Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 37.2. Behavioral Health and Developmental Services
Chapter 8. Emergency Custody and Voluntary and Involuntary Civil Admissions
12/7/2022

Article 5. Involuntary Admissions.

§ 37.2-814. Commitment hearing for involuntary admission; written explanation; right to counsel; rights of petitioner.

A. The commitment hearing for involuntary admission shall be held after a sufficient period of time has passed to allow for completion of the examination required by § 37.2-815, preparation of the preadmission screening report required by § 37.2-816, and initiation of mental health treatment to stabilize the person's psychiatric condition to avoid involuntary commitment where possible, but shall be held within 72 hours of the execution of the temporary detention order as provided for in § 37.2-809; however, if the 72-hour period herein specified terminates on a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed, the person may be detained, as herein provided, until the close of business on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed.

B. At the commencement of the commitment hearing, the district court judge or special justice shall inform the person whose involuntary admission is being sought of his right to apply for voluntary admission for inpatient treatment as provided for in § 37.2-805 and shall afford the person an opportunity for voluntary admission. The district court judge or special justice shall advise the person whose involuntary admission is being sought that if the person chooses to be voluntarily admitted pursuant to § 37.2-805, such person will be prohibited from possessing, purchasing, or transporting a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:3. The judge or special justice shall ascertain if the person is then willing and capable of seeking voluntary admission for inpatient treatment. In determining whether a person is capable of consenting to voluntary admission, the judge or special justice may consider evidence regarding the person's past compliance or noncompliance with treatment. If the judge or special justice finds that the person is capable and willingly accepts voluntary admission for inpatient treatment, the judge or special justice shall require him to accept voluntary admission for a minimum period of treatment not to exceed 72 hours. After such minimum period of treatment, the person shall give the facility 48 hours' notice prior to leaving the facility. During this notice period, the person shall not be discharged except as provided in § 37.2-837, 37.2-838, or 37.2-840. The person shall be subject to the transportation provisions as provided in § 37.2-829 and the requirement for preadmission screening by a community services board as provided in § 37.2-805.

C. If a person is incapable of accepting or unwilling to accept voluntary admission and treatment, the judge or special justice shall inform the person of his right to a commitment hearing and right to counsel. The judge or special justice shall ascertain if the person whose admission is sought is represented by counsel, and, if he is not represented by counsel, the judge or special justice shall appoint an attorney to represent him. However, if the person requests an opportunity to employ counsel, the judge or special justice shall give him a reasonable opportunity to employ counsel at his own expense.

D. A written explanation of the involuntary admission process and the statutory protections associated with the process shall be given to the person, and its contents shall be explained by an attorney prior to the commitment hearing. The written explanation shall describe, at a minimum, the person's rights to (i) retain private counsel or be represented by a court-appointed attorney, (ii) present any defenses including independent evaluation and expert testimony or the testimony of other witnesses, (iii) be present during the hearing and testify, (iv) appeal any order for involuntary admission to the circuit court, and (v) have a jury trial on appeal. The judge or special justice shall ascertain whether the person whose involuntary admission is sought has been given the written explanation required herein.

E. To the extent possible, during or before the commitment hearing, the attorney for the person whose involuntary admission is sought shall interview his client, the petitioner, the examiner described in § 37.2-815, the community services board staff, and any other material witnesses. He also shall examine all relevant diagnostic and other reports, present evidence and witnesses, if any, on his client's behalf, and otherwise actively represent his client in the proceedings. A health care provider shall disclose or make available all such reports, treatment information, and records concerning his client to the attorney, upon request. The role of the attorney shall be to represent the wishes of his client, to the extent possible.

F. The petitioner shall be given adequate notice of the place, date, and time of the commitment hearing. The petitioner shall be entitled to retain counsel at his own expense, to be present during the hearing, and to testify and present evidence. The petitioner shall be encouraged but shall not be required to testify at the hearing, and the person whose involuntary admission is sought shall not be released solely on the basis of the petitioner's failure to attend or testify during the hearing.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716; 2008, cc. 751, 788, 850, 870; 2009, c. 647; 2014, cc. 499, 538, 691.

§ 37.2-815. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Commitment hearing for involuntary admission; examination required.

A. Notwithstanding § 37.2-814, the district court judge or special justice shall require an examination of the person who is the subject of the hearing by a psychiatrist or a psychologist who is licensed in Virginia by the Board of Medicine or the Board of Psychology and is qualified in the diagnosis of mental illness or, if such a psychiatrist or psychologist is not available, a mental health professional who (i) is licensed in Virginia through the Department of Health Professions as a clinical social worker, professional counselor, marriage and family therapist, psychiatric nurse practitioner, or clinical nurse specialist, (ii) is qualified in the assessment of mental illness, and (iii) has completed a certification program approved by the Department. The examiner chosen shall be able to provide an independent clinical evaluation of the person and recommendations for his placement, care, and treatment. The examiner shall (a) not be related by blood or marriage to the person, (b) not be responsible for treating the person, (c) have no financial interest in the admission or treatment of the person, (d) have no investment interest in the facility detaining or admitting the person under this chapter, and (e) except for employees of state hospitals, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and community service boards, not be employed by the facility. For purposes of this section, the term "investment interest" shall be as defined in § 37.2-809.

B. The examination conducted pursuant to this section shall be a comprehensive evaluation of the person conducted in-person or, if that is not practicable, by two-way electronic video and audio communication system as authorized in § 37.2-804.1. Translation or interpreter services shall be provided during the evaluation where necessary. The examination shall consist of (i) a clinical assessment that includes a mental status examination; determination of current use of psychotropic and other medications; a medical and psychiatric history; a substance use, abuse, or dependency determination; and a determination of the likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs; (ii) a substance abuse screening, when indicated; (iii) a risk assessment that includes an evaluation of the likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any; (iv) an assessment of the person's capacity to consent to treatment, including his ability to maintain and communicate choice, understand relevant information, and comprehend the situation and its consequences; (v) a review of the temporary detention facility's records for the person, including the treating physician's evaluation, any collateral information, reports of any laboratory or toxicology tests conducted, and all admission forms and nurses' notes; (vi) a discussion of treatment preferences expressed by the person or contained in a document provided by the person in support of recovery; (vii) an assessment of whether the person meets the criteria for an order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C1 of § 37.2-817; (viii) an assessment of alternatives to involuntary inpatient treatment; and (ix) recommendations for the placement, care, and treatment of the person.

C. All such examinations shall be conducted in private. The judge or special justice shall summons the examiner who shall certify that he has personally examined the person and state whether he has probable cause to believe that the person (i) has a mental illness and there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (a) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (b) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, and (ii) requires involuntary inpatient treatment. The judge or special justice shall not render any decision on the petition until the examiner has presented his report. The examiner may report orally at the hearing, but he shall provide a written report of his examination prior to the hearing. The examiner's written certification may be accepted into evidence unless objected to by the person or his attorney, in which case the examiner shall attend in person or by electronic communication. When the examiner attends the hearing in person or by electronic communication, the examiner shall not be excluded from the hearing pursuant to an order of sequestration of witnesses.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716; 2007, c. 400; 2008, cc. 779, 850, 870; 2009, cc. 21, 132, 838; 2010, cc. 330, 461.

§ 37.2-815. (Effective October 1, 2022) Commitment hearing for involuntary admission; examination required.

A. Notwithstanding § 37.2-814, the district court judge or special justice shall require an examination of the person who is the subject of the hearing by a psychiatrist or a psychologist who is licensed in Virginia by the Board of Medicine or the Board of Psychology and is qualified in the diagnosis of mental illness or, if such a psychiatrist or psychologist is not available, a mental health professional who (i) is licensed in Virginia through the Department of Health Professions as a clinical social worker, professional counselor, marriage and family therapist, psychiatric nurse practitioner, or clinical nurse specialist, (ii) is qualified in the assessment of mental illness, and (iii) has completed a certification program approved by the Department. The examiner chosen shall be able to provide an independent clinical evaluation of the person and recommendations for his placement, care, and treatment. The examiner shall (a) not be related by blood or marriage to the person, (b) not be responsible for treating the person, (c) have no financial interest in the admission or treatment of the person, (d) have no investment interest in the facility detaining or admitting the person under this chapter, and (e) except for employees of state hospitals, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and community service boards, not be employed by the facility. For purposes of this section, the term "investment interest" shall be as defined in § 37.2-809.

B. The examination conducted pursuant to this section shall be a comprehensive evaluation of the person conducted in-person or, if that is not practicable, by two-way electronic video and audio communication system as authorized in § 37.2-804.1. Translation or interpreter services shall be provided during the evaluation where necessary. The examination shall consist of (i) a clinical assessment that includes a mental status examination; determination of current use of psychotropic and other medications; a medical and psychiatric history; a substance use, abuse, or dependency determination; and a determination of the likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs; (ii) a substance abuse screening, when indicated; (iii) a risk assessment that includes an evaluation of the likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any; (iv) an assessment of the person's capacity to consent to treatment, including his ability to maintain and communicate choice, understand relevant information, and comprehend the situation and its consequences; (v) a review of the temporary detention facility's records for the person, including the treating physician's evaluation, any collateral information, reports of any laboratory or toxicology tests conducted, and all admission forms and nurses' notes; (vi) a discussion of treatment preferences expressed by the person or contained in a document provided by the person in support of recovery; (vii) an assessment of whether the person meets the criteria for an order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection c of § 37.2-817.01; (viii) an assessment of alternatives to involuntary inpatient treatment; and (ix) recommendations for the placement, care, and treatment of the person.

C. All such examinations shall be conducted in private. The judge or special justice shall summons the examiner who shall certify that he has personally examined the person and state whether he has probable cause to believe that the person (i) has a mental illness and there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (a) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (b) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, and (ii) requires involuntary inpatient treatment. The judge or special justice shall not render any decision on the petition until the examiner has presented his report. The examiner may report orally at the hearing, but he shall provide a written report of his examination prior to the hearing. The examiner's written certification may be accepted into evidence unless objected to by the person or his attorney, in which case the examiner shall attend in person or by electronic communication. When the examiner attends the hearing in person or by electronic communication, the examiner shall not be excluded from the hearing pursuant to an order of sequestration of witnesses.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716; 2007, c. 400; 2008, cc. 779, 850, 870; 2009, cc. 21, 132, 838; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-816. Commitment hearing for involuntary admission; preadmission screening report.

The district court judge or special justice shall require a preadmission screening report from the community services board that serves the county or city where the person resides or, if impractical, where the person is located. The report shall be admitted as evidence of the facts stated therein and shall state (i) whether the person has a mental illness and whether there exists a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (a) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (b) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, (ii) whether the person is in need of involuntary inpatient treatment, (iii) whether there is no less restrictive alternative to inpatient treatment, and (iv) the recommendations for that person's placement, care, and treatment including, where appropriate, recommendations for mandatory outpatient treatment. The board shall provide the preadmission screening report to the court prior to the hearing, and the report shall be admitted into evidence and made part of the record of the case. In the case of a person who has been sentenced and committed to the Department of Corrections and who has been examined by a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, the judge or special justice may proceed to adjudicate whether the person has mental illness and should be involuntarily admitted without requesting a preadmission screening report from the community services board.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716; 2008, cc. 779, 850, 870; 2009, cc. 21, 838.

§ 37.2-817. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Involuntary admission and mandatory outpatient orders.

A. The district court judge or special justice shall render a decision on the petition for involuntary admission after the appointed examiner has presented the report required by § 37.2-815, and after the community services board that serves the county or city where the person resides or, if impractical, where the person is located has presented a preadmission screening report with recommendations for that person's placement, care, and treatment pursuant to § 37.2-816. These reports, if not contested, may constitute sufficient evidence upon which the district court judge or special justice may base his decision. The examiner, if not physically present at the hearing, and the treating physician at the facility of temporary detention shall be available whenever possible for questioning during the hearing through a two-way electronic video and audio or telephonic communication system as authorized in § 37.2-804.1.

B. Any employee or designee of the local community services board, as defined in § 37.2-809, representing the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall attend the hearing in person or, if physical attendance is not practicable, shall participate in the hearing through a two-way electronic video and audio or telephonic communication system as authorized in § 37.2-804.1. Where a hearing is held outside of the service area of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report, and it is not practicable for a representative of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report to attend or participate in the hearing, arrangements shall be made by the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report for an employee or designee of the community services board serving the area in which the hearing is held to attend or participate on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report. The employee or designee of the local community services board, as defined in § 37.2-809, representing the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report or attending or participating on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall not be excluded from the hearing pursuant to an order of sequestration of witnesses. The community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall remain responsible for the person subject to the hearing and, prior to the hearing, shall send the preadmission screening report through certified mail, personal delivery, facsimile with return receipt acknowledged, or other electronic means with documented acknowledgment of receipt to the community services board attending the hearing. Where a community services board attends the hearing on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report, the attending community services board shall inform the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report of the disposition of the matter upon the conclusion of the hearing. In addition, the attending community services board shall transmit the disposition through certified mail, personal delivery, facsimile with return receipt acknowledged, or other electronic means with documented acknowledgment of receipt.

At least 12 hours prior to the hearing, the court shall provide to the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report the time and location of the hearing. If the representative of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report will be present by telephonic means, the court shall provide the telephone number to the community services board. If a representative of a community services board will be attending the hearing on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report, the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall promptly communicate the time and location of the hearing and, if the representative of the community services board attending on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report will be present by telephonic means, the telephone number to the attending community services board.

C. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed in Virginia, if available, (ii) any past actions of the person, (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person, (iv) any examiner's certification, (v) any health records available, (vi) the preadmission screening report, and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted, including whether the person recently has been found unrestorably incompetent to stand trial after a hearing held pursuant to subsection E of § 19.2-169.1, if the judge or special justice finds by clear and convincing evidence that (a) the person has a mental illness and there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (1) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (2) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, and (b) all available less restrictive treatment alternatives to involuntary inpatient treatment, pursuant to subsection D, that would offer an opportunity for the improvement of the person's condition have been investigated and determined to be inappropriate, the judge or special justice shall by written order and specific findings so certify and order that the person be admitted involuntarily to a facility for a period of treatment not to exceed 30 days from the date of the court order. Such involuntary admission shall be to a facility designated by the community services board that serves the county or city in which the person was examined as provided in § 37.2-816. If the community services board does not designate a facility at the commitment hearing, the person shall be involuntarily admitted to a facility designated by the Commissioner. Upon the expiration of an order for involuntary admission, the person shall be released unless (A) he is involuntarily admitted by further petition and order of a court, which shall be for a period not to exceed 180 days from the date of the subsequent court order, (B) he makes application for treatment on a voluntary basis as provided for in § 37.2-805, or (C) he is ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment. At any time prior to the discharge of a person who has been involuntarily admitted pursuant to this subsection, the person, the person's treating physician, a family member or personal representative of the person, or the community services board serving the county or city where the facility is located, the county or city where the person resides, or the county or city where the person will receive treatment following discharge may file a motion with the court for a hearing to determine whether such person should be ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C1 or D upon discharge if such person, on at least two previous occasions within 36 months preceding the date of the hearing, has been (I) involuntarily admitted pursuant to this section or (II) the subject of a temporary detention order and voluntarily admitted himself in accordance with subsection B of § 37.2-814, except that such 36-month period shall not include any time during which the person was receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment or was incarcerated, as established by evidence admitted at the hearing. A district court judge or special justice shall hold the hearing within 72 hours after receiving the motion for a hearing to determine whether the person should be ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; however, if the 72-hour period expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the hearing shall be held by the close of business on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday. The district court judge or special justice may enter an order for a period of mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment upon finding that the person meets the criteria set forth in subsection C1.

C1. In an order for involuntary admission pursuant to subsection C, the judge or special justice may also order that, upon discharge from inpatient treatment, the person adhere to a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, if the judge or special justice further finds by clear and convincing evidence that (i) the person has a history of lack of adherence to treatment for mental illness that has, at least twice within the past 36 months, resulted in the person being subject to an order for involuntary admission pursuant to subsection C or being subject to a temporary detention order and then voluntarily admitting himself in accordance with subsection B of § 37.2-814, except that such 36-month period shall not include any time during which the person was receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment or was incarcerated, as established by evidence admitted at the hearing; (ii) in view of the person's treatment history and current behavior, the person is in need of mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment in order to prevent a relapse or deterioration that would be likely to result in the person meeting the criteria for involuntary inpatient treatment; (iii) the person has the ability to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; and (iv) the person is likely to benefit from mandatory outpatient treatment. The duration of the period of inpatient treatment shall be determined by the court and the maximum period of inpatient treatment shall not exceed 30 days. The duration of mandatory outpatient treatment shall be determined by the court based on recommendations of the community services board and the maximum period of mandatory outpatient treatment shall not exceed 180 days; in prescribing the terms of the order, including its length, the judge or special justice shall consider the impact on the person's opportunities and obligations, including education and employment. The period of mandatory outpatient treatment shall begin upon discharge of the person from involuntary inpatient treatment, either upon expiration of the 30-day period or pursuant to § 37.2-837 or 37.2-838. The treating physician and facility staff shall develop the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan in conjunction with the community services board and the person. The comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall include all of the components described in, and shall be filed with the court and incorporated into, the order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment in accordance with subsection G. The community services board where the person resides upon discharge shall monitor the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. Upon expiration of the order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, the person shall be released unless the order is continued in accordance with § 37.2-817.4.

D. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed in Virginia, if available, (ii) any past actions of the person, (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person, (iv) any examiner's certification, (v) any health records available, (vi) the preadmission screening report, and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted, if the judge or special justice finds by clear and convincing evidence that (a) the person has a mental illness and that there exists a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (1) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (2) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs; (b) less restrictive alternatives to involuntary inpatient treatment that would offer an opportunity for improvement of his condition have been investigated and are determined to be appropriate, as reflected in the initial outpatient treatment plan prepared in accordance with subsection F; (c) the person has the ability to adhere to the mandatory outpatient treatment plan; and (d) the ordered treatment will be delivered on an outpatient basis by the community services board or designated provider to the person, the judge or special justice shall by written order and specific findings so certify and order that the person be admitted involuntarily to mandatory outpatient treatment. Less restrictive alternatives shall not be determined to be appropriate unless the services are actually available in the community. The duration of mandatory outpatient treatment shall be determined by the court based on recommendations of the community services board but shall not exceed 180 days; in prescribing the terms of the order, including its length, the judge or special justice shall consider the impact on the person's opportunities and obligations, including education and employment. Upon expiration of an order for mandatory outpatient treatment, the person shall be released from the requirements of the order unless the order is continued in accordance with § 37.2-817.4.

E. Mandatory outpatient treatment may include day treatment in a hospital, night treatment in a hospital, outpatient involuntary treatment with anti-psychotic medication pursuant to Chapter 11 (§ 37.2-1100 et seq.), or other appropriate course of treatment as may be necessary to meet the needs of the person. Mandatory outpatient treatment shall not include the use of restraints or physical force of any kind in the provision of the medication. The community services board that serves the county or city in which the person resides shall recommend a specific course of treatment and programs for the provision of mandatory outpatient treatment.

F. Any order for mandatory outpatient treatment entered pursuant to subsection D shall include an initial mandatory outpatient treatment plan developed by the community services board that completed the preadmission screening report. The plan shall, at a minimum, (i) identify the specific services to be provided, (ii) identify the provider who has agreed to provide each service, (iii) describe the arrangements made for the initial in-person appointment or contact with each service provider, and (iv) include any other relevant information that may be available regarding the mandatory outpatient treatment ordered. The order shall require the community services board to monitor the implementation of the mandatory outpatient treatment plan and the person's progress and adherence to the initial mandatory outpatient treatment plan.

G. Prior to discharging a person to mandatory outpatient treatment in accordance with an order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment entered pursuant to subsection C1 or no later than five days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, or legal holidays, after an order for mandatory outpatient treatment has been entered pursuant to subsection D, the community services board where the person resides that is responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall file a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. The comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall (i) identify the specific type, amount, duration, and frequency of each service to be provided to the person; (ii) identify the provider that has agreed to provide each service included in the plan; (iii) certify that the services are the most appropriate and least restrictive treatment available for the person; (iv) certify that each provider has complied and continues to comply with applicable provisions of the Department's licensing regulations; (v) be developed with the fullest possible involvement and participation of the person and his family, with the person's consent, and reflect his preferences to the greatest extent possible to support his recovery and self-determination, including incorporating any preexisting crisis plan or advance directive of the person; (vi) specify the particular conditions to which the person shall be required to adhere; and (vii) describe (a) how the community services board shall monitor the person's progress and adherence to the plan and (b) any conditions, including scheduled meetings or continued adherence to medication, necessary for mandatory outpatient treatment to be appropriate for the person. The community services board shall submit the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan to the court for approval. Upon approval by the court, the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall be filed with the court and incorporated into the order of mandatory outpatient treatment entered pursuant to subsection C1 or D, as appropriate. A copy of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall be provided to the person by the community services board upon approval of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan by the court.

H. If the community services board responsible for developing a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan pursuant to subsection C1 or D determines that the services necessary for the treatment of the person's mental illness are not available or cannot be provided to the person in accordance with the order for mandatory outpatient treatment, it shall petition the court for rescission of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment in accordance with the provisions of § 37.2-817.2.

I. Upon entry of any order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C1 or mandatory outpatient treatment entered pursuant to subsection D, the clerk of the court shall provide a copy of the order to the person who is the subject of the order, to his attorney, and to the community services board required to monitor the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. The community services board shall acknowledge receipt of the order to the clerk of the court on a form established by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and provided by the court for this purpose within five business days.

J. The court may transfer jurisdiction of the case to the district court where the person resides at any time after the entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order. The community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall remain responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the plan until the community services board serving the locality to which jurisdiction of the case has been transferred acknowledges the transfer and receipt of the order to the clerk of the court on a form established by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and provided by the court for this purpose. The community services board serving the locality to which jurisdiction of the case has been transferred shall acknowledge the transfer and receipt of the order within five business days.

K. Any order entered pursuant to this section shall provide for the disclosure of medical records pursuant to § 37.2-804.2. This subsection shall not preclude any other disclosures as required or permitted by law.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, cc. 458, 716; 2008, cc. 779, 780, 782, 793, 850, 870; 2009, cc. 21, 838; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2012, cc. 300, 451, 501; 2013, c. 179; 2014, cc. 499, 538; 2016, c. 688; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221.

§ 37.2-817. (Effective October 1, 2022) Involuntary admission.

A. The district court judge or special justice shall render a decision on the petition for involuntary admission after the appointed examiner has presented the report required by § 37.2-815, and after the community services board that serves the county or city where the person resides or, if impractical, where the person is located has presented a preadmission screening report with recommendations for that person's placement, care, and treatment pursuant to § 37.2-816. These reports, if not contested, may constitute sufficient evidence upon which the district court judge or special justice may base his decision. The examiner, if not physically present at the hearing, and the treating physician at the facility of temporary detention shall be available whenever possible for questioning during the hearing through a two-way electronic video and audio or telephonic communication system as authorized in § 37.2-804.1.

B. Any employee or designee of the local community services board, as defined in § 37.2-809, representing the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall attend the hearing in person or, if physical attendance is not practicable, shall participate in the hearing through a two-way electronic video and audio or telephonic communication system as authorized in § 37.2-804.1. Where a hearing is held outside of the service area of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report, and it is not practicable for a representative of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report to attend or participate in the hearing, arrangements shall be made by the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report for an employee or designee of the community services board serving the area in which the hearing is held to attend or participate on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report. The employee or designee of the local community services board, as defined in § 37.2-809, representing the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report or attending or participating on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall not be excluded from the hearing pursuant to an order of sequestration of witnesses. The community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall remain responsible for the person subject to the hearing and, prior to the hearing, shall send the preadmission screening report through certified mail, personal delivery, facsimile with return receipt acknowledged, or other electronic means with documented acknowledgment of receipt to the community services board attending the hearing. Where a community services board attends the hearing on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report, the attending community services board shall inform the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report of the disposition of the matter upon the conclusion of the hearing. In addition, the attending community services board shall transmit the disposition through certified mail, personal delivery, facsimile with return receipt acknowledged, or other electronic means with documented acknowledgment of receipt.

At least 12 hours prior to the hearing, the court shall provide to the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report the time and location of the hearing. If the representative of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report will be present by telephonic means, the court shall provide the telephone number to the community services board. If a representative of a community services board will be attending the hearing on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report, the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report shall promptly communicate the time and location of the hearing and, if the representative of the community services board attending on behalf of the community services board that prepared the preadmission screening report will be present by telephonic means, the telephone number to the attending community services board.

C. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed in Virginia, if available, (ii) any past actions of the person, (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person, (iv) any examiner's certification, (v) any health records available, (vi) the preadmission screening report, and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted, including whether the person recently has been found unrestorably incompetent to stand trial after a hearing held pursuant to subsection E of § 19.2-169.1, if the judge or special justice finds by clear and convincing evidence that (a) the person has a mental illness and there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (1) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (2) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, and (b) all available less restrictive treatment alternatives to involuntary inpatient treatment that would offer an opportunity for the improvement of the person's condition have been investigated and determined to be inappropriate, the judge or special justice shall by written order and specific findings so certify and order that the person be admitted involuntarily to a facility for a period of treatment not to exceed 30 days from the date of the court order. Such involuntary admission shall be to a facility designated by the community services board that serves the county or city in which the person was examined as provided in § 37.2-816. If the community services board does not designate a facility at the commitment hearing, the person shall be involuntarily admitted to a facility designated by the Commissioner. Upon the expiration of an order for involuntary admission, the person shall be released unless (A) he is involuntarily admitted by further petition and order of a court, which shall be for a period not to exceed 180 days from the date of the subsequent court order, (B) he makes application for treatment on a voluntary basis as provided for in § 37.2-805, or (C) he is ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment pursuant to § 37.2-817.01.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, cc. 458, 716; 2008, cc. 779, 780, 782, 793, 850, 870; 2009, cc. 21, 838; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2012, cc. 300, 451, 501; 2013, c. 179; 2014, cc. 499, 538; 2016, c. 688; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221; 2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-817.01. (Effective October 1, 2022) Mandatory outpatient treatment.

A. Prior to ordering involuntary admission pursuant to § 37.2-817, a judge or special justice shall investigate and determine whether (i) mandatory outpatient treatment is appropriate as a less restrictive alternative to admission pursuant to subsection B or (ii) mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment is appropriate pursuant to subsection C.

B. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed in Virginia, if available, (ii) any past actions of the person, (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person, (iv) any examiner's certification, (v) any health records available, (vi) the preadmission screening report, and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted, if the judge or special justice finds by clear and convincing evidence that (a) the person has a mental illness and that there exists a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (1) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (2) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, (b) less restrictive alternatives to involuntary inpatient treatment that would offer an opportunity for improvement of his condition have been investigated and are determined to be appropriate, as reflected in the initial outpatient treatment plan prepared in accordance with subsection F, (c) the person has the ability to adhere to the mandatory outpatient treatment plan, and (d) the ordered treatment will be delivered on an outpatient basis by the community services board or designated provider to the person, the judge or special justice shall by written order and specific findings so certify and order that the person be admitted involuntarily to mandatory outpatient treatment. Less restrictive alternatives shall not be determined to be appropriate unless the services are actually available in the community. The duration of mandatory outpatient treatment shall be determined by the court based on recommendations of the community services board but shall not exceed 180 days; in prescribing the terms of the order, including its length, the judge or special justice shall consider the impact on the person's opportunities and obligations, including education and employment. Upon expiration of an order for mandatory outpatient treatment, the person shall be released from the requirements of the order unless the order is continued in accordance with § 37.2-817.4.

C. Upon finding by clear and convincing evidence that, in addition to the findings described in subsection C of § 37.2-817, (i) the person has a history of lack of adherence to treatment for mental illness that has, at least twice within the past 36 months, resulted in the person being subject to an order for involuntary admission pursuant to subsection C of § 37.2-817 or being subject to a temporary detention order and then voluntarily admitting himself in accordance with subsection B of § 37.2-814, except that such 36-month period shall not include any time during which the person was receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment or was incarcerated, as established by evidence admitted at the hearing, (ii) in view of the person's treatment history and current behavior, the person is in need of mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment in order to prevent a relapse or deterioration that would be likely to result in the person meeting the criteria for involuntary inpatient treatment, (iii) the person has the ability to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, and (iv) the person is likely to benefit from mandatory outpatient treatment, the judge or special justice may order that, upon discharge from inpatient treatment, the person adhere to a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan.

The period of mandatory outpatient treatment shall begin upon discharge of the person from involuntary inpatient treatment, either upon expiration of the order for inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C of § 37.2-817 or pursuant to § 37.2-837 or 37.2-838. The duration of mandatory outpatient treatment shall be determined by the court on the basis of recommendations of the community services board, and the maximum period of mandatory outpatient treatment shall not exceed 180 days; in prescribing the terms of the order, including its length, the judge or special justice shall consider the impact on the person's opportunities and obligations, including education and employment.

The treating physician and facility staff shall develop the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan in conjunction with the community services board and the person. The comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall include all of the components described in, and shall be filed with the court and incorporated into, the order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment in accordance with subsection G. The community services board where the person resides upon discharge shall monitor the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. Upon expiration of the order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, the person shall be released unless the order is continued in accordance with § 37.2-817.4.

D. At any time prior to the discharge of a person who has been involuntarily admitted pursuant to subsection C of § 37.2-817, the person, the person's treating physician, a family member or personal representative of the person, or the community services board serving the county or city where the facility is located, the county or city where the person resides, or the county or city where the person will receive treatment following discharge may file a motion with the court for a hearing to determine whether such person should be ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of inpatient treatment upon discharge if such person, on at least two previous occasions within 36 months preceding the date of the hearing, has been (i) involuntarily admitted pursuant to subsection C of § 37.2-817 or (ii) the subject of a temporary detention order and voluntarily admitted himself in accordance with subsection B of § 37.2-814, except that such 36-month period shall not include any time during which the person was receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment or was incarcerated, as established by evidence admitted at the hearing. A district court judge or special justice shall hold the hearing within 72 hours after receiving the motion for a hearing to determine whether the person should be ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; however, if the 72-hour period expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the hearing shall be held by the close of business on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday. The district court judge or special justice may enter an order for a period of mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment upon finding that the person meets the criteria set forth in subsection C.

E. Mandatory outpatient treatment may include day treatment in a hospital, night treatment in a hospital, outpatient involuntary treatment with antipsychotic medication pursuant to Chapter 11 (§ 37.2-1100 et seq.), or other appropriate course of treatment as may be necessary to meet the needs of the person. Mandatory outpatient treatment shall not include the use of restraints or physical force of any kind in the provision of the medication. The community services board that serves the county or city in which the person resides shall recommend a specific course of treatment and programs for the provision of mandatory outpatient treatment.

F. Any order for mandatory outpatient treatment entered pursuant to subsection B shall include an initial mandatory outpatient treatment plan developed by the community services board that completed the preadmission screening report. The plan shall, at a minimum, (i) identify the specific services to be provided, (ii) identify the provider who has agreed to provide each service, (iii) describe the arrangements made for the initial in-person appointment or contact with each service provider, and (iv) include any other relevant information that may be available regarding the mandatory outpatient treatment ordered. The order shall require the community services board to monitor the implementation of the mandatory outpatient treatment plan and the person's progress and adherence to the initial mandatory outpatient treatment plan.

G. The community services board where the person resides that is responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall file a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan no later than five days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, or legal holidays, after an order for mandatory outpatient treatment has been entered pursuant to subsection B. The community services board where the person resides that is responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall file a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan prior to discharging a person to mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D. The comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall (i) identify the specific type, amount, duration, and frequency of each service to be provided to the person; (ii) identify the provider that has agreed to provide each service included in the plan; (iii) certify that the services are the most appropriate and least restrictive treatment available for the person; (iv) certify that each provider has complied and continues to comply with applicable provisions of the Department's licensing regulations; (v) be developed with the fullest possible involvement and participation of the person and his family, with the person's consent, and reflect his preferences to the greatest extent possible to support his recovery and self-determination, including incorporating any preexisting crisis plan or advance directive of the person; (vi) specify the particular conditions to which the person shall be required to adhere; and (vii) describe (a) how the community services board shall monitor the person's progress and adherence to the plan and (b) any conditions, including scheduled meetings or continued adherence to medication, necessary for mandatory outpatient treatment to be appropriate for the person. The community services board shall submit the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan to the court for approval. Upon approval by the court, the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall be filed with the court and incorporated into the order of mandatory outpatient treatment entered pursuant to subsection B, C, or D, as appropriate. A copy of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall be provided to the person by the community services board upon approval of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan by the court.

H. If the community services board responsible for developing a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan pursuant to subsection B, C, or D determines that the services necessary for the treatment of the person's mental illness are not available or cannot be provided to the person in accordance with the order for mandatory outpatient treatment, it shall petition the court for rescission of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment in accordance with the provisions of subsection D of § 37.2-817.1.

I. Upon entry of any order for mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to subsection B or mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D, the clerk of the court shall provide a copy of the order to the person who is the subject of the order, to his attorney, and to the community services board required to monitor the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. The community services board shall acknowledge receipt of the order to the clerk of the court on a form established by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and provided by the court for this purpose within five business days.

J. The court may transfer jurisdiction of the case to the district court where the person resides at any time after the entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order. The community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall remain responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the plan until the community services board serving the locality to which jurisdiction of the case has been transferred acknowledges the transfer and receipt of the order to the clerk of the court on a form established by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and provided by the court for this purpose. The community services board serving the locality to which jurisdiction of the case has been transferred shall acknowledge the transfer and receipt of the order within five business days.

K. Any order entered pursuant to this section shall provide for the disclosure of medical records pursuant to § 37.2-804.2. This subsection shall not preclude any other disclosures as required or permitted by law.

2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-817.1. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Monitoring mandatory outpatient treatment; petition for hearing.

A. The community services board where the person resides shall monitor the person's compliance with the mandatory outpatient treatment plan or discharge plan ordered by the court pursuant to § 37.2-817. Monitoring compliance shall include (i) contacting the service providers to determine if the person is complying with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment and (ii) notifying the court of the person's material noncompliance with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment. Providers of services identified in the plan shall report any material noncompliance to the community services board.

B. If the community services board determines that the person materially failed to comply with the order, it shall petition the court for a review of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment as provided in § 37.2-817.2. The community services board shall petition the court for a review of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment within three days of making that determination, or within 24 hours if the person is being detained under a temporary detention order, and shall recommend an appropriate disposition. Copies of the petition shall be sent to the person and the person's attorney.

C. If the community services board determines that the person is not materially complying with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment or for any other reason, and there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of the person's mental illness that the person will, in the near future, (i) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (ii) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, it shall immediately request that the magistrate issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808 or a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461.

§ 37.2-817.1. (Effective October 1, 2022) Monitoring and court review of mandatory outpatient treatment.

A. As used in this section, "material nonadherence" means deviation from a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan by a person who is subject to an order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01 or an order for mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 that it is likely to lead to the person's relapse or deterioration and for which the person cannot provide a reasonable explanation.

B. The community services board where the person resides shall monitor the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan prepared in accordance with § 37.2-817.01. Such monitoring shall include (i) contacting or making documented efforts to contact the person regarding the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan and any support necessary for the person to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, (ii) contacting the service providers to determine if the person is adhering to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan and, in the event of material nonadherence, if the person fails or refuses to cooperate with efforts of the community services board or providers of services identified in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan to address the factors leading to the person's material nonadherence, petitioning for a review hearing pursuant to this section. Service providers identified in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall report any material nonadherence and any material changes in the person's condition to the community services board. Any finding of material nonadherence shall be based upon a totality of the circumstances.

C. The community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan shall report monthly, in writing, to the court regarding the person's and the community services board's compliance with the provisions of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan. If the community services board determines that the deterioration of the condition or behavior of a person who is subject to an order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01 or a mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 is such that there is a substantial likelihood that, as a result of the person's mental illness, the person will, in the near future, (i) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (ii) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, it shall immediately request that the magistrate issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808 or a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809. Entry of an emergency custody order, temporary detention order, or involuntary inpatient treatment order shall suspend but not rescind an existing order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01 or a mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01.

D. The district court judge or special justice shall hold a hearing within five days after receiving the petition for review of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; however, if the fifth day is a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed, the hearing shall be held by the close of business on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed. The clerk shall provide notice of the hearing to the person, the community services board, all treatment providers listed in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment order or discharge plan, and the original petitioner for the person's involuntary treatment. If the person is not represented by counsel, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the person in this hearing and any subsequent hearing under this section or § 37.2-817.4, giving consideration to appointing the attorney who represented the person at the proceeding that resulted in the issuance of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment. The same judge or special justice that presided over the hearing resulting in the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment need not preside at the nonadherence hearing or any subsequent hearings. The community services board shall offer to arrange the person's transportation to the hearing if the person is not detained and has no other source of transportation.

Any of the following may petition the court for a hearing pursuant to this subsection: (i) the person who is subject to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (ii) the community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (iii) a treatment provider designated in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; (iv) the person who originally filed the petition that resulted in the entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (v) any health care agent designated in the advance directive of the person who is the subject of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; or (vi) if the person who is the subject of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment has been determined to be incapable of making an informed decision, the person's guardian or other person authorized to make health care decisions for the person pursuant to § 54.1-2986.

A petition filed pursuant to this subsection may request that the court do any of the following:

1. Enforce a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment and require the person who is the subject of the order to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, in the case of material nonadherence;

2. Modify a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment or a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan due to a change in circumstances, including changes in the condition, behavior, living arrangement, or access to services of the person who is the subject to the order; or

3. Rescind a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment.

At any time after 30 days from entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 or from the discharge of the person from involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to an order under subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01, the person may petition the court to rescind the order. The person shall not file a petition to rescind the order more than once during a 90-day period.

E. If requested in a petition filed pursuant to subsection D or on the court's own motion, the court may appoint an examiner in accordance with § 37.2-815 who shall personally examine the person on or before the date of the review, as directed by the court, and certify to the court whether or not he has probable cause to believe that the person meets the criteria for mandatory outpatient treatment as specified in subsection B, C, or D of § 37.2-817.01, as may be applicable. The examination shall include all applicable requirements of § 37.2-815. The certification of the examiner may be admitted into evidence without the appearance of the examiner at the hearing if not objected to by the person or his attorney. If the person is not incarcerated or receiving treatment in an inpatient facility, the community services board shall arrange for the person to be examined at a convenient location and time. The community services board shall offer to arrange for the person's transportation to the examination if the person has no other source of transportation and resides within the service area or an adjacent service area of the community services board. If the person refuses or fails to appear, the community services board shall notify the court, or a magistrate if the court is not available, and the court or magistrate shall issue a mandatory examination order and capias directing the primary law-enforcement agency in the jurisdiction where the person resides to transport the person to the examination. The person shall remain in custody until a temporary detention order is issued or until the person is released, but in no event shall the period exceed eight hours.

F. If the person fails to appear for the hearing, the court may, after consideration of any evidence regarding why the person failed to appear at the hearing, (i) dismiss the petition, (ii) issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808, or (iii) reschedule the hearing pursuant to subsection D and issue a subpoena for the person's appearance at the hearing and enter an order for mandatory examination, to be conducted prior to the hearing and in accordance with subsection E.

G. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed to practice in the Commonwealth, if available, (ii) the person's adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person, (iv) any examiner's certification, (v) any health records available, (vi) any report from the community services board, and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted at the hearing, the judge or special justice shall make one of the following dispositions:

1. In a hearing on any petition seeking enforcement of a mandatory outpatient treatment order, upon finding that continuing mandatory outpatient treatment is warranted, the court shall direct the person to fully comply with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment and may make any modifications to such order or the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan that are acceptable to the community services board or treatment provider responsible for the person's treatment. In determining the appropriateness of the outpatient treatment specified in such order and the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, the court may consider the person's material nonadherence to the existing mandatory treatment order.

2. In a hearing on any petition seeking modification of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, upon a finding that (i) one or more modifications of the order would benefit the person and help prevent relapse or deterioration of the person's condition, (ii) the community services board and the treatment provider responsible for the person's treatment are able to provide services consistent with such modification, and (iii) the person is able to adhere to the modified comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, the court may order such modification of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment or the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan as the court finds appropriate.

3. In a hearing on any petition filed to enforce, modify, or rescind a mandatory outpatient treatment order, upon finding that mandatory outpatient treatment is no longer appropriate, the court may rescind the order.

H. The judge or special justice may schedule periodic status hearings for the purpose of obtaining information regarding the person's progress while the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment remains in effect. The clerk shall provide notice of the hearing to the person who is the subject of the order and the community services board responsible for monitoring the person's condition and adherence to the plan. The person shall have the right to be represented by counsel at the hearing, and if the person does not have counsel the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the person. However, status hearings may be held without counsel present by mutual consent of the parties. The community services board shall offer to arrange the person's transportation to the hearing if the person is not detained and has no other source of transportation. During a status hearing, the treatment plan may be amended upon mutual agreement of the parties. Contested matters shall not be decided during a status hearing, nor shall any decision regarding enforcement, rescission, or renewal of the order be entered.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221; 2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-817.2. (Repealed effective October 1, 2022) Court review of mandatory outpatient treatment plan.

A. The district court judge or special justice shall hold a hearing within five days after receiving the petition for review of the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; however, if the fifth day is a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed, the hearing shall be held by the close of business on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed. The clerk shall provide notice of the hearing to the person, the community services board, all treatment providers listed in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment order or discharge plan, and the original petitioner for the person's involuntary treatment. If the person is not represented by counsel, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the person in this hearing and any subsequent hearing under this section or § 37.2-817.4, giving consideration to appointing the attorney who represented the person at the proceeding that resulted in the issuance of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment. The same judge or special justice that presided over the hearing resulting in the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment need not preside at the nonadherence hearing or any subsequent hearings. The community services board shall offer to arrange the person's transportation to the hearing if the person is not detained and has no other source of transportation.

Any of the following may petition the court for a hearing pursuant to this subsection: (i) the person who is subject to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (ii) the community services board responsible for monitoring the person's progress and adherence to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (iii) a treatment provider designated in the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; (iv) the person who originally filed the petition that resulted in the entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; (v) any health care agent designated in the advance directive of the person who is the subject of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment; or (vi) if the person who is the subject of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment has been determined to be incapable of making an informed decision, the person's guardian or other person authorized to make health care decisions for the person pursuant to § 54.1-2986.

A petition filed pursuant to this subsection may request that the court do any of the following:

1. Enforce a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment and require the person who is the subject of the order to adhere to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, in the case of material nonadherence, as defined in § 37.2-817.1;

2. Modify a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment or a comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan due to a change in circumstances, including changes in the condition, behavior, living arrangement, or access to services of the person who is the subject to the order; or

3. Rescind a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment.

A person who is the subject of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment shall not (i) file a petition for rescission of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment unless at least 30 days have elapsed from the date on which the order was entered or (ii) file a petition for rescission of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment more than one time during any 90-day period.

B. If requested in a petition filed pursuant to subsection A or on the court's own motion, the court may appoint an examiner in accordance with § 37.2-815 who shall personally examine the person on or before the date of the review, as directed by the court, and certify to the court whether or not he has probable cause to believe that the person meets the criteria for mandatory outpatient treatment as specified in subsection C1 or D of § 37.2-817, as may be applicable. The examination shall include all applicable requirements of § 37.2-815. The certification of the examiner may be admitted into evidence without the appearance of the examiner at the hearing if not objected to by the person or his attorney. If the person is not incarcerated or receiving treatment in an inpatient facility, the community services board shall arrange for the person to be examined at a convenient location and time. The community services board shall offer to arrange for the person's transportation to the examination if the person has no other source of transportation and resides within the service area or an adjacent service area of the community services board. If the person refuses or fails to appear, the community services board shall notify the court, or a magistrate if the court is not available, and the court or magistrate shall issue a mandatory examination order and capias directing the primary law-enforcement agency in the jurisdiction where the person resides to transport the person to the examination. The person shall remain in custody until a temporary detention order is issued or until the person is released, but in no event shall the period exceed eight hours.

C. If the person fails to appear for the hearing, the court may, after consideration of any evidence regarding why the person failed to appear at the hearing, (i) dismiss the petition, (ii) issue an emergency custody order pursuant to § 37.2-808, or (iii) reschedule the hearing pursuant to subsection A and issue a subpoena for the person's appearance at the hearing and enter an order for mandatory examination, to be conducted prior to the hearing and in accordance with subsection B.

D. After observing the person and considering (i) the recommendations of any treating or examining physician or psychologist licensed to practice in the Commonwealth, if available; (ii) the person's adherence to the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan; (iii) any past mental health treatment of the person; (iv) any examiner's certification; (v) any health records available; (vi) any report from the community services board; and (vii) any other relevant evidence that may have been admitted at the hearing, the judge or special justice shall make one of the following dispositions:

1. In a hearing on any petition seeking enforcement of a mandatory outpatient treatment order, upon finding that continuing mandatory outpatient treatment is warranted, the court shall direct the person to fully comply with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment and may make any modifications to such order or the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan that are acceptable to the community services board or treatment provider responsible for the person's treatment. In determining the appropriateness of the outpatient treatment specified in such order and the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, the court may consider the person's material nonadherence to the existing mandatory treatment order.

2. In a hearing on any petition seeking modification of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, upon a finding that (i) one or more modifications of the order would benefit the person and help prevent relapse or deterioration of the person's condition, (ii) the community services board and the treatment provider responsible for the person's treatment are able to provide services consistent with such modification, and (iii) the person is able to adhere to the modified comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan, the court may order such modification of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment or the comprehensive mandatory outpatient treatment plan as the court finds appropriate.

3. In a hearing on any petition filed to enforce, modify, or rescind a mandatory outpatient treatment order, upon finding that mandatory outpatient treatment is no longer appropriate, the court may rescind the order.

E. The judge or special justice may schedule periodic status hearings for the purpose of obtaining information regarding the person's progress while the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment remains in effect. The clerk shall provide notice of the hearing to the person who is the subject of the order and the community services board responsible for monitoring the person's condition and adherence to the plan. The person shall have the right to be represented by counsel at the hearing, and if the person does not have counsel the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the person. However, status hearings may be held without counsel present by mutual consent of the parties. The community services board shall offer to arrange the person's transportation to the hearing if the person is not detained and has no other source of transportation. During a status hearing, the treatment plan may be amended upon mutual agreement of the parties. Contested matters shall not be decided during a status hearing, nor shall any decision regarding enforcement, rescission, or renewal of the order be entered.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2009, cc. 112, 697; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2014, cc. 691, 761; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221; repealed by 2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-817.3. Rescission of mandatory outpatient treatment order.

A. If the community services board determines at any time prior to the expiration of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment that the person has complied with the order and no longer meets the criteria for involuntary treatment, or that continued mandatory outpatient treatment is no longer necessary for any other reason, it shall file a petition to rescind the order with the court that entered the order or to which venue has been transferred. If the court agrees with the community services board's determination, the court shall rescind the order. Otherwise, the court shall schedule a hearing and provide notice of the hearing in accordance with subsection A of § 37.2-817.2.

B. At any time after 30 days from entry of the mandatory outpatient treatment order or from the discharge of the person from involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to an order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment, the person may petition the court to rescind the order on the grounds that he no longer meets the criteria for mandatory outpatient treatment as specified in subsection C1 or D of § 37.2-817. The court shall schedule a hearing and provide notice of the hearing in accordance with subsection A of § 37.2-817.2. The community services board required to monitor the person's compliance with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment shall provide a preadmission screening report as required in § 37.2-816. After observing the person, and considering the person's current condition, any material noncompliance with the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order authorizing discharge to mandatory outpatient treatment following inpatient treatment on the part of the person, and any other relevant evidence referred to in subsection C of § 37.2-817, shall make one of the dispositions specified in subsection D of § 37.2-817.2. The person may not file a petition to rescind the order more than once during a 90-day period.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461.

§ 37.2-817.4. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Continuation of mandatory outpatient treatment order.

A. At any time within 30 days prior to the expiration of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, any person or entity that may file a petition for review of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection A of § 37.2-817.2 may petition the court to continue the order for a period not to exceed 180 days.

B. If the person who is the subject of the order and the monitoring community services board, if it did not initiate the petition, join the petition, the court shall grant the petition and enter an appropriate order without further hearing. If either the person or the monitoring community services board does not join the petition, the court shall schedule a hearing and provide notice of the hearing in accordance with subsection A of § 37.2-817.2.

C. Upon receipt of a contested petition for continuation, the court shall appoint an examiner who shall personally examine the person pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.2. The community services board required to monitor the person's adherence to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment shall provide a report addressing whether the person continues to meet the criteria for being subject to a mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection D of § 37.2-817 or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C1 of § 37.2-817, as may be appropriate.

D. If, after observing the person, reviewing the report of the community services board provided pursuant to subsection C and considering the appointed examiner's certification and any other relevant evidence submitted at the hearing, the court finds that the person continues to meet the criteria for mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C1 or D of § 37.2-817, it may continue the order for a period not to exceed 180 days; in prescribing the terms of the order, including its length, the judge or special justice shall consider the impact on the person's opportunities and obligations, including education and employment. Any order of mandatory outpatient treatment that is in effect at the time a petition for continuation of the order is filed shall remain in effect until the disposition of the hearing.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221.

§ 37.2-817.4. (Effective October 1, 2022) Continuation of mandatory outpatient treatment order.

A. At any time within 30 days prior to the expiration of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment, any person or entity that may file a petition for review of a mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection D of § 37.2-817.1 may petition the court to continue the order for a period not to exceed 180 days.

B. If the person who is the subject of the order and the monitoring community services board, if it did not initiate the petition, join the petition, the court shall grant the petition and enter an appropriate order without further hearing. If either the person or the monitoring community services board does not join the petition, the court shall schedule a hearing and provide notice of the hearing in accordance with subsection D of § 37.2-817.1.

C. Upon receipt of a contested petition for continuation, the court shall appoint an examiner who shall personally examine the person pursuant to subsection E of § 37.2-817.1. The community services board required to monitor the person's adherence to the mandatory outpatient treatment order or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment shall provide a report addressing whether the person continues to meet the criteria for being subject to a mandatory outpatient treatment order pursuant to subsection B of § 37.2-817.01 or order for mandatory outpatient treatment following a period of involuntary inpatient treatment pursuant to subsection C or D of § 37.2-817.01, as may be appropriate.

D. If, after observing the person, reviewing the report of the community services board provided pursuant to subsection C and considering the appointed examiner's certification and any other relevant evidence submitted at the hearing, the court finds that the person continues to meet the criteria for mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to subsection B, C, or D of § 37.2-817.01, it may continue the order for a period not to exceed 180 days; in prescribing the terms of the order, including its length, the judge or special justice shall consider the impact on the person's opportunities and obligations, including education and employment. Any order of mandatory outpatient treatment that is in effect at the time a petition for continuation of the order is filed shall remain in effect until the disposition of the hearing.

2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 330, 461; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 221; 2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-818. Commitment hearing for involuntary admission; recordings and records.

A. The district court judge or special justice shall make or cause to be made a tape or other audio recording of any hearings held under this chapter, with no more than one hearing recorded per tape, and shall submit the recording to the clerk of the district court in the locality in which the hearing is held to be retained in a confidential file. The person who was the subject of the hearing shall be entitled, upon request, to obtain a copy of the tape or other audio recording of such hearing. These recordings shall be retained for at least three years from the date of the commitment hearing.

B. Except as provided in this section and § 37.2-819, the court shall keep its copies of recordings made pursuant to this section, relevant medical records, reports, and court documents pertaining to the hearings provided for in this chapter confidential. The person who is the subject of the hearing may, in writing, waive the confidentiality provided herein. In the absence of such waiver, access to the dispositional order only may be provided upon court order. Any person seeking access to the dispositional order may file a written motion setting forth why such access is needed. The court may issue an order to disclose the dispositional order if it finds that such disclosure is in the best interest of the person who is the subject of the hearing or of the public. The Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and anyone acting on his behalf shall be provided access to the court's records upon request. Such recordings, records, reports, and documents shall not be subject to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

C. After entering an order for involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment, the judge or special justice shall order that copies of the relevant records of the person be released to (i) the facility in which he is placed, (ii) the community services board of the jurisdiction where the person resides, (iii) any treatment providers identified in a treatment plan incorporated into any mandatory outpatient treatment order, and (iv) any other treatment providers or entities.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716; 2008, cc. 806, 850, 870.

§ 37.2-819. Order of involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment forwarded to CCRE; certain voluntary admissions forwarded to CCRE; firearm background check.

A. The order from a commitment hearing issued pursuant to this chapter for involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment and the certification of any person who has been the subject of a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809 and who, after being advised by the judge or special justice that he will be prohibited from possessing a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:3, subsequently agreed to voluntary admission pursuant to § 37.2-805 shall be filed by the judge or special justice with the clerk of the district court for the county or city where the hearing took place as soon as practicable but no later than the close of business on the next business day following the completion of the hearing.

B. Upon receipt of any order from a commitment hearing issued pursuant to this chapter for involuntary admission to a facility, the clerk of court shall, as soon as practicable but not later than the close of business on the next following business day, certify and forward to the Central Criminal Records Exchange, on a form provided by the Exchange, a copy of the order. Upon receipt of any order from a commitment hearing issued pursuant to this chapter for mandatory outpatient treatment, the clerk of court shall, prior to the close of that business day, certify and forward to the Central Criminal Records Exchange, on a form provided by the Exchange, a copy of the order.

C. The clerk of court shall also, as soon as practicable but no later than the close of business on the next following business day, forward upon receipt to the Central Criminal Records Exchange, on a form provided by the Exchange, certification of any person who has been the subject of a temporary detention order pursuant to § 37.2-809, and who, after being advised by the judge or special justice that he will be prohibited from possessing a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:3, subsequently agreed to voluntary admission pursuant to § 37.2-805.

D. Except as provided in subdivision A 1 of § 19.2-389, the copy of the forms and orders sent to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to subsection B, and the forms and certifications sent to the Central Criminal Records Exchange regarding voluntary admission pursuant to subsection C, shall be kept confidential in a separate file and used only to determine a person's eligibility to possess, purchase, or transfer a firearm. No medical records shall be forwarded to the Central Criminal Records Exchange with any form, order, or certification required by subsection B or C. The Department of State Police shall forward only a person's eligibility to possess, purchase, or transfer a firearm to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.3; 1979, c. 426; 1980, cc. 166, 582; 1982, c. 471; 1984, c. 277; 1985, c. 261; 1986, cc. 349, 609; 1988, c. 225; 1989, c. 716; 1990, cc. 59, 60, 728, 798; 1991, c. 636; 1992, c. 752; 1994, cc. 736, 907; 1995, cc. 489, 668, 844; 1996, cc. 343, 893; 1997, cc. 558, 921; 1998, c. 446; 2001, cc. 478, 479, 507, 658, 837; 2004, cc. 66, 1014; 2005, c. 716; 2008, cc. 751, 788; 2009, cc. 21, 838; 2014, cc. 336, 374; 2015, c. 540.

§ 37.2-820. Place of hearing.

The hearing provided for pursuant to §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819 may be conducted by the district court judge or a special justice at the convenient facility or other place open to the public provided for in § 37.2-809, if he deems it advisable, even though the facility or place is located in a county or city other than his own. In conducting such hearings in a county or city other than his own, the judge or special justice shall have all of the authority and power that he would have in his own county or city. A district court judge or special justice of the county or city in which the facility or place is located may conduct the hearing provided for in §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819.

1976, c. 671, § 37.1-67.4; 1981, c. 233; 1982, c. 435; 1986, c. 134; 1995, c. 844; 2005, c. 716.

§ 37.2-821. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Appeal of involuntary admission or certification order.

A. Any person involuntarily admitted to an inpatient facility or ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819 or certified as eligible for admission pursuant to § 37.2-806 shall have the right to appeal the order to the circuit court in the jurisdiction where he was involuntarily admitted or ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment or certified or where the facility to which he was admitted is located. Choice of venue shall rest with such person. The court may transfer the case upon a finding that the other forum is more convenient. The clerk of the court from which an appeal is taken shall immediately transmit the record to the clerk of the appellate court. The clerk of the circuit court shall provide written notification of the appeal to the petitioner in the case in accordance with procedures set forth in § 16.1-112. No appeal bond or writ tax shall be required, and the appeal shall proceed without the payment of costs or other fees. Costs may be recovered as provided for in § 37.2-804.

B. An appeal shall be filed within 10 days from the date of the order and shall be given priority over all other pending matters before the court and heard as soon as possible, notwithstanding § 19.2-241 regarding the time within which the court shall set criminal cases for trial. A petition for or the pendency of an appeal shall not suspend any order unless so ordered by a judge or special justice; however, a person may be released after a petition for or during the pendency of an appeal pursuant to § 37.2-837 or 37.2-838. If the person is released during the pendency of an appeal, the appeal shall be in accordance with the provisions set forth in §§ 37.2-844 and 37.2-846.

C. The appeal shall be heard de novo in accordance with the provisions set forth in §§ 37.2-802, 37.2-804, 37.2-804.1, 37.2-804.2, and 37.2-805 and (i) § 37.2-806 or (ii) §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819, except that the court in its discretion may rely upon the evaluation report in the commitment hearing from which the appeal is taken instead of requiring a new evaluation pursuant to § 37.2-815. Any order of the circuit court shall not extend the period of involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment set forth in the order appealed from.

D. An order continuing the involuntary admission shall be entered only if the criteria in § 37.2-817 are met at the time the appeal is heard.

E. Upon a finding by the court that the appellant no longer meets the criteria for involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment, the court shall not dismiss the Commonwealth's petition but shall reverse the order of the district court.

F. The person so admitted or certified shall be entitled to trial by jury. Seven persons from a panel of 13 shall constitute a jury.

G. If the person is not represented by counsel, the judge shall appoint an attorney to represent him. Counsel so appointed shall be paid a fee of $75 and his necessary expenses. The order of the court from which the appeal is taken shall be defended by the attorney for the Commonwealth.

1977, c. 355, § 37.1-67.6; 1979, c. 204; 1980, c. 176; 1985, c. 106; 1990, c. 274; 2005, c. 716; 2006, c. 486; 2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 544, 591; 2020, cc. 298, 1175.

§ 37.2-821. (Effective October 1, 2022) Appeal of involuntary admission or certification order.

A. Any person involuntarily admitted to an inpatient facility or ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment pursuant to §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819 or certified as eligible for admission pursuant to § 37.2-806 shall have the right to appeal the order to the circuit court in the jurisdiction where he was involuntarily admitted or ordered to mandatory outpatient treatment or certified or where the facility to which he was admitted is located. Choice of venue shall rest with such person. The court may transfer the case upon a finding that the other forum is more convenient. The clerk of the court from which an appeal is taken shall immediately transmit the record to the clerk of the appellate court. The clerk of the circuit court shall provide written notification of the appeal to the petitioner in the case in accordance with procedures set forth in § 16.1-112. No appeal bond or writ tax shall be required, and the appeal shall proceed without the payment of costs or other fees. Costs may be recovered as provided for in § 37.2-804.

B. An appeal shall be filed within 10 days from the date of the order and shall be given priority over all other pending matters before the court and heard as soon as possible, notwithstanding § 19.2-241 regarding the time within which the court shall set criminal cases for trial. A petition for or the pendency of an appeal shall not suspend any order unless so ordered by a judge or special justice; however, a person may be released after a petition for or during the pendency of an appeal pursuant to § 37.2-837 or 37.2-838. If the person is released during the pendency of an appeal, the appeal shall be in accordance with the provisions set forth in §§ 37.2-844 and 37.2-846.

C. The appeal shall be heard de novo in accordance with the provisions set forth in §§ 37.2-802, 37.2-804, 37.2-804.1, 37.2-804.2, and 37.2-805 and (i) § 37.2-806 or (ii) §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819, except that the court in its discretion may rely upon the evaluation report in the commitment hearing from which the appeal is taken instead of requiring a new evaluation pursuant to § 37.2-815. Any order of the circuit court shall not extend the period of involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment set forth in the order appealed from.

D. An order continuing the involuntary inpatient admission shall be entered only if the criteria in § 37.2-817 are met at the time the appeal is heard. An order continuing mandatory outpatient treatment shall be entered only if the criteria set forth in § 37.2-817.01 are met at the time the appeal is heard.

E. Upon a finding by the court that the appellant no longer meets the criteria for involuntary admission or mandatory outpatient treatment, the court shall not dismiss the Commonwealth's petition but shall reverse the order of the district court.

F. The person so admitted or certified shall be entitled to trial by jury. Seven persons from a panel of 13 shall constitute a jury.

G. If the person is not represented by counsel, the judge shall appoint an attorney to represent him. Counsel so appointed shall be paid a fee of $75 and his necessary expenses. The order of the court from which the appeal is taken shall be defended by the attorney for the Commonwealth.

1977, c. 355, § 37.1-67.6; 1979, c. 204; 1980, c. 176; 1985, c. 106; 1990, c. 274; 2005, c. 716; 2006, c. 486; 2008, cc. 850, 870; 2010, cc. 544, 591; 2020, cc. 298, 1175; 2022, c. 763.

§ 37.2-822. Treatment of person admitted while appeal is pending.

Whenever the director of any facility reasonably believes that treatment is necessary to protect the life, health, or safety of a person, treatment may be given during the period allowed for any appeal unless prohibited by order of a circuit court in the county or city wherein the appeal is pending.

Code 1950, §§ 37-71.2, 37-204.1; 1964, c. 322; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-85; 1972, c. 639; 2005, c. 716.

§ 37.2-823. Examination of admission papers by director; examination of persons admitted.

A. Upon the receipt of any order for admission of any person, the director of the facility shall immediately examine the admission papers and, if they are found to be in substantial compliance with the law, he shall forthwith admit the person to the facility.

B. Any person presented for admission to a facility shall be examined within 24 hours after arrival by one or more of the physicians on the facility's staff. If the examination reveals that there is sufficient cause to believe that the person has mental illness, he shall be retained at the facility; but if the examination reveals insufficient cause, the person shall be returned to the locality in which the petition was initiated or in which the person resides.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations to institute preadmission screening to prevent inappropriate admissions to state facilities.

Code 1950, §§ 37-86.2, 37-90; 1950, pp. 908, 910; 1968, c. 477, §§ 37.1-68, 37.1-70; 1970, c. 673; 1972, c. 639; 1976, c. 671; 1980, c. 582; 2005, c. 716.

§ 37.2-824. Periodic review of all persons for purposes of retention.

The director of a state facility shall conduct a review of the progress of each person admitted to the facility at intervals of 30, 60, and 90 days after admission of the person, and every six months thereafter to determine whether the person should be retained at the state facility. A record shall be kept of the findings of each review in the state facility's file on the person.

1974, c. 66, § 37.1-84.2; 1976, c. 671; 2005, c. 716.

§ 37.2-825. Admission raises no presumption of legal incapacity.

The admission of any person to a facility shall not, of itself, create a presumption of legal incapacity.

1968, c. 477, § 37.1-87; 1997, c. 801; 2005, c. 716.

§ 37.2-826. Disposition of nonresidents.

If it appears that the person examined has a mental illness and is not a resident of the Commonwealth, the same proceedings shall be had with regard to him as if he were a resident of the Commonwealth, and, if he is admitted to a state facility under these proceedings, a statement of the fact of his nonresidence and of the place of his domicile or residence or from where he came, as far as known, shall accompany any petition respecting him. The Commissioner shall, as soon as practicable, cause him to be returned to his family or friends, if known, or the proper authorities of the state or country from which he came, if ascertained and such return is deemed expedient by the Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 37-91; 1950, p. 910; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-91; 1976, c. 671; 2005, c. 716.

§ 37.2-827. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 244, cl. 1, effective July 1, 2021.

§ 37.2-828. Receiving and maintaining federal prisoners in state facilities.

The Commissioner is authorized to enter into a contract with the United States, through the Director of the United States Bureau of Prisons or other authorized agent of the United States, for the reception, maintenance, care, and observation in state facilities, or in those designated by the Commissioner for the purpose, of any persons charged with a crime in the courts of the United States sitting in Virginia and committed by the courts to the state facilities for those purposes. All persons so admitted shall remain subject to the jurisdiction of the court by whom they were committed, and they may be returned to that court at any time for hearing or trial.

Any such contract shall require that the United States remit to the State Treasurer for each prisoner admitted specified per diem or other payments, or both, with such payments fixed by the contract.

The director of any state facility to which a prisoner of the United States is admitted shall observe the person and, as soon as possible, report in writing to the court by which he is certified or committed as to his mental condition or other matters as the court may direct.

No contract made pursuant to this section shall obligate the Commonwealth or the Commissioner to receive a federal prisoner into any state facility in which all available beds are needed for persons otherwise admitted, or in any other case where, in the opinion of the director, the admission of the prisoner would interfere with the care and treatment of other persons admitted or with the proper administration of the state facility.

Code 1950, § 37-98; 1950, p. 913; 1968, c. 477, § 37.1-95; 1972, c. 639; 1980, c. 582; 2005, c. 716.