensing device and a pressure gauge shall be installed on the air influent line. If the aeration unit is designed to remove a contaminant with a PMCL, then the positive air flow sensing device shall be an integral part of an automatic control system that will turn off the influent water if positive air flow is not detected.

E. Other methods of aeration shall be designed to meet the particular needs of the water to be treated and are subject to the approval of the department.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.07 § 3.28, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-920. Iron and manganese control.

A. Iron and manganese control, as used in this section, refers solely to treatment processes designed specifically for this purpose. The treatment process used will depend upon the character of the source water. The selection of one or more treatment processes shall meet specific local conditions as determined by engineering investigations, including chemical analyses of representative samples of water to be treated, and receive the approval of the department. The department may require that pilot studies be conducted.

B. Iron and manganese removal by oxidation and filtration.

1. Oxidation shall be accomplished by aeration or by chemicals, such as chlorine, potassium permanganate, sodium permanganate, or a combination thereof.

2. The design shall consider:

a. pH adjustment to promote rapid oxidation;

b. A pre-settling tank located ahead of the filters to remove oxidized iron and increase filter run times;

c. A manganese-oxide coating on the filter media, such as manganese greensand. The total depth of media shall not be less than 30 inches. Media shall have an effective size from 0.3 to 0.35 mm and a uniformity coefficient of no more than 1.6. Following initial placement of the media, care shall be taken to remove fines by backwashing and skimming the surface; and

d. An anthracite cap layer over the manganese-oxide coated media having a depth of six to 18 inches.

3. Aeration shall be designed in accordance with 12VAC5-590-910.

4. Flow proportional chemical feeders shall be provided, and the feed rate shall be adequately controlled by using feeders that are paced by water meters to prevent an over-dosage of chemical. A flow switch in place of a flow proportional feeder may be permissible.

5. Sample taps shall be provided before the application of the oxidant, immediately ahead of filtration, and at the filter effluent.

6. Pressure filters shall include provisions for:

a. Pressure gauges on the inlet and outlet pipes of each filter or a differential pressure gauge on each filter;

b. An easily readable meter or flow indicator on each battery of filters. A flow indicator is recommended for each filtering unit;

c. Filtration, backwashing, and filter-to-waste of each filter individually:

(1) Backwash water shall be evenly distributed in an adequate quantity to achieve at least a 30% media bed expansion during backwashing. The backwash rate shall be based on the media;

(2) The top of the backwash water collection trough shall be at least 18 inches above the media surface;

(3) An underdrain system to efficiently collect the filtered water and to distribute an adequate quantity of backwash water to achieve at least a 30% media bed expansion during backwashing;

d. Flow indicators and controls are located so that they are easily readable while operating the control valves;

e. An air release valve on the highest point of each filter;

f. An accessible manhole to facilitate inspections and repairs for filters greater than 36 inches in diameter;

g. A means to observe the wastewater during backwashing; and

h. Construction to prevent cross-connection.

C. Iron and manganese removal by ion exchange shall only be approved for removing low concentrations (less than 0.5 mg/L) of combined iron and manganese. The department may require pilot studies be conducted to determine post-exchange pH/alkalinity adjustment. See 12VAC5-590-900 for general ion exchange design requirements.

D. Sequestering iron and manganese.

1. Sequestration with polyphosphates shall be considered for polishing filtered water; however, it shall not be used where the residual iron, manganese, or combination thereof exceeds 1.0 mg/L.

2. Phosphate feed rates shall be determined by the product manufacturer and shall not exceed 10 mg/L.

3. Feed equipment shall be in accordance with the requirements of 12VAC5-590-860.

4. Stock phosphate solution shall be disinfected in accordance with manufacturer recommendations unless the phosphate solution is fed directly from the covered shipping container.

5. Sodium silicate or other silicate-based chemicals for the sequestration of iron and manganese shall be approved by the department on an individual basis. Operational data from actual full-scale facilities treating waters of similar quality or pilot tests may be required.

E. Sampling taps shall be provided for control purposes. Taps shall be located on each source water, each treatment unit influent, and each treatment unit effluent.

F. Iron and manganese testing equipment shall be provided. Iron testing equipment shall be capable of accurately measuring iron concentration as low as 0.1 mg/L. Manganese testing equipment shall be capable of accurately measuring manganese concentration as low as 0.05 mg/L.

G. The department may approve proprietary treatment processes for the removal of iron and manganese on an individual basis. Operational data from actual full-scale facilities treating waters of similar quality or pilot tests may be required. The provisions of 12VAC5-590-290 may apply.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.08 § 3.29, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-930. Fluoridation.

A. The board recommends that all community waterworks in Virginia be optimally fluoridated. Fluoridation feed systems shall be designed to deliver the optimum fluoride ion concentration as determined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

B. Fluoride compounds. Commercial sodium fluoride, sodium fluorosilicate (also called sodium silicofluoride), and fluorosilicic acid (also called hydrofluorosilicic acid) shall conform to the applicable AWWA standards or NSF/ANSI/CAN Standard 60-2020, as appropriate.

C. Fluoride compound storage. Fluoride chemicals shall be isolated from other chemicals to prevent cross contamination. Compounds shall be stored in covered or unopened shipping containers in a separate room (except sodium fluoride saturators) with the chemical feeder.

D. Chemical feed installations.

1. Scales and loss-of-weight recorders for dry chemical feeders and hydrofluorosilicic acid feeders shall be provided.

2. Fluoride metering pumps shall have an accuracy so that the actual feed rate will be within 5.0% of the intended feed rate.

3. The point of application shall be located to provide adequate mixing.

4. All fluoride feed lines shall be provided with adequate anti-siphon devices.

5. Design of fluoride saturators shall consider:

a. The source water hardness. The water applied to the sodium fluoride saturator feeders shall be softened if the hardness exceeds 50 mg/L.

b. The fluoride source. Use only sodium fluoride in the saturators.

c. A flow restrictor with a maximum flow of 2.0 gpm on all upflow saturators.

6. Adequate fluoride feed rate control and mixing shall be provided.

7. Provisions shall be made for venting fluorosilicic acid carboys to the outside of the building when the carboys are in use.

E. Suitable protective equipment shall be provided which includes gloves, aprons, dust mask, and goggles.

F. Suitable equipment shall be provided for wet mopping and hosing dust that might accumulate in the plant. Dry feeders shall be equipped with bag loading hoppers.

G. Equipment shall be provided for measuring the quantity of fluoride ion in the water. Testing equipment shall be colorimetric or electrode type as approved by the department.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.09 § 3.30, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-940. Fluoride removal.

A. Fluoride removal may be accomplished by blending with a different quality water or by removal treatment. Where fluoride removal is required, the treatment units shall be designed to achieve a finished water fluoride concentration that is below the SMCL.

B. Blending. Blended water shall result in all water delivered to the distribution system being of the same quality.

C. Treatment.

1. Treatment shall include ion exchange, activated alumina, bone char, RO, or electrodialysis. The selected design shall be supported by pilot studies, unless at least two pilot studies or two prototype plants have demonstrated that the selected design is feasible. These studies or prototypes shall be for waters having characteristics similar to the water that is to be treated.

2. Water pH shall be adjustable to an optimum level to achieve the best fluoride removal.

3. With any one unit out of service, the remaining units shall be capable of treating the maximum plant flow rate.

4. Filter clogging constituents such as iron having a concentration greater than 1.0 mg/L shall be removed before fluoride removal.

5. Test equipment shall be provided and must be accurate to at least 0.1 mg/L.

6. An operation and maintenance manual shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.10 § 3.31, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-950. Corrosion control or stabilization.

A. Water that is unstable due either to natural causes or to the treatment applied to the water shall be stabilized.

B. Deposition of calcium carbonate film. The desired calcium carbonate film may be obtained by using either soda ash or caustic soda when the alkalinity of the water exceeds about 35 mg/L. Soft waters should be treated with lime to provide the required calcium. Soft waters that also have a low carbon dioxide content may need a mixture of lime and soda ash to provide both calcium and carbonate for the calcium carbonate film.

C. Phosphates or other corrosion inhibitors may be used for corrosion control when applied in accordance with manufacturer recommendations and when they meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-515. Stock phosphate solution shall be disinfected in accordance with manufacturer recommendations unless the phosphate solution is fed directly from the covered shipping container.

D. Cathodic protection shall be acceptable for preventing or reducing corrosion of the inner surfaces of water storage tanks and standpipes and the outer surface of metal pipe.

E. Laboratory equipment shall be provided for determining the effectiveness of stabilization treatment and the concentration of chemicals in the treated water.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.11 § 3.32, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-960. Taste and odor control.

A. The continuous or periodic treatment of source waters with copper sulfate and other copper compounds to kill algae or other growths shall be controlled to prevent a copper concentration in excess of 1.0 mg/L, as copper, in the finished water leaving the treatment plant.

B. Surface water aerators or diffused aeration systems shall be acceptable for de-stratifying reservoirs, reducing or eliminating seasonal turnover, and releasing compounds in the anaerobic or anoxic zones.

C. Addition of chemical oxidants at the source water intake, in the source water pump station discharge line, at the head of the treatment plant, or within the treatment train shall be acceptable for treating tastes and odors. Effective oxidants include chlorine, chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate, and ozone. If breakpoint chlorination is proposed, then the actual breakpoint of the water shall be determined accurately. "Breakpoint chlorination" means the addition of chlorine to water until the chlorine demand has been satisfied, chlorine and ammonia nitrogen reactions are near completion, and further additions of chlorine result in a free chlorine residual that is directly proportional to the amount of chlorine added.

D. Powdered activated carbon (PAC). When taste and odor problems are anticipated on an intermittent basis, the addition of PAC shall be considered, and a pilot study shall be conducted to determine the optimum dosage. Multiple PAC feed locations shall be evaluated to provide maximum contact time, including the rapid mixer, the flocculation basins, and at the midpoint of the sedimentation basins.

1. PAC shall not be applied near the point of chlorine or other oxidant application.

2. Continuous agitation or resuspension equipment shall be required to keep the PAC from depositing in the slurry or storage tank.

3. All mechanisms for handling dry PAC shall be tightly sealed. Dust collection is required at all installations.

4. The PAC feed lines to the application points shall be sized to handle the PAC suspension and should be equipped with flushing provisions.

E. GAC media shall be acceptable in conventional gravity filters or in separate contactors to reduce taste and odor.

F. Ozonation shall be acceptable for taste and odor control.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.12 § 3.33, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-970. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.13 § 3.34, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 12, Issue 2, eff. November 15, 1995; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-975. Removal of radionuclides.

A. Processes for the removal of radionuclides specified as BAT are identified in 40 CFR 141.66. The specific process and equipment proposed for removal of radionuclides shall to the satisfaction of the department have a demonstrated history of successful performance with similar water quality characteristics and performance requirements. Otherwise, the procedures of 12VAC5-590-290 shall apply.

B. When manganese greensand filter systems are utilized, the design shall meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-920 B. In addition, a chemical contact tank with a minimum detention time of 30 minutes shall be provided. Laboratory or pilot studies may be required to demonstrate compliance with the radium standard when using a filtering treatment system for groundwater with total radium greater than 10 pCi/L.

C. Waste handling, disposal, and permitting shall be given special consideration early in the design process.

D. Occupational exposure shall be considered in the project design.

E. Provisions for operational control monitoring of the radionuclides requiring removal or of acceptable surrogates shall be included in the project design.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-980. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.14 § 3.35, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-985. GAC contactors.

A. Granular activated carbon (GAC) contactors may be used to adsorb natural organic compounds, taste and odor compounds, and SOCs. The most common applications of GAC contactors in drinking water treatment plants are (i) post-filtration adsorption and (ii) filtration-adsorption, in which some or all of the filter media in a granular media filter is replaced with GAC.

B. General requirements.

1. A demonstration study using bench-scale or pilot-scale tests shall be conducted to determine the GAC media effectiveness, adsorption efficiency, and regeneration frequency.

2. GAC contactors shall be sized for the optimum empty bed contact time.

3. A minimum of two contactor units shall be provided.

4. Bypassing the GAC facility may be permissible under certain circumstances to accommodate seasonal water quality fluctuations and allow for blending water.

C. Hydraulic configuration.

1. Pressure vessel installation may be configured in parallel or in series.

2. For pressure contactors, pre-filter and post-filter pressure gauges shall be installed at each individual contactor unit.

3. The rate of flow through the contactors shall be controlled either manually or automatically to ensure equal flow through each contactor.

D. Design details.

1. For pressure contactors, the maximum pressure loss through the vessels shall be as determined by the product manufacturer.

2. Sample taps, isolation valves, and bypass piping shall be provided before and after each individual contactor unit.

3. Pipes, tanks, and appurtenances shall be corrosion resistant.

4. The GAC facility shall provide the ability to filter-to-waste to prevent carbon fines in the effluent water.

5. Unless otherwise approved by the department, disinfection shall be accomplished following the GAC contactors.

6. If backwashing of GAC specific units is required, then unchlorinated filtered water shall be used.

7. Turbidity monitoring of contactor effluent shall be considered.

8. The facility design shall include provisions for spent carbon disposal, GAC delivery, and storage.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-990. Waterworks waste.

A. With the exception of sanitary sewage and flows recycled through the water treatment system, the wastes generated during the operation of water filtration plants constitute industrial wastes and are subject to the State Water Control Law (Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia).

Industrial wastes generated by water treatment facilities include the following:

1. Filter backwash water;

2. Coagulant residuals;

3. Softening residuals;

4. Iron and manganese residuals;

5. Settled solids from presedimentation units; and

6. Brine wastes.

B. After receipt and review of plans and specifications from the consulting engineer for the water treatment facilities, the department will advise DEQ of any proposal to treat and discharge industrial wastes into state waters. The department will submit a letter or report to DEQ that includes the following:

1. Capacity of the proposed treatment facilities;

2. Location of the proposed facilities;

3. Proposed final disposition of the treated waste effluent;

4. Name and address of the consulting engineer; and

5. Name and address of the owner.

C. Except for recycle flows as described in 12VAC5-590-395 C, the owner will need to satisfy DEQ's requirements for the final disposal of these wastes.

D. The sanitary wastes from water treatment plants must receive treatment. Wastes from these facilities shall be discharged either directly to a sanitary sewer system or to an individual waste disposal facility providing suitable treatment approved by the State Water Control Board.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.15 § 3.36, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 19, Issue 20, eff. July 16, 2003; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1000. Disinfection.

A. The objective of disinfection is to prevent the occurrence of waterborne diseases from the consumption of drinking water.

B. Primary disinfection shall be provided for all surface water sources, all spring sources, all GUDI sources, and all well sources determined to be of questionable bacteriological quality as required by the department. Consideration shall be given to minimizing the formation of DBPs when designing a disinfection process. Waterworks with groundwater sources requiring disinfection under this section shall meet the requirement of 12VAC5-590-421 A 1 d.

C. All pipes, tanks, and equipment that convey, store, or treat potable water shall be disinfected with chlorine before being placed in service in accordance with the following AWWA standards where applicable: C651-14, C652-19, and C653-20.

D. All residual disinfectant determinations shall be made using methods identified in 12VAC5-590-440.

1. The project documents shall outline the procedures and include the disinfectant dosage, contact time, and method of testing the results of the procedure.

2. Methods of disinfection other than chlorination may be considered by the department on an individual basis.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-009.16 § 3.37, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1001. Chlorination.

A. General design requirements.

1. Chlorine feed capacity shall be capable of meeting the disinfection requirements under all operating conditions.

a. Chlorine feed systems for primary disinfection at a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall provide sufficient capacity to achieve the required microbial log inactivation specified in Table 500.1.

b. Chorine feed systems for primary disinfection at a waterworks using groundwater sources shall provide sufficient capacity to achieve 4-log virus inactivation and removal.

c. Chlorine feed systems for secondary disinfection at a waterworks shall provide sufficient capacity to achieve a minimum chlorine residual at the entry point of 0.2 mg/L for more than 4 hours.

2. Chlorine feed systems for disinfection at a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall be sized to deliver the required dose with the largest unit out of operation. Small hypochlorination installations for groundwater source waterworks shall have a spare metering pump, unless it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department that spare equipment is readily available from a local supplier. Spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators to replace parts that are subject to wear and breakage.

3. Consideration shall be given to providing multiple chlorine feed points at all waterworks. For conventional filtration treatment plants, chlorine feed points shall be provided for the source water, applied water to the filters, and filter effluent.

4. The piping providing the water for preparing the chlorine solution shall be designed to prevent contamination of the "bulk treated" finished water.

a. At all facilities treating surface water, pre-filtration and post-filtration disinfection systems shall operate independently of each other to prevent possible siphoning of partially treated water into the clearwell.

b. The water piping to each ejector shall have a separate shutoff valve. A master shutoff valve is prohibited.

5. Provisions shall be made to ensure uniform mixing of the chlorine with the water near the point of application.

6. Residual and contact time.

a. The owner of a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall provide a minimum residual (C) and contact time (T) as calculated in accordance with 12VAC5-590-500.

b. The owner of a waterworks using a groundwater source that is required to disinfect shall provide a minimum residual (C) and contact time (T) to achieve 4-log virus inactivation and removal based on maximum design flow rate. Provisions shall be made to prevent short circuiting. The contact basin shall be designed utilizing the appropriate baffle factors referenced in Table 500.15 of 12VAC5-590-500.

7. Automatic proportioning chlorinators shall be provided where the rate of flow is not reasonably constant.

8. Equipment shall be provided for measuring the chlorine residual, employing any method specified in 12VAC5-590-440. The equipment shall be capable of a chlorine residual measurement to the nearest 0.1 mg/L.

9. Continuous chlorine residual analyzers shall be provided at all waterworks that are required to filter and that serve 3,300 or more persons or at any waterworks required by the department. Where a continuous chlorine residual analyzer is provided, the department may require that the design incorporate an operator-selected high or low chlorine residual alarm.

B. Gas chlorine feed systems.

1. Equipment.

a. An ample supply of potable water shall be available for operating the chlorinator. Where a booster pump is required, duplicate equipment shall be provided, and when necessary, standby power shall be provided as well. Equipment for backflow prevention shall be provided. A pressure gauge shall be provided on each chlorinator mixing water piping.

b. Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all waterworks using chlorine gas. At large waterworks, scales of the indicating and recording type shall be considered. Scales shall be recessed unless they are of the low-platform type.

c. Where a manifold of several cylinders is required to evaporate sufficient chlorine, consideration shall be given to the installation of gas evaporators.

d. Automatic switch-over of chlorine cylinders shall be provided to assure continuous disinfection.

2. Chlorine gas leak detection.

a. Automatic chlorine gas leak detection with strategically located sensors and related alarm equipment shall be provided for all installations.

b. A bottle of ammonia hydroxide solution shall be provided for detecting chlorine gas leaks.

3. Emergency cylinder repair kits shall be provided.

4. Consideration shall be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where the cylinders are in use.

5. Piping and connections for chlorine gas.

a. Pressure gauges shall be installed on the piping to each chlorinator. Piping systems shall be well supported and adequately sloped to allow drainage. Suitable allowance shall be made for pipe expansion due to changes in temperature.

b. Fittings and appurtenances shall be suitable for handling dry chlorine.

6. Building design.

a. Any building to house chlorine equipment or containers shall be designed and constructed to protect all components of the chlorine system from fire hazards. See 12VAC5-590-720.

b. If gas chlorination equipment and chlorine cylinders are to be in a building used for other purposes, a gas-tight partition shall separate this room from any other portion of the building. Doors to this room shall open only to the outside of the building and shall be equipped with panic hardware. These rooms shall be at ground level and should be separated from the feed area.

c. At least two means of exit shall be considered from each separate room or building in which chlorine is stored, handled, or used. All exit doors shall open outward.

d. A clear glass, gas-tight window shall be installed in an interior wall of the chlorinator room to permit the chlorinators to be viewed without entering the room.

e. Feed lines shall not carry chlorine gas beyond the chlorine feeder room unless the chlorine is under vacuum.

f. Chlorinator rooms shall be provided with a means of heating so that a temperature of at least 60°F can be maintained, but the room should be protected from excess heat. Cylinders shall be kept at essentially room temperature for at least 24 hours before use unless an evaporator is employed.

g. Forced, mechanical ventilation that provides one complete air change per minute shall be installed in all chlorine feed rooms and rooms where chlorine cylinders are stored. The inlet to the air exhaust duct from the room shall be near the floor, and the point of discharge shall be located so as not to contaminate the air inlet to any building or inhabited areas. Air inlets shall be located so as to provide cross ventilation with air and at a temperature that will not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. The vent hose shall run without traps from the chlorinator and shall discharge to the outside atmosphere above grade.

h. The electrical controls for the fans and lights shall automatically operate when the door is opened and can be manually operated from the outside without opening the door.

C. Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite feed systems.

1. Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite shall be acceptable for disinfection.

2. Hypochlorite solution feeders of the positive displacement type shall be provided.

3. Adequate mixing of the calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite solutions shall be provided.

4. Special design considerations for bulk delivery systems:

a. Bulk sodium hypochlorite storage tanks shall be constructed of corrosion-proof materials. Pumps, piping, materials, and appurtenances exposed to the sodium hypochlorite shall be suitable for such use.

b. Sodium hypochlorite storage facilities shall be designed to keep ambient temperature and lighting low. Sodium hypochlorite fumes are corrosive and tanks shall be vented to the outside. Tanks shall be designed for ease of filling, draining, and transfer of contents.

c. Piping, valves, pumps, and pipe accessories shall be designed and configured so as not to allow accumulation of gases that could cause air locking or loss of prime in chemical feed piping or pumps.

d. The design shall provide a system of local or general exhaust features to keep employee exposures below the airborne exposure limits, as described in the Safety Data Sheet for the chemical used, in accordance with federal occupational safety and health standards (29 CFR § 1910.1200 (g)). Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it controls contaminant emissions at the source and thus, preventing dispersion into the general work area which could result in corrosion or exposure. Exhaust equipment and accessories shall be corrosion proof.

e. An eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in the immediate work area shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1002. Chloramination.

A. Chloramines shall be acceptable for secondary disinfection. Chloramines are formed by the reaction of ammonia and chlorine. Multiple chemical species may be created; however, monochloramine is the desired form.

B. The process shall be controlled to minimize formation of dichloramine and nitrogen trichloride, which can create objectionable taste and odors. Control should be sufficient to limit free ammonia leaving the chloramination facility to no more than 0.1 mg/L as nitrogen.

C. pH adjustment facilities shall be provided to maintain pH in the range of 7 to 8.

D. When use of chloramines is proposed, the potential increase of lead leaching within the distribution system shall be considered. Additional distribution system monitoring may be required by the department.

E. The owner shall inform the public before initiating any disinfection process involving chloramines, as directed by the department.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1003. Chlorine dioxide addition.

A. Chlorine dioxide may be considered as a pre-oxidant to control tastes and odors, reduce color, oxidize iron and manganese, and reduce DBPPs. Chlorine dioxide may be used for primary disinfection. Where chlorine dioxide is used, consideration shall be given to the formation of the byproducts chlorite and chlorate.

B. Chlorine dioxide is generated onsite from sodium chlorite and either chlorine gas or hypochlorite solution. Chlorine dioxide generation equipment shall be factory assembled, pre-engineered units with a minimum efficiency of 95%. The excess free chlorine shall not exceed 3.0% of the theoretical stoichiometric concentration required.

C. The owner shall inform the public before using chlorine dioxide, as directed by the department.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1004. Ozonation.

A. Ozone may be considered as a pre-oxidant to control tastes and odors, reduce color, oxidize iron and manganese, reduce DBPPs, and used for primary disinfection. Where ozone is used, consideration shall be given to the level of bromide and formation of brominated byproducts.

B. Ozone systems are typically comprised of four basic subsystems: ozone generation, feed gas preparation, ozone contactors, and off-gas disposal.

C. The PER shall evaluate water and gas flow rates, oxygen source, generator selection and sizing, contactor design, treatment process location, exhaust gas collection and destruction, and operator requirements.

D. Treatability studies using bench-scale or pilot-scale tests may be required as part of the PER to address the following:

1. Alternate points of ozone application;

2. Ozone demand tests, applied dose, transferred dose, and decay rates; and

3. Ozone byproducts, including bromide and bromate analyses.

E. Ozone systems shall be granted disinfection credit for Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and viruses, in accordance with 12VAC5-590-401 E 7 and 12VAC5-590-500, provided that they meet the requirements of this section.

1. Ozone residual levels shall be monitored continuously and recorded. For waterworks that claim inactivation credit for ozone, a minimum of two dedicated, online monitors per ozone contactor shall be provided. The location of the monitors shall be acceptable to the department. A portable ozone monitor shall be provided as a backup.

2. Ozone systems using multiple, consecutive contact chambers with gaseous ozone injected in the initial chambers, shall be designed to measure the ozone residual and compute log inactivation of Giardia and virus using the CeffluentT10 Method or the Log Integration CT10 Method, as described in the "Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Toolbox Guidance Manual," EPA Office of Water (4606), EPA 815-R-09-016, April 2010.

3. Sampling lines shall be designed to minimize the reaction time (typically less than 10 seconds conveyance time).

F. Alarms shall be provided for ozone process control safety. Automatic shutdown features shall be considered.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1005. Ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection.

A. All UV reactors shall conform to NSF/ANSI/CAN standards.

B. Each reactor train shall be equipped with an individual flow meter or a single flow meter in conjunction with differential pressure sensors in each treatment train. Reactors shall be sized to treat the design flow.

C. Hydraulic design shall ensure that lamps are submerged and that the entrance of air, negative pressure, or pressure surges in the reactors is prevented. Open channel flow reactors are prohibited.

D. A pressure gauge shall be provided upstream of each reactor. The design shall ensure that the reactor's maximum rated pressure cannot be exceeded.

E. Water quality parameters that may affect UV disinfection system performance shall be evaluated, including calcium, iron, manganese, hardness, and alkalinity. Pretreatment shall be considered for water quality parameters that may result in lamp sleeve fouling.

F. A building to enclose and protect all UV equipment shall be provided. Adequate space between control panels, power supply, and the reactor equipment shall be provided to allow for routine operation and maintenance, including removing lamp and wiper assemblies and for off-line chemical cleaning of reactor lamps.

G. An operation and maintenance manual shall be provided for all UV reactors.

H. UV systems may be used for primary disinfection and shall be granted log inactivation credit for Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and viruses in accordance with Table 401.7, provided that they meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-401 E 7 c and this subsection.

1. Only UV reactors that have undergone independent, third-party oversight of the validation testing on a fully assembled system to determine the operating conditions under which the reactors deliver the required UV dose shall be considered for log inactivation credit.

2. The dose-monitoring strategy shall be either the UV intensity set point approach or the calculated dose approach as described in the "Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual For The Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule," Office of Water (4601), EPA 815-R-06-007, November 2006. The dose-monitoring strategy shall be demonstrated through the UV reactor validation testing.

3. At least two reactors shall be provided. Reactors shall be sized to treat the design flow with the largest reactor out of service.

4. Continuous monitoring sensors shall be provided to measure UV intensity. A continuous sensor shall also be provided to measure ultraviolet transmittance (UVT) if the calculated dose approach is utilized.

a. The number of sensors provided shall be the same as that used in validation testing of the reactor.

b. Output from a continuous UVT analyzer shall be capable of being input directly into a control loop for each UV reactor, a SCADA system, or both. A bench-top spectrophotometer may be provided instead of a continuous UVT analyzer.

c. All signals from the sensors shall be displayed for operator response and for recordation.

d. At least one reference sensor for calibration of online UV intensity sensors shall be provided. Reference sensors shall be capable of calibration against a traceable standard.

e. Continuous recording equipment shall be provided with the monitoring sensors to store in memory or print one data point at least every four hours.

5. A means of flow distribution and control among multiple reactors shall be provided. The hydraulic flow profiles and piping configuration shall be identical to or more protective than that tested during equipment validation.

a. For onsite validation, the inlet and outlet piping configuration for the UV facility shall be designed according to manufacturer recommendations and to accommodate any site-specific constraints.

b. To avoid jetting flow and swirling flow, consideration shall be given to exclude expansions for at least 10 pipe diameters upstream of the reactor and to exclude out-of-plane 90-degree bends in series.

c. Each UV reactor shall be capable of being isolated and removed from service. Isolation valves upstream and downstream of each reactor, a drain, and sample taps for each reactor treatment train shall be provided. If the isolation valves are also used for flow control, then the flow control valve shall be located downstream of the UV reactor to limit the disturbance of the flow entering the UV reactor. Bypass piping shall not be allowed.

d. The lateral piping for each UV reactor train shall be sized and configured to provide approximately equal head loss through each UV reactor train over the validated range of flow rates.

6. The control system shall be capable of meeting the monitoring and reporting requirements in 12VAC5-590-401 and 12VAC5-590-570.

7. Automatic shutdown capability under critical alarm conditions shall be provided, including lamp or ballast failure, low liquid level, and high temperature. Alarms shall be provided for low UV validated dose, low UV intensity, low UV transmittance, high flow rate, and mechanical wiper failure.

8. Ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be provided for all lamps. Backup power shall be considered.

9. The owner shall develop a start-up plan and submit the plan to the department for approval. The plan shall include functional testing, determination of validated operating conditions and control settings, performance testing, development of an operation and maintenance manual, and inspection schedules.

I. UV systems not intended for primary disinfection may be used provided that they meet the requirements of this subsection.

1. Continuous sensors to measure UV intensity shall be considered.

2. Each UV reactor shall be capable of being isolated, removed from service, and be provided with bypass piping.

3. Automatic shutdown capabilities shall be provided in the event of lamp or ballast failure.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

Article 4
Pumping Facilities [Repealed]

12VAC5-590-1010. Basic pumping facility design criteria.

Pumping facilities shall be designed to maintain the sanitary quality of pumped water. All pumps shall be accessible for servicing and repair.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.01 § 3.38, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1020. Location.

A. The pumping station shall be located to meet the hydraulic needs of the distribution system, preserve the quality of the water pumped, and shall consider the availability of a power or a fuel supply.

B. The station shall be:

1. Elevated to a minimum of one foot above the 100-year flood elevation or protected to that elevation;

2. Accessible at all times unless allowed to be out of service by the department;

3. Graded around the station so as to lead surface drainage away from the station; and

4. Protected to prevent vandalism and entrance by animals or unauthorized persons.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.02 § 3.39, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1030. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.03 § 3.40, eff. August 1, 1991; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1040. Pump stations.

A. Enclosures.

1. The structure that houses a pump shall be of durable construction, fire and weather resistant, and furnished with lockable, outward opening doors. Underground structures shall be waterproofed.

2. Floors.

a. Pump house floors shall be of good quality concrete with adequate reinforcement and have a minimum thickness of six inches.

b. Pump house floors shall slope at least 1/8 inch per foot toward a screened four-inch-diameter floor drain to the atmosphere or other provisions for gravity drainage.

c. The pump house finished floor elevation should be at least six inches above the finished grade.

3. Openings in floors or roofs or elsewhere for removal of heavy or bulky equipment shall be provided.

a. Craneways, hoist beams, eyebolts, or other adequate facilities for servicing or removal of pumps, motors, or other heavy equipment shall be provided.

b. Adequate means of access shall be provided to lubrication points of equipment if these are located at intermediate points between floors.

4. Heat shall be provided for the safe and efficient operation of the equipment.

5. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for all pumping stations. Forced draft ventilation of at least six changes of air per hour (continuous operation) shall be provided for:

a. All rooms, compartments, pits, and other enclosures below grade; and

b. Any area where an unsafe atmosphere may develop or where excessive heat may build up.

6. In areas where excess moisture could cause hazards to safety or damage to equipment, means for dehumidification shall be provided.

7. Pump stations shall be adequately lighted throughout. All electrical work shall conform to the requirements of the applicable codes.

8. Stair design shall be in accordance with the USBC.

9. Pump stations shall have adequate space for the installation of additional units if needed and for the safe servicing of all equipment.

10. Pump stations shall be designed so that each pump has an individual suction line or the lines shall be so manifolded to ensure similar hydraulic and operational conditions.

B. Suction wells shall:

1. Be watertight;

2. Have floors sloped to allow removal of water and entrained solids;

3. Be covered or otherwise protected against contamination, including contamination by pump lubricants; and

4. Have two pumping compartments or other means to allow the suction well to be taken out of service for inspection, maintenance, or repair.

C. Groundwater well enclosures and aprons.

1. The floor at the well pump house shall meet the requirements of subdivision A 2 of this section.

2. Well pump aprons surrounding the well shall (i) be of quality reinforced concrete, (ii) extend a minimum of three feet in all directions from the well casing, (iii) be at least six inches thick, and (iv) be sloped 1/8 inch per foot away from the well.

3. Well houses or well pump stations in pits are prohibited.

D. Spring enclosures shall be vented by properly hooded and screened pipe extending at least 12 inches above the pump floor or ground surface.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.04 § 3.41, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1050. Pumps and controls.

A. General.

1. Pumps, pump motors, and all accessories shall be controlled in a manner that they will operate at their rated capacity. Where two or more pumps are installed, provision shall be made for proper alternation of the pumps. Alternation may be automatic or manual. Provision shall be made to prevent operation of the pump in the event of a backspin cycle.

2. All pumps shall be driven by motors designed to operate over the full range of operating conditions.

3. All pumps shall be served by control equipment that has overload protection for the air temperature encountered.

4. Electrical controls shall be protected to the 100-year flood elevation and should be located above grade.

5. If standby power is provided by onsite generators or engines, then the provisions for filling the fuel storage tank, the fuel tank itself, and the fuel line shall be designed to protect the waterworks and source water from contamination.

6. Pumps shall be lubricated with water of equal or better quality than the water being pumped or with food grade oil. Water seals shall not be supplied with water of a lesser sanitary quality than that of the water being pumped. Where pumps are sealed with potable water and are pumping water of lesser sanitary quality, the seal shall:

a. Have an air gap of at least two inches or two pipe diameters, whichever is greater, where a break-tank is provided; or

b. Be provided with an approved RPZ assembly.

7. When automatic pre-lubrication of pump bearings is necessary and an auxiliary power supply is provided, the pre-lubrication line shall be provided with a valved bypass around the automatic control.

8. A suitable outlet for drainage from pump glands shall be provided without discharging onto the floor.

B. Booster pumps.

1. Booster pumps, except those connected to supply mains not containing service connections and except those taking suction directly from storage facilities, shall be located or controlled so that:

a. They will not produce negative gauge pressure in their suction line; and

b. The intake pressure shall be at least 20 psi when the pump is in normal operation.

2. An automatic pressure cutoff or a pressure-regulating valve shall be provided to prevent the suction line pressure from dropping to below 10 psi.

3. Automatic or remote control devices shall have sufficient range between the start and cutoff pressure, or another mechanism that will prevent excessive cycling of the pumps.

4. At least two pumping units shall be provided.

a. If only two units are provided, then each shall be capable of delivering the peak hour demand, taking into account storage contributions.

b. If more than two units are installed, then they shall have sufficient capacity so that if any one pump is out of service, the remaining pumps are capable of meeting the peak hour demand, taking into account storage contributions.

c. When using booster pumps to transfer water from atmospheric storage tanks to hydropneumatic tanks located upstream of an entry point into the distribution system, the combined capacity of the two pumps shall equal or exceed the peak hour demand. If fire flow is provided, then a pump separate from the transfer pumps shall be provided to deliver the required fire flow.

d. When booster pumping is required for small noncommunity systems, the reserve capacity requirements may be reduced in accordance with the type and size of system served.

5. Controls shall be provided to shut off pumps in the event that suction conditions may result in cavitation.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.05 § 3.42, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1060. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.06 § 3.43, eff. August 1, 1991; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1065. Piping, valves, and meters.

A. Piping shall:

1. Be adequately sized to minimize energy losses;

2. Not be subject to contamination;

3. Have watertight joints;

4. Be properly anchored to prevent movement;

5. Be protected against surge or water hammer;

6. Have proper labels to identify the contents of the pipes (12VAC5-590-720 C); and

7. Have all exposed piping, valves, and appurtenances protected against physical damage and freezing.

B. Pumps shall be adequately valved to allow satisfactory operation, maintenance, and repair.

1. If foot valves are necessary, then they shall have a net valve area of at least 2-1/2 times the area of the suction pipe and they shall be screened.

2. Each pump shall have shutoff valves on both suction and discharge sides of the pump.

3. Each pump shall have a positive-acting check valve on the discharge side between the pump and shutoff valve or suitable control features to prevent flow reversal.

4. Surge relief valves or slow-acting check valves shall be designed to minimize hydraulic transients.

5. Discharge control valves and appurtenances shall be located above the pump floor when an above-ground discharge is provided.

6. Pumps shall be equipped with an air release or vacuum relief valve located upstream from the check valve, with exhaust or relief piping terminating in a down-turned position at least 18 inches above the floor and covered with a corrosion-resistant screen.

C. Gauges. Each pump shall have a standard pressure gauge on its discharge line capable of displaying the maximum allowable pressure of the pump and shall have a standard pressure gauge or a compound gauge when appropriate on its suction line.

D. Meters.

1. All booster pump stations located within the distribution system should be fitted with a flow rate indicating and totalizing meter with recording capabilities.

2. A totalizing water meter to measure water production shall be provided for each well and shall be located upstream of the well blowoff.

E. Additional requirements for well discharge piping.

1. Valves shall be provided to allow testing and control of each well.

2. A nonthreaded sampling tap shall be provided for water sampling that discharges in a downward direction and away from the well casing.

3. A standard pressure gauge shall be provided to indicate well discharge pressure. The gauge shall be capable of displaying pressure under all operating conditions.

4. Blowoff.

a. A separate means to pump (i.e., blowoff) water of unsatisfactory quality to a point away from the groundwater source shall be provided. Blowoff discharge shall not create a cross-connection.

b. Systems shall be equipped with a watertight cap or a screened discharge.

c. Erosion protection at the point of waste discharge shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1070. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-010.07 § 3.44, eff. August 1, 1991; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

Article 5
Finished Water Storage Structures

12VAC5-590-1080. Basic finished water storage structure design criteria.

A. The materials and designs used for finished water storage structures, including associated pipe and valves, shall provide stability and durability as well as protect the quality of the stored water. Steel, concrete, composite, and plastic storage structures shall be designed, constructed, cleaned, disinfected, and tested in accordance with the following AWWA standards, where applicable: D100-11, D103-19, D107-16, D108-19, D110-13, D115-20, D120-19, D121-12, and C652-19.

B. Safety cages, rest platforms, roof-ladder handrails, and other safety devices shall be provided as required by VOSH laws and regulations.

C. Location of finished water storage structures.

1. The bottom of ground-level reservoirs, storage tanks, and standpipes should be placed above finished grade to ensure positive drainage away from the structure.

2. Where the bottom must be below normal ground surface, it shall be placed above the groundwater table. Sewers, drains, standing water, and similar sources of contamination shall be kept at least 50 feet from the finished water storage structure. Pipe conforming to water distribution pipe standards of 12VAC5-590-1110, pressure tested in place without leakage, shall be used for gravity sewers at lesser separations.

3. The top of all storage facilities shall not be less than two feet above the normal ground surface and shall be above the 100-year flood elevation. Any clearwell constructed under filters may be exempted from this requirement when the total design gives the same protection.

D. Pressure variation. The maximum variation between normal operational high and low water levels in finished water storage structures which float on a distribution system shall not exceed 30 feet.

E. Level controls.

1. Adequate controls shall be provided to enable sufficient tank turnover, water quality maintenance, avoidance of overflows, and efficient operations.

2. A telemetery system with recording capability shall be considered to transmit the operating levels in distribution system storage facilities to a location where qualified personnel may access the data at all times.

3. Altitude valves or equivalent controls shall be provided.

4. For tanks with a monitoring system, warnings or alarms indicating overflow, low level, and pump malfunction shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-011.01 § 3.45, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1081. Atmospheric tank storage.

A. Protection.

1. All finished water storage structures shall have suitable watertight roofs or covers that exclude birds, animals, and insects.

2. All finished water storage structures shall be designed to prevent vandalism and entrance by animals or unauthorized persons.

B. Finished water storage structures shall be designed to facilitate turnover of water. Consideration shall be given to locating inlet and outlet pipes at different elevations and locations, tank mixers, and other acceptable means to avoid stagnation. Excessive storage capacity shall be avoided to prevent water quality deterioration. See 12VAC5-590-640 B 3.

C. Drains.

1. No drain on a finished water storage structure shall create a cross-connection hazard.

2. All finished water storage structures shall be equipped with separate drains discharging to the atmosphere. Drainage of finished water storage structures to the distribution system through inlet and outlet piping is prohibited.

D. Overflows.

1. Finished water storage structures shall be provided with a downward-discharging, screened overflow pipe. The discharge pipe shall be brought down near the ground surface and into a drainage inlet structure or a splash plate that will divert the overflow away from the storage structure. The overflow pipe discharge shall be high enough above normal or graded ground surface to prevent the entrance of surface water.

2. Overflow pipe screens shall be installed so as to withstand the force of overflows. Properly designed flapper valves or rubber flex-type valves may be used instead of screens if approved by the department.

E. Inlet and discharge pipes.

1. Elevated tanks with riser pipes over eight inches in diameter shall have protective bars over the riser opening inside the tank.

2. Inlet and outlet pipes from water storage facilities shall be located in a manner that will prevent the flow of sediment into the distribution system.

F. Finished water storage structures shall be designed with convenient access to the interior for cleaning and maintenance. Ladders, ladder guards, balcony railings, and safely located entrance hatches shall be provided where applicable. Hatches, manholes, or scuttles above the waterline shall be:

1. Framed at least four inches, preferably six inches, above the surface of the roof at the opening; on ground-level structures, manholes should be elevated 24 to 36 inches above finished grade;

2. Fitted with a solid watertight cover that overlaps the framed opening and extends vertically down around the frame at least two inches (shoebox type);

3. Hinged at one side; and

4. Fitted with a locking device.

G. Finished water storage structures shall be vented by separate vent structures. Open construction between the side wall and roof is prohibited.

1. Vents shall prevent the entrance of surface water.

2. Vents shall exclude birds, animals, and insects and be constructed of noncorrodible material. Screens shall be designed to be frost-free or capable of relieving pressure or vacuum in the event of frosting or clogging.

3. Vents on ground-level structures shall terminate in an inverted U construction, with the vent terminating 24 to 36 inches above roof or finished grade.

H. Penetrations. The roof and sidewalls of all structures shall be watertight with no openings except properly constructed vents, manholes, overflows, risers, drains, pump mountings, control ports, or piping for inflow and outflow.

1. All pipes running through the roof or sidewall of a finished water storage structure shall be welded or properly gasketed in metal tanks or should be connected to standard wall castings that were placed during the forming of a concrete structure; these wall castings shall have flanges imbedded in the concrete.

2. Valves and controls shall be located outside the finished water storage structure so that valve stems and similar projections will not pass through the roof or top of the structure.

3. Downspout pipes for roof drainage shall not enter or pass through the structure.

I. All finished water storage structures and their appurtenances, especially the riser pipes, overflows, and vents shall be designed to prevent freezing that will interfere with proper functioning.

J. Every catwalk over finished water in a storage structure shall have a solid floor with raised edges designed so that shoe scrapings and dirt will not fall into the water.

K. The area surrounding a ground-level structure shall be graded in a manner that will prevent surface water from standing within 50 feet of the structure.

L. Proper protection shall be given to metal surfaces by paints or other protective coatings, by cathodic protective devices, or both, in accordance with the NSF/ANSI/CAN Standard 61-2020, AWWA Standards D102-17, D104-17, and D106-20, or an approved equivalent, where applicable.

M. All finished water storage facilities shall be cleaned to remove all dirt and loose materials before disinfection of the structure. Only potable water shall be used to clean and rinse the water storage facilities. All equipment including brooms, brushes, spray equipment, and worker's boots shall be disinfected before they are used to clean the storage facilities.

N. Disinfection. All finished water storage facilities shall be satisfactorily disinfected in accordance with AWWA Standard C652-19 before being placed in operation. The disinfection of the storage facilities shall be repeated until it is determined, by bacteriological testing, that the water is free of coliform bacteria.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1082. Pressure tank storage.

A. When hydropneumatic tanks are used, they shall comply with the requirements of state and local laws and regulations for the construction and installation of unfired pressure vessels.

B. Pressure tanks shall be located above the normal ground surface with the operating end of the tank containing the inlet pipe, the pressure gauge, and other appurtenances projecting into a building with climate controls to prevent freezing. Alternatively, it may be completely housed, if adequate access is provided for inspection, removal, and replacement.

C. Pressure tanks shall have bypass piping to permit operation of the system while the tank is being cleaned, repaired, or painted.

D. Pressure tanks shall have an access manway, a drain, and control equipment consisting of a pressure gauge, water sight glass, automatic or manual air blowoff, pressure and vacuum relief valves, and mechanical means for adding air. Pressure tanks smaller than than 120 gallons and bladder tanks are not required to have an access manway, sight glass, or vacuum relief valve.

E. Pressure tanks and pumps shall be designed to minimize pump cycling and to operate within manufacturer recommendations.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1090. Plant storage.

A. Backwash water storage tanks shall be sized in conjunction with available pump units and finished water storage to provide the filter backwash water required. Consideration shall be given to the possibility of having to wash more than one filter at a time or several filters in succession.

B. Clearwell storage shall be sized, in conjunction with distribution system storage, to relieve the filters from having to follow fluctuations in water use or meet peak demands, including filter backwash water. When finished water storage is used to provide proper contact time for disinfection, special attention shall be given to size, drawdown, and baffling. Plant clearwells shall be equipped with a raised viewing port having a clear glass or plastic viewing window and a submerged, waterproofed electric light.

C. Finished water shall not be stored or conveyed in a compartment adjacent to nonpotable water when the two compartments are separated by a single wall.

D. Receiving basins and pump wet wells for finished water shall be designed as finished water storage structures.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-011.02 § 3.46, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1100. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-011.03 § 3.47, eff. August 1, 1991; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

Article 6
Water Distribution Systems [Repealed]

12VAC5-590-1110. Distribution system materials.

Pipe, fittings, joints, valves, hydrants, and coatings shall conform to AWWA standards.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.01 § 3.48, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1120. Minimum pipe size.

A. The minimum size pipe for water distribution mains shall be four inches in diameter. Pipes of lesser diameter may be used in the following instances:

1. When the run is less than 300 feet, two-inch diameter pipe may be used.

2. When the run is less than 600 feet but more than 300 feet, three-inch diameter pipe may be used.

3. Any departure in sizing shall be justified by hydraulic analysis and future water demands.

B. Fire hydrants shall not be connected to water mains that are not designed to carry fire flows. Connection of a fire hydrant to a pipe of less than six inches in diameter is prohibited.

C. Where a noncommunity waterworks serves a single building, the plumbing shall be in accordance with the USBC. Where a noncommunity waterworks serves two or more buildings, the pipe shall be of sufficient size to provide adequate flow and pressure in order to meet the system demands.

Statutory Authority

§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.02 § 3.49, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1130. Distribution system design.

A. Dead-ends should be minimized by the looping of water mains.

B. Where dead-end water mains occur, a means of effective flushing shall be provided.

C. No flushing device shall be directly connected to any sewer.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.03 § 3.50, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1140. Installation and testing of water mains.

A. Adequate supports and restraints shall be provided for all pipes.

B. A continuous and uniform bedding shall be provided in the trench for all buried pipe.

C. Stones and rocks found in the trench shall be removed to a depth of at least six inches below the bottom of the pipe and selected fill bedding provided.

D. Installed pipe shall be pressure-tested and meet allowable leakage as specified in accordance with AWWA Standards C600-17, C604-17, and C605-13, where applicable.

E. Any plastic or other nonmetallic pressurized pipe installed underground shall be provided with a material conductive of electricity or some other means of locating the buried pipe.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.04 § 3.51, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1150. Separation of water mains and sanitary sewers.

A. The following factors shall be considered in providing adequate separation of water mains and sanitary sewers:

1. Materials and types of joints for water and sanitary sewer mains;

2. Soil conditions;

3. Service branch connections into the water main and sanitary sewer mains;

4. Compensating variations in the horizontal and vertical separations;

5. Space for repairs and alterations of water and sanitary sewer mains;

6. Offsetting of pipes around manholes; and

7. Identification of the physical restraints preventing normal separation.

B. Parallel installation of water mains and sanitary sewers.

1. Under normal conditions, water mains shall be laid at least 10 feet horizontally from a sanitary sewer or sewer manhole. The distance shall be measured edge-to-edge.

2. Under unusual situations when local conditions prevent a horizontal separation of 10 feet, the water main may be laid closer to a sanitary sewer or sewer manhole provided that:

a. The bottom (invert) of the water main shall be at least 18 inches above the top (crown) of the sanitary sewer;

b. Where this vertical separation cannot be obtained, the sanitary sewer shall be constructed of water distribution pipe and pressure tested in place in accordance with 12VAC5-590-1110 and 12VAC5-590-1140;

c. The department may approve concrete encasement of the water main or other physical barrier;

d. The sewer manhole shall be of watertight construction and tested in place; and

e. No water pipes shall pass through or come into contact with any part of a sewer manhole.

C. Crossing of water mains and sanitary sewers.

1. Under normal conditions, water mains crossing sanitary sewers shall be laid to provide a separation of at least 18 inches between the bottom of the water main and the top of the sanitary sewer whenever possible.

2. Under unusual situations when local conditions prevent a vertical separation described in subdivision C 1 of this section, the following construction shall be used:

a. Sanitary sewers passing over or under water mains shall be constructed of the materials described in subsection B of this section and shall be constructed to a point 10 feet beyond and on each side of the crossing; and

b. Water mains passing under sanitary sewers shall, in addition, be protected by providing:

(1) A vertical separation of at least 18 inches between the bottom of the sanitary sewer and the top of the water main;

(2) Adequate structural support for the sanitary sewers to prevent excessive deflection of the joints and the settling on and breaking of the water main; and

(3) That the length of the water main be centered at the point of the crossing so that joints shall be equidistant and as far as possible from the sanitary sewer.

D. The minimum horizontal separation distance between water mains and septic tanks and drainfields, measured edge-to-edge, shall be 10 feet. Greater separation distances shall be provided wherever practical.

E. Water mains shall be located a safe horizontal distance from sources of contamination not already mentioned in this section, such as sewage treatment works and industrial complexes. The owner's engineer shall contact the department to determine the safe separation distances.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.05 § 3.52, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1160. Valve, air relief, meter, and blowoff chambers.

A. Standard fire hydrants or blowoffs shall be considered to enable removal of sediment and air accumulations.

B. Drains in chambers or pits that contain valves, blowoffs, meters, or other appurtenances to a distribution system shall not be connected directly to any storm drain or sanitary sewer, nor shall blowoffs or air relief valves be connected directly to any sanitary sewer.

C. Chambers or pits shall be drained to the surface of the ground where they are not subject to flooding by surface water or to absorption pits located above the seasonal groundwater table elevation. The backfill material for the water main may serve as an absorption pit if granular embedment material is laid from the pipe bedding up through the final backfill layer for the entire length of pipe in the chamber. Sump pumps may be used where other means are not practicable.

D. Chambers or pits shall be designed to facilitate air-valve inspection and servicing.

E. Air relief and blowoff piping.

1. The open end of an air relief pipe shall be extended from the manhole or enclosing chamber to a point at least one foot above ground and provided with a screened, downward facing elbow. The exposed pipe and appurtenances shall be protected from vandalism and other damage.

2. When an aboveground extension is not practical or desired, the open end of the air relief pipe or blowoff shall be extended.

a. Where the pit or chamber is provided with proper drainage and is not otherwise subject to high groundwater levels, surface flooding, ponding, and contaminant or pollutant spills, the open end may be provided with a screened, downward facing elbow. The valve chamber or pit shall be vented to provide sufficient air flow to allow proper operation of the air valve. Air valves fitted with a smooth vent port and screened hood are allowable under these conditions.

b. Where the pit or chamber is not properly drained or is otherwise subject to high groundwater levels, surface flooding, ponding, and contaminant or pollutant spills, a manually operated valve or blowoff shall be used and the open end shall be fitted with a watertight cap or other means to prevent contamination from entering the pipe and valve.

c. The installation and testing specifications shall require field verification by the owner's engineer of the groundwater elevation and surface water drainage, as needed in circumstances or situations where this is of potential concern, before placement of the pit or chamber.

Statutory Authority

§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.06 § 3.53, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1170. Hydrants.

A. Fire hydrants.

1. To avoid cross-connection and contamination, dry barrel fire hydrants:

a. Should be located in areas that are not subject to high groundwater, flooding, surface water ponding, and contaminant or pollutant spills. When this is not practical, consideration shall be given to:

(1) Piping the drain port to daylight with screening on the end of the pipe; or

(2) Plugging the drain port and marking the hydrant for seasonal dewatering.

b. Shall comply with the ANSI/AWWA C502-18 standard, to include drain ports that are physically isolated from the drinking water system by the hydrant stem valve; and

c. Shall be drained to the ground surface or to a dry well provided exclusively for this purpose. Fire hydrant drains shall not be connected to sanitary sewers or storm drains.

2. Fire hydrants shall be connected only to water mains adequately designed for fire flows in accordance with the requirements of 12VAC5-590-1120 B.

B. Yard hydrants.

1. Shall have a hose connection vacuum breaker, meeting ASSE 1011-2017 or ASSE 1052-2016, if the hydrant has hose threads and is not already protected with an integral vacuum breaker.

2. To avoid cross-connection and contamination, yard hydrants installed in areas subject to high groundwater, flooding, contaminant, or pollutant spills or in areas where surface water ponds shall:

a. Meet ASSE 1057-2012, Performance Requirements for Freeze Resistant Sanitary Yard Hydrants with Backflow Protection; or

b. Have hydrant drain ports that are piped to daylight with screening on the end of the pipe; or

c. Be contained from the rest of the distribution system by a backflow prevention assembly suitable for a high hazard.

3. Frost-proof yard hydrants with weep holes draining below grade are allowed provided they are not installed in areas subject to high groundwater, to flooding, or to contaminant or pollutant spills or in areas where surface water ponds.

C. Hydrants and flushing devices not designed for fire protection may be connected to pipe of less than six inches in diameter, consistent with 12VAC5-590-1120 A.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.07 § 3.54, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1180. Surface water crossings.

A. Surface water crossings, both over and under water, present special challenges and shall be discussed with the department before project documents are prepared.

B. Aerial water crossings. The pipe above water crossings shall be:

1. Adequately supported;

2. Protected from freeze damage;

3. Accessible for repair or replacement; and

4. Above the 100-year flood elevation.

C. Under water crossings.

1. The pipe shall be of special construction, suitable to the method of installation and having flexible watertight joints.

2. Where rigid pipe is used, valves and taps shall be provided at both ends of the water crossing so that the section can be isolated for tests or repair; the valves and taps shall be easily accessible and not subject to flooding.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.08 § 3.55, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1190. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.09 § 3.56, eff. August 1, 1991; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1200. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.10 § 3.57, eff. August 1, 1991; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1210. Disinfection and testing of water mains.

A. All water mains shall be disinfected in accordance with AWWA Standard C651-14 before being placed in operation. The disinfection of the mains shall be repeated until it is determined by bacteriological testing that the water is free of coliform bacteria.

B. Project documents shall provide the details of the procedure and include the disinfectant application technique, dosage, contact time, method of testing the results of the procedure, and use or disposal of the disinfecting water.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-012.11 § 3.58, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1220. Pipe cover.

All buried distribution pipe shall be provided with sufficient earth or other suitable cover or encasement to prevent from freezing and provide protection from damage by external forces.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-01212 § 3.59, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1230. Service connection metering.

A. All new service connections in community waterworks shall be metered.

B. Water pipe and appurtenances between the water main and the service connection shall conform to all applicable codes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-01213 § 3.60, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

12VAC5-590-1235. Water loading stations.

A. The station and its piping and valving arrangement shall be designed to prevent unauthorized use, tampering, and vandalism.

B. An air gap or RPZ assembly shall be provided on the potable water fill connection to prevent backflow into the waterworks.

C. The piping and valving arrangement shall prevent contaminants from being transferred from a hauling tank or vessel to others subsequently using the water loading station.

D. Hoses used to fill potable water tanks and vessels shall be approved for potable water contact.

E. Hoses shall not come into contact with the ground or other contaminated surface and shall otherwise be handled, maintained, and stored in a manner to prevent contamination.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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