Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 22.1. Education
Chapter 14. Pupils
6/13/2021

Article 3. Discipline.

§ 22.1-276. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-276.01. Definitions.

A. For the purposes of this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Alternative education program" includes night school, adult education, or any other education program designed to offer instruction to students for whom the regular program of instruction may be inappropriate.

"Bullying" means any aggressive and unwanted behavior that is intended to harm, intimidate, or humiliate the victim; involves a real or perceived power imbalance between the aggressor or aggressors and victim; and is repeated over time or causes severe emotional trauma. "Bullying" includes cyber bullying. "Bullying" does not include ordinary teasing, horseplay, argument, or peer conflict.

"Disruptive behavior" means a violation of school board regulations governing student conduct that interrupts or obstructs the learning environment.

"Dress or grooming code" means any practice, policy, or portion of a code of student conduct adopted by a school board that governs or restricts the attire, appearance, or grooming, including hairstyle, of any enrolled student.

"Exclusion" means a Virginia school board's denial of school admission to a student who has been expelled or has been placed on a long-term suspension of more than 30 calendar days by another school board or a private school, either in Virginia or another state, or for whom admission has been withdrawn by a private school in Virginia or another state.

"Expulsion" means any disciplinary action imposed by a school board or a committee thereof, as provided in school board policy, whereby a student is not permitted to attend school within the school division and is ineligible for readmission for 365 calendar days after the date of the expulsion.

"Long-term suspension" means any disciplinary action whereby a student is not permitted to attend school for 11 to 45 school days.

"Short-term suspension" means any disciplinary action whereby a student is not permitted to attend school for a period not to exceed 10 school days.

B. For the purposes of §§ 22.1-277.04, 22.1-277.05, 22.1-277.2, and 22.1-277.2:1, "superintendent's designee" means a (i) trained hearing officer or (ii) professional employee within the administrative offices of the school division who reports directly to the division superintendent and who is not a school-based instructional or administrative employee.

2001, cc. 688, 820; 2013, c. 575; 2018, c. 491; 2020, c. 678.

§ 22.1-276.1. Expired.

Expired.

§ 22.1-276.2. Removal of students from classes.

A. Teachers shall have the initial authority to remove a student for disruptive behavior from a class.

B. Each school board shall establish, within the regulations governing student conduct required by § 22.1-279.6:

1. Criteria for teachers to remove disruptive students from their classes;

2. Requirements for incident reports of disruptive behavior to school administrators and any other documentation to support such removals from class;

3. Procedures for the written notification of a student and his parents of any incident report and its contents and for the opportunity to meet with the teacher and school administrators to discuss the student's behavior and the possible consequences if such behavior does not cease;

4. Guidelines for the alternative assignment and instruction of such students and for the duration of such removals; and

5. Procedures for the return of students to class, for teacher participation in any decision by the principal to return a student to the class from which he has been removed, and for the resolution of any disagreements between such principal and teacher regarding such return.

C. The principal shall, unless a student who has been removed from class is suspended or expelled from school attendance, ensure that such student continues to receive an education.

D. Any teacher whose evaluation indicates deficiencies in the management of student conduct may be required by the school board to attend professional development activities designed to improve classroom management and disciplinary skills.

E. Application of this section to students with disabilities shall be in accordance with state and federal law and regulations.

F. This section shall not be construed to limit or restrict other school board policies and regulations for maintaining order in the classroom.

1997, c. 830; 2001, cc. 688, 820.

§ 22.1-276.3. Ineligibility of students to compete in athletic competitions.

Any nonprofit corporation founded in Virginia in 1913 that currently organizes and governs interscholastic activities among the public high schools shall develop, implement, and enforce rules requiring that a student who is a member of a school athletic team be ineligible for two school years to compete in interscholastic athletic competition, if it has been determined by the school principal and division superintendent that the student used anabolic steroids during the training period immediately preceding or during the sport season of the athletic team, unless such steroid was prescribed by a licensed physician for a medical condition.

2005, c. 481.

§ 22.1-277. Suspensions and expulsions of students generally.

A. Students may be suspended or expelled from attendance at school for sufficient cause; however, in no cases may sufficient cause for suspensions include only instances of truancy.

B. Except as provided in subsection C or § 22.1-277.07 or 22.1-277.08, no student in preschool through grade three shall be suspended for more than three school days or expelled from attendance at school, unless (i) the offense involves physical harm or credible threat of physical harm to others or (ii) the local school board or the division superintendent or his designee finds that aggravating circumstances exist, as defined by the Department.

C. Any student for whom the division superintendent of the school division in which such student is enrolled has received a report pursuant to § 16.1-305.1 of an adjudication of delinquency or a conviction for an offense listed in subsection G of § 16.1-260 may be suspended or expelled from school attendance pursuant to this article.

D. The authority provided in § 22.1-276.2 for teachers to remove students from their classes in certain instances of disruptive behavior shall not be interpreted to affect the operation of § 22.1-277.04, 22.1-277.05, or 22.1-277.06.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 22.1-277.08, no school board shall be required to suspend or expel any student who holds a valid written certification for the use of cannabis oil issued by a practitioner in accordance with subsection B of § 54.1-3408.3 for the possession or use of such oil in accordance with the student's individualized health plan and in compliance with a policy adopted by the school board.

Code 1950, §§ 22-230.1, 22-230.2; 1972, c. 604; 1980, c. 559; 1984, c. 415; 1997, cc. 371, 585, 608, 734, 830; 1998, cc. 355, 379, § 22.1-277.02; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2003, c. 119; 2009, c. 70; 2018, c. 585; 2019, cc. 573, 574.

§ 22.1-277.01. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-277.04. Short-term suspension; procedures; readmission.

A pupil may be suspended for not more than ten school days by either the school principal, any assistant principal, or, in their absence, any teacher. The principal, assistant principal, or teacher may suspend the pupil after giving the pupil oral or written notice of the charges against him and, if he denies them, an explanation of the facts as known to school personnel and an opportunity to present his version of what occurred. In the case of any pupil whose presence poses a continuing danger to persons or property, or whose presence is an ongoing threat of disruption, the pupil may be removed from school immediately and the notice, explanation of facts, and opportunity to present his version shall be given as soon as practicable thereafter.

Upon suspension of any pupil, the principal, assistant principal, or teacher responsible for such suspension shall report the facts of the case in writing to the division superintendent or his designee and the parent of the pupil suspended. The division superintendent or his designee shall review forthwith the action taken by the principal, assistant principal, or teacher upon a petition for such review by any party in interest and confirm or disapprove such action based on an examination of the record of the pupil's behavior.

The decision of the division superintendent or his designee may be appealed to the school board or a committee thereof in accordance with regulations of the school board; however, the decision of the division superintendent or his designee shall be final if so prescribed by school board regulations.

The school board shall require that any oral or written notice to the parent of a student who is suspended from school attendance for not more than ten days include notification of the length of the suspension, information regarding the availability of community-based educational programs, alternative education programs or other educational options, and of the student's right to return to regular school attendance upon the expiration of the suspension. The costs of any community-based educational program, or alternative education program or educational option, which is not a part of the educational program offered by the school division, shall be borne by the parent of the student.

School boards shall adopt policies and procedures to ensure that suspended students are able to access and complete graded work during and after the suspension.

1998, c. 806, § 22.1-277.03; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2020, c. 337.

§ 22.1-277.05. Long-term suspensions; procedures; readmission.

A. A pupil may be suspended from attendance at school for 11 to 45 school days after providing written notice to the pupil and his parent of the proposed action and the reasons therefor and of the right to a hearing before the school board, or a committee thereof, or the superintendent or his designee, in accordance with regulations of the school board. If the regulations provide for a hearing by the superintendent or his designee, the regulations shall also provide for an appeal of the decision to the full school board. Such appeal shall be decided by the school board within 30 days.

If the regulations provide for a hearing by a committee of the school board, the regulations shall also provide that such committee may confirm or disapprove the suspension of a student. Any such committee of the school board shall be composed of at least three members. If the committee's decision is not unanimous, the pupil or his parent may appeal the committee's decision to the full school board. Such appeal shall be decided by the school board within 30 days.

B. A school board shall include in the written notice of a suspension for 11 to 45 school days required by this section notification of the length of the suspension. In the case of a suspension for 11 to 45 school days, such written notice shall provide information concerning the availability of community-based educational, alternative education, or intervention programs. Such notice shall also state that the student is eligible to return to regular school attendance upon the expiration of the suspension or to attend an appropriate alternative education program approved by the school board during or upon the expiration of the suspension. The costs of any community-based educational, alternative education, or intervention program that is not a part of the educational program offered by the school division that the student may attend during his suspension shall be borne by the parent of the student.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the school board from permitting or requiring students suspended pursuant to this section to attend an alternative education program provided by the school board for the term of such suspension.

School boards shall adopt policies and procedures to ensure that suspended students are able to access and complete graded work during and after the suspension.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and B, a long-term suspension may extend beyond a 45-school-day period but shall not exceed 364 calendar days if (i) the offense is one described in § 22.1-277.07 or 22.1-277.08 or involves serious bodily injury or (ii) the school board or division superintendent or his designee finds that aggravating circumstances exist, as defined by the Department. Such definition shall include a consideration of a student's disciplinary history.

1998, c. 806, § 22.1-277.03; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2018, c. 491; 2020, c. 337.

§ 22.1-277.06. Expulsions; procedures; readmission.

A. Pupils may be expelled from attendance at school after written notice to the pupil and his parent of the proposed action and the reasons therefor and of the right to a hearing before the school board or a committee thereof in accordance with regulations of the school board.

If the regulations provide for a hearing by a committee of the school board, the regulations shall also provide that such committee may confirm or disapprove the expulsion of a student. Any such committee of the school board shall be composed of at least three members. If the committee's decision is not unanimous, the pupil or his parent may appeal the committee's decision to the full school board. Such appeal shall be decided by the school board within 30 days.

The regulations shall also provide for subsequent confirmation or disapproval of the proposed expulsion by the school board, or a committee thereof, as may be provided in regulation, regardless of whether the pupil exercised the right to a hearing.

B. The written notice required by this section shall include notification of the length of the expulsion and shall provide information to the parent of the student concerning the availability of community-based educational, training, and intervention programs. Such notice shall state further whether or not the student is eligible to return to regular school attendance, or to attend an appropriate alternative education program approved by the school board, or an adult education program offered by the school division, during or upon the expiration of the expulsion, and the terms or conditions of such readmission. The costs of any community-based educational, training, or intervention program that is not a part of the educational program offered by the school division that the student may attend during his expulsion shall be borne by the parent of the student.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the school board from permitting or requiring students expelled pursuant to this section to attend an alternative education program provided by the school board for the term of such expulsion.

If the school board determines that the student is ineligible to return to regular school attendance or to attend during the expulsion an alternative education program or an adult education program in the school division, the written notice shall also advise the parent of such student that the student may petition the school board for readmission to be effective one calendar year from the date of his expulsion, and of the conditions, if any, under which readmission may be granted.

School boards shall establish, by regulation, a schedule pursuant to which such students may apply and reapply for readmission to school. Such schedule shall be designed to ensure that any initial petition for readmission will be reviewed by the school board or a committee thereof, or the division superintendent, and, if granted, would enable the student to resume school attendance one calendar year from the date of the expulsion. If the division superintendent or a committee of the school board denies such petition, the student may petition the school board for review of such denial.

C. Recommendations for expulsion for actions other than those specified in §§ 22.1-277.07 and 22.1-277.08 shall be based on consideration of the following factors:

1. The nature and seriousness of the violation;

2. The degree of danger to the school community;

3. The student's disciplinary history, including the seriousness and number of previous infractions;

4. The appropriateness and availability of an alternative education placement or program;

5. The student's age and grade level;

6. The results of any mental health, substance abuse, or special education assessments;

7. The student's attendance and academic records; and

8. Such other matters as he deems appropriate.

No decision to expel a student shall be reversed on the grounds that such factors were not considered.

Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to preclude a school board from considering any of these factors as "special circumstances" for purposes of §§ 22.1-277.07 and 22.1-277.08.

1998, c. 806, § 22.1-277.03; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2005, c. 96.

§ 22.1-277.07. Expulsion of students under certain circumstances; exceptions.

A. In compliance with the federal Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (Part F-Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994), a school board shall expel from school attendance for a period of not less than one year any student whom such school board has determined, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this article, to have possessed a firearm on school property or at a school-sponsored activity as prohibited by § 18.2-308.1 or to have possessed a firearm or destructive device as defined in subsection E, a firearm muffler or firearm silencer, or a pneumatic gun as defined in subsection E of § 15.2-915.4 on school property or at a school-sponsored activity. A school administrator, pursuant to school board policy, or a school board may, however, determine, based on the facts of a particular situation, that special circumstances exist and no disciplinary action or another disciplinary action or another term of expulsion is appropriate. A school board may promulgate guidelines for determining what constitutes special circumstances. In addition, a school board may, by regulation, authorize the division superintendent or his designee to conduct a preliminary review of such cases to determine whether a disciplinary action other than expulsion is appropriate. Such regulations shall ensure that, if a determination is made that another disciplinary action is appropriate, any such subsequent disciplinary action is to be taken in accordance with the procedures set forth in this article. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a student's expulsion regardless of the facts of the particular situation.

B. The Board of Education is designated as the state education agency to carry out the provisions of the federal Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 and shall administer the funds to be appropriated to the Commonwealth under this act.

C. Each school board shall revise its standards of student conduct no later than three months after the date on which this act becomes effective. Local school boards requesting moneys apportioned to the Commonwealth through the federal Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 shall submit to the Department of Education an application requesting such assistance. Applications for assistance shall include:

1. Documentation that the local school board has adopted and implemented student conduct policies in compliance with this section; and

2. A description of the circumstances pertaining to expulsions imposed under this section, including (i) the schools from which students were expelled under this section, (ii) the number of students expelled from each such school in the school division during the school year, and (iii) the types of firearms involved in the expulsions.

D. No school operating a Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps (JROTC) program shall prohibit the JROTC program from conducting marksmanship training when such training is a normal element of such programs. Such programs may include training in the use of pneumatic guns. The administration of a school operating a JROTC program shall cooperate with the JROTC staff in implementing such marksmanship training.

E. As used in this section:

"Destructive device" means (i) any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas, bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, mine, or other similar device; (ii) any weapon, except a shotgun or a shotgun shell generally recognized as particularly suitable for sporting purposes, by whatever name known that will, or may be readily converted to, expel a projectile by the action of an explosive or other propellant, and that has any barrel with a bore of more than one-half inch in diameter that is homemade or was not made by a duly licensed weapon manufacturer, any fully automatic firearm, any sawed-off shotgun or sawed-off rifle as defined in § 18.2-299 or any firearm prohibited from civilian ownership by federal law; and (iii) any combination of parts either designed or intended for use in converting any device into any destructive device described in this subsection and from which a destructive device may be readily assembled. "Destructive device" does not include any device that is not designed or redesigned for use as a weapon, or any device originally designed for use as a weapon and that is redesigned for use as a signaling, pyrotechnic, line-throwing, safety, or other similar device, nor shall it include any antique firearm as defined in § 18.2-308.2:2.

"Firearm" means any weapon, including a starter gun, that will, or is designed or may readily be converted to, expel single or multiple projectiles by the action of an explosion of a combustible material or the frame or receiver of any such weapon. "Firearm" does not include any pneumatic gun, as defined in subsection E of § 15.2-915.4.

"One year" means 365 calendar days as required in federal regulations.

"School property" means any real property owned or leased by the school board or any vehicle owned or leased by the school board or operated by or on behalf of the school board.

F. The exemptions set out in §§ 18.2-308 and 18.2-308.016 regarding concealed weapons shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the provisions of this section. The provisions of this section shall not apply to persons who possess such firearm or firearms or pneumatic guns as a part of the curriculum or other programs sponsored by the schools in the school division or any organization permitted by the school to use its premises or to any law-enforcement officer while engaged in his duties as such.

G. This section shall not be construed to diminish the authority of the Board of Education or the Governor concerning decisions on whether, or the extent to which, Virginia shall participate in the federal Improving America's Schools Act of 1994, or to diminish the Governor's authority to coordinate and provide policy direction on official communications between the Commonwealth and the United States government.

1995, cc. 724, 801; 1999, cc. 707, 1027; 2000, c. 523, § 22.1-277.01; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2003, cc. 843, 976; 2004, c. 930; 2006, c. 703; 2013, c. 288; 2014, cc. 109, 312, 765; 2016, c. 257; 2020, cc. 1111, 1112.

§ 22.1-277.07:1. Policies prohibiting possession of firearms.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, each school division may develop and implement procedures addressing disciplinary actions against students, and may establish disciplinary policies prohibiting the possession of firearms on school property, school buses, and at school-sponsored activities.

2004, c. 560.

§ 22.1-277.08. Expulsion of students for certain drug offenses.

A. School boards shall expel from school attendance any student whom such school board has determined, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this article, to have brought a controlled substance, imitation controlled substance, or marijuana as defined in § 18.2-247 onto school property or to a school-sponsored activity. A school administrator, pursuant to school board policy, or a school board may, however, determine, based on the facts of a particular situation, that special circumstances exist and no disciplinary action or another disciplinary action or another term of expulsion is appropriate. A school board may, by regulation, authorize the division superintendent or his designee to conduct a preliminary review of such cases to determine whether a disciplinary action other than expulsion is appropriate. Such regulations shall ensure that, if a determination is made that another disciplinary action is appropriate, any such subsequent disciplinary action is to be taken in accordance with the procedures set forth in this article. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a student's expulsion regardless of the facts of the particular situation.

B. Each school board shall revise its standards of student conduct to incorporate the requirements of this section no later than three months after the date on which this act becomes effective.

1998, c. 655; 1999, cc. 706, 732, § 22.1-277.01:1; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2011, cc. 384, 410; 2014, cc. 109, 312, 577, 674, 719, 765.

§ 22.1-277.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-277.2. Authority to exclude students under certain circumstances; petition for readmission; alternative education program.

A. A student, who has been expelled or suspended for more than thirty days from attendance at school by a school board or a private school in this Commonwealth or in another state or for whom admission has been withdrawn by a private school in this Commonwealth or in another state may be excluded from attendance by a local school board in Virginia, regardless of whether such student has been admitted to another school division or private school in the Commonwealth or in another state subsequent to such expulsion, suspension, or withdrawal of admission upon a finding that the student presents a danger to the other students or staff of the school division after (i) written notice to the student and his parent that the student may be subject to exclusion, the reasons therefor, and, in the event of such exclusion, of the right to appeal the decision at a hearing before the school board or a committee thereof; and (ii) a review of the case has been conducted by the division superintendent or his designee and exclusion has been recommended.

In the case of a suspension of more than thirty days, the term of the exclusion may not exceed the duration of such suspension.

In excluding any such expelled student from school attendance, the local school board may accept or waive any or all of any conditions for readmission imposed upon such student by the expelling school board pursuant to § 22.1-277.06. The excluding school board shall not impose additional conditions for readmission to school.

If the decision by the superintendent or his designee to exclude has been appealed to a committee of the school board, the student or his parent shall be provided written notice of the right to appeal the decision to the full board, which shall, within thirty days following any such hearing, in the case of an expulsion or withdrawal of admission and, in the case of a suspension of more than thirty days, within fifteen days following any such hearing, notify in writing the student or his parent of its decision.

B. In lieu of the procedures established in subsection A, a school board may adopt regulations providing that a student may be excluded from attendance after (i) written notice to the student and his parent that the student may be subject to exclusion, including the reasons therefor, and notice of the opportunity for the student or his parent to participate in a hearing to be conducted by the division superintendent or his designee regarding such exclusion; and (ii) a hearing of the case has been conducted by the division superintendent or his designee, and the decision has been to exclude the student from attendance. The decision of the superintendent or his designee to exclude shall be final unless altered by the school board, upon timely written petition, as established in regulation, of the student so excluded or his parent, for a review of the record by the school board.

C. Upon the expiration of the exclusion period for an expulsion or a withdrawal of admission, which period shall be established by the school board, committee thereof, or superintendent or his designee, as the case may be, at the relevant hearing, the student may re-petition the school board for admission. If the petition for admission is rejected, the school board shall identify the length of the continuing exclusion period and the subsequent date upon which such student may re-petition the school board for admission.

D. The school board may permit students excluded pursuant to this section to attend an alternative education program provided by the school board for the term of such exclusion.

1993, c. 889; 1994, c. 709; 1996, c. 190; 1997, cc. 585, 608, 728; 2001, cc. 669, 688, 820.

§ 22.1-277.2:1. Disciplinary authority of school boards under certain circumstances; alternative education program.

A. A school board may, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this article, require any student who has been (i) charged with an offense relating to the Commonwealth's laws, or with a violation of school board policies, on weapons, alcohol or drugs, or intentional injury to another person, or with an offense that is required to be disclosed to the superintendent of the school division pursuant to subsection G of § 16.1-260; (ii) found guilty or not innocent of an offense relating to the Commonwealth's laws on weapons, alcohol, or drugs, or of a crime that resulted in or could have resulted in injury to others, or of an offense that is required to be disclosed to the superintendent of the school division pursuant to subsection G of § 16.1-260; (iii) found to have committed a serious offense or repeated offenses in violation of school board policies; (iv) suspended pursuant to § 22.1-277.05; or (v) expelled pursuant to § 22.1-277.06, 22.1-277.07, or 22.1-277.08, or subsection C of § 22.1-277, to attend an alternative education program. A school board may require such student to attend such programs regardless of where the crime occurred. School boards may require any student who has been found, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this article, to have been in possession of, or under the influence of, drugs or alcohol on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity in violation of school board policies, to undergo evaluation for drug or alcohol abuse, or both, and, if recommended by the evaluator and with the consent of the student's parent, to participate in a treatment program.

As used in this section, the term "charged" means that a petition or warrant has been filed or is pending against a pupil.

B. A school board may adopt regulations authorizing the division superintendent or his designee to require students to attend an alternative education program consistent with the provisions of subsection A after (i) written notice to the student and his parent that the student will be required to attend an alternative education program and (ii) notice of the opportunity for the student or his parent to participate in a hearing to be conducted by the division superintendent or his designee regarding such placement. The decision of the superintendent or his designee regarding such alternative education placement shall be final unless altered by the school board, upon timely written petition, as established in regulation, by the student or his parent, for a review of the record by the school board.

C. A school board may adopt regulations authorizing the principal or his designee to impose a short-term suspension, pursuant to § 22.1-277.04, upon a student who has been charged with an offense involving intentional injury enumerated in subsection G of § 16.1-260, to another student in the same school pending a decision as to whether to require that such student attend an alternative education program.

1990, c. 835; 1995, cc. 724, 755, 801; 1998, c. 355; 1999, c. 457; 2000, c. 577, § 22.1-277.1; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2003, c. 119; 2009, c. 208; 2018, c. 585.

§ 22.1-277.2:2. Alternative education program data.

The Department of Education shall annually collect from each school board and publish on its website data on alternative education programs for students who have been suspended, expelled, or otherwise precluded from attendance at school. Such data shall (i) be published in a manner that protects the identities of individual students; (ii) be disaggregated by local school division and by student race, ethnicity, gender, and disability; and (iii) include:

1. The number of students enrolled in alternative education programs pursuant to each of the five clauses set forth in subsection A of § 22.1-277.2:1;

2. The number of students enrolled in alternative education programs who have received (i) a short-term suspension, (ii) a long-term suspension, or (iii) an expulsion;

3. The current availability of various categories of alternative education programs available to all students and not solely special education students, including full-day programs with on-site, in-school teacher instruction; full-day programs with off-site, out-of-school teacher instruction; primarily virtual instruction; home-based or home-bound instruction; partial-day instruction; and any other category that the Department of Education may identify;

4. The average length of enrollment in an alternative education program per program during each school year;

5. The number of students who transition within the same school year from an alternative education program back into the school at which they were enrolled immediately preceding enrollment in the alternative education program; and

6. Relevant student achievement data, as determined by the Department of Education.

2019, cc. 123, 232.

§ 22.1-278. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-279. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, c. 797 and Acts 1991, c. 295.

§ 22.1-279.1. Corporal punishment prohibited.

A. No teacher, principal or other person employed by a school board or employed in a school operated by the Commonwealth shall subject a student to corporal punishment. This prohibition of corporal punishment shall not be deemed to prevent (i) the use of incidental, minor or reasonable physical contact or other actions designed to maintain order and control; (ii) the use of reasonable and necessary force to quell a disturbance or remove a student from the scene of a disturbance which threatens physical injury to persons or damage to property; (iii) the use of reasonable and necessary force to prevent a student from inflicting physical harm on himself; (iv) the use of reasonable and necessary force for self-defense or the defense of others; or (v) the use of reasonable and necessary force to obtain possession of weapons or other dangerous objects or controlled substances or paraphernalia which are upon the person of the student or within his control.

B. In determining whether a person was acting within the exceptions provided in this section, due deference shall be given to reasonable judgments at the time of the event which were made by a teacher, principal or other person employed by a school board or employed in a school operated by the Commonwealth.

C. For the purposes of this section, "corporal punishment" means the infliction of, or causing the infliction of, physical pain on a student as a means of discipline.

This definition shall not include physical pain, injury or discomfort caused by the use of incidental, minor or reasonable physical contact or other actions designed to maintain order and control as permitted in subdivision (i) of subsection A of this section or the use of reasonable and necessary force as permitted by subdivisions (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of subsection A of this section, or by participation in practice or competition in an interscholastic sport, or participation in physical education or an extracurricular activity.

1989, c. 287; 1995, c. 681.

§ 22.1-279.1:1. The use of seclusion and restraint in public schools; Board of Education regulations.

The Board shall adopt regulations on the use of seclusion and restraint in public elementary and secondary schools in the Commonwealth that (i) are consistent with its Guidelines for the Development of Policies and Procedures for Managing Student Behavior in Emergency Situations and the Fifteen Principles contained in the U.S. Department of Education's Restraint and Seclusion: Resource Document; (ii) include definitions, criteria for use, restrictions for use, training requirements, notification requirements, reporting requirements, and follow-up requirements; and (iii) address distinctions, including distinctions in emotional and physical development, between (a) the general student population and the special education student population and (b) elementary school students and secondary school students. The Board shall specifically (1) identify and prohibit the use of any method of restraint or seclusion that it determines poses a significant danger to the student and (2) establish safety standards for seclusion.

2015, cc. 142, 147; 2019, c. 591.

§ 22.1-279.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1995, c. 533.

§ 22.1-279.3. Parental responsibility and involvement requirements.

A. Each parent of a student enrolled in a public school has a duty to assist the school in enforcing the standards of student conduct and compulsory school attendance in order that education may be conducted in an atmosphere free of disruption and threat to persons or property, and supportive of individual rights.

B. A school board shall provide opportunities for parental and community involvement in every school in the school division.

C. Within one calendar month of the opening of school, each school board shall, simultaneously with any other materials customarily distributed at that time, send to the parents of each enrolled student (i) a notice of the requirements of this section; (ii) a copy of the school board's standards of student conduct; and (iii) a copy of the compulsory school attendance law. These materials shall include a notice to the parents that by signing the statement of receipt, parents shall not be deemed to waive, but to expressly reserve, their rights protected by the constitutions or laws of the United States or the Commonwealth and that a parent shall have the right to express disagreement with a school's or school division's policies or decisions.

Each parent of a student shall sign and return to the school in which the student is enrolled a statement acknowledging the receipt of the school board's standards of student conduct, the notice of the requirements of this section, and the compulsory school attendance law. Each school shall maintain records of such signed statements.

D. The school principal may request the student's parent or parents, if both parents have legal and physical custody of such student, to meet with the principal or his designee to review the school board's standards of student conduct and the parent's or parents' responsibility to participate with the school in disciplining the student and maintaining order, to ensure the student's compliance with compulsory school attendance law, and to discuss improvement of the child's behavior, school attendance, and educational progress.

E. In accordance with the due process procedures set forth in this article and the guidelines required by § 22.1-279.6, the school principal may notify the parents of any student who violates a school board policy or the compulsory school attendance requirements when such violation could result in the student's suspension or the filing of a court petition, whether or not the school administration has imposed such disciplinary action or filed a petition. The notice shall state (i) the date and particulars of the violation; (ii) the obligation of the parent to take actions to assist the school in improving the student's behavior and ensuring compulsory school attendance compliance; (iii) that, if the student is suspended, the parent may be required to accompany the student to meet with school officials; and (iv) that a petition with the juvenile and domestic relations court may be filed under certain circumstances to declare the student a child in need of supervision.

F. No suspended student shall be admitted to the regular school program until such student and his parent have met with school officials to discuss improvement of the student's behavior, unless the school principal or his designee determines that readmission, without parent conference, is appropriate for the student.

G. Upon the failure of a parent to comply with the provisions of this section, the school board may, by petition to the juvenile and domestic relations court, proceed against such parent for willful and unreasonable refusal to participate in efforts to improve the student's behavior or school attendance, as follows:

1. If the court finds that the parent has willfully and unreasonably failed to meet, pursuant to a request of the principal as set forth in subsection D of this section, to review the school board's standards of student conduct and the parent's responsibility to assist the school in disciplining the student and maintaining order, and to discuss improvement of the child's behavior and educational progress, it may order the parent to so meet; or

2. If the court finds that a parent has willfully and unreasonably failed to accompany a suspended student to meet with school officials pursuant to subsection F, or upon the student's receiving a second suspension or being expelled, it may order the student or his parent, or both, to participate in such programs or such treatment, including, but not limited to, extended day programs, summer school, other educational programs and counseling, as the court deems appropriate to improve the student's behavior or school attendance. The order may also require participation in a parenting, counseling or a mentoring program, as appropriate or that the student or his parent, or both, shall be subject to such conditions and limitations as the court deems appropriate for the supervision, care, and rehabilitation of the student or his parent. In addition, the court may order the parent to pay a civil penalty not to exceed $500.

H. The civil penalties established pursuant to this section shall be enforceable in the juvenile and domestic relations court in which the student's school is located and shall be paid into a fund maintained by the appropriate local governing body to support programs or treatments designed to improve the behavior of students as described in subdivision G 2. Upon the failure to pay the civil penalties imposed by this section, the attorney for the appropriate county, city, or town shall enforce the collection of such civil penalties.

I. All references in this section to the juvenile and domestic relations court shall be also deemed to mean any successor in interest of such court.

1995, c. 852; 1996, c. 771; 2000, c. 538; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2004, c. 573.

§ 22.1-279.3:1. Reports of certain acts to school authorities.

A. Reports shall be made to the division superintendent and to the principal or his designee on all incidents involving (i) the assault or assault and battery, without bodily injury, of any person on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity; (ii) the assault and battery that results in bodily injury, sexual assault, death, shooting, stabbing, cutting, or wounding of any person, abduction of any person as described in § 18.2-47 or 18.2-48, or stalking of any person as described in § 18.2-60.3, on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity; (iii) any conduct involving alcohol, marijuana, a controlled substance, imitation controlled substance, or an anabolic steroid on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity, including the theft or attempted theft of student prescription medications; (iv) any threats against school personnel while on a school bus, on school property or at a school-sponsored activity; (v) the illegal carrying of a firearm, as defined in § 22.1-277.07, onto school property; (vi) any illegal conduct involving firebombs, explosive materials or devices, or hoax explosive devices, as defined in § 18.2-85, or explosive or incendiary devices, as defined in § 18.2-433.1, or chemical bombs, as described in § 18.2-87.1, on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity; (vii) any threats or false threats to bomb, as described in § 18.2-83, made against school personnel or involving school property or school buses; or (viii) the arrest of any student for an incident occurring on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity, including the charge therefor.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 12 (§ 16.1-299 et seq.) of Chapter 11 of Title 16.1, local law-enforcement authorities shall report, and the principal or his designee and the division superintendent shall receive such reports, on offenses, wherever committed, by students enrolled at the school if the offense would be a felony if committed by an adult or would be a violation of the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.) and occurred on a school bus, on school property, or at a school-sponsored activity, or would be an adult misdemeanor involving any incidents described in clauses (i) through (viii) of subsection A, and whether the student is released to the custody of his parent or, if 18 years of age or more, is released on bond. As part of any report concerning an offense that would be an adult misdemeanor involving an incident described in clauses (i) through (viii) of subsection A, local law-enforcement authorities and attorneys for the Commonwealth shall be authorized to disclose information regarding terms of release from detention, court dates, and terms of any disposition orders entered by the court, to the superintendent of such student's school division, upon request by the superintendent, if, in the determination of the law-enforcement authority or attorney for the Commonwealth, such disclosure would not jeopardize the investigation or prosecution of the case. No disclosures shall be made pursuant to this section in violation of the confidentiality provisions of subsection A of § 16.1-300 or the record retention and redisclosure provisions of § 22.1-288.2. Further, any school superintendent who receives notification that a juvenile has committed an act that would be a crime if committed by an adult pursuant to subsection G of § 16.1-260 shall report such information to the principal of the school in which the juvenile is enrolled.

C. The principal or his designee shall submit a report of all incidents required to be reported pursuant to this section to the superintendent of the school division. The division superintendent shall annually report all such incidents to the Department of Education for the purpose of recording the frequency of such incidents on forms that shall be provided by the Department and shall make such information available to the public.

In submitting reports of such incidents, principals and division superintendents shall accurately indicate any offenses, arrests, or charges as recorded by law-enforcement authorities and required to be reported by such authorities pursuant to subsection B.

A division superintendent who knowingly fails to comply or secure compliance with the reporting requirements of this subsection shall be subject to the sanctions authorized in § 22.1-65. A principal who knowingly fails to comply or secure compliance with the reporting requirements of this section shall be subject to sanctions prescribed by the local school board, which may include, but need not be limited to, demotion or dismissal.

The principal or his designee shall also notify the parent of any student involved in an incident required pursuant to this section to be reported, regardless of whether disciplinary action is taken against such student or the nature of the disciplinary action. Such notice shall relate to only the relevant student's involvement and shall not include information concerning other students.

Whenever any student commits any reportable incident as set forth in this section, such student shall be required to participate in such prevention and intervention activities as deemed appropriate by the superintendent or his designee. Prevention and intervention activities shall be identified in the local school division's drug and violence prevention plans developed pursuant to the federal Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (Title IV — Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act).

D. Except as may otherwise be required by federal law, regulation, or jurisprudence, the principal shall immediately report to the local law-enforcement agency any act enumerated in clauses (ii) through (vii) of subsection A that may constitute a felony offense and may report to the local law-enforcement agency any incident described in subsection A. Nothing in this section shall require delinquency charges to be filed or prevent schools from dealing with school-based offenses through graduated sanctions or educational programming before a delinquency charge is filed with the juvenile court.

Further, except as may be prohibited by federal law, regulation, or jurisprudence, the principal shall also immediately report any act enumerated in clauses (ii) through (v) of subsection A that may constitute a criminal offense to the parents of any minor student who is the specific object of such act. Further, the principal shall report whether the incident has been reported to local law enforcement pursuant to this subsection and, if the incident is so reported, that the parents may contact local law enforcement for further information, if they so desire.

E. A statement providing a procedure and the purpose for the requirements of this section shall be included in school board policies required by § 22.1-253.13:7.

The Board of Education shall promulgate regulations to implement this section, including, but not limited to, establishing reporting dates and report formats.

F. For the purposes of this section, "parent" or "parents" means any parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of a child.

G. This section shall not be construed to diminish the authority of the Board of Education or to diminish the Governor's authority to coordinate and provide policy direction on official communications between the Commonwealth and the United States government.

1981, c. 189; 1990, cc. 517, 797; 1991, c. 295; 1994, cc. 265, 285; 1995, cc. 759, 773; 1996, cc. 916, 964; 1999, c. 970; 2000, cc. 79, 611, § 22.1-280.1; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2002, c. 388; 2003, cc. 899, 954; 2004, cc. 517, 542, 939, 955; 2005, cc. 461, 484, 528; 2006, c. 146; 2010, c. 525; 2011, cc. 384, 410; 2013, c. 800; 2014, cc. 674, 719; 2018, c. 281; 2020, cc. 173, 335.

§ 22.1-279.3:2. Public elementary and secondary school students; protective orders; notification.

Any school principal who receives notice that a circuit court, general district court, juvenile and domestic relations district court, or magistrate has issued a protective order pursuant to § 16.1-253, 16.1-253.1, 16.1-253.4, or 16.1-279.1, subsection D of § 18.2-60.3, or Chapter 9.1 (§ 19.2-152.7:1 et seq.) of Title 19.2 for the protection of any child who is enrolled at a public elementary or secondary school in the Commonwealth where such principal is employed, or any other order prohibiting contact with such a child, including an order issued as a condition of pretrial or posttrial supervision, shall subsequently notify licensed instructional personnel and other school personnel who (i) provide direct educational or support services to the protected child or the child subject to the order, (ii) have a legitimate educational interest in such information, and (iii) are responsible for the direct supervision of the protected child or the child subject to the order that such order has been issued.

2019, c. 579.

§ 22.1-279.3:3. Alternative school discipline process.

A. A school board may establish an alternative school discipline process to provide the parties involved in an incident described in clause (i) of subsection A of § 22.1-279.3:1 the option to enter into a mutually agreed-upon process between the involved parties. Such process shall be designed to hold the student accountable for a noncriminal offense through a mutually agreed-upon standard.

B. If provided for in the process established by the school board, no principal shall report pursuant to subsection D of § 22.1-279.3:1 a party who successfully completes the alternative school discipline process. If the parties fail to agree to participate in the process or fail to successfully complete the alternative school discipline process, then the principal may report the incident to the local law-enforcement agency pursuant to subsection D of § 22.1-279.3:1.

2020, c. 876.

§ 22.1-279.4. Information regarding prosecution for certain crimes.

School boards shall provide information developed by the office of the Attorney General to students regarding laws governing the prosecution of juveniles as adults for the commission of certain crimes. Methods of providing such information may include, but shall not be limited to, public announcements in the schools, written notification to parents, publication in the student conduct manual, and inclusion in those materials distributed to parents pursuant to § 22.1-279.3.

1997, c. 465.

§ 22.1-279.5. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-279.6. Board of Education guidelines and model policies for codes of student conduct; school board regulations.

A. The Board of Education shall establish guidelines and develop model policies for codes of student conduct to aid local school boards in the implementation of such policies. The guidelines and model policies shall include (i) criteria for the removal of a student from a class, the use of suspension, expulsion, and exclusion as disciplinary measures, the grounds for suspension and expulsion and exclusion, and the procedures to be followed in such cases, including proceedings for such suspension, expulsion, and exclusion decisions and all applicable appeals processes; (ii) standards, consistent with state, federal and case laws, for school board policies on alcohol and drugs, gang-related activity, hazing, vandalism, trespassing, threats, search and seizure, disciplining of students with disabilities, intentional injury of others, self-defense, bullying, the use of electronic means for purposes of bullying, harassment, and intimidation, and dissemination of such policies to students, their parents, and school personnel; (iii) standards for in-service training of school personnel in and examples of the appropriate management of student conduct and student offenses in violation of school board policies; (iv) standards for dress or grooming codes; and (v) standards for reducing bias and harassment in the enforcement of any code of student conduct.

In accordance with the most recent enunciation of constitutional principles by the Supreme Court of the United States of America, the Board's standards for school board policies on alcohol and drugs and search and seizure shall include guidance for procedures relating to voluntary and mandatory drug testing in schools, including which groups may be tested, use of test results, confidentiality of test information, privacy considerations, consent to the testing, need to know, and release of the test results to the appropriate school authority.

In the case of suspension and expulsion, the procedures set forth in this article shall be the minimum procedures that the school board may prescribe.

B. School boards shall adopt and revise, as required by § 22.1-253.13:7 and in accordance with the requirements of this section, regulations on codes of student conduct that are consistent with, but may be more stringent than, the guidelines of the Board. School boards shall include in the regulations on codes of student conduct procedures for suspension, expulsion, and exclusion decisions and shall biennially review the model student conduct code to incorporate discipline options and alternatives to preserve a safe, nondisruptive environment for effective teaching and learning.

C. Each school board shall include in its code of student conduct prohibitions against hazing and profane or obscene language or conduct. School boards shall also cite in their codes of student conduct the provisions of § 18.2-56, which defines and prohibits hazing and imposes a Class 1 misdemeanor penalty for violations, that is, confinement in jail for not more than 12 months and a fine of not more than $2,500, either or both.

D. Each school board shall include in its code of student conduct policies and procedures that include a prohibition against bullying. Such policies and procedures shall (i) be consistent with the standards for school board policies on bullying and the use of electronic means for purposes of bullying developed by the Board pursuant to subsection A and (ii) direct the principal to notify the parent of any student involved in an alleged incident of bullying of the status of any investigation within five school days of the allegation of bullying.

Such policies and procedures shall not be interpreted to infringe upon the First Amendment rights of students and are not intended to prohibit expression of religious, philosophical, or political views, provided that such expression does not cause an actual, material disruption of the work of the school.

E. A school board may regulate the use or possession of beepers or other portable communications devices and laser pointers by students on school property or attending school functions or activities and establish disciplinary procedures pursuant to this article to which students violating such regulations will be subject.

F. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require any school board to adopt policies requiring or encouraging any drug testing in schools. However, a school board may, in its discretion, require or encourage drug testing in accordance with the Board of Education's guidelines and model student conduct policies required by subsection A and the Board's guidelines for student searches required by § 22.1-279.7.

G. The Board of Education shall establish standards to ensure compliance with the federal Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (Part F-Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994), as amended, in accordance with § 22.1-277.07.

This subsection shall not be construed to diminish the authority of the Board of Education or to diminish the Governor's authority to coordinate and provide policy direction on official communications between the Commonwealth and the United States government.

H. Each school board shall include in its code of student conduct a prohibition on possessing any tobacco product or nicotine vapor product, as those terms are defined in § 18.2-371.2, on a school bus, on school property, or at an on-site or off-site school-sponsored activity.

I. Any school board may include in its code of student conduct a dress or grooming code. Any dress or grooming code included in a school board's code of student conduct or otherwise adopted by a school board shall (i) permit any student to wear any religiously and ethnically specific or significant head covering or hairstyle, including hijabs, yarmulkes, headwraps, braids, locs, and cornrows; (ii) maintain gender neutrality by subjecting any student to the same set of rules and standards regardless of gender; (iii) not have a disparate impact on students of a particular gender; (iv) be clear, specific, and objective in defining terms, if used; (v) prohibit any school board employee from enforcing the dress or grooming code by direct physical contact with a student or a student's attire; and (vi) prohibit any school board employee from requiring a student to undress in front of any other individual, including the enforcing school board employee, to comply with the dress or grooming code.

Code 1950, §§ 22-230.1, 22-230.2; 1972, c. 604; 1980, c. 559; 1993, cc. 819, 856, 889; 1995, cc. 724, 801; 1997, cc. 391, 585, 608, 830; 1998, c. 902; 1999, c. 432; 2000, c. 360, §§ 22.1-277.02:1, 22.1-278, 22.1-278.2; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2003, c. 899; 2004, cc. 574, 908, 939, 955; 2005, cc. 461, 484, 520; 2009, c. 431; 2013, c. 575; 2014, c. 326; 2017, c. 684; 2019, cc. 172, 246; 2020, c. 678.

§ 22.1-279.7. Guidelines for student searches.

The Board of Education shall develop, in consultation with the Office of the Attorney General, guidelines for school boards for the conduct of student searches, including random locker searches, voluntary and mandatory drug testing, and strip searches, consistent with relevant state and federal laws and constitutional principles.

School boards shall adopt and revise, in accordance with the requirements of this section, regulations governing student searches that are consistent with the guidelines of the Board.

1998, c. 655; 1999, c. 650; 2000, c. 648, § 22.1-277.01:2; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2003, c. 899.

§ 22.1-279.8. School safety audits and school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans required.

A. For the purposes of this section, unless the context requires otherwise:

"School crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plan" means the essential procedures, operations, and assignments required to prevent, manage, and respond to a critical event or emergency, including natural disasters involving fire, flood, tornadoes, or other severe weather; loss or disruption of power, water, communications or shelter; bus or other accidents; medical emergencies, including cardiac arrest and other life-threatening medical emergencies; student or staff member deaths; explosions; bomb threats; gun, knife or other weapons threats; spills or exposures to hazardous substances; the presence of unauthorized persons or trespassers; the loss, disappearance or kidnapping of a student; hostage situations; violence on school property or at school activities; incidents involving acts of terrorism; and other incidents posing a serious threat of harm to students, personnel, or facilities. The plan shall include a provision that the Department of Criminal Justice Services and the Virginia Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund shall be contacted immediately to deploy assistance in the event of an emergency as defined in the emergency response plan when there are victims as defined in § 19.2-11.01. The Department of Criminal Justice Services and the Virginia Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund shall be the lead coordinating agencies for those individuals determined to be victims, and the plan shall also contain current contact information for both agencies.

"School safety audit" means a written assessment of the safety conditions in each public school to (i) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues and (ii) identify and evaluate any patterns of student safety concerns occurring on school property or at school-sponsored events. Solutions and responses shall include recommendations for structural adjustments, changes in school safety procedures, and revisions to the school board's standards for student conduct.

B. The Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety, in consultation with the Department of Education, shall develop a list of items to be reviewed and evaluated in the school safety audits required by this section. Such items shall include those incidents reported to school authorities pursuant to § 22.1-279.3:1 and shall include a school inspection walk-through using a standardized checklist provided by the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety, which shall incorporate crime prevention through environmental design principles.

The Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety shall prescribe a standardized report format for school safety audits, additional reporting criteria, and procedures for report submission, which may include instructions for electronic submission.

Each local school board shall require all schools under its supervisory control to annually conduct school safety audits as defined in this section and consistent with such list.

The results of such school safety audits shall be made public within 90 days of completion. The local school board shall retain authority to withhold or limit the release of any security plans, walk-through checklists, and specific vulnerability assessment components as provided in subdivision 4 of § 2.2-3705.2. The completed walk-through checklist shall be made available upon request to the chief law-enforcement officer of the locality or his designee. Each school shall maintain a copy of the school safety audit, which may exclude such security plans, walk-through checklists, and vulnerability assessment components, within the office of the school principal and shall make a copy of such report available for review upon written request.

Each school shall submit a copy of its school safety audit to the relevant school division superintendent. The division superintendent shall collate and submit all such school safety audits, in the prescribed format and manner of submission, to the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety and shall make available upon request to the chief law-enforcement officer of the locality the results of such audits.

C. The division superintendent shall establish a school safety audit committee to include, if available, representatives of parents, teachers, local law-enforcement, emergency services agencies, local community services boards, and judicial and public safety personnel. The school safety audit committee shall review the completed school safety audits and submit any plans, as needed, for improving school safety to the division superintendent for submission to the local school board.

D. Each school board shall ensure that every school that it supervises shall develop a written school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plan, consistent with the definition provided in this section, and shall include the chief law-enforcement officer, the fire chief, the chief of the emergency medical services agency, the executive director of the relevant regional emergency medical services council, and the emergency management official of the locality, or their designees, in the development of such plans. Each school division shall designate an emergency manager. The Department of Education and the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety shall provide technical assistance to the school divisions of the Commonwealth in the development of the school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans that describe the components of a medical emergency response plan developed in coordination with local emergency medical services providers, the training of school personnel and students to respond to a life-threatening emergency, and the equipment required for this emergency response. The local school board, the chief law-enforcement officer, the fire chief, the chief of the emergency medical services agency, the executive director of the relevant regional emergency medical services council, and the emergency management official of the locality, or their designees, shall annually review the written school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans. The local school board shall have the authority to withhold or limit the review of any security plans and specific vulnerability assessment components as provided in subdivision 4 of § 2.2-3705.2. The local school division superintendent shall certify this review in writing to the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety no later than August 31 of each year.

Upon consultation with local school boards, division superintendents, the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety, and the Coordinator of Emergency Management, the Board of Education shall develop, and may revise as it deems necessary, a model school crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plan for the purpose of assisting the public schools in Virginia in developing viable, effective crisis, emergency management, and medical emergency response plans. Such model shall set forth recommended effective procedures and means by which parents can contact the relevant school or school division regarding the location and safety of their school children and by which school officials may contact parents, with parental approval, during a critical event or emergency.

E. Each school board shall ensure that every public school it supervises employs at least one school administrator who has completed, either in-person or online, school safety training for public school personnel conducted by the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety in accordance with subdivision A 1 of § 9.1-184. However, such requirement shall not apply if such required training is not available online.

1997, c. 593; 1999, cc. 475, 516, § 22.1-278.1; 2001, cc. 436, 440, 688, 820, 841; 2002, cc. 166, 221, 229, 235; 2003, c. 801; 2004, c. 690; 2005, c. 904; 2006, c. 43; 2007, c. 44; 2009, cc. 222, 269; 2012, c. 418; 2013, c. 609; 2014, cc. 7, 158; 2015, cc. 502, 503; 2017, c. 778; 2019, cc. 141, 410, 487, 488; 2020, c. 338.

§ 22.1-279.9. Development of programs to prevent crime and violence.

All school boards shall develop, in cooperation with the local law-enforcement agencies, juvenile and domestic relations court judges and personnel, parents, and the community at large, programs to prevent violence and crime on school property and at school-sponsored events, which shall include prevention of hazing. Activities designed to prevent the recurrence of violence and crime, including hazing, may include such interventions as education relating to Virginia's criminal law, school crime lines, peer mediation, conflict resolution, community service requirements, and any program focused on demonstrating the consequences of violence and crime. School boards are encouraged to develop and use a network of volunteer services in implementing these prevention activities.

2001, cc. 688, 820; 2004, c. 574.

§ 22.1-279.10. School resource officers; data.

The Department of Criminal Justice Services, in coordination with the Department of Education and the Department of Juvenile Justice, shall annually collect, report, and publish on its website data on the use of force against students, including the use of chemical, mechanical, or other restraints and instances of seclusion; detentions of students; arrests of students; student referrals to court or court service units; and other disciplinary actions by school resource officers involving students. Such data shall (i) be published in a manner that protects the identities of students and (ii) be disaggregated by local school division and by student age, grade, race, ethnicity, gender, and disability, if such data is available.

2020, cc. 169, 1039.

§ 22.1-280. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1989, c. 287.

§ 22.1-280.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-280.2. School crime line defined; development of school crime lines authorized; local school boards' authority; Board of Education to promulgate regulations.

A. As used in this section:

"School crime line" means a confidential, anonymous system providing inducements for students to report any unlawful act occurring in school buildings or on school grounds or during school-sponsored activities to local law-enforcement authorities which is established as a cooperative alliance between the local school board, news media, the community, and law-enforcement officials or through a separate, nonprofit corporation governed by a board of directors or as part of a local "Crime Stoppers" program.

B. In order to reduce crime and violence within the school divisions in the Commonwealth, any local school board may develop a school crime line program as a joint, self-sustaining, cooperative alliance with news media, the community, and law-enforcement authorities to receive, screen, and reward student reports of unlawful acts committed in school buildings or on school grounds or at school functions, when such reports lead to arrests or recovery of contraband or stolen property. Police or other law-enforcement personnel shall staff every school crime line program, receive reported information from anonymous student callers, screen such information, and direct information for further investigation, as may be appropriate.

C. Such programs may be established (i) by a local school board as a joint, self-sustaining, cooperative alliance with news media, the community, and law-enforcement authorities; (ii) through a separate nonprofit corporation initiated jointly by the local school board, news media, the community, and law-enforcement authorities and governed by a board of directors; or (iii) as part of a local "Crime Stoppers" program.

The governing board of any separate nonprofit school crime line corporation shall include broad-based community representation and shall, through its bylaws, set the policy, coordinate fund raising, and formulate a system of rewards. Prior to implementation of any school crime line program and annually thereafter, the local school board shall review and approve, as complying with the Board of Education's regulations for implementation of school crime lines, its regulations or the bylaws of any nonprofit school crime line corporation or the bylaws of any nonprofit "Crime Stoppers" corporation operating a school crime line. No school crime line program shall be implemented or revised without first obtaining the local school board's approval. Every local school board developing a school crime line program shall also notify all students and their parents or other custodian of the procedures and policies governing the program prior to implementation and annually thereafter.

D. By July 1, 1994, the Board of Education shall promulgate regulations for the implementation of school crime lines, including, but not limited to, appropriate fund raising, and the appropriateness of and limitations on rewards. In developing the regulations, the Board shall, in consultation with the Office of the Attorney General, address issues relating to civil rights, privacy, and any other question of law, including the civic duty to report crime without compensation.

E. Local school boards may establish, as a separate account, a school crime line fund, consisting of private contributions, local appropriations specifically designated for such purposes, and such funds as may be appropriated for this purpose by the Commonwealth pursuant to the appropriation act. No state or local funds appropriated for educational purposes shall be used to implement a school crime line.

1993, c. 361; 1994, c. 721.

§ 22.1-280.2:1. Employment of school security officers.

Local school boards and private or religious schools may employ school security officers, as defined in § 9.1-101, for the purposes set forth therein. Such school security officer may carry a firearm in the performance of his duties if (i) within 10 years immediately prior to being hired by the local school board or private or religious school he (a) was an active law-enforcement officer as defined in § 9.1-101 in the Commonwealth or (b) was employed by a law-enforcement agency of the United States or any state or political subdivision thereof and his duties were substantially similar to those of a law-enforcement officer as defined in § 9.1-101; (ii) he retired or resigned from his position as a law-enforcement officer in good standing; (iii) he meets the training and qualifications described in subsection C of § 18.2-308.016; (iv) he has provided proof of completion of a training course that includes training in active shooter emergency response, emergency evacuation procedure, and threat assessment to the Department of Criminal Justice Services pursuant to subdivision 42 of § 9.1-102, provided that if he received such training from a local law-enforcement agency he received the training in the locality in which he is employed; (v) the local school board or private or religious school solicits input from the chief law-enforcement officer of the locality regarding the qualifications of the school security officer and receives verification from such chief law-enforcement officer that the school security officer is not prohibited by state or federal law from possessing, purchasing, or transporting a firearm; and (vi) the local school board or private or religious school grants him the authority to carry a firearm in the performance of his duties.

2002, cc. 836, 868; 2017, c. 311; 2019, cc. 120, 493.

§ 22.1-280.2:2. Public School Security Equipment Grant Act of 2013.

A. This section shall be known and may be cited as the "Public School Security Equipment Grant Act of 2013."

B. For purposes of this section:

"Authority" means the Virginia Public School Authority.

"Department" means the Department of Education.

"Eligible school division" means a (i) local school division or (ii) regional vocational center, special education center, alternative education center, or academic year Governor's School serving public school students in grades K through 12. The term shall also include the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind.

"Local school division" means a school division with schools subject to state accreditation and whose students are required to be reported in fall membership for grades K through 12.

"Security equipment" includes building modifications and fixtures, including security vestibules, vaping detectors, security-related devices located outside of the school building on school property, and security-related devices located on school buses.

C. The Authority shall issue bonds for the purpose of grant payments to eligible school divisions of the Commonwealth to be used exclusively for purchasing security equipment for schools, including any related installation, which is designed to improve and help ensure the safety of students attending public schools in Virginia. Such grants shall not be used to pay for security equipment that is not included or described in a grant application approved by the Department pursuant to subsection D. The amount of grants provided to each eligible school division pursuant to this section shall not exceed $100,000 for each fiscal year of the Commonwealth. Funds for the payment of such grants shall be provided from the issuance of bonds by the Authority, provided that the Authority shall not issue more than an aggregate of $6 million in bonds, after all costs, for such grants during each fiscal year of the Commonwealth. In addition, the Authority shall ensure that no more than an aggregate principal amount of $30 million in bonds issued under this section shall be outstanding at any time. Eligible school divisions seeking a grant shall apply to the Department, which shall be responsible for administering the grant program.

The Authority shall work with the Department to determine the schedule for the issuance of the bonds, which shall be based in part upon eligible school divisions having sufficient funds to purchase such security equipment. The payment of debt service on such bonds shall be as provided in the general appropriation act.

Such grants shall be in addition to all other grants made to local governments, school boards, or school divisions according to law. In addition, such grants shall not replace or be in lieu of loans to local school boards or interest rate subsidy payments to local school boards pursuant to Chapter 11.1 (§ 22.1-175.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1, and the issuance of such bonds and the payment of such grants shall not, except as herein provided, affect or otherwise amend the provisions of such chapter as they relate to the powers and duties of the Authority, local school boards, local governments, or any other entity.

D. Based on the criteria developed by the Department in collaboration with the Department of Criminal Justice Services, eligible school divisions shall apply for a grant by August 1 of each year. As a condition of receiving a grant, a local match of 25 percent of the grant amount shall be required. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is authorized to reduce the local match for local school divisions with a composite index of local ability-to-pay less than 0.2000, including any such school division participating in a regional vocational center, special education center, alternative education center, or academic year Governor's School. The Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind shall be exempt from the match requirement.

Grants shall be awarded by the Department on a competitive basis. As part of the application for a grant, each eligible school division shall (i) identify with specificity the security equipment for which grants are being sought, as well as the estimated costs to purchase and install the security equipment, and (ii) certify that it is the intent of the eligible school division to purchase the security equipment within six months of approval of any grant by the Department.

If the Department determines that a grant shall be paid to an eligible school division under this section, it shall provide a written certification to the chairman of the Authority directing him to make a grant payment in a specific amount to the eligible school division. The Department, however, shall not make such written certification until it has established that the Authority has sufficient funds to make such grant payment. The Authority shall only make grant payments to an eligible school division for the grants provided under this section upon receipt of such written certification. The Authority shall make such grant payments, and in the amounts as directed by the Department, within 30 days of receipt of the certification.

E. The Department shall develop guidelines concerning the requirements for applying for a grant and the administration of such grants. Such guidelines shall not be subject to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

F. In the event that two or more local school divisions became one local school division, whether by consolidation of only the local school divisions or by consolidation of the local governments, such resulting local school division shall be eligible for grants on the basis of the same number of local school divisions as existed prior to September 30, 2012.

G. The Authority shall take all necessary and proper steps as it is authorized to take under law to carry out the provisions of this section.

H. Beginning in 2014, the Department shall make an annual report to the General Assembly by September 1 of each year reporting (i) the total grants paid during the immediately prior fiscal year to each eligible school division and (ii) a general description of the security equipment purchased by eligible school divisions.

2013, c. 608; 2019, c. 231; 2020, cc. 686, 778.

§ 22.1-280.2:3. School boards; local law-enforcement agencies; memorandums of understanding.

The school board in each school division in which the local law-enforcement agency employs school resource officers, as defined in § 9.1-101, shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with such local law-enforcement agency that sets forth the powers and duties of such school resource officers. The provisions of such memorandum of understanding shall be based on the model memorandum of understanding developed by the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety pursuant to subdivision A 12 of § 9.1-184, which may be modified by the parties in accordance with their particular needs. Each such school board and local law-enforcement agency shall review and amend or affirm such memorandum at least once every two years or at any time upon the request of either party. Each school board shall ensure the current division memorandum of understanding is conspicuously published on the division website and provide notice and opportunity for public input during each memorandum of understanding review period.

2019, cc. 455, 502; 2020, cc. 52, 171.

§ 22.1-280.2:4. School boards; firearms on school property.

No school board may authorize or designate any person to possess a firearm on school property other than those persons expressly authorized by statute.

2020, c. 1037.

§ 22.1-280.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 688 and 820, cl. 2.

§ 22.1-280.4. School board action regarding destruction of property.

A school board may take action against a pupil or the pupil's parent for any actual loss, breakage, or destruction of or failure to return property, owned by or under the control of the school board, caused or committed by such pupil in pursuit of his studies. Such action may include seeking reimbursement from a pupil or the pupil's parent for any such loss, breakage, or destruction of or failure to return school property.

2001, cc. 688, 820.