Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 9.1. Commonwealth Public Safety
Chapter 9. Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry Act
10/31/2020

§ 9.1-902. Offenses requiring registration.

A. For purposes of this chapter:

"Murder" means a violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate § 18.2-31 or 18.2-32 where the victim is (i) under 15 years of age or (ii) where the victim is at least 15 years of age but under 18 years of age and the murder is related to an offense listed in this section or a violation of former § 18.1-21 where the victim is (a) under 15 years of age or (b) at least 15 years of age but under 18 years of age and the murder is related to an offense listed in this section.

"Offense for which registration is required" includes:

1. Any Tier I, Tier II, or Tier III offense;

2. Murder;

3. Any offense similar to a Tier I, Tier II, or Tier III offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof or the United States or any political subdivision thereof; and

4. Any offense for which registration in a sex offender and crimes against minors registry is required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted.

"Tier I offense" means (i) any homicide in conjunction with a violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate clause (i) of § 18.2-371 or § 18.2-371.1, when the offenses arise out of the same incident, or (ii) any violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate:

1. § 18.2-63 unless registration is required pursuant to subdivision 1 of the definition of Tier III offense; former § 18.2-67.2:1; § 18.2-90 with the intent to commit rape; former § 18.1-88 with the intent to commit rape; any felony violation of § 18.2-346; any violation of subdivision (4) of § 18.2-355; any violation of subsection C of § 18.2-357.1; subsection B of § 18.2-374.1:1; former subsection D of § 18.2-374.1:1 as it was in effect from July 1, 1994, through June 30, 2007; former clause (iv) of subsection B of § 18.2-374.3 as it was in effect on June 30, 2007; subsection B of § 18.2-374.3; or a third or subsequent conviction of § 18.2-67.4, § 18.2-67.4:2, subsection C of § 18.2-67.5, § 18.2-386.1, or, if the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2020, § 18.2-386.2.

If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2006, § 18.2-91 with the intent to commit any felony offense listed in this section; subsection A of § 18.2-374.1:1; or a felony under § 18.2-67.5:1.

2. Where the victim is a minor or is physically helpless or mentally incapacitated as defined in § 18.2-67.10, subsection A of § 18.2-47, clause (i) of § 18.2-48, § 18.2-67.4, subsection C of § 18.2-67.5, § 18.2-361, § 18.2-366, or a felony violation of former § 18.1-191.

3. § 18.2-370.6.

4. If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2016, and where the perpetrator is 18 years of age or older and the victim is under the age of 13, any violation of § 18.2-51.2.

5. If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2016, any violation of § 18.2-356 punishable as a Class 3 felony or any violation of § 18.2-357 punishable as a Class 3 felony.

6. If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2019, any felony violation of § 18.2-348 or 18.2-349.

"Tier II offense" means any violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate § 18.2-64.1, subsection C of § 18.2-374.1:1, or subsection C, D, or E of § 18.2-374.3.

"Tier III offense" means a violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate:

1. Clause (ii) and (iii) of § 18.2-48, former § 18.1-38 with the intent to defile or, for the purpose of concubinage or prostitution, a felony violation of subdivision (2) or (3) of former § 18.1-39 that involves assisting or aiding in such an abduction, § 18.2-61, former § 18.1-44 when such act is accomplished against the complaining witness's will, by force, or through the use of the complaining witness's mental incapacity or physical helplessness, or if the victim is under 13 years of age, subsection A of § 18.2-63 where the perpetrator is more than five years older than the victim, § 18.2-67.1, § 18.2-67.2, § 18.2-67.3, former § 18.1-215 when the complaining witness is under 13 years of age, § 18.2-67.4 where the perpetrator is 18 years of age or older and the victim is under the age of six, subsections A and B of § 18.2-67.5, § 18.2-370, subdivision (1), (2), or (4) of former § 18.1-213, former § 18.1-214, § 18.2-370.1, or § 18.2-374.1;

2. § 18.2-63, § 18.2-64.1, former § 18.2-67.2:1, § 18.2-90 with the intent to commit rape or, where the victim is a minor or is physically helpless or mentally incapacitated as defined in § 18.2-67.10, subsection A of § 18.2-47, § 18.2-67.4, subsection C of § 18.2-67.5, clause (i) of § 18.2-48, § 18.2-361, § 18.2-366, or subsection C of § 18.2-374.1:1. An offense listed under this subdivision shall be deemed a Tier III offense only if the person has been convicted or adjudicated delinquent of any two or more such offenses, provided that person had been at liberty between such convictions or adjudications;

3. If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2006, § 18.2-91 with the intent to commit any felony offense listed in this section. An offense listed under this subdivision shall be deemed a Tier III offense only if the person has been convicted or adjudicated delinquent of any two or more such offenses, provided that the person had been at liberty between such convictions or adjudications; or

4. Chapter 117 (18 U.S.C. § 2421 et seq.) of Title 18 of the United States Code or sex trafficking (as described in § 1591 of Title 18, U.S.C.).

B. "Tier I offense" as defined in this section, "Tier II offense" as defined in this section, "Tier III offense" as defined in this section, and "murder" as defined in this section includes any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof or the United States or any political subdivision thereof.

C. 1. Any offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof or the United States or any political subdivision thereof that is similar to (i) any Tier I, II, or III offense or (ii) murder as defined in this section shall require registration and reregistration in accordance with this chapter in a manner consistent with the registration and reregistration obligations imposed by the similar offense listed or defined in this section, unless such offense requires more stringent registration and reregistration obligations under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted. In instances where more stringent registration and reregistration obligations are required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted, the offender shall register and reregister as required by this chapter in a manner most similar with the registration obligations imposed under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted.

2. Any offense for which registration in a sex offender and crimes against minors registry is required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted shall require registration and reregistration in accordance with this chapter in the manner most similar with the registration and reregistration obligations imposed under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted unless such offense is similar to (i) any Tier I, II, or III offense or (ii) murder as defined in this section and the registration and reregistration obligations imposed by the similar offense listed or defined in this section are more stringent than those registration and reregistration obligations imposed under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted. In instances where the similar offense listed or defined in this section imposes more stringent registration and reregistration obligations, the offender shall register and reregister as required by this chapter in a manner consistent with the registration and reregistration obligations imposed by the similar offense listed or defined in this section.

D. Juveniles adjudicated delinquent shall not be required to register; however, where the offender is a juvenile over the age of 13 at the time of the offense who is tried as a juvenile and is adjudicated delinquent on or after July 1, 2005, of any offense for which registration is required, the court may, in its discretion and upon motion of the attorney for the Commonwealth, find that the circumstances of the offense require offender registration. In making its determination, the court shall consider all of the following factors that are relevant to the case: (i) the degree to which the delinquent act was committed with the use of force, threat, or intimidation, (ii) the age and maturity of the complaining witness, (iii) the age and maturity of the offender, (iv) the difference in the ages of the complaining witness and the offender, (v) the nature of the relationship between the complaining witness and the offender, (vi) the offender's prior criminal history, and (vii) any other aggravating or mitigating factors relevant to the case. The attorney for the Commonwealth may file such a motion at any time during which the offender is within the jurisdiction of the court for the offense that is the basis for such motion. Prior to any hearing on such motion, the court shall appoint a qualified and competent attorney-at-law to represent the offender unless an attorney has been retained and appears on behalf of the offender or counsel has already been appointed.

E. Prior to entering judgment of conviction of an offense for which registration is required if the victim of the offense was a minor, physically helpless, or mentally incapacitated, when the indictment, warrant, or information does not allege that the victim of the offense was a minor, physically helpless, or mentally incapacitated, the court shall determine by a preponderance of the evidence whether the victim of the offense was a minor, physically helpless, or mentally incapacitated, as defined in § 18.2-67.10, and shall also determine the age of the victim at the time of the offense if it determines the victim to be a minor. When such a determination is required, the court shall advise the defendant of its determination and of the defendant's right to make a motion to withdraw a plea of guilty or nolo contendere pursuant to § 19.2-296. If the court grants the defendant's motion to withdraw his plea of guilty or of nolo contendere, his case shall be heard by another judge, unless the parties agree otherwise. Failure to make such determination or so advise the defendant does not otherwise invalidate the underlying conviction.

2003, cc. 584, 732; 2004, cc. 414, 444; 2005, cc. 586, 603, 631; 2006, cc. 857, 875, 914, 931; 2007, cc. 463, 718, 759, 823; 2008, cc. 592, 747, 772, 877; 2010, c. 858; 2012, c. 243; 2013, cc. 750, 781; 2014, cc. 546, 649, 706; 2015, cc. 690, 691; 2016, c. 586; 2019, c. 617; 2020, cc. 389, 826, 829.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.