Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
8/10/2020

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 13.1-801. Short title.

This chapter shall be known as the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act or the "Act."

Code 1950, § 13.1-201; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-802. Reservation of power to amend or repeal.

The General Assembly shall have power to amend or repeal all or part of this Act at any time, and all domestic and foreign corporations subject to this Act shall be governed by the amendment or repeal.

Code 1950, § 13.1-291; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-803. Definitions.

As used in this Act:

"Articles of incorporation" means all documents constituting, at any particular time, the charter of a corporation. It includes the original charter issued by the General Assembly, a court or the Commission and all amendments including certificates of merger, consolidation or correction. When the articles of incorporation have been restated pursuant to any articles of restatement, amendment, domestication, or merger, it includes only the restated articles of incorporation without the accompanying articles of restatement, amendment, domestication, or merger.

"Board of directors" means the group of persons vested with the management of the business of the corporation irrespective of the name by which such group is designated, and "director" means a member of the board of directors.

"Certificate," when relating to articles filed with the Commission, means the order of the Commission that makes the articles effective, together with the articles.

"Commission" means the State Corporation Commission of Virginia.

"Conspicuous" means so written, displayed, or presented that a reasonable person against whom the writing is to operate should have noticed it. For example, text that is italicized, is in boldface, contrasting colors, or capitals, or is underlined is conspicuous.

"Corporation" or "domestic corporation" means a corporation not authorized by law to issue shares, irrespective of the nature of the business to be transacted, organized under this Act or existing pursuant to the laws of the Commonwealth on January 1, 1986, or that, by virtue of articles of incorporation, amendment, or merger, has become a domestic corporation of the Commonwealth, even though also being a corporation organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth or that has become a domestic corporation of the Commonwealth pursuant to Article 11.1 (§ 13.1-898.2 et seq.) of this Act.

"Deliver" or "delivery" means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery, and, if authorized in accordance with § 13.1-810, by electronic transmission.

"Disinterested director" means a director who, at the time action is to be taken under § 13.1-871, 13.1-878, or 13.1-880, does not have (i) a financial interest in a matter that is the subject of such action or (ii) a familial, financial, professional, employment, or other relationship with a person who has a financial interest in the matter, either of which would reasonably be expected to affect adversely the objectivity of the director when participating in the action, and if the action is to be taken under § 13.1-878 or 13.1-880, is also not a party to the proceeding. The presence of one or more of the following circumstances shall not by itself prevent a person from being a disinterested director: (a) nomination or election of the director to the current board by any person, acting alone or participating with others, who is so interested in the matter or (b) service as a director of another corporation of which an interested person is also a director.

"Document" means (i) any tangible medium on which information is inscribed, and includes any writing or written instrument, or (ii) an electronic record.

"Domestic business trust" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1201.

"Domestic limited liability company" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1002.

"Domestic limited partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.1.

"Domestic partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners of a business for profit formed under § 50-73.88 or predecessor law of the Commonwealth and includes, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth, a registered limited liability partnership.

"Domestic stock corporation" has the same meaning as "domestic corporation" as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Effective date of notice" is defined in § 13.1-810.

"Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

"Electronic record" means information that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in paper form through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with subsection J of § 13.1-810.

"Electronic transmission" or "electronically transmitted" means any form or process of communication, not directly involving the physical transfer of paper or other tangible medium, that (i) is suitable for the retention, retrieval, and reproduction of information by the recipient, and (ii) is retrievable in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with subsection J of § 13.1-810.

"Eligible entity" means a domestic or foreign unincorporated entity or a domestic or foreign stock corporation.

"Eligible interests" means interests or shares.

"Employee" includes, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws, an officer but not a director. A director may accept duties that make him also an employee.

"Entity" includes any domestic or foreign corporation; any domestic or foreign stock corporation; any domestic or foreign unincorporated entity; any estate or trust; and any state, the United States, and any foreign government.

"Foreign business trust" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1201.

"Foreign corporation" means a corporation not authorized by law to issue shares, organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth.

"Foreign limited liability company" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1002.

"Foreign limited partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.1.

"Foreign partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners of a business for profit formed under the laws of any state or jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth, a foreign registered limited liability partnership.

"Foreign registered limited liability partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.79.

"Foreign stock corporation" has the same meaning as "foreign corporation" as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Foreign unincorporated entity" means an unincorporated entity whose internal affairs are governed by an organic law of a jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth.

"Government subdivision" includes authority, county, district, and municipality.

"Includes" denotes a partial definition.

"Individual" means a natural person.

"Interest" means either or both of the following rights under the organic law of a foreign or domestic unincorporated entity:

1. The right to receive distributions from the entity either in the ordinary course or upon liquidation; or

2. The right to receive notice or vote on issues involving its internal affairs, other than as an agent, assignee, proxy, or person responsible for managing its business and affairs.

"Means" denotes an exhaustive definition.

"Member" means one having a membership interest in a corporation in accordance with the provisions of its articles of incorporation or bylaws.

"Membership interest" means the interest of a member in a domestic or foreign corporation, including voting and all other rights associated with membership.

"Organic document" means the document, if any, that is filed of public record to create an unincorporated entity. Where an organic document has been amended or restated, the term means the organic document as last amended or restated.

"Organic law" means the statute governing the internal affairs of a domestic or foreign corporation or eligible entity.

"Person" includes an individual and an entity.

"Principal office" means the office, in or out of the Commonwealth, where the principal executive offices of a domestic or foreign corporation are located, or, if there are no such offices, the office, in or out of the Commonwealth, so designated by the board of directors. The designation of the principal office in the most recent annual report filed pursuant to § 13.1-936 shall be conclusive for purposes of this Act.

"Proceeding" includes civil suit and criminal, administrative and investigatory action conducted by a governmental agency.

"Record date" means the date established under Article 7 (§ 13.1-837 et seq.) of this Act on which a corporation determines the identity of its members and their membership interests for purposes of this Act. The determination shall be made as of the close of business at the principal office of the corporation on the record date unless another time for doing so is specified when the record date is fixed.

"Shares" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Sign" or "signature" means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a document: (i) to execute or adopt a tangible symbol to a document, and includes any manual, facsimile, or conformed signature; or (ii) to attach to or logically associate with an electronic transmission an electronic sound, symbol, or process, and includes an electronic signature in an electronic transmission.

"State" when referring to a part of the United States, includes a state, commonwealth, and the District of Columbia, and their agencies and governmental subdivisions; and a territory or insular possession, and their agencies and governmental subdivisions, of the United States.

"Transact business" includes the conduct of affairs by any corporation that is not organized for profit.

"Unincorporated entity" or "domestic unincorporated entity" means a domestic partnership, limited liability company, limited partnership, or business trust.

"United States" includes any district, authority, bureau, commission, department, or any other agency of the United States.

"Voting group" means all members of one or more classes that under the articles of incorporation or this Act are entitled to vote and be counted together collectively on a matter at a meeting of members. All members entitled by the articles of incorporation or this Act to vote generally on the matter are for that purpose a single voting group.

"Voting power" means the current power to vote in the election of directors.

"Writing" or "written" means any information in the form of a document.

Code 1950, § 13.1-202; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 1997, c. 801; 2002, c. 285; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 171; 2012, c. 706.

§ 13.1-804. Filing requirements.

A. A document shall satisfy the requirements of this section, and of any other section that adds to or varies these requirements, to be entitled to be filed with the Commission.

B. The document shall be one that this Act requires or permits to be filed with the Commission.

C. The document shall contain the information required by this Act. It may contain other information as well.

D. The document shall be typewritten or printed or, if electronically transmitted, shall be in a format that can be retrieved or reproduced in typewritten or printed form. The typewritten or printed portion shall be in black. Photocopies, or other reproduced copies, of typewritten or printed documents may be filed. In every case, information in the document shall be legible and the document shall be capable of being reformatted and reproduced in copies of archival quality.

E. The document shall be in the English language. A corporate name need not be in English if written in English letters or Arabic or Roman numerals. The articles of incorporation, duly authenticated by the official having custody of corporate records in the state or country under whose law the corporation is incorporated, which are required of foreign corporations need not be in English if accompanied by a reasonably authenticated English translation.

F. The document shall be signed in the name of the domestic or foreign corporation:

1. By the chairman or any vice-chairman of the board of directors, the president, or any other of its officers authorized to act on behalf of the corporation;

2. If directors have not been selected or the corporation has not been formed, by an incorporator; or

3. If the corporation is in the hands of a receiver, trustee, or other court-appointed fiduciary, by that fiduciary.

G. Any annual report required to be filed by § 13.1-936 shall be signed in the name of the corporation by an officer or director listed in the report or, if the corporation is in the hands of a receiver, trustee, or other court-appointed fiduciary, by that fiduciary.

H. The person signing the document shall state beneath or opposite his signature his name and the capacity in which he signs. Any signature may be a facsimile. The document may but need not contain a corporate seal, attestation, acknowledgment, or verification.

I. If, pursuant to any provision of this Act, the Commission has prescribed a mandatory form for the document, the document shall be in or on the prescribed form.

J. The document shall be delivered to the Commission for filing and shall be accompanied by the required filing fee, and any charter or entrance fee or registration fee required by this Act.

K. The Commission may accept the electronic filing of any information required or permitted to be filed by this Act and may prescribe the methods of execution, recording, reproduction and certification of electronically filed information pursuant to § 59.1-496.

L. Whenever a provision of this Act permits any of the terms of a plan or a filed document to be dependent on facts objectively ascertainable outside the plan or filed document, the following provisions apply:

1. The plan or filed document shall specify the nationally recognized news or information medium in which the facts may be found or otherwise state the manner in which the facts can be objectively ascertained. The manner in which the facts will operate upon the terms of the plan or filed document shall be set forth in the plan or filed document.

2. The facts may include:

a. Any of the following that are available in a nationally recognized news or information medium either in print or electronically: statistical or market indices, market prices of any security or group of securities, interest rates, currency exchange rates, or similar economic or financial data;

b. A determination or action by any person or body, including the corporation or any other party to a plan or filed document; or

c. The terms of or actions taken under an agreement to which the corporation is a party, or any other agreement or document.

3. As used in this subsection:

a. "Filed document" means a document filed with the Commission under § 13.1-819 or Article 10 (§ 13.1-884 et seq.) or 11 (§ 13.1-893.1 et seq.) of this Act; and

b. "Plan" means a plan of merger.

4. The following terms of a plan or filed document may not be made dependent on facts outside the plan or filed document:

a. The name and address of any person required in a filed document;

b. The registered office of any entity required in a filed document;

c. The registered agent of any entity required in a filed document;

d. The number of members and designation of each class of members;

e. The effective date of a filed document; and

f. Any required statement in a filed document of the date on which the underlying transaction was approved or the manner in which that approval was given.

5. If a term of a filed document is made dependent on a fact objectively ascertainable outside of the filed document and that fact is not objectively ascertainable by reference to a source described in subdivision 2a or to a document that is a matter of public record, or if the affected members have not received notice of the fact from the corporation, then the corporation shall file with the Commission articles of amendment setting forth the fact promptly after the time when the fact referred to is first objectively ascertainable or thereafter changes. Articles of amendment under this subdivision are deemed to be authorized by the authorization of the original filed document or plan to which they relate and may be filed by the corporation without further action by the board of directors or the members.

6. The provisions of subdivisions 1, 2, and 5 of this subsection shall not be considered by the Commission in deciding whether the terms of a plan or filed document comply with the requirements of law.

1985, c. 522; 1986, c. 231; 1995, c. 70; 2000, c. 995; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 171; 2015, c. 623.

§ 13.1-804.1. Filing with the Commission pursuant to reorganization.

A. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in § 13.1-804, 13.1-819, 13.1-896, or 13.1-904, whenever, pursuant to any applicable statute of the United States relating to reorganizations of corporations, a plan of reorganization of a corporation has been confirmed by the decree or order of a court of competent jurisdiction, the corporation may, without action by the board of directors or members to carry out the plan of reorganization ordered or decreed by such court of competent jurisdiction under federal statute, put into effect and carry out the plan and decrees of the court relative thereto (i) through an amendment or amendments to the corporation's articles of incorporation containing terms and conditions permitted by this Act, (ii) through a plan of merger, or (iii) through dissolution.

B. The individual or individuals designated by the court shall file with the Commission articles of amendment, merger, or dissolution, which, in addition to the matters otherwise required or permitted by law to be set forth therein, shall set forth:

1. The name of the corporation;

2. The text of each amendment, plan of merger, or dissolution approved by the court;

3. The date of the court's order or decree approving the articles of amendment, plan of merger, or dissolution;

4. The title of the reorganization proceeding in which the order or decree was entered; and

5. A statement that the court had jurisdiction of the proceeding under federal statute.

C. If the Commission finds that the articles of amendment, merger, or dissolution comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of amendment, merger, or dissolution.

D. This section does not apply after entry of a final decree in the reorganization proceeding even though the court retains jurisdiction of the proceeding for limited purposes unrelated to consummation of the reorganization plan.

2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-805. Issuance of certificate by Commission; recordation of documents.

A. Whenever this chapter conditions the effectiveness of a document upon the issuance of a certificate by the Commission to evidence the effectiveness of the document, the Commission shall by order issue the certificate if it finds that the document complies with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid. The Commission shall admit any such certificate to record in its office.

B. Whenever the Commission is directed to admit any document to record in its office, it shall cause it to be spread upon its record books or to be recorded or reproduced in any other manner the Commission may deem suitable. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Commission may furnish information from and provide access to any of its records by any means the Commission may deem suitable.

Code 1950, § 13.1-288; 1956, c. 428; 1982, c. 375; 1984, c. 295; 1985, c. 522; 1986, c. 231; 1987, c. 183; 1988, c. 405; 1989, c. 152.

§ 13.1-806. Effective time and date of document.

A. A certificate issued by the Commission is effective at the time such certificate is issued, unless the certificate relates to articles filed with the Commission and the articles state that the certificate shall become effective at a later time and date specified in the articles. In that event the certificate shall become effective at the earlier of the time and date so specified or 11:59 p.m. on the 15th day after the date on which the certificate is issued by the Commission. Any other document filed with the Commission shall be effective when accepted for filing unless otherwise provided for in this Act.

B. Notwithstanding subsection A, any certificate that has a delayed effective time and date shall not become effective if, prior to the effective time and date, the parties to the articles to which the certificate relates file a request for cancellation with the Commission and the Commission, by order, cancels the certificate.

C. Notwithstanding subsection A, for purposes of §§ 13.1-829 and 13.1-924, any certificate that has a delayed effective date shall be deemed to be effective when the certificate is issued.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-807. Correcting filed articles.

A. The board of directors of a corporation may authorize correction of any articles filed with the Commission if (i) the articles contain an inaccuracy; (ii) the articles were not properly authorized or defectively executed, attested, sealed, verified, or acknowledged; or (iii) the electronic transmission of the articles to the Commission was defective.

B. Articles are corrected by filing with the Commission articles of correction setting forth:

1. The name of the corporation prior to filing;

2. A description of the articles to be corrected, including their effective date;

3. Each inaccurate or defective matter that is to be corrected;

4. The correction of each inaccurate or defective matter; and

5. A statement that the board of directors authorized the correction and the date of such authorization.

C. Upon the issuance of a certificate of correction by the Commission, the articles of correction shall become effective as of the effective date and time of the articles they correct except as to persons relying on the uncorrected articles and adversely affected by the correction. As to those persons, articles of correction are effective upon the issuance of the certificate of correction.

D. No articles of correction shall be accepted by the Commission when received more than 30 days after the effective date of the certificate relating to the articles to be corrected.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925; 2008, cc. 91, 509.

§ 13.1-808. Evidentiary effect of copy of filed document.

A certificate attached to a copy of any document admitted to the records of the Commission, bearing the signature of the clerk of the Commission or a member of the staff of the office of the clerk, which in either case may be in facsimile, and the seal of the Commission, which may be in facsimile, is conclusive evidence that the document has been admitted to the records of the Commission.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-809. Certificate of good standing.

A. Anyone may apply to the Commission to furnish a certificate of good standing for a domestic or foreign corporation.

B. The certificate shall state that the corporation is in good standing in the Commonwealth and shall set forth:

1. The domestic corporation's corporate name or the foreign corporation's corporate name used in the Commonwealth;

2. That (i) the domestic corporation is duly incorporated under the law of the Commonwealth, the date of its incorporation, and the period of its duration if less than perpetual; or (ii) the foreign corporation is authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth; and

3. If requested, a list of all certificates relating to articles filed with the Commission that have been issued by the Commission with respect to such corporation and their respective effective dates.

C. A domestic corporation or a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth shall be deemed to be in good standing if:

1. All fees, fines, penalties and interest assessed, imposed, charged or to be collected by the Commission pursuant to this Act have been paid;

2. An annual report required by § 13.1-936 has been delivered to and accepted by the Commission; and

3. No certificate of dissolution, certificate of withdrawal, or order of reinstatement prohibiting the domestic corporation from engaging in business until it changes its corporate name has been issued or such certificate or prohibition no longer is in effect.

D. The certificate may state any other facts of record in the office of the clerk of the Commission that may be requested by the applicant.

E. Subject to any qualification stated in the certificate, a certificate of good standing issued by the Commission may be relied upon as conclusive evidence that the domestic or foreign corporation is in good standing in the Commonwealth.

1985, c. 522; 1988, c. 405; 1993, c. 60; 2006, c. 663; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-810. Notices and other communications.

For purposes of this chapter, except for notice to or from the Commission:

A. Notice shall be in writing except that oral notice of any meeting of the board of directors may be given if expressly authorized by the articles of incorporation or bylaws.

B. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, words in a notice or other communication shall be in the English language. A notice or other communication may be given or sent by any method of delivery except that an electronic transmission shall be in accordance with this section. If these methods of delivery are impracticable, a notice or other communication may be communicated by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the notice is intended to be given, or by radio, television, or other form of public communication in the area where notice is intended to be given.

C. Notice or other communication to a domestic or foreign corporation, authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth, may be delivered to its registered agent at its registered office or to the secretary of the corporation at its principal office shown in its most recent annual report or, in the case of a foreign corporation that has not yet delivered an annual report, in its application for a certificate of authority.

D. Notice or other communication may be delivered by electronic transmission if consented to by the recipient or if authorized by subsection K.

E. Any consent under subsection D may be revoked by the person who consented by written or electronic notice to the person to whom the consent was delivered. Any such consent is deemed revoked if (i) the corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive electronic transmissions given by the corporation in accordance with such consent and (ii) such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or other person responsible for the giving of notice or other communications. The inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

F. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, an electronic transmission is received when:

1. It enters an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purpose of receiving electronic transmissions or information of the type sent, and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic transmission; and

2. It is in a form capable of being processed by that system.

G. Receipt of an electronic acknowledgment from an information processing system described in subdivision F 1 establishes that an electronic transmission was received. However, such receipt of an electronic acknowledgment, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received.

H. An electronic transmission is received under this section even if no individual is aware of its receipt.

I. Notice or other communication, if in a comprehensible form or manner, is effective at the earliest of the following:

1. If in physical form, the earliest of when it is actually received or when it is left at:

a. A member's address shown on the corporation's record of members maintained by the corporation pursuant to subsection C of § 13.1-932;

b. A director's residence or usual place of business;

c. The corporation's principal place of business; or

d. The corporation's registered office when left with the corporation's registered agent;

2. If mailed postage prepaid and correctly addressed to a member, upon deposit in the United States mail;

3. If mailed by United States mail postage prepaid and correctly addressed to a recipient other than a member, the earliest of when it is actually received or: (i) if sent by registered or certified mail return receipt requested, the date shown on the receipt, signed by or on behalf of the addressee; or (ii) five days after it is deposited in the mail;

4. If an electronic transmission, when it is received as provided in subsection F; and

5. If oral, when communicated.

J. A notice or other communication may be in the form of an electronic transmission that cannot be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice only if (i) the electronic transmission is otherwise retrievable in perceivable form and (ii) the sender and the recipient have consented in writing to the use of such form of electronic transmission.

K. If this chapter prescribes requirements for notices or other communications in particular circumstances, those requirements govern. If articles of incorporation or bylaws prescribe requirements for notices or other communications not inconsistent with this section or other provisions of this chapter, those requirements govern. The articles of incorporation or bylaws may authorize or require delivery of notices of meetings of directors by electronic transmission.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 171.

§ 13.1-810.1. Number of members.

A. For purposes of this Act, the following identified as a member in a corporation's current record of members constitutes one member:

1. Two or more persons who together have a single membership interest in the corporation;

2. A corporation, limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, business trust, trust, estate, or other entity; or

3. The trustees, guardians, custodians, or other fiduciaries of a single trust, estate, or account.

B. For purposes of this Act, membership interests registered in substantially similar names constitute one member if it is reasonable to believe that the names represent the same person.

2007, c. 925; 2015, c. 623.

§ 13.1-811. Penalty for signing false documents.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to sign a document which he knows is false in any material respect with intent that the document be delivered to the Commission for filing.

B. Anyone who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 13.1-295; 1958, c. 506; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-812. Unlawful to transact or offer to transact business as a corporation unless authorized.

It shall be unlawful for any person to transact business in the Commonwealth as a corporation or to offer or advertise to transact business in the Commonwealth as a corporation unless the alleged corporation is either a domestic corporation or a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth. Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 13.1-296; 1958, c. 565; 1981, c. 320; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-813. Hearing and finality of Commission action; injunctions.

A. The Commission shall have no power to grant a hearing with respect to any certificate issued by the Commission with respect to any articles filed with the Commission except on a petition by a member or director, filed with the Commission and the corporation within 30 days after the effective date of the certificate, in which the member or director asserts that the certification of corporate action contained in the articles contains a misstatement of a material fact as to compliance with statutory requirements, specifying the particulars thereof. After hearing, on notice in writing to the corporation and the member or director, the Commission shall determine the issues and revoke or refuse to revoke its order accordingly.

B. No court within or without the Commonwealth shall have jurisdiction to enjoin or delay the holding of any meeting of directors or members for the purpose of authorizing or consummating any amendment, merger, domestication, or termination of corporate existence, or the execution or filing with the Commission of any articles or other documents for such purpose, except pursuant to subsection D of § 13.1-845 or for fraud. No court within or without the Commonwealth, except the Supreme Court by way of appeal as authorized by law, shall have jurisdiction to review, reverse, correct or annul any action of the Commission, within the scope of its authority, with regard to any articles, certificate, order, objection or petition, or to suspend or delay the execution or operation thereof, or to enjoin, restrain or interfere with the Commission in the performance of its official duties.

C. Notwithstanding any provision of subsection A to the contrary, the Commission shall have the power to act upon a petition filed by a corporation at any time to correct Commission records so as to eliminate the effects of clerical errors and of filings made by a person or persons without authority to act for the corporation, or of its own motion to correct Commission records so as to eliminate the effects of clerical errors committed by its staff.

Code 1950, § 13.1-287; 1956, c. 428; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925; 2008, c. 91; 2010, c. 171; 2015, c. 623.

§ 13.1-814. Shares of stock and dividends prohibited.

A corporation shall not issue shares of stock. No dividend shall be paid and no part of the income of a corporation shall be distributed to its members, directors or officers, except that a corporation may make distributions to another nonprofit corporation that is a member of such corporation or has the power to appoint one or more of its directors. A corporation may pay compensation in a reasonable amount to its members, directors or officers for services rendered, including pensions, may confer benefits upon its members in conformity with its purposes, and may make distributions to its members or others as permitted by this Act upon dissolution or final liquidation and no such payment, benefit or distribution shall be deemed to be a dividend or a distribution of income.

Code 1950, § 13.1-229; 1956, c. 428; 1985, cc. 380, 522.

§ 13.1-814.1. Special provisions for community associations.

A. As used in this section, "community association" shall mean a corporation incorporated under this chapter or under former Chapter 2 of this title which owns or has under its care, custody or control real estate subject to a recorded declaration of covenants which obligates a person, by virtue of ownership of specific real estate, to be a member of the corporation.

B. Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 13.1-851, 13.1-852, 13.1-855, 13.1-856, 13.1-857, 13.1-858 and 13.1-862, the provisions set forth in those sections need not be set forth in the articles of incorporation of a community association and shall be effective if set forth in the bylaws.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 13.1-855, 13.1-856, 13.1-892 and 13.1-899, the provisions of the bylaws of any community association in existence on or before January 1, 1986, shall continue to govern (i) the procedures for and election of members of the board of directors, (ii) the amendment of the bylaws, (iii) the sale, release, exchange or disposition of all or substantially all of the corporation's property, whether or not in the usual and regular course of business, and (iv) the corporation's ability to mortgage, pledge, or dedicate to repayment of indebtedness, or otherwise encumber its property; provided, that the community association may, in accordance with its current articles of incorporation and bylaws, vote to amend its corporate documents to become subject to §§ 13.1-855, 13.1-856, 13.1-892 and 13.1-899.

1986, c. 532.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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