Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 16.1. Courts Not of Record
2/21/2018

Article 8. Adjudication.

§ 16.1-273. Court may require investigation of social history and preparation of victim impact statement.

A. When a juvenile and domestic relations district court or circuit court has adjudicated any case involving a child subject to the jurisdiction of the court hereunder, except for a traffic violation, a violation of the game and fish law, or a violation of any city ordinance regulating surfing or establishing curfew violations, the court before final disposition thereof may require an investigation, which (i) shall include a drug screening and (ii) may, and for the purposes of subdivision A 14 or A 17 of § 16.1-278.8 shall, include a social history of the physical, mental, and social conditions, including an assessment of any affiliation with a criminal street gang as defined in § 18.2-46.1, and personality of the child and the facts and circumstances surrounding the violation of law. However, in the case of a juvenile adjudicated delinquent on the basis of an act committed on or after January 1, 2000, which would be a felony if committed by an adult, or a violation under Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) or Article 1.1 (§ 18.2-265.1 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2 and such offense would be punishable as a Class 1 or Class 2 misdemeanor if committed by an adult, the court shall order the juvenile to undergo a drug screening. If the drug screening indicates that the juvenile has a substance abuse or dependence problem, an assessment shall be completed by a certified substance abuse counselor as defined in § 54.1-3500 employed by the Department of Juvenile Justice or by a locally operated court services unit or by an individual employed by or currently under contract to such agencies and who is specifically trained to conduct such assessments under the supervision of such counselor.

B. The court also shall, on motion of the attorney for the Commonwealth with the consent of the victim, or may in its discretion, require the preparation of a victim impact statement in accordance with the provisions of § 19.2-299.1 if the court determines that the victim may have suffered significant physical, psychological, or economic injury as a result of the violation of law.

Code 1950, § 16.1-164; 1956, c. 555; 1972, cc. 672, 835; 1973, c. 440; 1977, cc. 559, 627; 1993, c. 603; 1998, cc. 783, 840; 1999, cc. 350, 891, 913; 2000, cc. 1020, 1041; 2005, c. 843; 2007, c. 510; 2014, cc. 20, 249.

§ 16.1-274. Time for filing of reports; copies furnished to attorneys; amended reports; fees.

A. Whenever any court directs an investigation pursuant to subdivision A of § 16.1-237 or § 16.1-273 or 9.1-153, or an evaluation pursuant to § 16.1-278.5, the probation officer, court-appointed special advocate, or other agency conducting such investigation shall file such report with the clerk of the court directing the investigation. The clerk shall furnish a copy of such report to all attorneys representing parties in the matter before the court no later than 72 hours, and in cases of child custody, 15 days, prior to the time set by the court for hearing the matter. If such probation officer or other agency discovers additional information or a change in circumstance after the filing of the report, an amended report shall be filed forthwith and a copy sent to each person who received a copy of the original report. Whenever such a report is not filed or an amended report is filed, the court shall grant such continuance of the proceedings as justice requires. All attorneys receiving such report or amended report shall return such to the clerk upon the conclusion of the hearing and shall not make copies of such report or amended report or any portion thereof. However, the chief judge of each juvenile and domestic relations district court may provide for an alternative means of copying and distributing reports or amended reports filed pursuant to § 9.1-153.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 16.1-69.48:2 and 17.1-275, when the court directs the appropriate local department of social services to conduct supervised visitation or directs the appropriate local department of social services or court services unit to conduct an investigation pursuant to § 16.1-273 or to provide mediation services in matters involving a child's custody, visitation, or support, the court shall assess a fee against the petitioner, the respondent, or both, in accordance with fee schedules established by the appropriate local board of social services when the service is provided by a local department of social services or by a court services unit. The fee schedules shall include (i) standards for determining the paying party's or parties' ability to pay and (ii) a scale of fees based on the paying party's or parties' income and family size and the actual cost of the services provided. The fee charged shall not exceed the actual cost of the service. The fee shall be assessed as a cost of the case and shall be paid as prescribed by the court to the local department of social services, locally operated court services unit or Department of Juvenile Justice, whichever performed the service, unless payment is waived. The method and medium for payment for such services shall be determined by the local department of social services, Department of Juvenile Justice, or the locally operated court services unit that provided the services.

C. When a local department of social services or any court services unit is requested by another local department or court services unit in the Commonwealth or by a similar department or entity in another state to conduct an investigation involving a child's custody, visitation or support pursuant to § 16.1-273 or, in the case of a request from another state pursuant to a provision corresponding to § 16.1-273, or to provide mediation services, or for a local department of social services to provide supervised visitation, the local department or the court services unit performing the service may require payment of fees prior to conducting the investigation or providing mediation services or supervised visitation.

Code 1950, § 16.1-208.1; 1972, c. 111; 1975, c. 286; 1977, c. 559; 1983, c. 174; 1987, c. 5; 1989, c. 725; 1990, c. 752; 1991, cc. 534, 618; 1992, c. 554; 1993, c. 975; 2001, c. 364; 2006, c. 675; 2012, cc. 164, 456.

§ 16.1-274.1. Admission of evidence of juvenile's age.

In any proceeding in a district court or circuit court where a juvenile is alleged to have committed a delinquent act, the Commonwealth shall be permitted to introduce evidence establishing the age of the juvenile at any time prior to adjudication of the case.

1994, c. 913; 1996, cc. 755, 914.

§ 16.1-274.2. Certain education records as evidence.

A. In any proceeding where (i) a juvenile is alleged to have committed a delinquent act that would be a misdemeanor if committed by an adult and whether such act was committed intentionally or willfully by the juvenile is an element of the delinquent act and (ii) such act was committed (a) during school hours, and during school-related or school-sponsored activities upon the property of a public or private elementary or secondary school or child day center; (b) on any school bus as defined in § 46.2-100; or (c) upon any property, public or private, during hours when such property is solely being used by a public or private elementary or secondary school for a school-related or school-sponsored activity, the juvenile shall be permitted to introduce into evidence as relevant to whether he acted intentionally or willfully any document created prior to the commission of the alleged delinquent act that relates to (a) an Individualized Education Program developed pursuant to the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq.; (b) a Section 504 Plan prepared pursuant to § 504 of the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 794; (c) a behavioral intervention plan as defined in 8VAC20-81-10; or (d) a functional behavioral assessment as defined in 8VAC20-81-10.

Any such document shall be admitted as evidence of the facts stated therein.

B. At least 10 days prior to the commencement of the proceeding in which a document listed in subsection A will be offered as evidence, the juvenile intending to offer the document shall notify the attorney for the Commonwealth, in writing, of the intent to offer the document and shall provide or make available copies of the document to be introduced.

C. Copies of documents listed in subsection A shall be received as evidence, provided that such copies are authenticated to be true and accurate copies by the custodian thereof, or by the person to whom the custodian reports if they are different. An affidavit signed by the custodian of such documents, or by the person to whom the custodian reports if they are different, stating that such documents are true and accurate copies of such documents shall be valid authentication for the purposes of this section.

D. Upon motion of the juvenile, any document admitted pursuant to this section shall be placed under seal by the court.

2016, c. 726.

§ 16.1-275. Physical and mental examinations and treatment; nursing and medical care.

The juvenile court or the circuit court may cause any juvenile within its jurisdiction under the provisions of this law to be physically examined and treated by a physician or to be examined and treated at a local mental health center. If no such appropriate facility is available locally, the court may order the juvenile to be examined and treated by any physician or psychiatrist or examined by a clinical psychologist. The Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall provide for distribution a list of appropriate mental health centers available throughout the Commonwealth. Upon the written recommendation of the person examining the juvenile that an adequate evaluation of the juvenile's treatment needs can only be performed in an inpatient hospital setting, the court shall have the power to send any such juvenile to a state mental hospital for not more than 10 days for the purpose of obtaining a recommendation for the treatment of the juvenile. No juvenile sent to a state mental hospital pursuant to this provision shall be held or cared for in any maximum security unit where adults determined to be criminally insane reside; the juvenile shall be kept separate and apart from such adults. However, the Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services may place a juvenile who has been certified to the circuit court for trial as an adult pursuant to § 16.1-269.6 or 16.1-270 or who has been convicted as an adult of a felony in the circuit court in a unit appropriate for the care and treatment of persons under a criminal charge when, in his discretion, such placement is necessary to protect the security or safety of other patients, staff or the public.

Whenever the parent or other person responsible for the care and support of a juvenile is determined by the court to be financially unable to pay the costs of such examination as ordered by the juvenile court or the circuit court, such costs may be paid according to procedures and rates adopted by the Department from funds appropriated in the general appropriation act for the Department.

The juvenile court or the circuit court may cause any juvenile within its jurisdiction who is found to be delinquent for an offense that is eligible for commitment pursuant to subdivision A 14 of § 16.1-278.8 or § 16.1-285.1 to be placed in the temporary custody of the Department of Juvenile Justice for a period of time not to exceed 30 days for diagnostic assessment services after the adjudicatory hearing and prior to final disposition of his or her case. Prior to such a placement, the Department shall determine that the personnel, services and space are available in the appropriate correctional facility for the care, supervision and study of such juvenile and that the juvenile's case is appropriate for referral for diagnostic services.

Whenever a juvenile concerning whom a petition has been filed appears to be in need of nursing, medical or surgical care, the juvenile court or the circuit court may order the parent or other person responsible for the care and support of the juvenile to provide such care in a hospital or otherwise and to pay the expenses thereof. If the parent or other person is unable or fails to provide such care, the juvenile court or the circuit court may refer the matter to the authority designated in accordance with law for the determination of eligibility for such services in the county or city in which such juvenile or his parents have residence or legal domicile.

In any such case, if a parent who is able to do so fails or refuses to comply with the order, the juvenile court or the circuit court may proceed against him as for contempt or may proceed against him for nonsupport.

Code 1950, § 16.1-190; 1956, c. 555; 1972, c. 354; 1975, c. 430; 1976, c. 321; 1977, c. 559; 1978, c. 739; 1982, c. 636; 1983, c. 358; 1984, c. 44; 1988, cc. 47, 826; 1990, c. 975; 1994, cc. 859, 949; 2004, c. 321; 2009, cc. 813, 840; 2012, cc. 164, 456.

§ 16.1-276. Fees and travel expenses of witnesses.

The judge may authorize the payment of the fees and mileage provided by law in § 19.2-278 of any witness or person summoned or otherwise required to appear at the hearing of any case coming within the jurisdiction of the court, which sum shall be paid by the State Treasurer out of funds appropriated in the general appropriations act to the Supreme Court of Virginia.

Code 1950, § 16.1-171; 1956, c. 555; 1977, c. 559; 1982, c. 636.

§ 16.1-276.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2002, c. 305.

§ 16.1-276.2. Transportation orders in certain proceedings.

In any proceeding (i) pursuant to subdivisions 2, 4 or 5 of subsection A of § 16.1-241, (ii) pursuant to subsections K or U of § 16.1-241, (iii) involving a child who is alleged to be abused or neglected, or (iv) involving a child who is before the court pursuant to §§ 16.1-281, 16.1-282 or § 16.1-282.1, if the judge finds that the presence at a hearing of a prisoner in a state, local or regional correctional institution is essential to the just adjudication and disposition of the proceeding, the judge may issue an order to the Director of the Department of Corrections or the administrator of the state, local or regional correctional institution to deliver such witness to the sheriff of the jurisdiction of the court issuing the order. Such orders shall be executed in accordance with § 8.01-410. Any such orders shall issue only upon consideration of the importance of the personal appearance of the person.

The party seeking the testimony of such prisoner shall advance a sum sufficient to defray the expenses and compensation of the officers, which the court shall tax as costs. When the party seeking the attendance of the prisoner is an agency of the Commonwealth or when the attendance is sought on motion of the court, no sum shall be advanced to defray the expenses or compensation of the correctional officers and sheriff nor shall any such sum be taxed as costs.

2001, c. 513.

§ 16.1-276.3. Use of telephonic communication systems or electronic video and audio communication systems to conduct hearing.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any civil proceeding under this chapter in which a party or witness is incarcerated or when otherwise authorized by the court, the court may, in its discretion, conduct any hearing using a telephonic communication system or an electronic audio and video communication system to provide for the appearance of any parties and witnesses. Any electronic audio and video communication system used to conduct such a hearing shall meet the standards set forth in subsection B of § 19.2-3.1.

2001, c. 513.

§ 16.1-277. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1999, c. 889.

§ 16.1-277.01. Approval of entrustment agreement.

A. In any case in which a child has been entrusted pursuant to § 63.2-903 or 63.2-1817 to the local board of social services or to a child welfare agency, a petition for approval of the entrustment agreement by the board or agency:

1. Shall be filed within a reasonable period of time, no later than 89 days after the execution of an entrustment agreement for less than 90 days, if the child is not returned to the caretaker from whom he was entrusted within that period;

2. Shall be filed within a reasonable period of time, not to exceed 30 days after the execution of an entrustment agreement for 90 days or longer or for an unspecified period of time, if such entrustment agreement does not provide for the termination of all parental rights and responsibilities with respect to the child; and

3. May be filed in the case of a permanent entrustment agreement which provides for the termination of all parental rights and responsibilities with respect to the child.

The board or agency shall file a foster care plan pursuant to § 16.1-281 to be heard with any petition for approval of an entrustment agreement.

B. Upon the filing of a petition for approval of an entrustment agreement pursuant to subsection A of § 16.1-241, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the child in accordance with the provisions of § 16.1-266, and shall schedule the matter for a hearing to be held as follows: within 45 days of the filing of a petition pursuant to subdivision A 1, A 2 or A 3, except where an order of publication has been ordered by the court, in which case the hearing shall be held within 75 days of the filing of the petition. The court shall provide notice of the hearing and a copy of the petition to the following, each of whom shall be a party entitled to participate in the proceeding:

1. The local board of social services or child welfare agency;

2. The child, if he is 12 years of age or older;

3. The guardian ad litem for the child; and

4. The child's parents, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis to the child. No such notification shall be required, however, if the judge certifies on the record that the identity of the parent or guardian is not reasonably ascertainable. A birth father shall be given notice of the proceedings if he is an acknowledged father pursuant to § 20-49.1, adjudicated pursuant to § 20-49.8, or presumed pursuant to § 63.2-1202, or has registered with the Virginia Birth Father Registry pursuant to Article 7 (§ 63.2-1249 et seq.). An affidavit of the mother that the identity of the father is not reasonably ascertainable shall be sufficient evidence of this fact, provided there is no other evidence before the court which would refute such an affidavit. Failure to register with the Virginia Birth Father Registry pursuant to Article 7 (§ 63.2-1249 et seq.) of Chapter 12 of Title 63.2 shall be evidence that the identity of the father is not reasonably ascertainable. The hearing shall be held and an order may be entered, although a parent, guardian, legal custodian or person standing in loco parentis fails to appear and is not represented by counsel, provided personal or substituted service was made on the person, or the court determines that such person cannot be found, after reasonable effort, or in the case of a person who is without the Commonwealth, the person cannot be found or his post office address cannot be ascertained after reasonable effort. However, when a petition seeks approval of a permanent entrustment agreement which provides for the termination of all parental rights and responsibilities with respect to the child, a summons shall be served upon the parent or parents and the other parties specified in § 16.1-263. The summons or notice of hearing shall clearly state the consequences of a termination of residual parental rights. Service shall be made pursuant to § 16.1-264. The remaining parent's parental rights may be terminated even though that parent has not entered into an entrustment agreement if the court finds, based upon clear and convincing evidence, that it is in the best interest of the child and that (i) the identity of the parent is not reasonably ascertainable; (ii) the identity and whereabouts of the parent are known or reasonably ascertainable, and the parent is personally served with notice of the termination proceeding pursuant to § 8.01-296 or 8.01-320; (iii) the whereabouts of the parent are not reasonably ascertainable and the parent is given notice of the termination proceedings by certified or registered mail to the last known address and such parent fails to object to the proceedings within 15 days of the mailing of such notice; or (iv) the whereabouts of the parent are not reasonably ascertainable and the parent is given notice of the termination proceedings through an order of publication pursuant to §§ 8.01-316 and 8.01-317, and such parent fails to object to the proceedings.

C. At the hearing held pursuant to this section, the court shall hear evidence on the petition filed and shall review the foster care plan for the child filed by the local board or child welfare agency in accordance with § 16.1-281.

D. At the conclusion of the hearing, the court shall make a finding, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, whether approval of the entrustment agreement is in the best interest of the child. However, if the petition seeks approval of a permanent entrustment agreement which provides for the termination of all parental rights and responsibilities with respect to the child, the court shall make a finding, based upon clear and convincing evidence, whether termination of parental rights is in the best interest of the child. If the court makes either of these findings, the court may make any of the orders of disposition permitted in a case involving an abused or neglected child pursuant to § 16.1-278.2. Any such order transferring legal custody of the child shall be made in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 5 of § 16.1-278.2 and shall be subject to the provisions of subsection D1. This order shall include, but need not be limited to, the following findings: (i) that there is no less drastic alternative to granting the requested relief; and (ii) that reasonable efforts have been made to prevent removal and that continued placement in the home would be contrary to the welfare of the child, if the order transfers legal custody of the child to a local board of social services. At any time subsequent to the transfer of legal custody of the child pursuant to this section, a birth parent or parents of the child and the pre-adoptive parent or parents may enter into a written post-adoption contact and communication agreement in accordance with the provisions of § 16.1-283.1 and Article 1.1 (§ 63.2-1220.2 et seq.) of Chapter 12 of Title 63.2. The court shall not require a written post-adoption contact and communication agreement as a precondition to entry of an order in any case involving the child.

The effect of the court's order approving a permanent entrustment agreement is to terminate an entrusting parent's residual parental rights. Any order terminating parental rights shall be accompanied by an order (i) continuing or granting custody to a local board of social services or to a licensed child-placing agency or (ii) granting custody or guardianship to a relative or other interested individual. Such an order continuing or granting custody to a local board of social services or to a licensed child-placing agency shall indicate whether that board or agency shall have the authority to place the child for adoption and consent thereto. A final order terminating parental rights pursuant to this section renders the approved entrustment agreement irrevocable. Such order may be appealed in accordance with the provisions of § 16.1-296.

D1. Any order transferring custody of the child to a relative or other interested individual pursuant to subsection D shall be entered only upon a finding, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that the relative or other interested individual is one who (i) after an investigation as directed by the court, is found by the court to be willing and qualified to receive and care for the child; (ii) is willing to have a positive, continuous relationship with the child; (iii) is committed to providing a permanent, suitable home for the child; and (iv) is willing and has the ability to protect the child from abuse and neglect; and the order shall so state. The court's order transferring custody to a relative or other interested individual should further provide for, as appropriate, any terms and conditions which would promote the child's interest and welfare; ongoing provision of social services to the child and the child's custodian; and court review of the child's placement.

E. The local board or licensed child-placing agency to which authority is given to place the child for adoption and consent thereto after an order terminating parental rights is entered pursuant to this section shall file a written Adoption Progress Report with the juvenile court on the progress being made to place the child in an adoptive home. The report shall be filed with the court every six months from the date of the final order terminating parental rights until a final order of adoption is entered on behalf of the child in the circuit court. At the conclusion of the hearing at which termination of parental rights is ordered and authority is given to the local board or licensed child-placing agency to place the child for adoption, the juvenile court shall schedule a date by which the board or agency shall file the first Adoption Progress Report required by this section. A copy of the Adoption Progress Report shall be sent by the court to the guardian ad litem for the child. The court may schedule a hearing on the report with or without the request of a party.

1999, c. 889; 2000, c. 385; 2006, c. 825; 2009, cc. 98, 260; 2010, c. 331; 2017, c. 200.

§ 16.1-277.02. Petition for relief of care and custody.

A. Requests for petitions for relief of the care and custody of a child shall be referred initially to the local department of social services for investigation and the provision of services, if appropriate, in accordance with the provisions of § 63.2-319 or Chapter 15 (§ 63.2-1500 et seq.) of Title 63.2. Upon the filing of a petition for relief of a child's care and custody pursuant to subdivision A 4 of § 16.1-241, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the child in accordance with the provisions of § 16.1-266, and shall schedule the matter for a hearing on the petition. Such hearing on the petition may include partial or final disposition of the matter. The court shall provide notice of the hearing and a copy of the petition to the following, each of whom shall be a party entitled to participate in the proceeding:

1. The child, if he is 12 years of age or older;

2. The guardian ad litem for the child;

3. The child's parents, custodian or other person standing in loco parentis to the child. No such notification shall be required, however, if the judge certifies on the record that the identity of the parent is not reasonably ascertainable. An affidavit of the mother that the identity of the father is not reasonably ascertainable shall be sufficient evidence of this fact, provided there is no other evidence before the court which would refute such an affidavit. The hearing on the petition shall be held pursuant to this section although a parent fails to appear and is not represented by counsel, provided personal or substituted service was made on the parent, or the court determines that such person cannot be found, after reasonable effort, or in the case of a person who is without the Commonwealth, the person cannot be found or his post office address cannot be ascertained after reasonable effort. However, in the case of a hearing to grant a petition for permanent relief of custody and terminate a parent's residual parental rights, notice to the parent whose rights may be affected shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of §§ 16.1-263 and 16.1-264; and

4. The local board of social services. Upon receiving notice of the hearing pursuant to this section, the local board of social services shall investigate the matter and provide services, as appropriate, in accordance with the provisions of § 63.2-319 or Chapter 15 (§ 63.2-1500 et seq.) of Title 63.2.

B. At the hearing, the local board of social services, the child, the child's parents, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis and any other family or household member of the child to whom notice was given shall have the right to confront and cross-examine all adverse witnesses and evidence and to present evidence on their own behalf.

C. At the conclusion of the hearing on the petition, the court shall make a finding, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, whether there is good cause shown for the petitioner's desire to be relieved of the child's care and custody, unless the petition seeks permanent relief of custody and termination of parental rights. If the petition seeks permanent relief of custody and termination of parental rights, the court shall make a finding, based upon clear and convincing evidence, whether termination of parental rights is in the best interest of the child. If the court makes either of these findings, the court may enter:

1. A preliminary protective order pursuant to § 16.1-253;

2. An order that requires the local board of social services to provide services to the family as required by law;

3. An order that is consistent with any of the dispositional alternatives pursuant to § 16.1-278.3; or

4. Any combination of these orders.

Any such order transferring legal custody of the child shall be made in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 5 of § 16.1-278.2 and shall be subject to the provisions of subsection C1. This order shall include, but need not be limited to, the following findings: (i) that there is no less drastic alternative to granting the requested relief; and (ii) that reasonable efforts have been made to prevent removal and that continued placement in the home would be contrary to the welfare of the child, if the order transfers legal custody of the child to a local board of social services. Any order terminating residual parental rights shall be accompanied by an order continuing or granting custody to a local board of social services, to a licensed child-placing agency or the granting of custody or guardianship to a relative or other interested individual. Such an order continuing or granting custody to a local board of social services or to a licensed child-placing agency shall indicate whether that board or agency shall have the authority to place the child for adoption and consent thereto. At any time subsequent to the transfer of legal custody of the child pursuant to this section, a birth parent or parents of the child and the pre-adoptive parent or parents may enter into a written post-adoption contact and communication agreement in accordance with the provisions of § 16.1-283.1 and Article 1.1 (§ 63.2-1220.2 et seq.) of Chapter 12 of Title 63.2. The court shall not require a written post-adoption contact and communication agreement as a precondition to entry of an order in any case involving the child.

The court shall schedule a subsequent hearing within 60 days of the hearing held pursuant to this section: (a) to enter a final order of disposition pursuant to § 16.1-278.3 or (b) if the child is placed in foster care, for review of the foster care plan filed pursuant to § 16.1-281. If a party is required to be present at the subsequent hearing, and (1) is present at the hearing on the petition, the party shall be given notice of the date set for the subsequent hearing; (2) if not present, shall be summoned as provided in § 16.1-263.

C1. Any order transferring temporary custody of the child to a relative or other interested individual pursuant to subsection C shall be entered only upon a finding, based upon a preponderance of the evidence, that the relative or other interested individual is one who (i) is found by the court to be willing and qualified to receive and care for the child; (ii) is willing to have a positive, continuous relationship with the child; and (iii) is willing and has the ability to protect the child from abuse and neglect. The court's order transferring temporary custody to a relative or other interested individual should further provide for compliance with any preliminary protective order entered on behalf of the child in accordance with the provisions of § 16.1-253; and, as appropriate, ongoing provision of social services to the child and the child's custodian; and court review of the child's placement with the relative or other individual. Any final order transferring custody of the child to a relative or other interested individual pursuant to this section shall, in addition, be entered only after an investigation as directed by the court and upon a finding, stated in the court's order, that the relative or other interested individual is one who satisfies clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) and is committed to providing a permanent, suitable home for the child.

D. The local board or licensed child-placing agency to which authority is given to place the child for adoption and consent thereto after an order terminating parental rights is entered pursuant to this section shall file a written Adoption Progress Report with the juvenile court on the progress being made to place the child in an adoptive home. The report shall be filed with the court every six months from the date of the final order terminating parental rights until a final order of adoption is entered on behalf of the child in the circuit court. At the conclusion of the hearing at which termination of parental rights is ordered and authority is given to the local board or licensed child-placing agency to place the child for adoption, the juvenile court shall schedule a date by which the board or agency shall file the first Adoption Progress Report required by this section. A copy of the Adoption Progress Report shall be sent by the court to the guardian ad litem for the child. The court may schedule a hearing on the report with or without the request of a party.

1999, c. 889; 2000, c. 385; 2009, cc. 98, 260; 2010, c. 331; 2013, c. 130.

§ 16.1-277.1. Time limitation.

A. When a child is held continuously in secure detention, he shall be released from confinement if there is no adjudicatory or transfer hearing conducted by the court for the matters upon which he was detained within twenty-one days from the date he was first detained.

B. If a child is not held in secure detention or is released from same after having been confined, an adjudicatory or transfer hearing on the matters charged in the petition or petitions issued against him shall be conducted within 120 days from the date the petition or petitions are filed.

C. When a child is held in secure detention after the completion of his adjudicatory hearing or is detained when the juvenile court has retained jurisdiction as a result of a transfer hearing, he shall be released from such detention if the disposition hearing is not completed within thirty days from the date of the adjudicatory or transfer hearing.

D. The time limitations provided for in this section shall be tolled during any period in which (i) the whereabouts of the child are unknown, (ii) the child has escaped from custody, or (iii) the child has failed to appear pursuant to a court order. The limitations also may be extended by the court for a reasonable period of time based upon good cause shown, provided that the basis for such extension is recorded in writing and filed among the papers of the proceedings. For the purposes of this section, good cause includes, but is not limited to, extension of limitations necessary to obtain the presence of a witness to testify regarding the results of scientific analyses or examinations.

1985, c. 260; 1988, c. 220; 1999, c. 58; 2009, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 1, 4.

§ 16.1-277.2. Rejection of plea agreement; recusal.

Upon rejecting a plea agreement in any delinquency matter, a judge shall immediately recuse himself from any further proceedings on the same matter unless the parties agree otherwise.

2014, c. 165.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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