Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances
Chapter .
12/1/2020

Chapter 1. Creation and Limitation of Estates.

Article 1. Creation and Transfer of Estates.

§ 55.1-100. Aliens may acquire, hold, and transmit real estate; when reciprocity required.

Any alien, not an enemy, may acquire by purchase or descent and hold real estate in the Commonwealth, and such real estate shall be transmitted in the same manner as real estate held by citizens. However, if, at the time of the transfer, a court of the Commonwealth determines that the laws of a foreign country or sovereignty effectively deny a Virginia resident, legatee, or distributee the benefit, use, or control of money or other property held in such foreign country or sovereignty, a judgment or order issued in the Commonwealth concerning the rights of a resident of that foreign country or sovereignty to the benefit, use, or control of money or property held in the Commonwealth may direct that the money or property be paid into the court for the benefit of the alien. The money or property paid into court shall be paid out only upon order of the court or pursuant to the order or judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction. Any of the money or property remaining with the court upon expiration of three years from the decedent's death shall be paid out by the court as if the alien had predeceased the decedent.

Code 1919, § 66; Code 1950, § 55-1; 1993, c. 535; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-101. When deed or will necessary to convey estate; no parol partition or gift valid.

A. No estate of inheritance or freehold in lands shall be conveyed unless by deed or will, and no voluntary partition of lands by coparceners, having such an estate in such land, shall be made except by deed. In addition, no right to a conveyance of any such estate or term in land shall accrue to the donee of the land or those claiming under him, under a gift or promise of gift of such estate or term in land not in writing, even if such gift or promise is followed by possession and improvement of the land by the donee or those claiming under him.

B. Any lease agreement or other written document conveying a non-freehold estate in land, which was entered into before, and which remains in effect as of, February 13, 2019, or which is entered into after February 13, 2019, shall not be invalid, unenforceable, or subject to repudiation by the parties to such agreement on account of, or otherwise affected by, the fact that the conveyance of the estate was not in the form of a deed.

Code 1919, § 5141; Code 1950, § 55-2; 2019, cc. 11, 49, 712.

§ 55.1-102. When gift of personal property invalid.

No gift of any personal property is valid (i) unless conveyed by deed or will or (ii) unless the donee or a person claiming under the donee has and remains in actual possession of such personal property. If the donor and donee reside together at the time of the gift, possession at the place of their residence is not a sufficient possession within the meaning of this section. This section shall not apply to personal paraphernalia used exclusively by the donee.

Code 1919, § 5142; Code 1950, § 55-3; 1973, c. 401; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-103. Suicide or attainder of felony.

Neither suicide nor attainder of felony shall cause a corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Code 1919, § 4762; Code 1950, § 55-4; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-104. Estates to lie in grant as well as in livery.

All real estate shall, as regards the conveyance of the immediate freehold thereof, be deemed to lie in grant as well as in livery.

Code 1919, § 5146; Code 1950, § 55-5; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-105. Same estates may be created by deed as by will.

Any interest in or claim to real estate, including easements in gross, may be transferred by deed or will. Any estate may be made to commence at a future date, by deed, in like manner as by will, and any estate that would be valid as an executory devise or bequest is valid if created by deed.

Code 1919, § 5147; Code 1950, § 55-6; 1962, c. 169; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-106. Power of disposal in life tenant not to defeat remainder unless exercised; power of disposal held by fiduciary.

If any interest in or claim to real estate or personal property is disposed of by deed or will for life, with a limitation in remainder over, and the same instrument confers expressly or by implication a power upon the life tenant in his lifetime or by will to dispose absolutely of such property, the limitation in remainder over shall not fail, or be defeated, except to the extent that the life tenant lawfully exercised such power of disposal. A deed of trust or mortgage executed by the life tenant shall not be construed to be an absolute disposition of the estate, unless such estate is sold under the deed of trust or mortgage. A power of disposal held by any person in a fiduciary capacity under an express trust in writing shall not be deemed to be held by such fiduciary in a beneficial capacity and shall not be construed in any manner to enlarge the beneficial interest otherwise given to him under such trust.

Code 1919, § 5147; Code 1950, § 55-7; 1978, c. 659; 2005, c. 935; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-107. Default or surrender of tenant for life not to prejudice remainderman.

If any tenant for life of land make default or surrender, the heirs or those entitled to the remainder may, before judgment, be admitted to defend their right or, after judgment, may assert their right without prejudice from such default or surrender.

Code 1919, § 5443; Code 1950, § 55-8; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-108. Conveyance of estate or interest in property by grantor to himself and another.

Any person having an estate or interest in real or personal property may convey such estate or interest to himself or to himself and another or others, including to himself and his spouse as tenants by the entirety or otherwise, and the fact that one or more persons are both grantor or grantee or grantors and grantees in the same conveyance shall be no objection to the conveyance. The grantee or grantees in any such conveyance shall take title in like manner, and the estate vested in them shall be the same as if the conveyance had been made by one or more persons who are not also grantee or grantees.

All such conveyances made prior to July 1, 1986, are validated notwithstanding defects in the form thereof that do not affect vested rights.

1945, p. 39; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5147a; Code 1950, § 55-9; 1986, c. 583; 1987, c. 186; 1999, c. 196; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-109. Deed valid for grantor's right; operation of warranty.

A writing that purports to pass or assure a greater right or interest in real estate than the person making it may lawfully pass or assure shall operate as an alienation of such right or interest in such real estate as such person might lawfully convey or assure; and when the deed of the alienor mentions that he and his heirs will warrant what it purports to pass or assure, if anything descends from him, his heirs shall be barred for the value of what is so descended or liable for such value.

Code 1919, § 5148; Code 1950, § 55-10; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-110. Conveyance, devise, or grant without words of limitation.

When any real estate is conveyed, devised, or granted to any person without any words of limitation, such conveyance, devise, or grant shall be construed to pass the fee simple or other whole estate or interest that the testator or grantor has power to dispose of in such real estate, unless a contrary intention is apparent in the conveyance, devise, or grant.

Code 1919, § 5149; Code 1950, § 55-11; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-111. Fee tail converted into fee simple.

Every estate in lands so limited that, as the law was on October 7, 1776, such estate would have been an estate tail shall be deemed an estate in fee simple, and every limitation upon such an estate shall be held valid if the same would be valid when limited upon an estate in fee simple created by technical language.

Code 1919, § 5150; Code 1950, § 55-12; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-112. Estate of freehold to one with remainder to heirs, etc.; rule in Shelley's Case abolished.

Wherever any person by deed, will, or other writing takes an estate of freehold in land, or takes such an interest in personal property as would be an estate of freehold if it were an estate in land, and in the same deed, will, or writing an estate is afterwards limited by way of remainder to his heirs, or the heirs of his body, or his issue, the words "heirs," "heirs of his body," and "issue," or other words of like import used in the deed, will, or writing in the limitation therein by way of remainder shall not be construed as words of limitation carrying to such person the inheritance as to the land, or the absolute estate as to the personal property, but they shall be construed as words of purchase, creating a remainder in the heirs, heirs of the body, or issue.

Code 1919, § 5152; Code 1950, § 55-14; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-113. Doctrine of worthier title abolished.

The doctrine of worthier title is abolished in the Commonwealth as a rule of law and as a rule of construction.

2007, c. 215, § 55-14.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-114. When contingent remainder not to fail.

A contingent remainder shall not fail for want of a particular estate to support it.

Code 1919, § 5153; Code 1950, § 55-15; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-115. When remainders not defeated.

The alienation of a particular estate on which a remainder depends, or the union of such estate with the inheritance by purchase or descent, shall not operate, by merger or otherwise, to defeat, impair, or otherwise affect such remainder.

Code 1919, § 5154; Code 1950, § 55-16; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-116. In what conveyances possession transferred to the use.

By deed of bargain and sale, or by deeds of lease and release, or by covenant to stand seized to the use, or deed operating by way of covenant to stand seized to the use, the possession of the grantor shall be deemed transferred to the grantee or other person entitled to the use, for the estate or interest that such person has in the use, as perfectly as if the grantee or other person entitled to the use had been enfeoffed with livery of seisin of the land intended to be conveyed by such deed or covenant.

Code 1919, § 5155; Code 1950, § 55-17; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-117. Land trusts not to fail because no beneficiaries are specified by name and no duties laid on trustee; when interest of beneficiaries deemed personal property; liens.

No trust relating to real estate shall fail nor shall any use relating to real estate be defeated because no beneficiaries are specified by name in the recorded deed of conveyance to the trustee or because no duties are imposed upon the trustee. The power conferred by any such instrument on a trustee to sell, lease, encumber, or otherwise dispose of property described in such instrument shall be effective, and no person dealing with such a trustee shall be required to make further inquiry as to the right of such trustee to act, nor shall he be required to inquire as to the disposition of any proceeds.

In any case under this section where there is a recorded deed of conveyance to a trustee, the interest of the beneficiaries thereunder shall be deemed to be personal property. Judgments against a beneficiary and consensual liens against real property of a beneficiary do not attach to real property that is the subject of such a deed of conveyance unless the judgment is docketed or the lien recorded in the county or city where the property is located (i) before recordation of the deed creating the land trust and (ii) while the beneficiary has record title to the real property.

In any case under this section where there is a recorded deed of conveyance to a trustee and the trustee named in the deed declines to serve, resigns, is disqualified or removed, or is adjudicated incapacitated and there is (a) no successor trustee named in the deed, (b) no successor trustee designated by the terms of the trust instrument, or (c) no procedure set forth in the deed or trust instrument to designate a successor trustee, the beneficiaries of the trust, by majority decision, shall name a successor trustee. However, if the identities of the beneficiaries of the trust cannot be identified from the recorded deed of conveyance or a majority of the beneficiaries are unable to agree upon a successor trustee, the circuit court of the county or city in which the deed was recorded, upon the motion of any party interested in the administration of the trust, shall appoint a successor trustee whenever the court considers the appointment necessary for the administration of the trust. The name and address of any successor trustee so named or appointed shall be recorded with the clerk of the circuit court of the county or city in which the deed was recorded, and such successor trustee shall succeed to all the rights, powers, and privileges, and shall be subject to all the duties, liabilities, and responsibilities imposed upon, the original trustee unless the deed of conveyance expressly provides to the contrary.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to (1) affect any right that a creditor may otherwise have against a trustee or beneficiary except as provided in this section, (2) enlarge upon the power of a corporation to act as trustee under § 6.2-1001, or (3) affect the rule against perpetuities.

1962, c. 452, § 55-17.1; 1975, c. 375; 1993, c. 454; 2011, c. 661; 2012, c. 558; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-118. Deed of release effectual.

Every deed of release of any estate or interest capable of passing by deed of lease or release shall be as effectual for the purposes expressed in such deed of release, without the execution of a lease, as if the same had been executed.

Code 1919, § 5156; Code 1950, § 55-18; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-119. When person not a party, etc., may take or sue under instrument.

An immediate estate or interest in or the benefit of a condition respecting any estate may be taken by a person under an instrument, although he is not a party to such instrument; and if a covenant or promise is made for the benefit, in whole or in part, of a person with whom it is not made, or with whom it is made jointly with others, such person, whether named in the instrument or not, may maintain in his own name any action thereon that he might maintain as though it had been made with him only and the consideration had moved from him to the party making such covenant or promise. In such action, the covenantor or promisor shall be permitted to make all defenses he may have, not only against the covenantee or promisee, but also against such beneficiary.

Code 1919, § 5143; Code 1950, § 55-22; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-120. Informalities in deeds made by attorneys-in-fact.

If, in a deed made by one as attorney-in-fact for another, the words of conveyance or the signature is in the name of the attorney, it is as much the principal's deed as if the words of conveyance or the signature were in the name of the principal by the attorney, if it is manifest on the face of the deed that it should be construed to be that of the principal to give effect to its intent.

Code 1919, § 5145; Code 1950, § 55-23; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-121. Time for objections to irregularities in advertising sales made by trustees.

All deeds made and executed prior to January 1, 1940, by trustees conveying property sold under deeds of trust in which default was made in the debt secured and as to which irregularities in advertising such sales have occurred shall be held and the same are hereby declared valid in all respects, if otherwise valid according to law then in force, after the expiration of 15 years from the date on which such sale was made by such trustees.

1924, p. 308; Michie Code 1942, § 5827b; Code 1950, § 55-24; 1952, c. 375; 1960, c. 105; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-122. Recovery at death of life tenant of taxes paid on life estate.

When any person dies possessed of a life estate in real estate that was assessed with taxes in the name of such life tenant for the year in which such life tenant dies and such taxes are paid for that year by any person other than the remainderman entitled to such real estate, such person or his estate so paying such taxes shall be entitled to recover from such remainderman such proportionate part of the sum so paid as that part of the year following the death of the life tenant bears to the entire year, provided, however, that if upon the death of the life tenant the real estate shall come into the possession of another life tenant, such recovery shall be had from the subsequent life tenant and not from the remainderman.

1932, p. 331; Michie Code 1942, § 5392a; Code 1950, § 55-25; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-123. Removal of a cloud on title; nature of plaintiff's title.

When a petition is filed to remove a cloud on the title to real estate, relief shall not be denied the complainant because he has only an equitable title to such real estate and is out of possession, but the court shall grant to the complainant such relief as he would be entitled to if he held the legal title and was in possession. If an issue of fact is raised which but for this section would entitle either party to a trial by jury, the court shall, upon the request of the party so entitled, order such issue to be tried by a jury.

Code 1919, § 6248; Code 1950, § 55-153; 2019, c. 712.

Article 2. Rule Against Perpetuities.

§ 55.1-124. Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities.

A. A nonvested property interest is invalid unless:

1. When the interest is created, it is certain to vest or terminate no later than 21 years after the death of an individual then alive; or

2. The interest either vests or terminates within 90 years after its creation.

B. A general power of appointment not presently exercisable because of a condition precedent is invalid unless:

1. When the power is created, the condition precedent is certain to be satisfied or becomes impossible to satisfy no later than 21 years after the death of an individual then alive; or

2. The condition precedent either is satisfied or becomes impossible to satisfy within 90 years after its creation.

C. A nongeneral power of appointment or a general testamentary power of appointment is invalid unless:

1. When the power is created, it is certain to be irrevocably exercised or otherwise to terminate no later than 21 years after the death of an individual then alive; or

2. The power is irrevocably exercised or otherwise terminates within 90 years after its creation.

D. In determining whether a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment is valid under subdivision A 1, B 1, or C 1, the possibility that a child will be born to an individual after the individual's death is disregarded.

E. If, in measuring a period from the creation of a trust or other property arrangement, language in a governing instrument (i) seeks to disallow the vesting or termination of any interest or trust beyond, (ii) seeks to postpone the vesting or termination of any interest or trust until, or (iii) seeks to operate in effect in any similar fashion upon, the later of (a) the expiration of a period of time not exceeding 21 years after the death of the survivor of specified lives in being at the creation of the trust or other property arrangement or (b) the expiration of a period of time that exceeds or might exceed 21 years after the death of the survivor of lives in being at the creation of the trust or other property arrangement, that language is inoperative to the extent it produces a period of time that exceeds 21 years after the death of the survivor of the specified lives.

2000, c. 714, § 55-12.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-125. When nonvested property interest or power of appointment created.

A. Except as provided in subsections B and C and in § 55.1-128, the time of creation of a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment is determined under general principles of property law.

B. For the purposes of §§ 55.1-124 through 55.1-129, if there is a person who alone can exercise a power created by a governing instrument to become the unqualified beneficial owner of (i) a nonvested property interest or (ii) a property interest subject to a power of appointment described in subsection B or C in § 55.1-124, the nonvested property interest or power of appointment is created when the power to become the unqualified beneficial owner terminates.

C. For the purposes of §§ 55.1-124 through 55.1-129, a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment arising from a transfer of property to a previously funded trust or other existing property arrangement is created when the nonvested property interest or power of appointment in the original contribution was created.

2000, c. 714, § 55-12.2; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-126. Reformation.

Upon the petition of an interested person, a circuit court in the county or city in which the affected property or the greater part of such property is located shall reform a disposition in the manner that most closely approximates the transferor's manifested plan of distribution and is within the 90 years allowed by subdivision A 2, B 2, or C 2 of § 55.1-124 if:

1. A nonvested property interest or a power of appointment becomes invalid under § 55.1-124;

2. A class gift is not but might become invalid under § 55.1-124 and the time has arrived when the share of any class member is to take effect in possession or enjoyment; or

3. A nonvested property interest that is not validated by subdivision A 1 of § 55.1-124 can vest but not within 90 years after its creation.

2000, c. 714, § 55-12.3; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-127. Exclusions from statutory rule against perpetuities.

A. Section 55.1-124 does not apply to:

1. A nonvested property interest or a power of appointment arising out of a nondonative transfer, except a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment arising out of (i) a premarital or postmarital agreement; (ii) a separation or divorce settlement; (iii) a spouse's election; (iv) a similar arrangement arising out of a prospective, existing, or previous marital relationship between the parties; (v) a contract to make or not to revoke a will or trust; (vi) a contract to exercise or not to exercise a power of appointment; (vii) a transfer in satisfaction of a duty of support; or (viii) a reciprocal transfer;

2. A fiduciary's power relating to the administration or management of assets, including the power of a fiduciary to sell, lease, or mortgage property, and the power of a fiduciary to determine principal and income;

3. A power to appoint a fiduciary;

4. A discretionary power of trustee to distribute principal before termination of a trust to a beneficiary having an indefensibly vested interest in the income and principal;

5. A nonvested property interest held by a charity, government, or governmental agency or subdivision, if the nonvested property interest is preceded by an interest held by another charity, government, or governmental agency or subdivision;

6. A nonvested property interest in or a power of appointment with respect to a trust or other property arrangement forming part of a pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus, health, disability, death benefit, income deferral, or other current or deferred benefit plan for one or more employees, independent contractors, or their beneficiaries or spouses, to which contributions are made for the purpose of distributing to or for the benefit of the participants or their beneficiaries or spouses the property, income, or principal in the trust or other property arrangement, except a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment that is created by an election of a participant or a beneficiary or spouse;

7. A property interest, power of appointment, or arrangement that was not subject to the common-law rule against perpetuities or is excluded by another statute of the Commonwealth; or

8. A nonvested interest in or power of appointment over personal property held in trust, or a power of appointment over personal property granted under a trust, if the trust instrument, by its terms, provides that § 55.1-124 shall not apply.

B. The exception to the Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities under subdivision A 8 shall not extend to real property held in trust. For purposes of this subsection, real property does not include an interest in a corporation, limited liability company, partnership, business trust, or other entity, even if such entity owns an interest in real property.

2000, c. 714, § 55-12.4; 2013, c. 323; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-128. Prospective application.

Sections 55.1-124 through 55.1-129 apply to a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment that is created on or after July 1, 2000. For purposes of this section, a nonvested property interest or a power of appointment created by the exercise of a power of appointment is created when the power is irrevocably exercised or when a revocable exercise becomes irrevocable.

2000, c. 714, § 55-12.5; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-129. Uniformity of application and construction.

Sections 55.1-124 through 55.1-129 shall be applied and construed to effectuate their general purpose to make the law uniform with respect to the rule against perpetuities among states enacting it.

2000, c. 714, § 55-12.6; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-130. Certain limitations construed.

Every limitation in any deed or will contingent upon the dying of any person without heirs, heirs of the body, issue, issue of the body, children, offspring or descendants, or other relatives shall be construed a limitation to take effect when such person dies not having such heir, issue, child, offspring, descendant, or other relative, as the case may be, living at the time of his death, or born to him within 10 months after his death, unless the intention of such limitation be otherwise plainly declared on the face of the deed or will creating it.

Code 1919, § 5151; Code 1950, § 55-13; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-131. Employee trusts.

Pension, profit sharing, stock bonus, annuity, or other employee trusts established by employers for the purpose of distributing the income and principal of such trust to some or all of their employees, or the beneficiaries of such employees, shall not be invalid as violating any laws or rules against perpetuities or restraints on the power of alienation of title to property; but such trusts may continue for such period of time as may be required by their provisions to accomplish the purposes for which they are established.

1950, p. 740, § 55-13.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-132. Determination of "lives in being" for purpose of rule against perpetuities.

A. For the purpose of determining whether the terms of an inter vivos trust provide for a duration in excess of that allowed under the rule against perpetuities, the determination of "lives in being" shall be made as of the death of the settlor, if the settlor has at his death the unrestricted right, acting alone, to revoke the trust or to have transferred to himself the entire legal and beneficial interest in all property, both principal and income, held in the trust. In the event that the settlor surrenders both such rights at any time prior to his death, the determination of "lives in being" shall be made as of the time that the settlor, upon establishment of the trust or otherwise, surrenders the unrestricted right acting alone to revoke the trust and the unrestricted right acting alone to have transferred to himself the entire legal and beneficial interest in all property, both principal and income, held in the trust.

B. This section shall apply only to a nonvested property interest in an inter vivos trust created before July 1, 2000.

1966, c. 260, § 55-13.2; 2000, c. 714; 2019, c. 712

§ 55.1-133. Application of the rule against perpetuities to nondonative transfers.

A. Except for the transactions set forth in § 55.1-127, which are governed by the provisions of §§ 55.1-124 through 55.1-129, a nondonative transfer of an interest in property fails, if the interest does not vest, if it ever vests, within the period of the common-law rule against perpetuities.

B. The provisions of this section (i) in force on June 30, 2000, shall apply to all donative interests created on or after July 1, 1982, and before July 1, 2000, and (ii) in force on July 1, 2000, shall apply to all nondonative interests created on or after July 1, 1982.

1982, c. 249, § 55-13.3; 2000, cc. 658, 714; 2013, c. 323; 2019, c. 712.

Article 3. Joint Ownership of Real or Personal Property.

§ 55.1-134. Survivorship between joint tenants abolished.

A. When any joint tenant dies, before or after the vesting of the estate, whether the estate is real or personal, or whether partition could have been compelled or not, his part shall descend to his heirs, pass by devise, or go to his personal representative, subject to debts or distribution, as if he had been a tenant in common.

B. This section shall not apply to any estate that joint tenants have as fiduciaries or to any real or personal property transferred to persons in their own right when it manifestly appears from the tenor of the instrument transferring such property or memorializing the existence of a chose in action that it was intended the part of the one dying should then belong to the others. This section does not affect the mode of proceeding on any joint judgment or order in favor of or on any contract with two or more one of whom dies.

Code 1919, §§ 5159, 5160; Code 1950, §§ 55-20, 55-21; 1990, c. 831; 1999, c. 196; 2001, c. 718; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-135. Joint ownership in real and personal property.

Any persons may own real or personal property as joint tenants with or without a right of survivorship. When any person causes any real or personal property, or any written memorial of a chose in action, to be titled, registered, or endorsed in the name of two or more persons "jointly," as "joint tenants," in a "joint tenancy," or other similar language, such persons shall own the property in a joint tenancy without survivorship as provided in § 55.1-134. If, in addition, the expression "with survivorship," or any equivalent language, is employed in such titling, registering, or endorsing, it shall be presumed that such persons are intended to own the property as joint tenants with the right of survivorship as at common law. This section is not applicable to multiple party accounts under Article 2 (§ 6.2-604 et seq.) of Chapter 6 of Title 6.2 or to any other matter specifically governed by another provision of the Code.

If any real or personal property is conveyed or devised to spouses, they shall take and hold such property by moieties in the same manner as if a distinct moiety had been given to each spouse by a separate conveyance, unless language as provided in this section or in § 55.1-136 is used that designates the tenancy as a joint tenancy or a tenancy by the entirety and all requirements for holding property by such tenancy are met.

Code 1919, § 5160; Code 1950, § 55-21; 1999, c. 196, § 55-20.1; 2000, c. 331; 2001, c. 718; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-136. Tenants by the entirety in real and personal property; certain trusts.

A. Spouses may own real or personal property as tenants by the entirety for as long as they are married. Personal property may be owned as tenants by the entirety whether or not the personal property represents the proceeds of the sale of real property. An intent that the part of the one dying should belong to the other shall be manifest from a designation of the spouses as "tenants by the entireties" or "tenants by the entirety."

B. Except as otherwise provided by statute, no interest in real property held as tenants by the entirety shall be severed by written instrument unless the instrument is a deed signed by both spouses as grantors.

C. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of § 64.2-747, any property of spouses that is held by them as tenants by the entirety and conveyed to their joint revocable or irrevocable trusts, or to their separate revocable or irrevocable trusts, and any proceeds of the sale or disposition of such property, shall have the same immunity from the claims of their separate creditors as it would if it had remained a tenancy by the entirety, so long as (i) they remain married to each other, (ii) it continues to be held in the trust or trusts, and (iii) it continues to be their property, including where both spouses are current beneficiaries of one trust that holds the entire property or each spouse is a current beneficiary of a separate trust and the two separate trusts together hold the entire property, whether or not other persons are also current or future beneficiaries of the trust or trusts. The immunity from the claims of separate creditors under this subsection may be waived as to any specific creditor, including any separate creditor of either spouse, or any specifically described property, including any former tenancy by the entirety property conveyed into trust, by the trustee acting under the express provision of a trust instrument or with the written consent of both spouses.

2001, c. 718, § 55-20.2; 2006, c. 281; 2015, c. 424; 2017, c. 38; 2019, c. 712.

Article 4. Virginia Solar Easements Act.

§ 55.1-137. Creation of solar easements.

Any easement obtained for the purpose of exposure of solar energy equipment, facilities, or devices shall be created in writing and shall be subject to the same conveyancing and instrument recording requirements as other easements.

1978, c. 323, § 55-353; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-138. Contents of solar easement agreements.

Any instrument creating a solar easement shall include, at a minimum:

1. The vertical and horizontal angles, expressed in degrees, at which the solar easement extends over the real property subject to the solar easement;

2. Any terms or conditions under which the solar easement is granted or will be terminated; and

3. Any provisions for compensation of the owner of the property subject to the solar easement.

1978, c. 323, § 55-354; 2019, c. 712.

Chapter 2. Property Rights of Married Persons.

§ 55.1-200. How married persons may acquire and dispose of property.

Married persons shall have the right to acquire, hold, use, control, and dispose of property as if they were unmarried. Such power of use, control, and disposition shall apply to all property of a married person. The marital rights of persons married to each other shall not entitle either spouse to the possession or use, or to the rents, issues, and profits, of such real estate of the other spouse during the coverture, nor shall the property of either spouse be subject to the debts or liabilities of the other spouse.

Code 1919, § 5134; 1932, p. 21; Code 1950, § 55-35; 1990, c. 831; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-201. Contracts of, and actions by and against, married persons.

A married person may contract and be contracted with and sue and be sued in the same manner and with the same consequences as if he were unmarried, regardless of the date on which the right or liability asserted by or against him accrued. In an action by a married person to recover for a personal injury inflicted on him, he may recover the entire damage sustained, including the personal injury and expenses arising out of the injury, whether chargeable to him or his spouse, notwithstanding that the spouse may be entitled to the benefit of his services about domestic affairs and consortium, and any sum recovered therein shall be chargeable with expenses arising out of the injury, including hospital, medical, and funeral expenses, and any person, including the spouse, partially or completely discharging such debts shall be reimbursed out of the sum recovered in the action, whensoever paid, to the extent that such payment was justified by services rendered or expenses incurred by the obligee, provided that written notice of such claim for reimbursement, and the amount and items thereof, shall be served on such married person and on the defendant prior to any settlement of the sum recovered by him, and no action for such injury, expenses, or loss of services or consortium shall be maintained by his spouse.

Code 1919, § 5134; 1932, p. 21; Code 1950, § 55-36; 1950, p. 460; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-202. Spouse not responsible for other spouse's contracts, etc.; mutual liability for necessaries; responsibility of personal representative.

Except as otherwise provided in this section, a spouse shall not be responsible for the other spouse's contract or tort liability to a third party, whether such liability arose before or after the marriage. The doctrine of necessaries as it existed at common law shall apply equally to both spouses, except where they are permanently living separate and apart, but shall in no event create any liability between such spouses as to each other. No lien arising out of a judgment under this section shall attach to the judgment debtors' principal residence held by them as tenants by the entirety or that was held by them as tenants by the entirety prior to the death of either spouse where the tenancy terminated as a result of the death of either spouse.

Code 1919, § 5134; 1932, p. 22; Code 1950, § 55-37; 1984, c. 504; 1985, c. 202; 2012, c. 45; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-203. Spouse's right of entry into land not barred by certain judgments; when a spouse may defend his right in lands that are his inheritance.

A spouse shall not be barred of his right of entry into land by a judgment in the other spouse's lifetime by default or collusion, but after the other spouse's death may prosecute the same by any proper action; or, in the lifetime of the other spouse, if the other spouse will not appear or, against the spouse's consent, will render the spouse's lands during the coverture in an action against both spouses for lands that are the spouse's inheritance, the spouse may come at any time before judgment and defend his right.

Code 1919, § 5441; Code 1950, § 55-38; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-204. Rights of spouse not affected by other spouse's acts only.

No conveyance or other act by one spouse only of any land that is the inheritance of the other spouse shall be or make any discontinuance thereof, or be prejudicial to the other spouse or his heirs or to any having right or title to the same by his death, but they may respectively enter into such land, according to their right and title in such land, as if no such conveyance or act had been done.

Code 1919, § 5442; Code 1950, § 55-39; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-205. Conveyance from married persons; effect on right of either spouse.

When persons married to each other have signed and delivered a writing purporting to convey any estate, real or personal, such writing, whether recorded or not, shall (i) if delivered prior to January 1, 1991, operate to convey from the spouse her right of dower or his right of curtesy in the real estate embraced in such writing and (ii) if delivered after December 31, 1990, operate to manifest the spouse's written consent or joinder, as contemplated in § 64.2-305 or 64.2-308.9 to the transfer embraced in such writing. In either case, the writing passes from such spouse and his representatives all right, title, and interest of every nature that at the date of such writing he may have in any estate conveyed thereby as effectually as if he were at such date an unmarried person. If, in either case, the writing is a deed conveying a spouse's land, no covenant or warranty in such land on behalf of the other spouse joining in the deed shall operate to bind him any further than to convey his interest in such land, unless it is expressly stated that such spouse enters into such covenant or warranty for the purpose of binding himself personally.

Code 1919, § 5211; Code 1950, § 55-41; 1977, c. 147; 1990, c. 831; 1991, c. 625; 1992, cc. 617, 647; 2016, cc. 187, 269; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-206. How infant spouse may release interests in spouse's property.

Notwithstanding the disability of infancy, on or after January 1, 1991, an infant spouse, whether married before or after January 1, 1991, may release his marital rights in the other spouse's real or personal property by uniting in any contract, deed, or other instrument executed by the other spouse or by a commissioner of a court pursuant to an order entered under §§ 8.01-67 through 8.01-77 or any other law with respect to the infant's property.

1992, cc. 617, 647, § 55-42.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-207. Appointment of attorney-in-fact by married person; effect of writing executed by such attorney.

A married person, whether a resident of the Commonwealth or not, may, by power of attorney duly executed and acknowledged as prescribed in § 55.1-612 or 55.1-613, appoint an attorney-in-fact to execute and acknowledge, for him and in his name, any deed or other writing that he might execute. Every deed or other writing so executed by such attorney-in-fact in pursuance of such power of attorney while the same remains in force shall be valid and effectual, in all respects, to convey the interest and title of such married person in and to any real estate thereby conveyed or otherwise transferred.

Code 1919, § 5215; 1940, p. 53; Code 1950, § 55-43; 1990, c. 831; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-208. How estate of a married person to pass at death.

When a married person, having title to any estate, dies intestate, such estate, or any part of such estate, shall pass according to the provisions of Chapter 2 (§ 64.2-200 et seq.) of Title 64.2, subject to his debts.

Code 1919, § 5138; Code 1950, § 55-46; 1990, c. 831; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-209. Equitable separate estates abolished.

The estate known as the equitable separate estate no longer exists and any language in any writing, whenever executed, that purports to convey real property to a person as an equitable separate estate has no legal or equitable significance after January 1, 1991, except as provided in § 64.2-301 or 64.2-308.2.

1992, cc. 617, 647, § 55-47.01; 2016, cc. 187, 269; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-210. Tangible personal property.

No presumption of ownership of tangible personal property shall arise by operation of law to prefer one spouse of a marriage over the other if such presumption is based solely on the sex of the spouse.

1977, c. 76, § 55-47.1; 2019, c. 712.

Chapter 3. Form and Effect of Deeds and Covenants; Liens.

Article 1. Form and Effect of Deeds; Easements.

§ 55.1-300. Form of a deed.

Every deed and corrected or amended deed may be made in the following form, or to the same effect: "This deed, made the ______ day of ______, in the year ____, between (here insert names of parties as grantors or grantees), witnesseth: that in consideration of (here state the consideration, nominal or actual), the said ________ does (or do) grant (or grant and convey) unto the said ________, all (here describe the property or interest therein to be conveyed, including the name of the city or county in which the property is located, and insert covenants or any other provisions). Witness the following signature (or signatures)."

No deed recorded on or after July 1, 2020, shall contain a reference to the specific portion of a restrictive covenant purporting to restrict the ownership or use of the property as prohibited by subsection A of § 36-96.6. The clerk may refuse to accept any deed submitted for recordation that references the specific portion of any such restrictive covenant. The attorney who prepares or submits a deed for recordation has the responsibility of ensuring that the specific portion of such a restrictive covenant is not specifically referenced in the deed prior to such deed being submitted for recordation. A deed may include a general provision that states that such deed is subject to any and all covenants and restrictions of record; however, such provision shall not apply to the specific portion of a restrictive covenant purporting to restrict the ownership or use of the property as prohibited by subsection A of § 36-96.6. Any deed that is recorded in the land records on or after July 1, 2020, that mistakenly contains such a restrictive covenant shall nevertheless constitute a valid transfer of real property.

Code 1919, § 5162; Code 1950, § 55-48; 1990, cc. 208, 374; 2011, c. 701; 2014, c. 338; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 748.

§ 55.1-300.1. Certificate of Release of Certain Prohibited Covenants.

Any restrictive covenant prohibited by subsection A of § 36-96.6 may be released by the owner of real property subject to such covenant by recording a Certificate of Release of Certain Prohibited Covenants. The real property owner may record such certificate (i) prior to recordation of a deed conveying real property to a purchaser or (ii) when such real property owner discovers that such prohibited covenant exists and chooses to affirmatively release the same. Such certificate may be prepared without assistance of an attorney, but shall conform substantially to the following Certificate of Release of Certain Prohibited Covenants form:

"CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OF CERTAIN PROHIBITED COVENANTS

Place of Record: ________

Date of Instrument containing prohibited covenant(s): ____

Instrument Type: __________

Deed Book ____ Page ___ or Plat Book ____ Page___

Name(s) of Grantor(s): ________

Name(s) of Current Owner(s): ________

Real Property Description: ________

Brief Description of Prohibited Covenant: ________

The covenant contained in the above-mentioned instrument is released from the above-described real property to the extent that it contains terms purporting to restrict the ownership or use of the property as prohibited by subsection A of § 36-96.6.

The undersigned is/are the legal owner(s) of the property described herein.

Given under my/our hand(s) this ____ day of ____ , 20__.

________

________

(Current Owners)

Commonwealth of Virginia,

County/City of ______ to wit:

Subscribed, sworn to, and acknowledged before me by ______ this ____ day of ____, 20__.

My Commission Expires: ______

________

NOTARY PUBLIC

Notary Registration Number: ______

The clerk shall satisfy the requirements of § 17.1-228."

2020, c. 748.

§ 55.1-301. How construed.

Unless the deed provides otherwise, any deed conveying land shall be construed to include all the estate, right, title, and interest, both at law and in equity, of the grantor in or to such land.

Code 1919, § 5163; Code 1950, § 55-49; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-302. Construction of generic terms.

In the interpretation of deeds, adopted persons and persons born out of wedlock are included in class gift terminology or terms of relationship in accordance with rules for determining relationships for purposes of intestate succession unless a contrary intent appears on the face of the deed. In determining the intent of a grantor, adopted persons are presumptively included in such terms as "children," "issue," "kindred," "heirs," "relatives," "descendants," or similar words of classification and are presumptively excluded by such terms as "natural children," "issue of the body," "blood kindred," "heirs of the body," "blood relatives," "descendants of the body," or similar words of classification.

1987, c. 604, § 55-49.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-303. Appurtenances, etc., included in deed of land.

Every deed conveying land shall be construed to include all buildings, privileges, and appurtenances of every kind belonging to such land unless an exception is made in the deed.

Code 1919, § 5168; Code 1950, § 55-50; 1992, c. 373; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-304. Relocation of easement.

The owner of land that is subject to an easement for the purpose of ingress and egress may relocate the easement, on the servient estate, by recording in the office of the clerk of the circuit court of the county or city in which the easement or any part of such easement is located, a written agreement evidencing the consent of all affected persons and setting forth the new location of the easement. In the absence of such written agreement, the owner of the land that is subject to such easement may seek relocation of the easement on the servient estate upon petition to the circuit court and notice to all parties in interest. The petition shall be granted if, after a hearing held, the court finds that (i) the relocation will not result in economic damage to the parties in interest, (ii) there will be no undue hardship created by the relocation, and (iii) the easement has been in existence for not less than 10 years.

Code 1919, § 5168; Code 1950, § 55-50; 1992, c. 373; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-305. Enjoyment of easement.

Unless otherwise provided for in the terms of an easement, the owner of a dominant estate shall not use an easement in a way that is not reasonably consistent with the uses contemplated by the grant of the easement, and the owner of the servient estate shall not engage in an activity or cause to be present any objects either upon the burdened land or immediately adjacent to such land that unreasonably interferes with the enjoyment of the easement by the owner of the dominant estate. For the purposes of this section, "object" does not include any fence, electric fence, cattle guard, gate, or division fence adjacent to such easement as those terms are defined in §§ 55.1-2800 through 55.1-2826. Any violation of this section may be deemed a private nuisance, provided, however, that the remedy for a violation of this section shall not in any manner impair the right to any other relief that may be applicable at law or in equity.

2003, c. 774, § 55-50.1; 2007, c. 931; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-306. Utility easements.

A. For the purposes of this section, "utility services" means any products, services, and equipment related to energy, broadband and other communications services, water, and sewerage.

B. Where an easement, whether appurtenant or gross, is expressly granted by an instrument recorded on or after July 1, 2006, that imposes on a servient tract of land a covenant (i) to provide an easement in the future for the benefit of utility services; (ii) to relocate, construct, or maintain facilities owned by an entity that provides utility services; or (iii) to pay the cost of such relocation, construction, or maintenance, such covenant shall be deemed for all purposes to touch and concern the servient tract, to run with the servient tract, its successors, and assigns for the benefit of the entity providing utility services, its successors, and assigns.

2006, c. 795, § 55-50.2; 2019, c. 712; 2020, cc. 1131, 1132.

§ 55.1-306.1. Utility easements; expansion of broadband.

A. As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires:

"Claim" means, in reference to litigation brought against an indemnified party, any demand, claim, cause or right of action, judgment, settlement, payment, provision of a consent decree or a consent decree, damages, attorneys fees, costs, expenses, and any other losses of any kind whatsoever associated with litigation.

"Communications provider" means a broadband or other communications service provider, including a public utility as defined in § 56-265.1, a cable operator as defined in § 15.2-2108.1:1, a local exchange carrier, competitive or incumbent, or a subsidiary or affiliate of any such entity.

"Easement" means an existing or future occupied electric distribution or communications easement with right of apportionment, including a prescriptive easement, except that "easement" does not include (i) easements that contain electric substations or other installations or facilities of a nonlinear character and (ii) electric transmission easements.

"Enterprise data center operations" has the same meaning as provided in § 58.1-422.2.

"Evidence of creditworthiness" means commercially reasonable assurance, in a form satisfactory to the incumbent utility, that the communications provider will be able to meet its obligations to indemnify as required by this section. Demonstrating that the communications provider has met the eligibility requirements for the Virginia Telecommunications Initiative (VATI), without regard to receipt of a VATI grant, pursuant to regulations or guidelines adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development, shall be presumptive evidence of creditworthiness.

"Incumbent utility" means the entity that is the owner of the easement.

"Indemnified parties" means an incumbent utility, or any subsidiary or affiliate of any such entity, and the employees, attorneys, officers, agents, directors, representatives, or contractors of any such entity.

"Occupancy license agreement" means an uncompensated agreement between an incumbent utility and a communications provider, for use when the communications provider wishes to occupy an easement underground, that includes evidence of creditworthiness, nondiscriminatory provisions based on safety, reliability, and generally applicable engineering principles.

"Prescriptive easement" means an easement in favor of an incumbent utility or communications provider that is deemed to exist, without any requirement of adverse possession, claim of right, or exclusivity, when physical evidence, records of the incumbent utility, public records, or other evidence indicates that it has existed on the servient estate for a continuous period of 20 years or more, without intervening litigation during such period by any party with a title interest seeking the removal of utility facilities or reformation of the easement. The size of such easement shall be deemed to be the greater of the actual occupancy of the easement in the incumbent utility's usual course of business or 7.5 feet on each side of the installed facilities' center-line.

"Public utility" has the same meaning as provided in § 56-265.1.

"Sensitive site" means an underlying servient estate that is occupied by a railroad or an owner or tenant having operations related to national defense, national security, or law-enforcement purposes.

B. It is the policy of the Commonwealth that:

1. Easements for the location and use of electric and communications facilities may be used to provide or expand broadband or other communications services;

2. The use of easements, appurtenant or gross, to provide or expand broadband or other communications services is in the public interest;

3. The installation, replacement, or use of public utility conduit, including the costs of installation, replacement, or use of conduit of a sufficient size to accommodate the installation of infrastructure to provide or expand broadband or other communications services, is in the public interest.

4. The use of easements, appurtenant or gross, to provide or expand broadband or other communications services (i) does not constitute a change in the physical use of the easement, (ii) does not interfere with, impair, or take any vested or other rights of the owner or occupant of the servient estate, (iii) does not place any additional burden on the servient estate other than a de minimis burden, if any; and (iv) has value to the owner or occupant of the servient estate greater than any de minimis impact;

5. The installation and operation of broadband or other communications services within easements, appurtenant or gross, are merely changes in the manner, purpose, or degree of the granted use as appropriate to accommodate a new technology; and

6. The statements in this subsection are intended to provide guidance to courts, agencies, and political subdivisions of the Commonwealth. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to make the use of an easement for broadband or other communications services, whether appurtenant, in gross, common, exclusive, or nonexclusive, a public use for the purposes of § 1-219.1, or other applicable law.

C. The installation and operation of broadband or other communications services by an incumbent utility for that utility's own internal use, adjunctive to the operation of the electric system, or for the purposes of electric safety, reliability, energy management, and electric grid modernization, are permitted uses within the scope of every easement.

D. Absent any express prohibition on the installation and operation of broadband or other communications services in an easement that is contained in a deed or other instrument by which the easement was granted, the installation and operation of broadband or other communications services within any easement shall be deemed, as a matter of law, to be a permitted use within the scope of every easement for the location and use of electric and communications facilities.

E. Subject to compliance with any express prohibitions in a written easement, any incumbent utility or communications provider may use an easement to install, construct, provide, maintain, modify, lease, operate, repair, replace, or remove its communications equipment, system, or facilities, and provide communications services through the same, without such incumbent utility or communications provider paying additional compensation to the owner or occupant of the servient estate or to the incumbent utility, provided that no additional utility poles are installed.

F. Nothing in this section shall diminish a landowner's right to contest, in a court of competent jurisdiction, the nature or existence of a prescriptive easement that has been continuously occupied for less than 20 years.

G. Any incumbent utility or communications provider may use a prescriptive easement to install, construct, provide, maintain, modify, lease, operate, repair, replace, or remove its communications equipment, system, or facilities, and provide communications services through the same, without such incumbent utility or communications provider paying additional compensation to the owner or occupant of the servient estate or to the incumbent utility, provided that no additional utility poles are installed.

H. Any incumbent utility may grant or apportion to any communications provider rights to install, construct, provide, maintain, modify, lease, operate, repair, replace, or remove its communications equipment, system, or facilities, and to provide communications services through the incumbent utility's prescriptive easement, including the right to enter upon such easement without approval of the owner or occupant of the servient estate, such grant and use being in the public interest and within the scope of the property interests acquired by the incumbent utility when the prescriptive easement was established.

I. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any action for trespass, or any claim sounding in trespass or reasonably related thereto, whatever the theory of recovery, relating to real property that is brought after July 1, 2020, against an incumbent utility or a communications provider, in relation to the existence, installation, construction, maintenance, modification, operation, repair, replacement, or removal of any poles, wires, conduit, or other communications infrastructure, including fiber optic or coaxial cabling or the existence of any easement, appurtenant or gross, including a prescriptive easement, if proven, damages recoverable by any claimant bringing such claim shall be limited to actual damages only, and no consequential, special, or punitive damages shall be awarded. Damages shall be based on any reduction in the value of the land as a result of the existence, installation, construction, maintenance, modification, operation, repair, replacement, or removal of communications facilities, as such tract existed at the time that any alleged trespass began giving rise to such claim under this section. The court shall also consider any positive value that access to broadband or other communications services may add to the property's value when calculating damages. Injunctive relief to require the removal or to enjoin the operation of other communications facilities or infrastructure shall not be available when such line or facilities are placed within an existing electric utility or communications easement, appurtenant or gross, but damages as set forth in this subsection shall be the exclusive remedy.

J. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit any liability for personal injury or damage to tangible personal property of the landowner or occupant caused directly by the activities of the incumbent utility or communications provider while on or adjacent to the landowner's or occupant's real property.

K. Any communications provider making use of an easement pursuant to this section shall:

1. Enter into an agreement with the incumbent utility authorizing it to use an easement;

2. Adhere to such restrictions as the incumbent utility may place on the communications provider, provided that such restrictions are reasonably related to safety, reliability, or generally applicable engineering principles and are applied on a nondiscriminatory basis;

3. For underground facilities, enter into an occupancy license agreement with the incumbent utility;

4. Agree in writing to indemnify, defend, and hold harmless the indemnified parties as against any third party for any claim, including claims of trespass, arising out of its entry onto, use of, or occupancy of such easement and provide evidence of creditworthiness, as the incumbent utility may prescribe, provided that the communications provider is given timely written notice and full cooperation of the indemnified parties in defending or settling any claim, including access to records and personnel to establish the existence of an easement and its history of use by the incumbent utility, and further provided that every communications provider occupying an easement that is the subject of a claim shall be jointly and severally liable to the indemnified parties, with an obligation of equal contribution, for any claim arising out of entry onto, use of, or occupancy of an easement for communications purposes; and

5. For underground facilities, abide by the provisions of the Underground Utility Damage Prevention Act (§ 56-265.14 et seq.).

L. A communications provider, making use of an easement pursuant to this section, shall not:

1. Locate a telecommunications tower in such easement; or

2. Install any new underground facilities except pursuant to an occupancy license agreement (i) in an incumbent utility's conduit pursuant to a joint use agreement; (ii) where incumbent utility facilities are permitted underground, using a clean-cutting direct burial technique beneath the surface soil no more than 24 inches in depth and six inches in width; or (iii) riser or drop lines or equipment connection lines, followed in all cases by reasonable restoration of the surface to substantially its prior condition, provided that the landowner shall not, absent an agreement to the contrary, be responsible for relocating or reimbursing the incumbent utility or a communications provider for the cost of relocating any new underground communications facilities installed pursuant to clause (ii) of this subdivision, which relocation and associated costs shall be addressed in the occupancy license agreement. This limitation on reimbursement or payment of relocation costs incurred as a result of development or redevelopment by the landowner shall not apply to any communications facilities in the public rights of way adjacent to or overlying the real property in question.

M. As against a communications provider, no incumbent utility shall:

1. Solely by virtue of the provisions of this section, require any additional compensation for use of an easement, unless such compensation is required expressly in a written easement or other agreement;

2. Unreasonably refuse to grant an occupancy license agreement to any communications provider;

3. Include in an occupancy license agreement requirements for title reports, surveys, or engineering drawings; or

4. Use an occupancy license agreement for dilatory purposes or to create a barrier to the deployment of broadband or other communications services.

N. Nothing in this section shall apply to those easements located on sensitive sites or housing enterprise data center operations.

O. Notwithstanding any provision of this section, a public utility or an incumbent utility may assess fees and charges and impose reasonable conditions on the use of its poles, conduits, facilities, and infrastructure, which, as regarding attachments to utility poles, shall be subject to the provisions of 47 U.S.C. § 224 for investor-owned utilities and to § 56-466.1 for electric cooperatives. The statutes of repose, limitation, and notice-of-claim requirements contained in subsections R, S, and T shall not apply as being between a communications provider and an incumbent utility.

P. Nothing in this section shall be construed to inhibit, diminish, or modify the application of the provisions of Chapter 4 (§ 56-76 et seq.) of Title 56 or § 56-231.34:1 or 56-231.50:1, as applicable.

Q. The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed. An agreement to indemnify pursuant to this section shall not be void as against public policy.

R. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, every action against an incumbent utility, public utility, or communications provider, or a subsidiary or affiliate of any such entity, in relation to the existence, installation, construction, maintenance, modification, operation, repair, replacement, or removal of any poles, wires, or other communications infrastructure, including fiber optic or coaxial cabling, whatever the theory of recovery, shall be brought within 12 months after the cause of action accrues. The cause of action shall be deemed to accrue when overhead broadband or other communications infrastructure is installed or when such underground infrastructure is discovered.

S. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, every action against an incumbent utility, public utility, or a communications provider, or a subsidiary or affiliate of any such entity, after actual notice has been given to the landowner or occupant in relation to the existence, installation, construction, maintenance, modification, operation, repair, replacement, or removal of any poles, wires, or other communications infrastructure, including fiber optic or coaxial cabling, overhead or underground, whatever the theory of recovery, shall be brought within six months after the cause of action accrues. The cause of action shall be deemed to accrue when actual notice, including notification of such six-month limitation period, is given to the landowner or occupant by first class mail to the last known mailing address of the landowner or occupant in the incumbent utility's records, or other actual notice.

T. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, every claim cognizable against any incumbent utility, public utility, or communications provider for trespass, or any claim sounding in trespass or reasonably related thereto, whatever the theory of recovery, in relation to the overhead or underground existence, installation, construction, maintenance, modification, operation, repair, replacement, or removal of any poles, wires, or other communications infrastructure, including fiber optic or coaxial cabling, shall be forever barred unless the claimant or his agent, attorney, or representative has filed a written statement addressed to the incumbent utility, and, if known, to the communications provider, of the nature of the claim, which includes the time and place at which the claim is alleged to have transpired, within 12 months after such cause of action accrued. The cause of action shall be deemed to accrue when physical overhead broadband or other communications infrastructure is installed, or when the existence of such underground infrastructure is discovered. However, if the claimant was under a disability at the time the cause of action accrued, the tolling provisions of § 8.01-229 shall apply.

2020, cc. 1131, 1132.

§ 55.1-307. Public road easements; maintenance and improvements.

Whenever a public road that has never been abandoned but is no longer publicly maintained serves as access for more than one property owner and operates as the primary source of ingress and egress for that property, any one of the property owners may maintain, repair, or improve the road at his own expense without the express permission of the other property owners but only after administrative review by the local government. All other property owners shall be notified by mail of any pending maintenance, repair, or improvements prior to commencement of the work. Nothing in this section shall be construed as allowing the property owner who is doing the maintenance, repairs, or improvements to the road to interfere with the other property owners' use of the road for ingress and egress.

2008, c. 599, § 55-50.3; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-308. Private roads; public use; maintenance and improvements.

Notwithstanding any provision of a recorded deed or plat to the contrary, a private road serving a subdivision of 50 or fewer lots may be dedicated for public use and may be taken into the secondary state highway system, subject to the provisions and requirements set forth in §§ 33.2-335 and 33.2-336, if the owner of the fee interest in such private road obtains the written consent of every lot owner in the subdivision whose lot is served by the private road and the holder of any restrictive covenant or easement rights over and concerning the private road prior to making such dedication and before requirements for acceptance of the road into the secondary state highway system are met. Such consent shall be recorded in the land records of the clerk's office of the circuit court of the county in which the private road is located.

2015, c. 495, § 55-50.4; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-309. Deeds good between parties.

Any deed, or a part of a deed, that fails to take effect by virtue of this chapter shall, nevertheless, be as valid and effectual and as binding upon the parties, so far as the rules of law and equity permit, as if this chapter had not been enacted.

Code 1919, § 5169; Code 1950, § 55-51; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-310. Conveyance of property not owned but subsequently acquired.

When a deed purports to convey property, real or personal, describing it with reasonable certainty, that the grantor does not own at the time of the execution of the deed, but subsequently acquires, such deed shall, as between the parties, have the same effect as if the title that the grantor subsequently acquires were vested in him at the time of the execution of such deed and thereby conveyed.

Code 1919, § 5202; Code 1950, § 55-52; 1958, c. 424; 1990, c. 831; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-311. Vendor's equitable lien abolished.

If any person conveys any real estate and the purchase money or any part thereof remains unpaid at the time of the conveyance, he shall not thereby have a lien for such unpaid purchase money, unless such lien is expressly reserved on the face of the conveyance.

Code 1919, § 5183; Code 1950, § 55-53; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-312. Certain deeds to county real estate validated.

All deeds executed prior to January 1, 1920, by a county commissioner, county commissioners, or a board of supervisors that convey any part of the real estate previously acquired by such county for county purposes are hereby validated and declared to have effectually passed the title to the part so conveyed even though the conveyance thereof reduced the real estate of the county to an area less than the county was required by law to own at the time of such conveyance.

1934, p. 228; Michie Code 1942, § 5183a; Code 1950, § 55-54; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-313. Validation of sales, etc., by county courts prior to 1860.

All sales or leases made prior to the year 1860 by the county court, or court of monthly session, of any county of any land or building then owned by such county and situated within the limits of land previously acquired by such county as a site for its courthouse and other public buildings, when the consideration therefor has been fully paid and the purchaser, or lessee as the case may be, and those claiming through or under him, shall have held continuous possession of such land or building from January 1, 1860, until January 1, 1934, are hereby validated and declared to be forever binding upon such county.

1934, p. 311; Michie Code 1942, § 5183b; Code 1950, § 55-55; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-314. Deeds and writings executed for persons in military service, etc., under defective powers.

All deeds or other writings executed by an agent or attorney-in-fact for a person in the armed forces or military service of the United States, or for a person who after executing a power of attorney or agency agreement entered the armed forces or military service of the United States, or for a person who departed from the United States by permission or direction of any department or official of the United States in connection with work relating to the prosecution of the war, when the power of attorney or agency agreement under which the deed or other instrument was signed was not executed in such a manner as to be valid as a sealed instrument, shall be held, and the same are hereby declared, valid and effective in all respects if otherwise valid according to the law then in force.

The provisions of this section shall not operate to affect adversely intervening vested rights.

1946, p. 190; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5145a; Code 1950, § 55-56; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-315. Effect of option; recording.

A. Any option to purchase real estate, and any memorandum, renewal, or extension of such option, shall be void as to (i) all purchasers for valuable consideration without notice who are not parties to such instrument and (ii) lien creditors, until such instrument is recorded in the county or city in which the property embraced in the option, memorandum, renewal, or extension is located.

B. Notwithstanding any rule of law or equity denominated "fettering," "clogging the equity of redemption" or "claiming a collateral advantage" or any similar rule:

1. A party secured by a mortgage or deed of trust, without adversely affecting his security interest, may acquire from a borrower any direct or indirect present or future ownership interest in the collateral encumbered thereby, including rights to any income, proceeds, or increase in value derived from such collateral; and

2. An option to acquire an interest in real estate granted to a party secured by a mortgage or deed of trust, other than an option granted to such party in connection with a mortgage loan as defined in § 6.2-1600, is effective according to its terms and takes priority as provided in subsection A if the right to exercise the option is not dependent upon the occurrence of a default under the mortgage or deed of trust.

1989, c. 596, § 55-57.2; 2019, c. 712.

Article 2. Form and Effect of Deeds of Trust; Sales thereunder; Assignments; Releases.

§ 55.1-316. Form of deed of trust to secure debts, etc.

A deed of trust to secure debts or indemnify sureties may be in the following form, or to the same effect: "This deed, made the ________, in the year ____, between ________ (the grantor) and ________ (the trustee), witnesseth: that the said ________ (the grantor) does (or do) grant (or grant and convey) unto the said ________ (the trustee), the following property (here describe it): In trust to secure (here describe the debts to be secured or the sureties to be indemnified and insert covenants or any other provisions the parties may agree upon). Witness the following signature (or signatures)."

Code 1919, § 5166; Code 1950, § 55-58; 1990, c. 374; 2014, c. 338; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-317. Requirements for trustees.

A. No person may be named or act, in person or by agent or attorney, as the trustee of a deed of trust conveying property to secure the payment of money or the performance of an obligation, either individually or as one of several trustees, unless such person is a resident of the Commonwealth. No corporation, limited liability company, partnership, or other entity may be named or act as the trustee or as one of the trustees of a deed of trust conveying property to secure the payment of money or the performance of an obligation, unless it is organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or of the United States. However, the foregoing requirements shall not apply to any deed of trust conveying property lying partly in the Commonwealth and partly outside the Commonwealth or to a deed of trust conveying property in the Commonwealth to secure bonds or obligations that are also secured by one or more deeds of trust or mortgages conveying property outside of the Commonwealth.

B. A deed of trust conveying property to secure the payment of money or the performance of an obligation shall state the full residence or business address of the trustee named in such deed of trust, including street address and zip code, and such address shall be valid for purposes of all notices under the deed of trust to the trustee. Such address of the trustee may be changed by amendment of the deed of trust or by a separate instrument executed by the trustee, or by the beneficiary of such deed of trust, stating the changed address and otherwise in recordable form, and recorded in the office of the clerk of the circuit court where the deed of trust was recorded.

C. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, if any deed of trust is recorded by a clerk, it shall be conclusively presumed that such deed of trust complies with all the requirements of this section, and it shall be deemed to be validly recorded.

D. All deeds of trusts, mortgages, bonds, or other instruments recorded by a clerk prior to January 1, 1999, without the residence or business address of the trustee named in such deed of trust shall be valid for all purposes as if such address had been named if such recordation is otherwise valid according to the law then in force, provided that this section shall not affect any right or remedy of any third party that accrued after the recordation of such instrument or before July 1, 1960.

1960, c. 565, § 55-58.1; 1962, c. 156; 1966, c. 398; 1974, c. 424; 1998, c. 202; 2014, c. 338; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-318. Credit line deed of trust defined; relative priority of credit line deed of trust and other instruments of judgment.

A. For the purpose of this section:

"Beneficiary" means the noteholder, lender, or other party or parties identified in the credit line deed of trust as secured thereby. In the case of a credit line deed of trust that identifies a party acting as agent for all of the lenders or parties secured by a credit line deed of trust, such agent shall be the beneficiary for purposes of this section.

"Credit line deed of trust" means any deed of trust, mortgage, bond, or other instrument entered into after July 1, 1982, in which title to real property located in the Commonwealth is conveyed, transferred, encumbered, or pledged to secure payment of money, including advances or other extensions of credit to be made in the future.

B. A credit line deed of trust shall set forth on the front page, either in capital letters or in language underscored, the words "THIS IS A CREDIT LINE DEED OF TRUST." Such phrase shall convey notice to all parties that advances or other extensions of credit are to be made or are contemplated to be made from time to time against the security described in the credit line deed of trust. Such credit line deed of trust shall specify the maximum aggregate amount of principal to be secured at any one time.

C. From the date and actual time of the recording of a credit line deed of trust, the lien shall have priority (i) as to all other deeds, conveyances, or other instruments, or contracts in writing, that are unrecorded as of such date and time of recording and of which the beneficiary has no knowledge or notice and (ii) as to judgment liens subsequently docketed, except as provided in subsection D. Such priority shall extend to any advances or other extensions of credit made following the recordation of the credit line deed of trust. Amounts outstanding, together with interest, and other items provided by § 55.1-320, shall continue to have priority until paid or curtailed. Mechanics' liens created under Title 43 shall continue to enjoy the same priority as created by that title. Purchase money security interests in goods and fixtures shall have the same priority as provided in Subpart 3 (§ 8.9A-317 et seq.) of Part 3 of Title 8.9A.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A, B, and C, if a judgment creditor gives written notice to the beneficiary of record at the address indicated in the credit line deed of trust, such credit line deed of trust shall have no priority as to such judgment for any advances or extensions of credit made under such credit line deed of trust from the day following receipt of that notice except those that have been unconditionally and irrevocably committed prior to such date.

E. In addition to the language specified in subsection B, the credit line deed of trust shall set forth the name of the beneficiary and the address at which communications may be mailed or delivered to the beneficiary. Such name or address may be changed or modified by duly recorded instrument executed by the beneficiary only. If the note or indebtedness secured by the credit line deed of trust is assigned or transferred, the name and address of the new beneficiary may be set forth in the certificate of transfer provided by § 55.1-336. Such original name or address, or if changed, such changed name or address, shall be the address for delivery of notices contemplated by this section. Receipt of notice at such address shall be deemed receipt by the beneficiary.

F. The grantor may require at any time a modification under the credit line deed of trust whereby any priority over subsequently recorded deeds of trust is surrendered as to future advances or other extensions of credit, which advances or extensions of credit are in the discretion of the party secured by the credit line deed of trust.

G. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A, B, and C, if a deed of trust under this section is a subordinate mortgage, as defined in subsection A of § 55.1-319, upon the recording of a refinance mortgage, as defined in subsection A of § 55.1-319, the credit line deed of trust shall retain the same subordinate position with respect to the refinance mortgage as it had with the prior mortgage, as defined in subsection A of § 55.1-319, provided that the refinance mortgage complies with the requirements of § 55.1-319.

1982, c. 230, § 55-58.2; 1983, c. 124; 1984, c. 19; 1989, c. 346; 1997, c. 205; 2000, c. 971; 2014, c. 338; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-319. Priority of residential refinance mortgage over subordinate mortgage.

A. As used in this section:

"Prior mortgage" means a mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument encumbering or conveying an interest in residential real estate containing not more than one dwelling unit to secure a financing.

"Refinance mortgage" means a mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument encumbering or conveying an interest in residential real estate containing not more than one dwelling unit to secure a refinancing.

"Refinancing" means the replacement of a loan secured by a prior mortgage with a new loan secured by a refinance mortgage and the payment in full of the debt owed under the original loan secured by the prior mortgage.

"Subordinate mortgage" means a mortgage or deed of trust securing an original principal amount not exceeding $150,000, encumbering or conveying an interest in residential real estate containing not more than one dwelling unit that is subordinate in priority (i) under subdivision A 1 of § 55.1-407 or (ii) as a result of a previous refinancing.

B. Upon the refinancing of a prior mortgage, a subordinate mortgage shall retain the same subordinate position with respect to a refinance mortgage as the subordinate mortgage had with the prior mortgage, provided that:

1. Such refinance mortgage states on the first page thereof in bold or capitalized letters: "THIS IS A REFINANCE OF A (DEED OF TRUST, MORTGAGE OR OTHER SECURITY INTEREST) RECORDED IN THE CLERK'S OFFICE, CIRCUIT COURT OF (NAME OF COUNTY OR CITY), VIRGINIA, IN DEED BOOK ______, PAGE ______, IN THE ORIGINAL PRINCIPAL AMOUNT OF ______, AND WITH THE OUTSTANDING PRINCIPAL BALANCE WHICH IS ______.";

2. The principal amount secured by such refinance mortgage does not exceed the outstanding principal balance secured by the prior mortgage plus $5,000; and

3. The interest rate is stated in the refinance mortgage at the time it is recorded and does not exceed the interest rate set forth in the prior mortgage.

C. The priorities among two or more subordinate mortgages shall be governed by subdivision A 1 of § 55.1-407.

D. The provisions of subsection B shall not apply to a subordinate mortgage securing a promissory note payable to any locality or any agency, authority, or political subdivision of the Commonwealth if such subordinate mortgage is financed pursuant to an affordable dwelling unit ordinance adopted pursuant to § 15.2-2304 or 15.2-2305, or pursuant to any program authorized by federal or state law or local ordinance or resolution, for (i) low-income and moderate-income persons or households or (ii) improvements to residential potable water supplies and sanitary sewage disposal systems made to address an existing or potential public health hazard, and which mortgage, if recorded on or after July 1, 2003, states on the first page thereof in bold or capitalized letters: "THIS (DEED OF TRUST, MORTGAGE OR OTHER SECURITY INTEREST) SHALL NOT, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE SECURED PARTY HEREUNDER, BE SUBORDINATED UPON THE REFINANCING OF ANY PRIOR MORTGAGE."

2000, c. 971, § 55-58.3; 2002, c. 172; 2003, c. 381; 2011, c. 77; 2014, c. 338; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-320. How deed of trust construed; duties, rights, etc., of parties.

Every deed of trust to secure debts or indemnify sureties is in the nature of a contract and shall be construed according to its terms to the extent not in conflict with the requirements of law. Unless the deed of trust provides otherwise, it shall be construed to impose and confer upon the parties and beneficiaries the following duties, rights, and obligations in like manner as if the same were expressly provided for by such deed of trust:

1. The deed shall be construed as given to secure the performance of each of the covenants entered into by the grantor as well as the payment of the primary obligation.

2. The grantor shall be deemed to covenant that he will pay all taxes, levies, assessments, and charges upon the property, including the fees and charges of such agents or attorneys as the trustee may deem advisable to employ at any time for the purpose of the trust, so long as any obligation upon the grantor under the deed of trust remains undischarged.

3. The grantor shall be deemed to covenant that he will keep the improvements on the property in tenantable condition, whether such improvements were on the property when the deed of trust was given or were placed there at a later time.

4. The grantor shall be deemed to covenant that no waste shall be committed or suffered upon the property.

5. The grantor shall be deemed to covenant that in the event of his failure to meet any obligations imposed upon him, then the trustee or any beneficiary may, at his option, satisfy such obligations. The money so advanced, with interest as provided in the deed of trust, shall be a part of the debt secured by the deed of trust, in the event of sale to be paid next after the expenses of executing the trust, and shall be otherwise recoverable from the grantor as a debt. In addition, to the extent not otherwise covered, the grantor shall be deemed to covenant that amount advanced or incurred by the trustee or any beneficiary under a deed of trust (i) with respect to an obligation secured by a lien or encumbrance prior to the lien of the deed of trust or (ii) for the protection of the lien secured by the deed of trust, together with interest as provided in the deed of trust, shall be a part of the debt secured by the deed of trust, to be paid next after expenses of executing the trust.

6. A covenant to pay interest shall be deemed a covenant to pay interest on the principal balance as such rate may vary or be modified from time to time by the parties under the original instruments or agreements or a written agreement of modification, whether or not recorded, and all the interest on the principal secured by the deed of trust shall be on an equal priority with the principal debt secured by the deed of trust, in the event of sale to be paid next after the expenses of executing the trust.

Any covenant, otherwise authorized by law, that the lender shall be entitled to share in the gross income or the net income, or the gross rent or revenues, or net rents or revenues of the property, or in any portion of the proceeds or appreciation upon sale or appraisal or similar event, shall be on an equal priority with the principal debt secured by the deed of trust, in the event of sale to be paid next after the expenses of executing the trust, and shall be specified in the recorded deed of trust or other recorded document in order to be notice of record as against subsequent parties.

7. In the event of default in the payment of the debt secured, or any part thereof, at maturity, or in the payment of interest when due, or of the breach of any of the covenants entered into or imposed upon the grantor, then at the request of any beneficiary the trustee shall forthwith declare all the debts and obligations secured by the deed of trust at once due and payable and may take possession of the property and proceed to sell the same at auction at the premises or in the front of the circuit court building or at such other place in the county or city in which the property or the greater part thereof lies, or in the corporate limits of any city surrounded by or contiguous to such county, or in the case of annexed land, in the county of which the land was formerly a part, as the trustee may select upon such terms and conditions as the trustee may deem best.

8. If the sale is upon credit terms, the deferred purchase money shall bear interest from the day of sale and shall be secured by a deed of trust upon the property contemporaneous with the trustee's deed to the purchaser.

9. The party secured by the deed of trust, or the holders of greater than 50 percent of the monetary obligations secured thereby, shall have the right and power to appoint one or more substitute trustees for any reason and, regardless of whether such right and power is expressly granted in such deed of trust, by executing and acknowledging an instrument designating and appointing a substitute. When the instrument of appointment has been executed, the substitute trustee named therein shall be vested with all the powers, rights, authority, and duties vested in the trustee in the original deed of trust. The instrument of appointment shall be recorded in the office of the clerk in which the original deed of trust is recorded prior to or at the time of recordation of any instrument in which a power, right, authority, or duty conferred by the original deed of trust is exercised.

Code 1919, § 5167; 1922, p. 364; 1926, p. 591; 1940, p. 879; 1944, p. 481; Code 1950, § 55-59; 1952, c. 370; 1954, c. 557; 1956, c. 674; 1960, c. 5; 1964, c. 501; 1968, c. 786; 1970, c. 12; 1973, c. 341; 1976, c. 257; 1977, cc. 151, 314, 660; 1979, c. 12; 1980, c. 709; 1981, c. 591; 1992, cc. 87, 193; 1993, c. 426; 1994, c. 551; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-321. Notices required before sale by trustee to owners, lienors, etc.; if note lost.

A. In addition to the advertisement required by § 55.1-322, the trustee or the party secured shall give written notice of the time, date, and place of any proposed sale in execution of a deed of trust, and such notice shall include either (i) the instrument number or deed book and page numbers of the instrument of appointment filed pursuant to § 55.1-320, or (ii) a copy of the executed and notarized appointment of substitute trustee by personal delivery or by mail to (a) the present owner of the property to be sold at his last known address as such owner and address appear in the records of the party secured; (b) any subordinate lienholder who holds a note against the property secured by a deed of trust recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale and whose address is recorded with the deed of trust; (c) any assignee of such a note secured by a deed of trust, provided that the assignment and address of assignee are likewise recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale; (d) any condominium unit owners' association that has filed a lien pursuant to § 55.1-1966; (e) any property owners' association that has filed a lien pursuant to § 55.1-1833; and (f) any proprietary lessees' association that has filed a lien pursuant to § 55.1-2148. Written notice shall be given pursuant to clauses (d), (e), and (f) only if the lien is recorded at least 30 days prior to the proposed sale. If the secured party has received notification that the owner of the property to be sold is deceased, the notice required by clause (a) shall be given to (1) the last known address of such owner as such address appears in the records of the party secured; (2) any personal representative of the deceased's estate whose appointment is recorded among the records of the circuit court where the property is located, at the address of the personal representative that appears in such records; and (3) any heirs of the deceased who are listed on the list of heirs recorded among the records of the circuit court where the property is located, at the addresses of the heirs that appear in such records. Mailing of a copy of the advertisement or a notice containing the same information to the owner by certified or registered mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale and to lienholders, the property owners' association or proprietary lessees' association, their assigns, and the condominium unit owners' association, at the address noted in the memorandum of lien, by ordinary mail no less than 14 days prior to such sale shall be a sufficient compliance with the requirement of notice. The written notice of proposed sale when given as provided in this subsection shall be deemed an effective exercise of any right of acceleration contained in such deed of trust or otherwise possessed by the party secured relative to the indebtedness secured. The inadvertent failure to give notice as required by this subsection shall not impose liability on either the trustee or the secured party.

B. If a note or other evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust is lost or for any reason cannot be produced and the beneficiary submits to the trustee an affidavit to that effect, the trustee may nonetheless proceed to sale, provided that the beneficiary has given written notice to the person required to pay the instrument that the instrument is unavailable and a request for sale will be made of the trustee upon expiration of 14 days from the date of mailing of the notice. The notice shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the last known address of the person required to pay the instrument as reflected in the records of the beneficiary and shall include the name and mailing address of the trustee. The notice shall further advise the person required to pay the instrument that if he believes he may be subject to a claim by a person other than the beneficiary to enforce the instrument, he may petition the circuit court of the county or city where the property or some part thereof lies for an order requiring the beneficiary to provide adequate protection against any such claim. If deemed appropriate by the court, the court may condition the sale on a finding that the person required to pay the instrument is adequately protected against loss that might occur by reason of a claim by another person to enforce the instrument. Adequate protection may be provided by any reasonable means. If the trustee proceeds to sale, the fact that the instrument is lost or cannot be produced shall not affect the authority of the trustee to sell or the validity of the sale.

C. When the written notice of proposed sale is given as provided in this section, there is a rebuttable presumption that the lienholder has complied with any requirement to provide notice of default contained in a deed of trust. Failure to comply with the requirements of notice contained in this section shall not affect the validity of the sale, and a purchaser for value at such sale shall be under no duty to ascertain whether such notice was validly given.

D. In the event of postponement of sale, which may be done in the discretion of the trustee, no new or additional notice is required to be given pursuant to this section.

1979, c. 12, § 55-59.1; 1992, c. 739; 1993, c. 597; 1994, c. 143; 2004, c. 1001; 2009, c. 307; 2018, cc. 34, 204; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-322. Advertisement required before sale by trustee.

A. Advertisement of sale by a trustee or trustees in execution of a deed of trust shall be in a newspaper having a general circulation in the county or city in which the property to be sold, or any portion of such property, lies pursuant to the following provisions:

1. If the deed of trust itself provides for the number of publications of such newspaper advertisement, which may be done by using the words "advertisement required" or similar words followed by the number agreed upon, then no other or different advertisement shall be necessary, provided that, if such advertisement be inserted on a weekly basis, it shall be published not less than once a week for two weeks, and if such advertisement be inserted on a daily basis, it shall be published not less than once a day for three days, which may be consecutive days, and in either case shall be subject to the provisions of § 55.1-330 in the same manner as if the method were set forth in the deed of trust. Should the deed of trust provide for advertising on other than a weekly or daily basis, either of the foregoing provisions shall be complied with in addition to those provided in such deed of trust. Notwithstanding the provisions of the deed of trust, the sale shall be held on any day following the day of the last advertisement that is no earlier than eight days following the first advertisement or more than 30 days following the last advertisement.

2. If the deed of trust does not provide for the number of publications of such newspaper advertisement, the trustee shall advertise once a week for four successive weeks, provided, however, that if the property or some portion of such property is located in a city or in a county immediately contiguous to a city, publication of the advertisement five different days, which may be consecutive days, shall be deemed adequate. The sale shall be held on any day following the day of the last advertisement that is no earlier than eight days following the first advertisement or more than 30 days following the last advertisement.

B. Such advertisement shall be placed in that section of the newspaper where legal notices appear or where the type of property being sold is generally advertised for sale.

C. In addition to the advertisement required by subsection A, the trustee shall give such other further and different advertisement as the deed of trust may require and in addition may give such additional advertisement as he may deem appropriate.

D. In the event of postponement of sale, which postponement shall be at the discretion of the trustee, advertisement of such postponed sale shall be in the same manner as the original advertisement of sale.

E. Failure to comply with the requirements for advertisement contained in this section shall, upon petition, render a sale of the property voidable by the court.

1979, c. 12, § 55-59.2; 1990, c. 749; 1992, c. 550; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-323. Contents of advertisements of sale.

A. The advertisement of sale under any deed of trust, in addition to such other matters as may be required by such deed of trust or by the trustee, in his discretion, shall set forth a description of the property to be sold. Such description need not be as extensive as that contained in the deed of trust, but it shall identify the property by street address, if any, or, if none, shall give the general location of the property with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks. Where available, tax map identification may be used but is not required. The advertisement shall also include the time, place, and terms of sale and shall give the name or names of the trustee or trustees. It shall set forth the name, address, and telephone number of a person, either a trustee or the party secured or his agent or attorney who may be able to respond to inquiries concerning the sale.

B. 1. If the property being sold is a time-share estate, the advertisement of sale required under subsection A of § 55.1-322 shall set forth, in addition to such other matters as the trustee finds appropriate, (i) a description of the specific time-share estate or estates to be sold, and such description shall also include (a) the name of the time-share project and (b) the street address of the time-share project or, if no street address, the general location of the time-share project with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks; (ii) the date, time, place, and terms of sale; (iii) the name of the trustee; and (iv) the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who is authorized to respond to inquiries concerning the sale and shall give additional information concerning the time-share estate or estates to be sold.

2. In lieu of the requirements of subdivision 1, the advertisement shall set forth (i) the name of the time-share project in which the time-share estate or estates to be sold are contained; (ii) the street address of the time-share project in which the time-share estate or estates to be sold are contained or, if no street address, the general location of the time-share project with reference to streets, routes, or known landmarks; (iii) the date, time, place, and terms of sale; (iv) the name of the trustee; and (v) the name, address, and telephone number of the representative, agent, or attorney who is authorized to respond to inquiries concerning the sale and shall give additional information concerning the time-share estate or estates to be sold, including providing, upon request, in either hard copy or electronic form, a schedule of the time-share estate or estates to be sold. In addition, the advertisement shall contain a website address where a description of the specific time-share estate or estates to be sold is displayed.

1979, c. 12, § 55-59.3; 2015, cc. 23, 401; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-324. Powers and duties of trustee in event of sale under or satisfaction of deed of trust.

A. In the event of sale under a deed of trust, the trustee shall have the following powers and duties in addition to all others:

1. Written one-price bids may be made and shall be received by the trustee from the beneficiary or any other person for entry by announcement of the trustee at the sale. Any person other than the trustee may bid at the foreclosure sale, including a person who has submitted a written one-price bid. Upon request to the trustee, any other bidder in attendance at a foreclosure sale shall be permitted to inspect written bids. Whenever the written bid of the beneficiary is the highest bid submitted at the sale, such document shall be filed by the trustee with his account of sale required under § 64.2-1309. The written bid submitted pursuant to this subsection may be prepared by the beneficiary, its agent, or its attorney.

2. The trustee may require of any bidder at any sale a cash deposit of as much as 10 percent of the sale price, unless the deed of trust specifies a higher or lower maximum, which may be done by the words "bidder's deposit of not more than ______ dollars may be required" or similar words, before his bid is received, which shall be refunded to the bidder unless the property is sold to him, otherwise to be applied to his credit in settlement or, should he fail to complete his purchase promptly, to be applied to pay the costs and expense of sale and the balance, if any, to be retained by the trustee as his compensation in connection with that sale.

3. The trustee shall receive and receipt for the proceeds of sale, account for the same to the commissioner of accounts pursuant to § 64.2-1309 and apply the same, first, to discharge the expenses of executing the trust, including a reasonable commission to the trustee; secondly, to discharge all taxes, levies, and assessments, with costs and interest if they have priority over the lien of the deed of trust, including the due pro rata thereof for the current year; thirdly, to discharge in the order of their priority, if any, the remaining debts and obligations secured by the deed, and any liens of record inferior to the deed of trust under which sale is made, with lawful interest; and, fourthly, the residue of the proceeds shall be paid to the grantor or his assigns, provided, however, that the trustee as to such residue shall not be bound by any inheritance, devise, conveyance, assignment, or lien of or upon the grantor's equity, without actual notice thereof prior to distribution, and provided further that such order of priorities shall not be changed or varied by the deed of trust. The trustee's deed shall show the trustee's mailing address.

B. Upon discharge, other than by sale by the trustee, of all debts, duties, and obligations imposed by the deed upon the grantor, including any expenses incurred preparatory to sale, then upon the grantor's request the trustee shall execute and deliver a good and sufficient deed of release at the grantor's own proper costs and charges.

1979, c. 12, § 55-59.4; 1997, c. 842; 1998, c. 610; 2010, c. 417; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-325. Meaning of phrases that may be included in deed of trust.

The following provisions may be incorporated in any deed of trust to secure debts or indemnify sureties in the respective short forms indicated, namely:

1. The words "identified by trustee's signature" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "All of which said notes (or other obligations) bear the marginal signature of the trustee for the purpose of identification but for no other purpose whatever."

2. The words "deferred purchase money," "purchase money," or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "This deed of trust is a contemporaneous purchase money deed of trust and secures the payment of deferred purchase money due by the grantor upon the property hereby conveyed." Any deed of trust securing a loan, proceeds of which are used by the borrower to acquire the secured real property, shall be deemed to be a purchase money deed of trust.

3. The words "exemptions waived" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The grantor hereby waives the benefit of his exemptions as to the debt hereby secured and as to all other obligations that may be imposed upon him by the provisions of this deed of trust."

4. The words "subject to call upon default" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "Should default be made in the payment of any part of the debt hereby secured, principal or interest, at the maturity of such part, or in the event of the breach of any of the covenants entered into or imposed upon the grantor, then the entire obligation of this deed of trust and the whole debt hereby secured shall, at the option of the beneficiaries, become forthwith due and payable."

5. The words "renewal or extension permitted" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The grantor hereby consents and agrees that the debt hereby secured, or any part thereof, may be renewed or extended beyond maturity as often as may be desired by agreement between the creditor and any subsequent owner of the property, and no such renewal or extension shall in any way affect the grantor's responsibility, whether as surety or otherwise."

6. The words "reinstatement permitted" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The grantor and any other party assuming liability hereunder hereby consent and agree that if the property conveyed hereby or a substantial portion thereof is transferred to any subsequent owner, and the creditor exercises the right to accelerate the debts secured hereby, the creditor may accept any delinquent payments or other cure of default giving rise to such acceleration from the then owner of the property or any other person and reinstate the indebtedness in accordance with the schedule of maturity as of the time of acceleration or upon such new schedule as may be agreed if renewal or extension are otherwise permitted and no such reinstatement shall in any way affect the liability of such prior parties, whether as surety or otherwise."

The words "renewal, extension, or reinstatement permitted" or similar words shall have the meaning ascribed to the individual words or phrases in this subdivision and in subdivision 5.

7. The words "right of anticipation reserved" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The grantor reserves the right to anticipate the payment of the debt hereby secured, or any part thereof which is represented by a separate note (or other obligation) at any interest period by the payment of principal and interest to the date of such anticipated payment only."

8. The words "priority in direct order of maturity" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The notes (or other obligations) hereby secured have priority amongst themselves in the direct order of their maturities, each having priority over all others falling due after its maturity." And the words "priority in inverse order of maturity" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The notes (or other obligations) hereby secured have priority amongst themselves in the inverse order of their maturities, each having priority over all others falling due before its maturity."

9. The words "insurance required ______ dollars" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The grantor covenants that he will keep the improvements on the property insured against fire in some solvent insurance company approved by the trustee for the benefit of the beneficiaries hereunder in the sum of at least ______ dollars, and will deposit with the trustee or beneficiary the policies, with standard loss payable clauses with full contribution in favor of the trustee as his interest may appear; and the grantor further covenants that in the event of his failure to keep the property so insured and the policies so deposited, then the trustee or any beneficiary may, at his option, effect such insurance and pay the premium thereon, and the money so paid, with interest thereon, shall become a part of the debt hereby secured, in the event of sale to be paid next after the expenses of executing this trust, and shall be otherwise recoverable from the grantor as a debt, but there shall be no obligation upon the trustee or beneficiary to effect such insurance."

10. The words "substitution of trustee permitted" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "Grantor grants unto the beneficiary or beneficiaries or to a majority in amount of the holders of the obligations secured hereunder and to their assigns the right and power, under the provisions of § 55.1-320, to appoint a substitute trustee or trustees."

11. The words "any trustee may act" or similar words shall be construed as if the deed set forth: "The grantors, and all interested in the obligations hereby secured, by accepting the benefits hereof, agree that all authority, power, and discretion hereinabove granted to the trustees may be exercised by any of them, without any other, with the same effect as if exercised jointly by all of them."

12. The words "this is a credit line deed of trust" or similar words, if in capital letters or underscored and on the first page of the deed of trust and containing the name and address of the noteholder, shall have the meaning set forth in § 55.1-318.

Code 1919, § 5167; 1926, p. 593; 1940, p. 881; Code 1950, § 55-60; 1966, c. 93; 1970, c. 39; 1976, c. 155; 1982, c. 230; 2004, c. 253; 2005, c. 935; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-326. Evidences of indebtedness placed on equal footing.

When bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness are secured by a deed of trust, mortgage, vendor's lien, or other lien, such bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness shall, in the event the lien is executed or foreclosed, be secured on an equal footing and shall be paid ratably out of the proceeds of any sale of property subjected to the lien and shall have no priority, the one over the other, whether by priority of assignment or otherwise, unless the instrument creating the lien expressly provides otherwise.

1934, p. 516; Michie Code 1942, § 6457a; Code 1950, § 55-60.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-327. Sales under deeds of trust that contain no maturity date or provision authorizing sale.

When any property, real or personal, is conveyed by deed of trust to a trustee to secure the payment of a debt, money, notes, bonds, stocks, or other evidences of debt and there is no date fixed for the maturity thereof and such deed of trust contains no provision authorizing the trustee to make sale of such property, or any part thereof, and the reinvestment of the proceeds of sale in other property subject to the terms of such deed of trust, the circuit court, or such court having jurisdiction of the subject matter, upon a complaint filed by any one or more of the lien debtors, in which complaint all persons interested in such lien and all holders of the evidences of debt secured by the deed of trust thereon, and all other necessary or proper parties, except the plaintiffs, shall be made defendants, may order a sale of such property, or any part thereof, and may invest the proceeds of sale under order of court subject to the terms of the deed of trust, provided that (i) the complaint sets forth facts that will justify the sale of the property, to be verified by the affidavit of at least one of the plaintiffs, (ii) no order shall be made authorizing such sale unless it is shown to the satisfaction of the court that the interests of the lien debtor or debtors will be promoted and the interests of no person holding the evidences of debt secured by the deed of trust will be violated thereby, and (iii) the plaintiff or the party for whose benefit the action is brought shall bear the cost.

1932, p. 77; Michie Code 1942, § 5167a; Code 1950, § 55-61; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-328. Validation of conveyances of real property under trust instrument not authorizing sale.

When any real property is conveyed by deed of trust or other trust instrument to a trustee and there is no provision authorizing the trustee to convey the property that is the subject of the deed of trust, or any part of such property, and the trustee conveys such property or any part of such property, such conveyance shall be valid after a period of 30 years from the date of such conveyance, provided that (i) there have been no adverse claims against the property so conveyed in the interim, and (ii) such conveyances to and from such trustee were properly recorded and indexed at the time of the conveyance, in the appropriate clerk's office in which deeds are recorded in the county or city in which the property lies.

1962, c. 350, § 55-61.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-329. Permissible form for notice of sale under deed of trust.

Notice of sale under any deed of trust regardless of whether it conforms with § 55.1-320, in the absence of provision in such deed of trust requiring other or additional matter, may be substantially in the following form:

Trustee's Sale of

____________ (brief description or identification of property)

In execution of a deed of trust (name or names of grantor or grantors unless grantor or grantors request in writing that the same be omitted), dated ______, recorded in the Clerk's Office of the ______ court of ______ in Deed Book ______, page ____, ______, the undersigned trustee will offer for sale at public auction (a brief description of the property to include street number or, if none, the general location of property and place of sale) on the ______ day of ________, 20__ at __ (ante meridian)(noon)(post meridian), the property described in such deed.

Terms: (Cash)(________)

____________________

Trustee(s)

FOR INFORMATION CONTACT:

____________________

(A trustee or the secured party or his agent)

____________________

Address

____________________

Telephone number

1946, p. 272; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5167a1; Code 1950, § 55-62; 1977, c. 660; 1979, c. 12; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-330. Construction of deeds requiring notice by advertisement in newspaper.

A. Whenever any deed of trust to secure debts or indemnify sureties contains a provision requiring the giving of notice of sale thereunder for a specified number of days by advertisement in one or more newspapers and such advertisement is published in a newspaper published daily or in a newspaper published daily except Sunday, it shall be deemed a sufficient compliance with such provision if such notice is published in consecutive issues of such newspaper for the number of days specified, counting both the day of the first publication and the day of the last publication and intervening Sundays, whether or not such newspaper is published on Sunday. Both the first publication and the last publication may be on Sunday. The publication shall in all other respects comply with the provisions of §§ 55.1-322 and 55.1-323.

B. Whenever such deed of trust requires advertisement once a week for a specified number of weeks, sale may be had on the day after the last advertisement appears or any day thereafter, and all sales made in conformity with this section prior to January 1, 1972, and otherwise valid are hereby validated.

1934, p. 165; Michie Code 1942, § 5167c; Code 1950, § 55-63; 1962, c. 448; 1975, c. 284; 1977, c. 660; 1979, c. 12; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-331. Disposition of surplus from trustee's sale after death of grantor.

Whenever the grantor, or his successor in title, in any deed of trust by which any real property is conveyed in trust to secure debts or indemnify sureties dies prior to a trustee's sale held pursuant to the deed of trust and the deed of trust contains no definite provision for the distribution of any surplus in the event of the death of the grantor or his successors in title prior to the trustee's sale held pursuant to the deed of trust, or contains a provision that such surplus shall be paid to the grantor or his heirs or assigns or personal representative, then any surplus of the proceeds of the sale remaining in the possession of the trustee, after discharging the expenses of executing the trust, all tax liens upon the property sold, all debts and obligations secured by the deed of trust, and, in order of their priority, if any, the remaining subsequent debts and obligations secured by the deed, and any liens of record inferior to the deed of trust under which the sale is made, with lawful interest, shall be paid by the trustee to the personal representative of the decedent.

Any such funds possessed by the personal representative shall constitute assets for the payment by him of any debts and demands against the decedent's estate remaining unsatisfied after the personal estate has been exhausted. Any surplus of the funds so paid to the personal representative and remaining in his possession after the satisfaction of all debts and demands against the estate shall be paid over by him, if the decedent died intestate as to the real property embraced in the deed of trust, to the heirs at law of the decedent, or their successors in title, and if the decedent died testate as to the real property embraced in the deed of trust, then such surplus shall be paid to the persons entitled to the real property under the terms of the decedent's will, or to their successors in title.

1942, p. 94; Michie Code 1942, § 5167d; 1944, p. 389; Code 1950, § 55-64; 1990, c. 831; 2018, cc. 34, 204; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-332. Title to real estate sold not affected by nonlisting of secured notes for taxation.

The title to real estate sold under a deed of trust shall not be drawn in question upon the ground that the holder of the notes secured by such deed of trust did not list the same for taxation.

1924, p. 469; 1926, p. 978; 1944, p. 630; Tax Code, §§ 69, 69a; Code 1950, § 55-64.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-333. Validation of certain sales made under deeds of trust.

All sales that have been made prior to January 1, 1972, under deeds of trust to secure debts and indemnify sureties containing a provision requiring the giving of notice of sale thereunder for a specified number of days by advertisement in one or more newspapers and that were made after publishing the advertisement of sale in a newspaper published daily or in a newspaper published daily except Sunday for the number of days specified in the deed of trust, counting both the day of the first publication and the day of the last publication and intervening Sundays, whether or not such paper was published on Sunday and whether or not such sales were held on the day of the last publication, provided that, in cases when the sale was held on the day of the last publication, the publication was in a newspaper the principal daily edition of which was delivered or publicly sold before the time fixed for the sale, and whether or not the first publication or the last publication, or both, appeared on Sunday, shall be held, and the same are hereby declared, to be valid and effective in all respects, if otherwise valid and effective according to the law then in force, provided, however, that nothing contained in this section shall be construed as affecting any final order entered prior to March 24, 1934, by any court of competent jurisdiction or as affecting any action now pending in any court of competent jurisdiction, and provided further, that nothing in this section shall be so construed as to affect intervening vested rights.

1934, p. 257; Michie Code 1942, § 5167b; Code 1950, § 55-65; 1975, c. 284; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-334. Validation of certain sales made under deeds of trust prior to October 1, 1977.

All sales that were made prior to October 1, 1977, under deeds of trust to secure debts and indemnify sureties when the notice, advertisement, and conduct of the sale were in accordance with the law of the Commonwealth as it existed on June 30, 1977, are declared to be valid and effective in all respects, provided that nothing in this section shall be construed as affecting any final order entered prior to March 23, 1978, by any court of competent jurisdiction, or any action now pending in a court of competent jurisdiction, or as affecting intervening vested rights, and provided further that no action to vacate or set aside any such sale may be brought after March 23, 1978.

1978, c. 173, § 55-65.1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-335. Validation of other sales under deeds of trust.

All sales that were made prior to January 1, 1972, under deeds of trust to secure debts and indemnify sureties when the notice was not published once a week for four successive weeks or a specified number of successive weeks are declared to be valid and effective in all respects, if other reasonable advertisement of such sale was given and such sale was otherwise valid and effective, provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed as affecting any final order entered prior to March 1, 1944, by any court of competent jurisdiction, or any action now pending in a court of competent jurisdiction, or as affecting intervening vested rights, and provided further that no action may be brought after January 1, 1972, to vacate or set aside any such sale.

1944, p. 128; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5167b1; Code 1950, § 55-66; 1975, c. 284; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-336. Protection of assignees or transferees of debts secured by real estate; form of certificate of transfer.

Whenever a debt or other obligation secured by a deed of trust, mortgage, or vendor's lien on real estate has been assigned, the assignor or the assignee, at its option, may cause the instrument of assignment to be recorded in the clerk's office of the circuit court where such deed of trust, mortgage, or vendor's lien is recorded, provided that such instrument is otherwise in recordable form, or may cause a certificate of transfer signed by the assignor to be recorded in such clerk's office, and such instrument of assignment or certificate of transfer, upon recordation, shall operate as a notice of such assignment. The instrument of assignment or certificate of transfer shall be indexed in the name of the assignor and in the names of the obligor or maker, and the trustees, as applicable, all of whose names shall be set forth in such instrument or certificate. The certificate of transfer shall conform substantially to the following:

CERTIFICATE OF TRANSFER

Place of Record:

Clerk's Office of the Circuit Court of the ________ of ________, Virginia

Date of [Deed of Trust/Mortgage/Vendor's Lien]: ________,

Deed Book ________, Page ____

Name of Obligor or Maker:

________________

Names(s) of Trustee(s) [if a Deed of Trust]:

________________

________________

Name of Original Payee or Obligee:

________________

Original Amount Secured [if applicable]: $____

The undersigned, the original payee or obligee [or the subsequent assignee] of the obligation secured by the above-mentioned [Deed of Trust/Mortgage/Vendor's Lien], hereby certifies that the obligations secured thereby have been assigned to ______

________________

[If a credit line deed of trust, the name and address to which notice may be mailed or delivered to the Noteholder as provided by § 55.1-318 is as follows:

________________

________________ ]

Given under (my/our) hand(s) as of the ______ day of ________, ____.

________________

(Assignor)

______ of ______

County/City of ________, to wit:

Subscribed, sworn to, and acknowledged before me by ________ this ______ day of ________, 20__.

My Commission Expires: ________

________________

Notary Public

Notary Registration Number: ________

For purposes of this section, the word "assigned" includes endorsed, pledged, hypothecated, or otherwise transferred. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to invalidate any other form or notice of assignment that may have been recorded prior to July 1, 1994. Nothing in this section shall imply that recordation of the instrument of assignment or a certificate of transfer is necessary in order to transfer to an assignee the benefit of the security provided by the deed of trust, mortgage, or vendor's lien.

1994, c. 806, § 55-66.01; 1995, c. 807; 1997, c. 205; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-337. Required notice of foreclosure or repossession of manufactured home.

Whenever any assignee of an installment note secured by a security interest on a manufactured home determines that legal action is desirable to enforce the debt resulting in a potential foreclosure or repossession, he shall give prior notice by mail of any action to foreclose or repossess the collateral to any assignor who is liable under a recourse endorsement or by virtue of a reserve account at least 10 business days prior to the enforcement of the security interest or eviction. Assignment by way of pledge of the security interest granted by the assignor shall not be an assignment within the meaning of this section. The failure to so notify the assignor shall not affect any rights of the assignee as against the principal debtor or any party other than the assignor with recourse or a person with rights in a reserve account. Provisions of this section may not be waived by such assignor at the time of the original sale of the installment paper but only after the expiration of at least 30 days from such initial transfer. The assignee shall send such notice to the last known address of the assignor as it appears in the records of the assignee.

1978, c. 462, § 55-66.1:1; 1999, c. 77; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-338. Release to person dead inures to successors.

A release of a deed of trust or a conveyance of the property embraced in such deed of trust may in all cases be made to the original grantor, whether living or dead, and any release or reconveyance so made shall inure both in law and in equity to the successors in title of such grantor.

Code 1919, § 6456; 1926, p. 82; 1930, p. 71; 1932, p. 121; 1944, p. 199; Code 1950, § 55-66.2; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-339. Release of deed of trust or other lien.

A. As used in this section:

"Deed of trust" means any mortgage, deed of trust, or vendor's lien.

"Lien creditor" and "creditor" shall be construed as synonymous and mean the holder, payee, or obligee of a note, bond, or other evidence of debt and shall embrace the lien creditor or his successor in interest as evidenced by proper endorsement or assignment, general or restrictive, upon the note, bond, or other evidence of debt.

"Payoff letter" means a written communication from the lien creditor or servicer stating, at a minimum, the amount outstanding and required to be paid to satisfy the obligation.

"RESA" means Chapter 10 (§ 55.1-1000 et seq.), Real Estate Settlement Agents.

"Satisfactory evidence of the payment of the obligation secured by the deed of trust" means (i) any one of (a) the original canceled check or a copy of the canceled check, showing all endorsements, payable to the lien creditor or servicer, as applicable, (b) confirmation in written or electronic form of a wire transfer to the bank account of the lien creditor or servicer, as applicable, or (c) a bank statement in written or electronic form reflecting completion of the wire transfer or negotiation of the check, as applicable, and (ii) a payoff letter or other reasonable documentary evidence that the payment was to effect satisfaction of the obligation secured or evidenced by the deed of trust.

"Satisfied by payment" includes obtaining written confirmation from the lien creditor that the underlying obligation has a zero balance.

"Servicer" means a person or entity that collects loan payments on behalf of a lien creditor.

"Settlement agent" has the same meaning ascribed to it in § 55.1-1000, provided that a person shall not be a settlement agent unless he is registered pursuant to § 55.1-1014 and otherwise fully in compliance with the applicable provisions of RESA.

"Title insurance company" has the same meaning ascribed to it in § 38.2-4601, provided that the title insurance company seeking to release a lien by the process described in subsection E issued a policy of title insurance, through a title insurance agency or agent as defined in § 38.2-4601.1, for a real estate transaction wherein the loan secured by the lien was satisfied by payment made by the title insurance agency or agent also acting as the settlement agent.

B. 1. Except as provided in Article 3 (§ 55.1-346 et seq.), after full or partial payment or satisfaction has been made of a debt secured by a deed of trust, vendor's lien, or other lien, or any one or more obligations representing at least 25 percent of the total amount secured by such lien, but less than the total number of the obligations so secured, or the debt secured is evidenced by two or more separate written obligations sufficiently described in the instrument creating the lien, has been fully paid, the lien creditor shall issue a certificate of satisfaction or certificate of partial satisfaction in a form sufficient for recordation reflecting such payment and release of lien. This requirement shall apply to a credit line deed of trust prepared pursuant to § 55.1-318 only when the obligor or the settlement agent has paid the debt in full and requested that the instrument be released.

If the lien creditor receives notice from a settlement agent at the address identified in its payoff statement requesting that the certificate be sent to such settlement agent, the lien creditor shall provide the certificate within 90 days after receipt of such notice to the settlement agent at the address specified in the notice received from the settlement agent.

If the notice is not received from a settlement agent, the lien creditor shall deliver, within 90 days after such payment, the certificate to the appropriate clerk's office with the necessary fee for recording by certified mail, return receipt requested, or when there is written proof of receipt from the clerk's office, by hand delivery, electronic delivery via the clerk's electronic filing system, or delivery by a commercial overnight delivery service or the United States Postal Service, and a receipt obtained.

If the lien creditor has already delivered the certificate to the clerk's office by the time it receives notice from the settlement agent, the lien creditor shall deliver a copy of the certificate to the settlement agent within 90 days of the receipt of the notice at the address for notification set forth in the payoff statement.

If the lien creditor has not, within 90 days after payment, either provided the certificate of satisfaction to the settlement agent or delivered it to the clerk's office with the necessary fee for filing, the lien creditor shall forfeit $500 to the lien obligor. No settlement agent or attorney may take an assignment of the right to the $500 penalty or facilitate such an assignment to any third party designated by the settlement agent or attorney. Following the 90-day period, if the amount forfeited is not paid within 10 business days after written demand for payment is sent to the lien creditor by certified mail at the address for notification set forth in the payoff statement, the lien creditor shall pay any court costs and reasonable attorney fees incurred by the obligor in collecting the forfeiture.

2. If the note, bond, or other evidence of debt secured by such deed of trust, vendor's lien, or other lien referred to in subdivision 1 or any interest therein has been assigned or transferred to a party other than the original lien creditor, the subsequent holder shall be subject to the same requirements as a lien creditor for failure to comply with this subsection, as set forth in subdivision 1.

C. The certificate of satisfaction shall be signed by the creditor or his duly authorized agent, attorney, or attorney-in-fact or any person to whom the instrument evidencing the indebtedness has been endorsed or assigned for the purpose of effecting such release. An affidavit shall be filed or recorded with the certificate of satisfaction by the creditor, or his duly authorized agent, attorney, or attorney-in-fact, with such clerk, stating that the debt therein secured and intended to be released or discharged has been paid to such creditor or his agent, attorney, or attorney-in-fact, who was entitled and authorized to receive such debt when the debt was satisfied.

D. When the certificate of satisfaction has been signed and the affidavit required by subsection C has been duly filed or recorded with the certificate of satisfaction with such clerk, the certificate of satisfaction shall operate as a release of the encumbrance as to which such payment or satisfaction is entered and, if the encumbrance is by deed of trust, as a reconveyance of the legal title as fully and effectually as if such certificate of satisfaction were a formal deed of release duly executed and recorded.

E. Release of lien by settlement agent or title insurance company.

A settlement agent or title insurance company may release a deed of trust in accordance with the provisions of this subsection (i) if the obligation secured by the deed of trust has been satisfied by payment made by the settlement agent and (ii) whether or not the settlement agent or title insurance company is named as a trustee under the deed of trust or otherwise has received the authority to release the lien.

1. Notice to lienholder.

a. After or accompanying payment in full of the obligation secured by a deed of trust, a settlement agent or title insurance company intending to release a deed of trust pursuant to this subsection shall deliver to the lien creditor by certified mail or commercial overnight delivery service or the United States Postal Service, and a receipt obtained, a notice of intent to release the deed of trust with a copy of the payoff letter and a copy of the release to be recorded as provided in this subsection.

b. The notice of intent to release shall contain (i) the name of the lien creditor, the name of the servicer if loan payments on the deed of trust are collected by a servicer, or both names; (ii) the name of the settlement agent; (iii) the name of the title insurance company if the title insurance company intends to release the lien; and (iv) the date of the notice. The notice of intent to release shall conform substantially to the following form:

NOTICE OF INTENT TO RELEASE

Notice is hereby given to you concerning the deed of trust described on the certificate of satisfaction, a copy of which is attached to this notice, as follows:

1. The settlement agent identified below has paid the obligation secured by the deed of trust described herein or obtained written confirmation from you that such obligation has a zero balance.

2. The undersigned will release the deed of trust described in this notice unless, within 90 days from the date this notice is mailed by certified mail or commercial overnight delivery service or the United States Postal Service, and a receipt obtained, the undersigned has received by certified mail or commercial overnight delivery service or the United States Postal Service, and a receipt obtained, a notice stating that a release of the deed of trust has been recorded in the clerk's office or that the obligation secured by the deed of trust described herein has not been paid, or the lien creditor or servicer otherwise objects to the release of the deed of trust. Notice shall be sent to the address stated on this form.

(Name of settlement agent)

(Signature of settlement agent or title insurance company)

(Address of settlement agent or title insurance company)

(Telephone number of settlement agent or title insurance company)

(Virginia RESA registration number of settlement agent at the time the obligation was paid or confirmed to have a zero balance)

2. Certificate of satisfaction and affidavit of settlement agent or title insurance company.

a. If, within 90 days following the day on which the settlement agent or title insurance company mailed or delivered the notice of intent to release in accordance with this subsection, the lien creditor or servicer does not send by certified mail or commercial overnight delivery service or the United States Postal Service, and a receipt obtained, to the settlement agent or title insurance company a notice stating that a release of the deed of trust has been recorded in the clerk's office or that the obligation secured by the deed of trust has not been paid in full or that the lien creditor or servicer otherwise objects to the release of the deed of trust, the settlement agent or title insurance company may execute, acknowledge, and file with the clerk of court of the jurisdiction in which the deed of trust is recorded a certificate of satisfaction, which shall include (i) the affidavit described in subdivision 2 b and (ii) a copy of the notice of intent to release that was sent to the lender, the servicer, or both. The certificate of satisfaction shall include the settlement agent's RESA registration number, issued by the Virginia State Bar or the Virginia State Corporation Commission, that was in effect at the time the settlement agent paid the obligation secured by the deed of trust or obtained written confirmation from the lien creditor that such obligation has a zero balance. The certificate of satisfaction shall note that the individual executing the certificate of satisfaction is doing so pursuant to the authority granted by this subsection. After filing or recording the certificate of satisfaction, the settlement agent or title insurance company shall mail a copy of the certificate of satisfaction to the lien creditor or servicer. The validity of a certificate of satisfaction otherwise satisfying the requirements of this subsection shall not be affected by the inaccuracy of the RESA registration number placed thereon or the failure to mail a copy of the recorded certificate of satisfaction to the lien creditor or servicer and shall nevertheless release the deed of trust described therein as provided in this subsection.

b. The certificate of satisfaction used by the settlement agent or title insurance company shall include an affidavit certifying (i) that the settlement agent has satisfied the obligation secured by the deed of trust described in the certificate, (ii) that the settlement agent or title insurance company possesses satisfactory evidence of payment of the obligation secured by the deed of trust described in the certificate or written confirmation from the lien creditor that such obligation has a zero balance, (iii) that the lien of the deed of trust may be released, (iv) that the person executing the certificate is the settlement agent or the title insurance company or is duly authorized to act on behalf of the settlement agent or title insurance company, and (v) that the notice of intent to release was delivered to the lien creditor or servicer and the settlement agent or title insurance company received evidence of receipt of such notice by the lien creditor or servicer. The affidavit shall be substantially in the following form:

AFFIDAVIT OF SETTLEMENT AGENT OR TITLE INSURANCE COMPANY

The undersigned hereby certifies that, in accordance with the provisions of § 55.1-339 of the Code of Virginia of 1950, as amended and in force on the date hereof (the Code), (a) the undersigned is a settlement agent or title insurance company as defined in subsection A of § 55.1-339 of the Code or a duly authorized officer, director, member, partner, or employee of such settlement agent or title insurance company; (b) the settlement agent has satisfied the obligation secured by the deed of trust; (c) the settlement agent or title insurance company possesses satisfactory evidence of the payment of the obligation secured by the deed of trust described in the certificate recorded herewith or written confirmation from the lien creditor that such obligation has a zero balance; (d) the settlement agent or title insurance company has delivered to the lien creditor or servicer in the manner specified in subdivision E 1 of § 55.1-339 of the Code the notice of intent to release and possesses evidence of receipt of such notice by the lien creditor or servicer; and (e) the lien of the deed of trust is hereby released.

________________

(Authorized signer)

3. Effect of filing.

When filed or recorded with the clerk's office, a certificate of satisfaction that is executed and notarized as provided in this subsection and accompanied by (i) the affidavit described in subdivision 2 b and (ii) a copy of the notice of intent to release that was sent to the lender, lien creditor, or servicer shall operate as a release of the encumbrance described therein and, if the encumbrance is by deed of trust, as a reconveyance of the legal title as fully and effectively as if such certificate of satisfaction were a formal deed of release duly executed and recorded.

4. Effect of wrongful or erroneous certificate; damages.

a. The execution and filing or recording of a wrongful or erroneous certificate of satisfaction by a settlement agent or title insurance agent does not relieve the party obligated to repay the debt, or anyone succeeding to or assuming the responsibility of the obligated party as to the debt, from any liability for the debt or other obligations secured by the deed of trust that is the subject of the wrongful or erroneous certificate of satisfaction.

b. A settlement agent or title insurance agent that wrongfully or erroneously executes and files or records a certificate of satisfaction is liable to the lien creditor for actual damages sustained due to the recording of a wrongful or erroneous certificate of satisfaction.

c. The procedure authorized by this subsection for the release of a deed of trust shall constitute an optional method of accomplishing a release of a deed of trust secured by property in the Commonwealth. The nonuse of the procedure authorized by this subsection for the release of a deed of trust shall not give rise to any liability or any cause of action whatsoever against a settlement agent or any title insurance company by any obligated party or anyone succeeding to or assuming the interest of the obligated party.

5. Applicability.

a. The procedure authorized by this subsection for the release of a deed of trust may be used to effect the release of a deed of trust after July 1, 2002, regardless of when the deed of trust was created, assigned, or satisfied by payment made by the settlement agent.

b. This subsection applies only to transactions involving the purchase of or lending on the security of real estate located in the Commonwealth that is either (i) unimproved real estate with a lien to be released of $1 million or less or (ii) real estate containing at least one but not more than four residential dwelling units.

c. The procedure authorized by this subsection applies only to the full and complete release of a deed of trust. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the partial release of property from a deed of trust or otherwise permit the execution or recordation of a certificate of partial satisfaction.

Code 1919, § 6456; 1926, p. 80; 1930, p. 69; 1932, p. 120; 1944, p. 198; Code 1950, § 55-66.3; 1958, c. 14; 1962, c. 39; 1972, c. 280; 1975, c. 469; 1980, c. 116; 1986, c. 462; 1987, c. 673; 1988, c. 546; 1991, c. 414; 1996, cc. 895, 949; 1997, c. 221; 2000, c. 28; 2001, c. 711; 2002, cc. 845, 862; 2003, c. 745; 2004, c. 596; 2006, c. 907; 2009, cc. 254, 421; 2010, c. 236; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-340. Release by financial institution upon payment of debt placed with it for collection.

In any case where a note, bond, or other evidence of indebtedness placed by a creditor for collection with a bank, trust company, savings institution, small loan company, or credit union is fully paid at such financial institution, the financial institution, through its authorized agents, may execute all certificates, releases, and affidavits required of a creditor by this chapter to effectuate a release. The financial institution may execute and deliver to the clerk an affidavit to the effect that the financial institution had been acting as collecting agent for the creditor on the debt and that the debt has been paid in full at such institution.

1983, c. 220, § 55-66.3:1; 1996, c. 77; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-341. Partial satisfaction.

It is lawful for any lien creditor to record a certificate of partial satisfaction of any one or more of the separate pieces or parcels of property covered by such lien. It shall also be lawful for any such creditor to record a certificate of partial satisfaction of any part of the real estate covered by such lien if a plat of such part or a deed of such part is recorded in the clerk's office and a cross-reference is made in the certificate of partial satisfaction to the book and page where the plat or deed of such part is recorded. Such certificate of partial satisfaction may be accomplished in manner and form prescribed in this chapter for making certificates of satisfaction, except that the creditor, or his duly authorized agent, shall make an affidavit to the clerk or in such certificate that such creditor is at the time of making such satisfaction the legal holder of the obligation, note, bond, or other evidence of debt, secured by such lien, and when made in conformity with the provisions of this chapter such partial satisfaction shall be as valid and binding as a proper release deed duly executed for the same purpose.

Any and all partial marginal releases made prior to July 1, 1966, in any county or city of the Commonwealth, in conformity with the provisions of this chapter, either of one or more separate pieces or parcels of real estate or any part of the real estate covered by such lien, or as to one or more of the obligations secured by any such lien, or as to all of the real estate covered by such lien instrument, are hereby validated and declared to be binding upon all parties in interest, but this provision shall not be construed as intended to disturb or impair any vested right.

Code 1919, § 6456; 1930, p. 70; 1932, p. 121; 1944, p. 199; Code 1950, § 55-66.4; 1952, c. 469; 1966, c. 505; 1975, c. 469; 1977, c. 141; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-342. Permissible form for certificate of satisfaction or certificate of partial satisfaction.

Any release by a certificate of satisfaction or certificate of partial satisfaction shall be in conformity with §§ 55.1-339, 55.1-340, and 55.1-341 and shall conform substantially with the following Certificate of Satisfaction or Certificate of Partial Satisfaction forms:

CERTIFICATE OF SATISFACTION

Place of Record ____________

Date of Note/Deed of Trust ____________

Face Amount Secured/Face Amount of Note: ____________

Deed Book ______ Page ____

Name(s) of Grantor(s)/Maker(s); ____________

Name(s) of Trustee(s) ____________

Face Amount of Note(s) $______

I/we, holder(s) of the above-mentioned note(s) secured by the above-mentioned deed of trust, do hereby certify that the same has/have been paid in full, and the lien therein created and retained is hereby released.

GIVEN UNDER MY/OUR HAND(S) THIS ______ DAY OF ________, 20__.

________________

________________

(NOTE HOLDERS)

Commonwealth of Virginia,

County/City of ____________ to wit:

Subscribed, sworn to, and acknowledged before me by ____________ this ______ day of ______, 20__.

My Commission Expires: ____________

________________

NOTARY PUBLIC

Notary Registration Number: ____________

VIRGINIA;

IN THE CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE CIRCUIT COURT

This certificate was presented, and with the Certificate annexed, admitted to record on ________ at ____ o'clock _.m.

Clerk's fees: $______ have been paid.

Attest: ________, Deputy Clerk

CERTIFICATE OF PARTIAL SATISFACTION

Place of Record ________________

Date of Deed of Trust _

Deed Book ______ Page ____

Name(s) of Grantor(s) ________________

Name(s) of Trustee(s) ________________

Maker(s) of Note(s) ________________

Date of Note(s) ________________

Face Amount of Note(s) $________

The lien of the above-mentioned deed of trust securing the above-mentioned note is released insofar as the same is applicable to ____________ (description of property) recorded in deed book ________ at page ____ in the clerk's office of this court. The undersigned is/are the legal holder(s) of the obligation, note, bond, or other evidence of debt secured by said deed of trust.

Given under my/our hand(s) this ________ day of ________, 20__.

________________

________________

(NOTE HOLDERS)

Commonwealth of Virginia,

County/City of ____________ to wit:

Subscribed, sworn to, and acknowledged before me by ____________ this ________ day of ________, 20__.

My Commission Expires: ____________

________________

NOTARY PUBLIC

Notary Registration Number: ____________

The clerk shall satisfy the requirements of § 17.1-228.

Certificates conforming to this section prior to the amendment effective July 1, 1984, shall be deemed to be in substantial conformity to this section.

1975, c. 469, § 55-66.4:1; 1977, c. 254; 1982, c. 420; 1983, c. 220; 1984, c. 376; 1990, c. 328; 1994, c. 929; 1995, c. 271; 1996, c. 949; 2014, c. 330; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-343. Where certificates of satisfaction are to be indexed.

The clerk shall record a certificate of partial satisfaction or a certificate of satisfaction on the grantor index, both under the name of each grantor on the underlying deed of trust and under the name of the first-named trustee under which the deed of trust was indexed, all as identified on the certificate of satisfaction. The deed book and page number or the instrument number of the released deed of trust shall also be designated in the index. Any clerk using a separate index book or data file for grantees only shall also record in such book or file the name of each grantor on the underlying deed of trust as identified on the certificate of satisfaction.

1985, c. 245, § 55-66.4:2; 1986, c. 512; 1997, c. 579; 2002, c. 832; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-344. Releases made by court; costs and attorney fees.

A. Any person who owns or has any interest in real estate or personal property on which an encumbrance as described in § 55.1-339 exists may, after 20 days' notice to the person entitled to such encumbrance, apply to the circuit court of the county or city in which such encumbrance is recorded to have the same released or discharged. Upon proof that the encumbrance has been paid or discharged or upon a finding by the court that more than 15 years have elapsed since the maturity of the lien or encumbrance, raising a presumption of payment that is not rebutted at the hearing, such court shall order the clerk to record a certificate of satisfaction or a certificate of partial satisfaction that, when so recorded, shall operate as a release of such encumbrance.

All releases made prior to June 24, 1944, by any court under this section upon such presumption of payment so arising and not rebutted shall be validated.

B. If the court finds that the person entitled to such encumbrance cannot with due diligence be located, and that notice has been given such person in the manner provided by § 8.01-319 or 55.1-348, or that tender has been made of the sum due thereon but has been refused for any reason by the party to whom due, the court may in its discretion order the sum due to be paid into court, to be there held as provided by law, and to be paid upon demand to the person entitled thereto. The court shall order the same to be recorded as provided in subsection A, and such certificate of satisfaction or certificate of partial satisfaction shall operate as a release of the encumbrance.

C. Upon a finding by the court that the holder of a mortgage or deed of trust that has been fully paid or discharged has unjustifiably and without good cause failed or refused to release such mortgage or deed of trust, the court may order that costs and reasonable attorney fees be paid to the petitioning party. This subsection shall not preclude a separate action by the petitioning party for actual damages sustained by reason of such failure or refusal to release the encumbrance.

Code 1919, § 6456; 1926, p. 81; 1930, p. 70; 1932, p. 121; 1944, p. 199; Code 1950, § 55-66.5; 1956, c. 426; 1975, c. 469; 1987, c. 604; 1992, c. 532; 1999, c. 66; 2006, c. 907; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-345. Recordation of certificate of satisfaction, etc., required when release of lien recorded.

Whenever a release of a deed of trust or other obligation is recorded in the office of the clerk of any circuit court, such clerk shall record a certificate of satisfaction or certificate of partial satisfaction, stating that such deed or other obligation is released. The fee charged by the clerk for recording such release shall be paid by the lien debtor. Such certificate shall be indexed in the name of the grantors and grantees of the instrument being released. If any clerk fails for 10 days to do anything required of him by this section, he shall be liable for any damage that any person may sustain by reason of such failure.

Code 1919, § 3402; Code 1950, § 55-66.6; 1975, c. 469; 1979, c. 648; 1991, c. 414; 1993, c. 39; 2010, c. 352; 2019, c. 712.

Article 3. Satisfaction of Security Interest in Real Property.

§ 55.1-346. Applicability.

The procedure authorized by this article for the release of a security interest in real property using an automated electronic recording system may be used to effect the release of a security interest regardless of when the security interest was created, assigned, or satisfied by payment made by the settlement agent. The procedure authorized by this section for the release of a security interest shall constitute an optional method of accomplishing a release of a security interest secured by property in the Commonwealth.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.8; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-347. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Day" means calendar day.

"Document" means information that is:

1. Inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form; and

2. Eligible to be recorded in the land records maintained by the clerk.

"Electronic," as defined in the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.), means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government, or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Real property" means real property that is used for residential or nonresidential purposes.

"Recording data" means the date, and deed book and page number or instrument number, that indicates where a document is recorded in the land records of the clerk of the circuit court pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.).

"Secured creditor" means a person that holds or is the beneficiary of a security interest or that is authorized both to receive payments on behalf of a person that holds a security interest in real property and to record a satisfaction of the security instrument upon receiving full performance of the secured obligation. "Secured creditor" does not include a trustee under a security instrument. "Secured creditor" also includes "lender" as used in Chapter 10 (§ 55.1-1000 et seq.) and "lien creditor" and "servicer" as defined in § 55.1-339.

"Secured obligation" means an obligation the payment or performance of which is secured by a security interest.

"Security instrument" means an agreement, however denominated, that creates or provides for a security interest, whether or not it also creates or provides for a lien on personal property.

"Security interest" means an interest in real property created by a security instrument, securing payment, or performance of an obligation and includes a mortgage or deed of trust.

"Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate, accept, or adopt a document:

1. To execute or adopt a tangible symbol; or

2. To attach to or logically associate with the document an electronic sound, symbol, or process.

"State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

"Submit for recording" means to deliver, with required fees and taxes, a document sufficient to be recorded under this article to the office of the clerk of the circuit court pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 55.1-600 et seq.).

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.9; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-348. Document of rescission; effect; liability for wrongful recording.

A. As used in this section, "document of rescission" means a document stating that an identified satisfaction, certificate of satisfaction, or affidavit of satisfaction of a security instrument was recorded erroneously or fraudulently, the secured obligation remains unsatisfied, and the security instrument remains in force.

B. If a person records a satisfaction, certificate of satisfaction, or affidavit of satisfaction of a security instrument in error or by fraud, the person may execute and record a document of rescission. Upon recording, the document rescinds an erroneously recorded satisfaction, certificate, or affidavit.

C. A recorded document of rescission has no effect on the rights of a person who:

1. Acquired an interest in the real property described in a security instrument after the recording of the satisfaction, certificate of satisfaction, or affidavit of satisfaction of the security instrument and before the recording of the document of rescission; and

2. Would otherwise have priority over or take free of the lien created by the security instrument under the laws of the Commonwealth.

D. A person, other than the clerk of the circuit court or any of his employees or other governmental official in the course of the performance of his recordation duties, who erroneously, fraudulently, or wrongfully records a document of rescission is subject to liability under § 55.1-339.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.10; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-349. Secured creditor to submit satisfaction for recording; liability for failure.

A. A secured creditor shall submit for recording a satisfaction of a security instrument within 90 days after the creditor receives full payment or performance of the secured obligation in accordance with subsection B of § 55.1-339. If a security instrument secures a line of credit or future advances, the secured obligation is fully performed only if, in addition to full payment, the secured creditor has received a notification requesting the creditor to terminate the line of credit or containing a statement sufficient to terminate the effectiveness of the provision for future advances in the security instrument.

B. A secured creditor who is required to submit a satisfaction of a security instrument for recording and fails to do so by the end of the period specified in subsection A is subject to liability under § 55.1-339.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.11; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-350. Form and effect of satisfaction.

A. A document is sufficient to constitute a satisfaction of a security instrument if it conforms substantially in form and content to the requirements of § 55.1-342 and it:

1. Identifies the security instrument, the original parties to the security instrument, the recording data for the security instrument, and the office in which the security instrument is recorded;

2. States that the person signing the satisfaction is the secured creditor;

3. Contains a legal description of the real property identified in the security instrument, but only if a legal description is necessary for a satisfaction to be properly indexed; otherwise, the deed book and page number or instrument number is sufficient;

4. Contains language terminating the effectiveness of the security instrument; and

5. Is signed by the secured creditor and acknowledged as required by law for a conveyance of an interest in real property.

B. The clerk of the circuit court shall accept for recording a satisfaction document, unless:

1. An amount equal to or greater than the applicable recording fees and taxes is not tendered;

2. The document is submitted by a method or in a medium not authorized by the laws of the Commonwealth; or

3. The document is not signed by the secured creditor and acknowledged as required by law for a conveyance of an interest in real property.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.12; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-351. Relation to Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.

To the extent permitted by law, this article modifies, limits, and supersedes the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. § 7001 et seq., except that nothing in this article modifies, limits, or supersedes §§ 7001(c) and 7004 of that Act or authorizes electronic delivery of any of the notices described in § 7003(b) of that Act.

2006, c. 907, § 55-66.13; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-352. Uniform standards.

In consultation with the circuit court clerks, the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court, and interested citizens and businesses, the Virginia Information Technologies Agency shall develop standards to implement electronic recording of real property documents. The Virginia Information Technologies Agency shall consider standards and practices of other jurisdictions, the most recent standards promulgated by national standard-setting bodies, such as the Property Records Industry Association, views of interested persons and other governmental entities, and needs of localities of varying sizes, population, and resources.

2005, c. 749, § 55-66.14; 2019, c. 712.

Article 4. Effect of Certain Expressions in Deeds.

§ 55.1-353. Effect of word "covenants.".

When a deed uses the words "the said ________ covenants," such covenant shall have the same effect as if it were expressed to be by the covenantor, for himself and his heirs, personal representatives, and assigns and shall be deemed to be with the covenantee and his heirs, personal representatives, and assigns.

Code 1919, § 5170; Code 1950, § 55-67; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-354. Effect of covenant of general warranty.

A covenant by the grantor in a deed "that he will warrant generally the property hereby conveyed" shall have the same effect as if the grantor had covenanted that he and his heirs and personal representatives will forever warrant and defend such property unto the grantee and his heirs, personal representatives, and assigns against the claims and demands of all persons.

Code 1919, § 5171; Code 1950, § 55-68; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-355. Covenant of special warranty.

A covenant by any such grantor "that he will warrant specially the property hereby conveyed" shall have the same effect as if the grantor has covenanted that he and his heirs and personal representatives will forever warrant and defend such property unto the grantee and his heirs, personal representatives, and assigns against the claims and demands of the grantor and all persons claiming or to claim by, through, or under him.

Code 1919, § 5172; Code 1950, § 55-69; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-356. Words "with general warranty," "with special warranty," and "with English covenants of title" construed.

The words "with general warranty" in the granting part of any deed shall be deemed to be a covenant by the grantor "that he will warrant generally the property hereby conveyed." The words "with special warranty" in the granting part of any deed shall be deemed to be a covenant by the grantor "that he will warrant specially the property hereby conveyed."

The words "with English covenants of title" or words of similar import in the granting part of any deed shall be deemed to be an expression by the grantor of those covenants set out in §§ 55.1-359 through 55.1-362, and in addition thereto the covenant that he is seized in fee simple of the property conveyed.

Code 1919, § 5173; Code 1950, § 55-70; 1968, c. 257; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-357. Implied warranties on new homes.

A. As used in this section:

"New dwelling" means a dwelling or house that has not previously been occupied for a period of more than 60 days by anyone other than the vendor or the vendee or that has not been occupied by the original vendor or subsequent vendor for a cumulative period of more than 12 months, excluding dwellings constructed solely for lease. "New dwelling" does not include a condominium or condominium units created pursuant to the Virginia Condominium Act (§ 55.1-1900 et seq.).

"Structural defects" means a defect or defects that reduce the stability or safety of the structure below accepted standards or that restrict the normal use of the structure.

B. In every contract for the sale of a new dwelling, the vendor shall be held to warrant to the vendee that, at the time of the transfer of record title or the vendee's taking possession, whichever occurs first, the dwelling with all of its fixtures is, to the best of the actual knowledge of the vendor or his agents, sufficiently (i) free from structural defects, so as to pass without objection in the trade, and (ii) constructed in a workmanlike manner, so as to pass without objection in the trade.

C. In addition, in every contract for the sale of a new dwelling, the vendor, if he is in the business of building or selling such dwellings, shall be held to warrant to the vendee that, at the time of transfer of record title or the vendee's taking possession, whichever occurs first, the dwelling together with all of its fixtures is sufficiently (i) free from structural defects, so as to pass without objection in the trade; (ii) constructed in a workmanlike manner, so as to pass without objection in the trade; and (iii) fit for habitation.

D. The warranties described in subsections B and C implied in the contract for sale shall be held to survive the transfer of title. Such warranties are in addition to, and not in lieu of, any other express or implied warranties pertaining to the dwelling or its materials or fixtures. A contract for sale may waive, modify, or exclude any or all express and implied warranties and sell a new home "as is" only if the words used to waive, modify, or exclude such warranties are conspicuous, as defined by subdivision (b)(10) of § 8.1A-201, set forth on the face of such contract in capital letters that are at least two points larger than the other type in the contract and only if the words used to waive, modify, or exclude the warranties state with specificity the warranty or warranties that are being waived, modified, or excluded. If all warranties are waived or excluded, a contract shall specifically set forth in capital letters that are at least two points larger than the other type in the contract that the dwelling is being sold "as is."

E. If there is a breach of warranty under this section, the vendee, or his heirs or personal representatives in case of his death, shall have a cause of action against his vendor for damages, provided, however, for any defect discovered after July 1, 2002, such vendee shall first provide the vendor, by certified mail at his last known address, or by commercial overnight delivery service or the United States Postal Service, and a receipt obtained, a written notice stating the nature of the warranty claim. Such notice also may be hand delivered to the vendor with the vendee retaining a receipt of such hand-delivered notice to the vendor or its authorized agent. After such notice, the vendor shall have a reasonable period of time, not to exceed six months, to cure the defect that is the subject of the warranty claim.

F. The warranty shall extend for a period of one year from the date of transfer of record title or the vendee's taking possession, whichever occurs first, except that the warranty pursuant to clause (i) of subsection C for the foundation of new dwellings shall extend for a period of five years from the date of transfer of record title or the vendee's taking possession, whichever occurs first. Any action for its breach shall be brought within two years after the breach thereof. For all warranty claims arising on or after January 1, 2009, sending the notice required by subsection E shall toll the limitations period for six months.

G. In the case of new dwellings where fire-retardant treated plywood sheathing or other roof sheathing materials are used in lieu of fire-retardant treated plywood, the vendor shall be deemed to have assigned the manufacturer's warranty, at settlement, to the vendee. The vendee shall have a direct cause of action against the manufacturer of such roof sheathing for any breach of such warranty. To the extent any such manufacturer's warranty purports to limit the right of third parties or prohibit assignment, such provision shall be unenforceable and of no effect.

1979, c. 282, § 55-70.1; 1988, c. 394; 1992, c. 431; 1994, cc. 483, 766; 2002, c. 795; 2003, c. 353; 2008, c. 392; 2011, c. 803; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-358. Effect of certain transfer fee covenants.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Transfer" means assignment, conveyance, gift, inheritance, sale, or other transfer of ownership interest in real property located in the Commonwealth.

"Transfer fee" means a fee or charge payable to a nongovernmental person or entity upon transfer or payable for the right to make or accept such transfer, regardless of whether the fee or charge is a fixed amount or is determined as a percentage of the value of the property, the purchase price of the property, or other consideration given for the transfer. "Transfer fee" does not include:

1. Any consideration that is payable by a grantee to a grantor for the interest in real property being transferred;

2. Any commission that is payable to a licensed real estate broker for a transfer under an agreement between the broker and the grantor or grantee;

3. Any amount, charge, fee, or interest that is payable by a borrower to a lender under a loan secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on real property, including (i) any fee that is payable to the lender for consenting to an assumption of the loan or a transfer of the real property subject to the deed of trust or mortgage and (ii) any consideration allowed by law that is payable to the lender in connection with the loan;

4. Any amount, charge, fee, reimbursement, or rent that is payable by a lessee to a lessor under a lease, including any fee that is payable to the lessor for consenting to an assignment, sublease, encumbrance, or transfer of the lease;

5. Any consideration that is payable to the holder of an option to purchase an interest in real property, the holder of a right of first refusal, or the holder of a right of first offer to purchase an interest in real property for releasing, waiving, or not exercising the option or right upon the transfer of the property to a person other than the holder;

6. Any assessment, charge, or fee authorized by statute, the recorded condominium instrument, or the recorded declaration to be charged by, or payable to, a common interest community as defined in § 54.1-2345 or a cooperative as defined in § 55.1-2100; or

7. Any amount, assessment, charge, fee, fine, or tax that is payable to or imposed by a governmental authority.

"Transfer fee covenant" means a covenant or declaration that purports to affect real property and that requires or purports to require, upon a subsequent transfer of such property, the payment of a transfer fee to the declarant or other nongovernmental person or entity specified in the covenant or declaration or to the assigns or successors of such declarant or nongovernmental person or entity.

B. A transfer fee covenant recorded in the Commonwealth on or after July 1, 2011, shall not run with the title to real property and is not binding on, or enforceable at law or in equity against, any subsequent owner, purchaser, or mortgagee of any interest in real property as an equitable servitude or otherwise. Any lien purporting to secure the payment of a transfer fee under a transfer fee covenant recorded in the Commonwealth on or after July 1, 2011, is void and unenforceable.

2011, c. 706, § 55-70.2; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-359. Covenant of "right to convey.".

A covenant by the grantor in a deed for land "that he has the right to convey the said land to the grantee" shall have the same effect as if the grantor had covenanted that he has good right, full power, and absolute authority to convey the land, with all the buildings thereon and the privileges and appurtenances thereto belonging, unto the grantee, in the manner in which the same is conveyed or intended so to be by the deed, and according to its true intent.

Code 1919, § 5174; Code 1950, § 55-71; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-360. Covenant for "quiet possession" and "free from all encumbrances.".

A covenant by any such grantor "that the grantee shall have quiet possession of the said land" shall have as much effect as if he covenanted that the grantee and his heirs and assigns might, at any and all times thereafter, peaceably and quietly enter upon and have, hold, and enjoy the land conveyed by the deed, or intended so to be, with all the buildings thereon and the privileges and appurtenances thereto belonging, and receive and take the rents and profits thereof, to and for his and their use and benefit, without any eviction, interruption, suit, claim, or demand whatever. If to such covenant there be added "free from all encumbrances," these words shall have as much effect as the words "and that freely and absolutely acquitted, exonerated, and forever discharged, or otherwise by the said grantor or his heirs saved harmless and indemnified of, from, and against any and every charge and encumbrance whatever."

Code 1919, § 5175; Code 1950, § 55-72; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-361. Covenant for "further assurances.".

A covenant by any such grantor "that he will execute such further assurances of the said lands as may be requisite" shall have the same effect as if he covenanted that he, the grantor, and his heirs or personal representative will at any time, upon any reasonable request, at the charge of the grantee and his heirs or assigns, do, execute, or cause to be done or executed all such further acts, deeds, and things for the better, more perfectly and absolutely conveying and assuring the said lands and premises thereby conveyed or intended so to be unto the grantee and his heirs and assigns in manner aforesaid, as by the grantee and his heirs or assigns and his or their attorney, shall be reasonably devised, advised, or required.

Code 1919, § 5176; Code 1950, § 55-73; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-362. Covenant of "no act to encumber.".

A covenant by any such grantor "that he has done no act to encumber the said lands" shall have the same effect as if he covenanted that he had not done or executed, or knowingly suffered, any act, deed, or thing whereby the lands and premises conveyed, or intended so to be, or any part thereof, are or will be charged, affected, or encumbered in title, estate, or otherwise.

Code 1919, § 5177; Code 1950, § 55-74; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-363. Effect of certain words of release in a deed.

Whenever any deed uses the words: "The said grantor (or the said ______) releases to the said grantee (or the said ______) all his claims upon the said lands," such deed shall be construed as if it set forth that the grantor (or releasor) has remised, released, and forever quitted claim and by these presents does remise, release, and forever quitclaim to the grantee (or releasee) and his heirs and assigns all right, title, and interest whatsoever, both at law and in equity, in or to the lands and premises granted (or released) or intended to be granted (or released), so that neither he nor his personal representative, heirs, or assigns shall at any time thereafter have any type of claim, challenge, or demand on the lands and premises or any part thereof.

Code 1919, § 5164; Code 1950, § 55-75; 2019, c. 712.

Chapter 4. Fraudulent and Voluntary Conveyances; Writings Necessary to Be Recorded.

§ 55.1-400. Void fraudulent acts; bona fide purchasers not affected.

Every (i) gift, conveyance, assignment, or transfer of, or charge upon, any estate, real or personal, (ii) action commenced or order, judgment, or execution suffered or obtained, and (iii) bond or other writing given with intent to delay, hinder, or defraud creditors, purchasers, or other persons of or from what they are or may be lawfully entitled to shall, as to such creditors, purchasers, or other persons or their representatives or assigns, be void. This section shall not affect the title of a purchaser for valuable consideration, unless it appears that he had notice of the fraudulent intent of his immediate grantor or of the fraud rendering void the title of such grantor.

Code 1919, § 5184; Code 1950, § 55-80; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-401. Voluntary gifts, conveyances, assignments, transfers, or charges; void as to prior creditors.

Every gift, conveyance, assignment, transfer, or charge that is not upon consideration deemed valuable in law, or that is upon consideration of marriage by an insolvent transferor or by a transferor who is thereby rendered insolvent, shall be void as to creditors whose debts were contracted at the time such gift, conveyance, assignment, transfer, or charge was made but shall not, on that account merely, be void as to creditors whose debts have been contracted, or as to purchasers who have purchased, after such gift, conveyance, assignment, transfer, or charge was made. Even though it is decreed to be void as to a prior creditor, because voluntary or upon consideration of marriage, it shall not, for that cause, be decreed to be void as to subsequent creditors or purchasers.

Code 1919, § 5185; Code 1950, § 55-81; 1988, c. 512; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-402. Creditor's action to avoid such gifts, conveyances, assignments, transfers, or charges.

Before obtaining a judgment for his claim, a creditor may, whether such claim is due and payable or not, institute any action that he may institute after obtaining such judgment to avoid a gift, conveyance, assignment, or transfer of, or charge upon, the estate of his debtor declared void by either § 55.1-400 or 55.1-401. Such creditor may, in such action, have all the relief with respect to such estate to which he would be entitled after obtaining a judgment for the claim for which he may be entitled to recover. A creditor availing himself of this section shall have a lien from the time of bringing his action on all the estate, real and personal, and a petitioning creditor shall also be entitled to a lien from the time of filing his petition in the court in which the action is brought. If the proceeds of sale are insufficient to satisfy the claims of all the creditors whose liens were acquired at the same time, they shall be applied proportionately to such claims, and the court may issue an order against the debtor for any deficiency remaining on the claim of any creditor after applying his share of the proceeds of sale, or, if any creditor is not entitled to share in such proceeds, may issue an order against the debtor for the full amount of the creditor's claim. This section is subject to the provisions of §§ 8.01-268 and 8.01-269.

Code 1919, § 5186; Code 1950, § 55-82; 1926, p. 874; 2009, c. 593; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-403. Creditor's action; attorney fees.

In any action brought by a creditor pursuant to § 55.1-400, 55.1-401, or 55.1-402, where a (i) gift; (ii) deed; (iii) conveyance, assignment, or transfer of or charge upon the estate of a debtor; (iv) action commenced or judgment or execution suffered or obtained; or (v) bond or other writing is declared void, the court shall award counsel for the creditor reasonable attorney fees against the debtor. Upon a finding of fraudulent conveyance pursuant to § 55.1-400, the court may assess sanctions, including such attorney fees, against all parties over which it has jurisdiction who, with the intent to defraud and having knowledge of the judgment, participated in the conveyance. Should there be a resulting judicial sale, any award of attorney fees shall be paid out of the proceeds of the sale, as other costs are paid, provided that the award of attorney fees does not affect a prior lien creditor not represented by the attorney.

2009, c. 593, § 55-82.1; 2012, c. 810; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-404. Authority of court to set aside.

The court may set aside a fraudulent conveyance or voluntary transfer pursuant to § 55.1-400 or 55.1-401 during an action brought by a creditor to execute on a judgment, either on motion of the creditor or on its own motion, provided that all parties who have an interest in the property subject to the conveyance or transfer are given notice of the proceeding. The court, by order, may direct the clerk to issue the proper process against such parties and, upon the maturing of the case, proceed to make such orders as would have been proper if the new parties had been made parties at the commencement of the action.

2012, c. 810, § 55-82.2; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-405. Loans and reservations of a use or property to be recorded.

When any loan of personal property is pretended to have been made to any person with whom, or with those claiming under him, possession has remained five years without demand made and pursued by due process of law on the part of the pretended lender, or when any reservation or limitation is pretended to have been made of a use or property by way of condition, reversion, remainder, or otherwise in personal property, the possession of which has so remained in another as aforesaid, the absolute property shall be taken to be with the possession and such loan, reservation, or limitation void as to creditors of, and purchasers from, the person so remaining in possession, unless such loan, reservation, or limitation is declared by will which, or a copy of which, or by deed or other writing which, is duly recorded within a period of five years in the circuit court of the county or city in which the personal property is located.

Code 1919, § 5188; Code 1950, § 55-87; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-406. Certain recorded contracts as valid as deeds.

Any such contract or bill of sale as is mentioned in § 11-1, if in writing and signed by the owner of the property, shall, from the time it is duly recorded, be, as against creditors and purchasers, as valid, so far as it affects real estate, as if the contract were a deed conveying the estate or interest embraced in the contract and, so far as it affects goods and chattels, as if possession had completely passed at the time of such recording, provided that, as to goods whose possession is retained by a merchant-seller, the provisions of subsection (2) of § 8.2-402 of the Uniform Commercial Code shall be controlling and provided further that, if any such contract or bill of sale as is mentioned in § 11-1 creates a security interest as defined in the Uniform Commercial Code, its validity and enforceability shall be governed by the provisions of that Code.

Code 1919, § 5193; Code 1950, § 55-95; 1964, c. 314; 1966, c. 399; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-407. Contracts, etc., void as to creditors and purchasers until recorded; priority of credit line deed of trust.

A. 1. Every (i) contract in writing; (ii) deed conveying any estate or term; (iii) deed of gift, or deed of trust, or mortgage conveying real estate or personal property; and (iv) bill of sale, or contract for the sale of personal property, when the possession is allowed to remain with the grantor, shall be void as to all purchasers for valuable consideration without notice not parties thereto and lien creditors, until and except from the time it is recorded in the county or city in which the property subject to such contract, deed, or bill of sale is located. The fact that any such instrument is in the form of or contains the terms of a quit-claim or release shall not prevent the grantee from being a purchaser for valuable consideration without notice, nor be of itself notice to such grantee of any unrecorded conveyance of or encumbrance upon such real estate or personal property. The mere possession of real estate shall not, of itself, be notice to purchasers for value of any interest or estate therein of the person in possession. As to personal property whose possession is retained by a merchant-seller, the provisions of subsection (2) of § 8.2-402 of the Uniform Commercial Code shall control. This section shall not apply to any security interest in personal property under the Uniform Commercial Code. Any bill of sale or contract for the sale of personal property when possession is allowed to remain with the grantor shall be deemed to be duly recorded when it is filed in the same manner as Uniform Commercial Code financing statements are filed under the criteria and in the places established by § 8.9A-501 as if the grantor were a debtor and the grantee a secured party. A recordation under the provisions of this section shall, when any real estate subject to the lien of any such contract has been annexed to or merged with an adjoining city subsequent to such docketing, be deemed to have been recorded in the proper clerk's office of such city.

2. The clerk of each court in which any such instrument is by law required to be recorded shall keep a daily index of all such instruments admitted to record in his office, and, immediately upon recording such instrument, the clerk shall index the same either in the daily index or the appropriate general index of his office. All instruments indexed in the daily index shall be indexed by the clerk in the appropriate general index within 90 days after recording. During the period permitted for transfer from the daily index to the general index, indexing in the daily index shall be a sufficient compliance with the requirements of this section as to indexing.

3. a. In any circuit court in which any such instrument required to be recorded is not recorded on the same day as delivered, the clerk shall install a time stamp machine. The time stamp machine shall affix the current date and time of each delivery of any instrument delivered to the clerk for recording that is not immediately recorded and entered into the general or daily index.

b. In the event that a time stamp machine has not been installed or is not functioning, the clerk shall designate an employee to affix the current date and time of each delivery of any instrument delivered to the clerk for recording.

c. In any circuit court in which instruments required to be recorded are not recorded on the same day as delivered, for purposes of subdivision 1, the term "from the time it is recorded" shall be presumed to be the date and time affixed upon the instrument by the time stamp machine or affixed by the clerk in accordance with subdivision b unless the clerk determines that the applicable requirements for recordation of the instrument have not been satisfied.

d. The provisions of subdivision 3 shall not apply to certificates of satisfaction or partial satisfaction or assignments of deeds of trust delivered to the clerk's office other than by hand.

B. A credit line deed of trust, recorded pursuant to § 55.1-318, is valid and has priority over any (i) contract in writing, deed, conveyance, or other instrument conveying any such estate or term subsequently recorded or (ii) judgment subsequently docketed as to all advances made under such credit line deed of trust from the date of recordation of such credit line deed of trust, whether or not the particular advance or extension of credit has been made or unconditionally committed at the time of delivery or recordation of such contract in writing, deed, or other instrument or the docketing of such judgment. Any judgment creditor shall have the right to give the notice contemplated by § 55.1-318 and, from the day following receipt of such notice, the judgment as docketed shall have priority over all subsequent advances made pursuant to the credit line deed of trust except those that have been unconditionally and irrevocably committed prior to such date. Mechanics' liens created under Title 43 shall continue to have the same priority as created by that title. Purchase money security interests in goods and fixtures shall have the same priority as provided in Part 3 of Title 8.9A (§ 8.9A-317 et seq.).

Code 1919, § 5194; 1922, p. 474; 1944, p. 356; Code 1950, § 55-96; 1964, cc. 219, 309, 314; 1966, c. 400; 1974, c. 522; 1982, c. 230; 1984, c. 19; 1988, c. 51; 2003, c. 776; 2014, c. 267; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-408. Where to be recorded.

Notwithstanding that any writing is recorded in one county or city in which there is real estate or personal property, it nevertheless is void as to such creditors and purchasers in respect to other real estate or personal property without such recording until it is duly recorded in the county or city in which such other real estate or personal property may be located, but it shall be sufficient to record a deed releasing the lien of a deed of trust, in whole or in part, either in the county or city in which the property thereby released is located or in the county or city in which the property so released was situated at the time of the recordation of the deed of trust, and any recordation thereof so made of any such release is hereby validated.

Code 1919, § 5195; Code 1950, § 55-97; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-409. Recordation of instruments affecting civil aircraft of United States.

No instrument that affects the title to or interest in any civil aircraft of the United States, as defined by federal law, or any portion of such aircraft, shall be valid in respect of such aircraft or portion of such aircraft against any person other than the person by whom the instrument is made or to whom the instrument is given, his heir or devisee, and any person having actual notice of such instrument, until such instrument is recorded in the office of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States, or such other office as is designated by the laws of the United States as the one in which such instruments should be filed. Every such instrument so recorded in such office shall be valid as to all persons without further recordation in any office in the Commonwealth, the provisions of any other recordation statute to the contrary notwithstanding. Any instrument for which recordation is required by the provisions of this section shall take effect from the date of its recordation and not from the date of its execution.

1946, p. 387; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5194a; Code 1950, § 55-100; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-410. Priority of writings when admitted to record same day.

Unless otherwise provided for in this chapter, when two or more writings pertaining to the same property are recorded in the same county or city on the same day and stamped with the identical time, the instrument number shall determine the writing that was first recorded. The instrument that was first recorded shall have priority with respect to the property in such county or city.

Code 1919, § 5198; Code 1950, § 55-101; 1987, c. 104; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-411. When writings to be recorded in county, and when in city.

The provisions of this and any other chapter of the Code or of any subsequent statute, by virtue of which a writing is to be or may be recorded in the county or city in which the property embraced in such writing is located, shall be construed, in respect to the county, as relating only to property within the county and outside the corporate limits of the city having a court in which writings may be lawfully recorded, and, in respect to the city, as relating only to property within the corporate limits of such city having such a court.

Code 1919, § 5199; Code 1950, § 55-102; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-412. Words "creditors" and "purchasers," how construed.

The words "creditors" and "purchasers," when used in any previous section of this chapter, shall not be restricted to the protection of creditors of and purchasers from the grantor, but shall also extend to and embrace all creditors and purchasers who, but for the deed or writing, would have had title to the property conveyed or a right to subject it to their debts.

Code 1919, § 5200; Code 1950, § 55-103; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-413. Lien of subsequent purchaser for purchase money paid before notice.

As against any person claiming under the deed or other writing that has not been recorded before payment by a subsequent purchaser for valuable consideration of the whole or a part of his purchase money, such subsequent purchaser, notwithstanding such deed or other writing recorded before he becomes a complete purchaser, shall have a lien on the property purchased by him for so much of his purchase money as he may have paid before notice of such lien.

Code 1919, § 5200; Code 1950, § 55-104; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-414. When purchaser not affected by record of deed or contract.

A purchaser shall not, under this chapter, be affected by the record of a deed or contract made by a person under whom his title is not derived, nor by the record of a deed or contract made by any person under whom the title of such purchaser is derived, if it was made by such person before he acquired the legal title of record.

Code 1919, § 5201; Code 1950, § 55-105; 2019, c. 712.

Chapter 5. Commutation and Valuation of Certain Estates and Interests.

§ 55.1-500. Annuity table.

When a party as tenant for life is entitled to the annual interests on a sum of money, or is entitled to the use of any estate, or a part thereof, and is willing to accept a gross sum in lieu thereof, or the party liable for such interest, or affected by such claim, has the right to pay a gross sum in lieu thereof, or if the court in any legal proceeding orders a gross sum to be paid in lieu thereof, the sum shall be estimated according to the then value of an annuity of eight percent on the principal sum during the probable life of such person, according to the following table, showing in Column I the present value, on the basis of eight percent interest, of an annuity of $1, payable at the end of every year that a person of a given age may be living, for the ages therein stated:

PRESENT VALUE

---------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
 Age last birthdayI lifeII lives
Less than one year12.06011.670
112.29112.124
212.29112.127
312.28612.120
412.27812.107
512.26712.091
612.25612.071
712.24212.049
812.22712.024
912.21111.996
1012.19211.965
1112.17111.930
1212.14911.892
1312.12511.852
1412.10211.812
1512.07811.773
1612.05511.736
1712.03211.701
1812.01011.666
1911.98811.632
2011.96411.596
2111.93911.559
2211.91311.521
2311.88611.480
2411.85711.437
2511.82411.389
2611.78911.336
2711.75111.278
2811.70911.215
2911.66411.148
3011.61511.075
3111.56410.998
3211.51010.917
3311.45210.831
3411.39110.741
3511.32610.645
3611.25810.545
3711.18610.440
3811.11010.331
3911.03110.217
4010.94810.098
4110.8619.975
4210.7709.847
4310.6759.714
4410.5769.576
4510.4739.434
4610.3659.288
4710.2549.138
4810.1388.983
4910.0188.824
509.8938.661
519.7648.493
529.6318.322
539.4938.147
549.3527.970
559.2077.790
569.0577.608
578.9047.423
588.7477.237
598.5867.048
608.4216.856
618.2526.662
628.0786.466
637.9006.267
647.7186.067
657.5325.865
667.3435.663
677.1505.460
686.9545.256
696.7555.052
706.5524.847
716.3454.640
726.1344.431
735.9204.222
745.7054.015
755.4913.812
765.2793.615
775.0693.424
784.8613.239
794.6543.057
804.4482.879
814.2442.706
824.0442.538
833.8462.376
843.6522.217
853.4592.061
863.2721.911
873.0971.774
882.9341.651
892.7801.537
902.6301.426
912.4851.319
922.3501.220
932.2271.131
942.1181.053
952.0240.986
961.9430.931
971.8730.885
981.8110.845
991.7540.810
1001.7010.779
1011.6510.751
1021.6020.726
1031.5500.703
1041.4920.682
1051.4200.661
1061.3220.637
1071.1780.602
1080.9550.535
1090.5950.383

1973, c. 355, § 55-269.1; 1981, c. 612; 1990, c. 831; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-501. Rule of calculation under § 55.1-500.

A. Calculate the interest at eight percent upon the sum to the income of which, or upon the value of the property to the use of which, the person is entitled. Multiply this interest by the present value of an annuity of $1, as set opposite the person's age in the table, and the product is the gross value of the life estate of such person.

B. Example: Suppose a person whose age is 42 is a tenant for life in the whole of an estate worth $10,500. The annual interest on that sum at eight percent is $840. The present value of an annuity of $1 at the age of 42, as shown by the table, is $10.77, which, multiplied by $840, gives $9,046.80 as the gross value of such life estate in the premises, or the proceeds of such life estate.

Code 1919, §§ 5132, 5133; 1946, p. 555; Code 1950, §§ 55-270, 55-271; 1973, c. 355; 1981, c. 612; 1990, c. 831; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-502. Table of uniform seniority.

When any two parties, as joint tenants for life, are entitled to the annual interest on a sum of money, or are entitled to the use of any estate or a part thereof, and are willing to accept a gross sum in lieu thereof, or the party liable for such interest, or affected by such claim, has the right to pay a gross sum in lieu thereof, or if the court in any legal proceeding orders a gross sum to be paid in lieu thereof, the sum shall be estimated according to the then value of an annuity of eight percent on the principal sum during the probable joint lives of such persons (which probable joint lives shall be computed from the table in this section for computing uniform seniority) as set forth in Column II in the table in § 55.1-500, showing the present value, on the basis of eight percent interest, of an annuity of $1 payable at the end of every year that two persons of given ages may both be living for the ages therein stated:

TABLE OF UNIFORM SENIORITY

---------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
Difference of ageAddition to younger age
11
21
32
42
53
64
74
85
96
107
117
128
139
1410
1511
1612
1713
1814
1914
2015
2116
2217
2318
2419
2520
2621
2722
2823
2924
3025
3126
3227
3328
3429
3530
3631
3732
3833
3934
4035
4136
4237
4338
4439
4540
4641
4742
4843
4944
5045
5146
5247
5348
5449
5550
5651
5752
5853
5954
6055
6156
6257
6358
6459
6560
6661
6762
6863
6964
7065
7166
7267
7368
7469
7570

1973, c. 355, § 55-272.1; 1981, c. 612; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-503. Rules of calculation under § 55.1-502.

A. Calculate the interest at eight percent upon the sum to the income of which, or upon the value of the property to the use of which, the joint life tenants are entitled. Multiply this interest by the present value of an annuity of $1, as shown in Column II of § 55.1-500, for the joint equal age of such joint life tenants. The joint equal age of such tenants shall be obtained as follows: Take the difference in age in years between such tenants and refer to the table in § 55.1-502 and add to the younger age the value opposite such difference, and the sum is the joint equal age; take this joint equal age and refer to the table in § 55.1-500 and find in Column II the value of an annuity of $1 a year payable for life during such joint equal age. The product of the interest and the value of an annuity for a given joint equal age is the gross value of the joint life estate of such person therein.

B. Example: Doe, age 30, and Roe, age 40, are joint tenants for life in the whole of an estate worth $10,500: The difference in ages is 10 and, as shown by the table in § 55.1-502, the value opposite age difference 10 is seven. Seven added to 30, Doe's age, gives 37; as shown by the table in § 55.1-500, the value in Column II for an annuity of $1 for two joint lives at joint equal age 37 is $10.44 and no mills, and this, multiplied by $840 (the interest at eight percent on $10,000), gives $8,769.60 as the gross value of the joint life estate of such persons.

1946, p. 556; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5133a2; Code 1950, § 55-273; 1973, c. 355; 1981, c. 612; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-504. Makehamized mortality table.

When more than two parties as joint tenants for life, or three or more parties as tenants in successive estates, are entitled to the annual interest on a sum of money, or are entitled to the use of any estate, or a part thereof, and are willing to accept a gross sum in lieu thereof, or the party liable for such interest, or affected by such claim, has the right to pay a gross sum in lieu thereof, or if the court in any legal proceeding orders a gross sum to be paid in lieu thereof, the sum shall be estimated according to the then value of an annuity of eight percent on the principal sum during the probable lives of such persons. Probable lives shall be computed from the Makehamized mortality table for total population in the United States, 1969-1971, published by the Bureau of the Census of the Department of Commerce.

aXAxAxxAxxxAxxxxCx
b012.06011.67011.30510.9581.000
c112.29112.12411.97311.8321.147
d212.29112.12711.97911.8431.315
e312.28612.12011.97111.8341.508
f412.27812.10711.95611.8161.730
g512.26712.09111.93411.7911.984
h612.25612.07111.90911.7602.275
i712.24212.04911.87911.7242.609
j812.22712.02411.84611.6842.992
k912.21111.99611.80911.6383.431
l1012.19211.96511.76611.5873.935
m1112.17111.93011.72011.5294.512
n1212.14911.89211.66811.4665.175
o1312.12511.85211.61511.4015.935
p1412.10211.81211.56211.3366.806
q1512.07811.77311.51011.2747.805
r1612.05511.73611.46211.2158.951
s1712.03211.70111.41611.16210.265
t1812.01011.66611.37311.11111.772
u1911.98811.63211.33011.06213.501
v2011.96411.59611.28611.01115.483
w2111.93911.55911.24010.95917.756
x2211.91311.52111.19310.90520.362
y2311.88611.48011.14410.85023.352
z2411.85711.43711.09110.78926.780
aa2511.82411.38911.03210.72330.712
ab2611.78911.33610.96810.64935.221
ac2711.75111.27810.89610.56740.392
ad2811.70911.21510.81810.47846.321
ae2911.66411.14810.73410.38253.122
af3011.61511.07510.64510.27960.921
ag3111.56410.99810.55010.17169.865
ah3211.51010.91710.45010.05680.122
ai3311.45210.83110.3449.93691.885
aj3411.39110.74110.2339.809105.375
ak3511.32610.64510.1179.677120.845
al3611.25810.5459.9959.539138.586
am3711.18610.4409.8689.396158.932
an3811.11010.3319.7359.247182.266
ao3911.03110.2179.5999.094209.024
ap4010.94810.0989.4578.936239.712
aq4110.8619.9759.3118.773274.904
ar4210.7709.8479.1598.605315.263
as4310.6759.7149.0028.432361.548
at4410.5769.5768.8418.256414.627
au4510.4739.4348.6778.076475.500
av4610.3659.2888.5087.893545.309
aw4710.2549.1388.3367.707625.367
ax4810.1388.9838.1607.517717.178
ay4910.0188.8247.9797.234822.468
az509.8938.6617.7967.129943.217
ba519.7648.4937.6086.9301081.692
bb529.6318.3227.4186.7301240.497
bc539.4938.1477.2266.5291422.617
bd549.3527.9707.0336.3281631.475
be559.2077.7906.8386.1271870.995
bf569.0577.6086.6435.9272145.679
bg578.9047.4236.4475.7272460.691
bh588.7477.2376.2505.5292821.950
bi598.5867.0486.0535.3313236.246
bj608.4216.8565.8555.1333711.365
bk618.2526.6625.6564.9364256.238
bl628.0786.4665.4574.7404881.105
bm637.9006.2675.2574.5445597.710
bn647.7186.0675.0564.3496419.521
bo657.5325.8654.8574.1577361.984
bp667.3435.6634.6593.9678442.811
bq677.1505.4604.4623.7809682.318
br686.9545.2564.2663.59611103.798
bs696.7555.0524.0723.41412733.969
bt706.5524.8473.8793.23414603.468
bu716.3454.6403.6853.05516747.432
bv726.1344.4313.4902.87519206.157
bw735.9204.2223.2962.69722025.851
bx745.7054.0153.1062.52325259.510
by755.4913.8122.9222.35628967.909
ba765.2793.6152.7452.19733220.746
ca775.0693.4242.5772.04738097.950
cb784.8613.2392.4151.90543691.186
cc794.6543.0572.2581.76850105.577
cd804.4482.8792.1061.63657461.677
ce814.2442.7061.9591.50965897.740
cf824.0442.5381.8181.38975572.319
cg833.8462.3761.6841.27686667.243
ch843.6522.2171.5541.16699391.034
ci853.4592.0611.4251.058113982.830
cj863.2721.9111.3020.955130716.878
ck873.0971.7741.1920.863149907.684
cl882.9341.6511.0950.784171915.931
cm892.7801.5371.0070.713197155.252
cn902.6301.4260.9220.645226100.009
co912.4851.3190.8390.579259294.204
cp922.3501.2200.7630.519297361.704
cq932.2271.1310.6950.465341017.971
cr942.1181.0530.6360.419391083.501
cs952.0240.9860.5860.380448499.252
ct961.9430.9310.5460.349514344.324
cu971.8730.8850.5120.324589856.243
cv981.8110.8450.4840.302676454.218
cw991.7540.8100.4590.284775765.815
cx1001.7010.7790.4370.268889657.545
cy1011.6510.7510.4170.2541020269.949
cz1021.6020.7260.4000.2411170057.821
da1031.5500.7030.3850.2301341836.349
db1041.4920.6820.3720.2211538834.028
dc1051.4200.6610.3590.2121764753.329
dd1061.3220.6370.3480.2052023840.295
de1071.1780.6020.3350.1972320964.336
df1080.9550.5350.3120.1882661709.752
dg1090.5950.3830.2460.1583052480.684

Example: Three persons, ages 30, 40, and 45, are joint tenants for life in the whole of an estate worth $10,500: the equivalent equal age, w, of these three persons is given by the following formula:

a



C30 + C40 + C45
bCw=---------------------=258.711 where
c



3

C30, C40, and C45 are found in column 6 of the above table.

A linear interpolation between x = 40 and x = 41 in the above table would yield the value of x = 40.540, which would be the equivalent equal age of the persons involved.

Finally, a linear interpolation between x = 40 and x = 41 would yield the value of A = 9.378 40.540:40.540:40.540.

This figure multiplied by $840 (the interest at eight percent on $10,500) gives $7,877.52 as the gross value of the joint life estate of such persons.

1946, p. 557; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 5133a3; Code 1950, § 55-274; 1973, c. 355; 1981, c. 612; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-505. Commutation in case of persons under disability.

In any case in which, under the laws of the Commonwealth, a provision is made for commutation in money of a life estate when all the parties interested are under no disability, such provision shall also apply when any of the parties interested are under disability. Where any of the parties interested are under disability, the court may, upon application of the guardian, conservator, committee, or trustee, if any, and, if not, by a guardian ad litem appointed by the clerk or judge of said court, of any such person, on behalf of his ward, and upon hearing evidence satisfactory to such court or judge, enter an order authorizing such guardian, conservator, committee, trustee, or guardian ad litem to consent on behalf of such person under disability to such commutation. Such consent shall be as valid and effective as if the person on whose behalf it was given were sui juris and had given such consent. All judicial orders and decrees entered prior to July 1, 1960, authorizing any such commutation where persons under disability were interested, are hereby validated and confirmed, provided that nothing in this section shall be construed as intended to impair any vested right.

1926, p. 746; Michie Code 1942, § 5133b; 1948, p. 682; Code 1950, § 55-276; 1960, c. 45; 1997, c. 801; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-506. Commutation of certain life estates.

Whenever a party as tenant for life, or in any other manner, has a life interest in an estate that has been sold under an action for partition or has been reduced to money, stocks, bonds, or notes, susceptible of division and when the total cost of holding such money, stocks, bonds, or notes intact amounts to more than eight percent of the gross annual income, and when the party owning such life estate is willing to accept a lump sum in lieu of such annual income, upon the application of such person entitled to such annual income to any court of record having jurisdiction over the subject matter, the court may order that such party or parties having charge of such money, stocks, bonds, or notes shall pay to the party having the right to receive such annual income a lump sum in accordance with § 55.1-500. This section shall not affect any spendthrift trust.

1926, p. 361; Michie Code 1942, § 5133a; Code 1950, § 55-277; 1973, c. 355; 1981, c. 612; 1990, c. 831; 2005, c. 681; 2019, c. 712.