Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
Chapter 0. General Provisions of Title 58.1
12/5/2022

Article 1. In General.

§ 58.1-1. Definitions.

As used in this title:

"Department" means the Department of Taxation. Whenever the words "Department of Taxation," or other words denoting that Department, appear in any provision of law or in any legal or other proceeding or in any other manner, the same shall be construed to mean the Tax Commissioner. When any provision of law imposes a duty upon, or vests power in, the Department, such duty shall be performed and such power shall be exercised by the Tax Commissioner.

"Resident" for purposes of taxation, except as to Chapter 3 (§ 58.1-300 et seq.) of this title or as otherwise specifically provided, includes every person domiciled in the Commonwealth on the first day of any tax year, and every other person who has had his place of abode in the Commonwealth for the longer portion of the twelve months next preceding January 1 in each year, unless on or before that day he has changed his place of abode to a place outside the Commonwealth with the bona fide intention of continuing actually to abide permanently outside the Commonwealth.

The fact that a person who has so changed his place of abode, within six months from so doing, again abides within the Commonwealth shall be prima facie evidence that he did not intend permanently to have his actual place of abode outside the Commonwealth. Such person so changing his actual place of abode and not intending permanently to continue it outside the Commonwealth and not having listed his property for taxation as a resident of the Commonwealth for the purpose of having his personal property listed for taxation in the Commonwealth, shall be deemed to have resided on the day when such property should have been listed, at his last place of abode in the Commonwealth. The fact that a person whose place of abode during the greater portion of such twelve months has been in the Commonwealth does not claim or exercise the right to vote at public elections in the Commonwealth shall not, of itself, constitute him a nonresident of the Commonwealth within the meaning of this term.

"Tax Commissioner" means the chief executive officer of the Department of Taxation or his delegate.

"Tax day" or "date of assessment," except as otherwise specifically provided, is January 1 of each year.

"Tax exempt organization" or "an organization exempt from taxation under § 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code" means any corporation, partnership, organization or trust which has received written notice of its exempt status from the Internal Revenue Service, if such notice is required by the Internal Revenue Service to obtain exempt status.

"Tax year," except when otherwise specifically provided, begins on January 1 of each year and ends on December 31 of each year.

"Taxes" and "levies" as used in this title are synonymous. The terms "taxes" and "levies," however, shall not include the assessments for local improvements provided for in Article 2 (§ 15.2-2404 et seq.) of Chapter 24 of Title 15.2 or the charter of any city or town.

"Taxpayer" includes every person, corporation, partnership, organization, trust or estate subject to taxation under the laws of this Commonwealth, or under the ordinances, resolutions or orders of any county, city, town or other political subdivision of this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, §§ 58-1 through 58-4, 58-5 through 58-8; 1964, c. 468; 1972, c. 88; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 694.

§ 58.1-2. Reciprocal agreements with other states for collection of taxes.

A. The Governor may enter into reciprocal agreements on behalf of the Commonwealth with the appropriate authorities of any state within the United States and of the District of Columbia, with respect to the collection of all taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof.

B. All agreements entered into by the Governor with respect to any method of collection as to which provision is expressly made by statute shall conform to the provisions of such statute. As to any other method of collection appropriate to the powers vested in the Governor by this section, the Governor may agree to such terms and conditions as in his judgment are best calculated to promote the interests of this Commonwealth. Except as hereinabove provided, it is the policy of this Commonwealth to grant reciprocity to another state when such state grants reciprocity to the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 58-27.1; 1962, c. 25; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3. Secrecy of information; penalties.

A. Except in accordance with a proper judicial order or as otherwise provided by law, the Tax Commissioner or agent, clerk, commissioner of the revenue, treasurer, or any other state or local tax or revenue officer or employee, or any person to whom tax information is divulged pursuant to this section or § 58.1-512 or 58.1-2712.2, or any former officer or employee of any of the aforementioned offices shall not divulge any information acquired by him in the performance of his duties with respect to the transactions, property, including personal property, income or business of any person, firm or corporation. Such prohibition specifically includes any copy of a federal return or federal return information required by Virginia law to be attached to or included in the Virginia return. This prohibition shall apply to any reports, returns, financial documents or other information filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the provisions of Article 3 (§ 3.2-4204 et seq.) of Chapter 42 of Title 3.2. Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable, however, to:

1. Matters required by law to be entered on any public assessment roll or book;

2. Acts performed or words spoken, published, or shared with another agency or subdivision of the Commonwealth in the line of duty under state law;

3. Inquiries and investigations to obtain information as to the process of real estate assessments by a duly constituted committee of the General Assembly, or when such inquiry or investigation is relevant to its study, provided that any such information obtained shall be privileged;

4. The sales price, date of construction, physical dimensions or characteristics of real property, or any information required for building permits;

5. Copies of or information contained in an estate's probate tax return, filed with the clerk of court pursuant to § 58.1-1714, when requested by a beneficiary of the estate or an heir at law of the decedent or by the commissioner of accounts making a settlement of accounts filed in such estate;

6. Information regarding nonprofit entities exempt from sales and use tax under § 58.1-609.11, when requested by the General Assembly or any duly constituted committee of the General Assembly;

7. Reports or information filed with the Attorney General by a Stamping Agent pursuant to the provisions of Article 3 (§ 3.2-4204 et seq.), when such reports or information are provided by the Attorney General to a tobacco products manufacturer who is required to establish a qualified escrow fund pursuant to § 3.2-4201 and are limited to the brand families of that manufacturer as listed in the Tobacco Directory established pursuant to § 3.2-4206 and are limited to the current or previous two calendar years or in any year in which the Attorney General receives Stamping Agent information that potentially alters the required escrow deposit of the manufacturer. The information shall only be provided in the following manner: the manufacturer may make a written request, on a quarterly or yearly basis or when the manufacturer is notified by the Attorney General of a potential change in the amount of a required escrow deposit, to the Attorney General for a list of the Stamping Agents who reported stamping or selling its products and the amount reported. The Attorney General shall provide the list within 15 days of receipt of the request. If the manufacturer wishes to obtain actual copies of the reports the Stamping Agents filed with the Attorney General, it must first request them from the Stamping Agents pursuant to subsection C of § 3.2-4209. If the manufacturer does not receive the reports pursuant to subsection C of § 3.2-4209, the manufacturer may make a written request to the Attorney General, including a copy of the prior written request to the Stamping Agent and any response received, for copies of any reports not received. The Attorney General shall provide copies of the reports within 45 days of receipt of the request.

B. 1. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit the publication of statistics so classified as to prevent the identification of particular reports or returns and the items thereof or the publication of delinquent lists showing the names of taxpayers who are currently delinquent, together with any relevant information which in the opinion of the Department may assist in the collection of such delinquent taxes. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or other law, the Department, upon request by the General Assembly or any duly constituted committee of the General Assembly, shall disclose the total aggregate amount of an income tax deduction or credit taken by all taxpayers, regardless of (i) how few taxpayers took the deduction or credit or (ii) any other circumstances. This section shall not be construed to prohibit a local tax official from disclosing whether a person, firm or corporation is licensed to do business in that locality and divulging, upon written request, the name and address of any person, firm or corporation transacting business under a fictitious name. Additionally, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner of revenue is authorized to provide, upon written request stating the reason for such request, the Tax Commissioner with information obtained from local tax returns and other information pertaining to the income, sales and property of any person, firm or corporation licensed to do business in that locality.

2. This section shall not prohibit the Department from disclosing whether a person, firm, or corporation is registered as a retail sales and use tax dealer pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 58.1-600 et seq.) or whether a certificate of registration number relating to such tax is valid. Additionally, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department is hereby authorized to make available the names and certificate of registration numbers of dealers who are currently registered for retail sales and use tax.

3. This section shall not prohibit the Department from disclosing information to nongovernmental entities with which the Department has entered into a contract to provide services that assist it in the administration of refund processing or other services related to its administration of taxes.

4. This section shall not prohibit the Department from disclosing information to taxpayers regarding whether the taxpayer's employer or another person or entity required to withhold on behalf of such taxpayer submitted withholding records to the Department for a specific taxable year as required pursuant to subdivision C 1 of § 58.1-478.

5. This section shall not prohibit the commissioner of the revenue, treasurer, director of finance, or other similar local official who collects or administers taxes for a county, city, or town from disclosing information to nongovernmental entities with which the locality has entered into a contract to provide services that assist it in the administration of refund processing or other non-audit services related to its administration of taxes. The commissioner of the revenue, treasurer, director of finance, or other similar local official who collects or administers taxes for a county, city, or town shall not disclose information to such entity unless he has obtained a written acknowledgement by such entity that the confidentiality and nondisclosure obligations of and penalties set forth in subsection A apply to such entity and that such entity agrees to abide by such obligations.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A or B or any other provision of this title, the Tax Commissioner is authorized to (i) divulge tax information to any commissioner of the revenue, director of finance, or other similar collector of county, city, or town taxes who, for the performance of his official duties, requests the same in writing setting forth the reasons for such request; (ii) provide to the Commissioner of the Department of Social Services, upon entering into a written agreement, the amount of income, filing status, number and type of dependents, whether a federal earned income tax credit as authorized in § 32 of the Internal Revenue Code and an income tax credit for low-income taxpayers as authorized in § 58.1-339.8 have been claimed, and Forms W-2 and 1099 to facilitate the administration of public assistance or social services benefits as defined in § 63.2-100 or child support services pursuant to Chapter 19 (§ 63.2-1900 et seq.) of Title 63.2, or as may be necessary to facilitate the administration of outreach and enrollment related to the federal earned income tax credit authorized in § 32 of the Internal Revenue Code and the income tax credit for low-income taxpayers authorized in § 58.1-339.8; (iii) provide to the chief executive officer of the designated student loan guarantor for the Commonwealth of Virginia, upon written request, the names and home addresses of those persons identified by the designated guarantor as having delinquent loans guaranteed by the designated guarantor; (iv) provide current address information upon request to state agencies and institutions for their confidential use in facilitating the collection of accounts receivable, and to the clerk of a circuit or district court for their confidential use in facilitating the collection of fines, penalties, and costs imposed in a proceeding in that court; (v) provide to the Commissioner of the Virginia Employment Commission, after entering into a written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the collection of unemployment taxes and overpaid benefits; (vi) provide to the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority, upon entering into a written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the collection of state and local taxes and the administration of the alcoholic beverage control laws; (vii) provide to the Director of the Virginia Lottery such tax information as may be necessary to identify those lottery ticket retailers who owe delinquent taxes; (viii) provide to the Department of the Treasury for its confidential use such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the location of owners and holders of unclaimed property, as defined in § 55.1-2500; (ix) provide to the State Corporation Commission, upon entering into a written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the collection of taxes and fees administered by the Commission; (x) provide to the Executive Director of the Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation Commission for his confidential use such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the collection of the motor vehicle fuel sales tax; (xi) provide to the Commissioner of the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services such tax information as may be necessary to identify those applicants for registration as a supplier of charitable gaming supplies who have not filed required returns or who owe delinquent taxes; (xii) provide to the Department of Housing and Community Development for its confidential use such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the administration of the remaining effective provisions of the Enterprise Zone Act (§ 59.1-270 et seq.), and the Enterprise Zone Grant Program (§ 59.1-538 et seq.); (xiii) provide current name and address information to private collectors entering into a written agreement with the Tax Commissioner, for their confidential use when acting on behalf of the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions; however, the Tax Commissioner is not authorized to provide such information to a private collector who has used or disseminated in an unauthorized or prohibited manner any such information previously provided to such collector; (xiv) provide current name and address information as to the identity of the wholesale or retail dealer that affixed a tax stamp to a package of cigarettes to any person who manufactures or sells at retail or wholesale cigarettes and who may bring an action for injunction or other equitable relief for violation of Chapter 10.1, Enforcement of Illegal Sale or Distribution of Cigarettes Act; (xv) provide to the Commissioner of Labor and Industry, upon entering into a written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the collection of unpaid wages under § 40.1-29; (xvi) provide to the Director of the Department of Human Resource Management, upon entering into a written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to identify persons receiving workers' compensation indemnity benefits who have failed to report earnings as required by § 65.2-712; (xvii) provide to any commissioner of the revenue, director of finance, or any other officer of any county, city, or town performing any or all of the duties of a commissioner of the revenue and to any dealer registered for the collection of the Communications Sales and Use Tax, a list of the names, business addresses, and dates of registration of all dealers registered for such tax; (xviii) provide to the Executive Director of the Northern Virginia Transportation Commission for his confidential use such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the collection of the motor vehicle fuel sales tax; (xix) provide to the Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Services the name and address of the taxpayer businesses licensed by the Commonwealth that identify themselves as subject to regulation by the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services pursuant to § 3.2-5130; (xx) provide to the developer or the economic development authority of a tourism project authorized by § 58.1-3851.1, upon entering into a written agreement, tax information facilitating the repayment of gap financing; (xxi) provide to the Virginia Retirement System and the Department of Human Resource Management, after entering into a written agreement, such tax information as may be necessary to facilitate the enforcement of subdivision C 4 of § 9.1-401; (xxii) provide to the Department of Medical Assistance Services and the Department of Social Services, upon entering into a written agreement, the name, address, social security number, email address, dependent information provided pursuant to subdivision B 2 of § 58.1-341.1, number and type of personal exemptions, tax-filing status, adjusted gross income, and any additional information voluntarily provided by the taxpayer for disclosure pursuant to subdivisions B 1 and 2 of § 58.1-341.1, of an individual, or spouse in the case of a married taxpayer filing jointly, who has voluntarily consented to such disclosure for purposes of identifying persons who would like to newly enroll in medical assistance; (xxiii) provide to the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles information sufficient to verify that an applicant for a driver privilege card or permit under § 46.2-328.3 or an applicant for an identification privilege card under § 46.2-345.3 reported income and deductions from Virginia sources, as defined in § 58.1-302, or was claimed as a dependent, on an individual income tax return filed with the Commonwealth within the preceding 12 months; and (xxiv) provide to the Virginia Health Benefit Exchange, upon entering into a written agreement, for taxable years starting on January 1, 2023, or as soon thereafter as practicable, as determined by the Department of Taxation and the Virginia Health Benefit Exchange, the name, address, social security number, email address, dependent information provided pursuant to subdivision B 2 of § 58.1-341.1, number and type of personal exemptions, tax-filing status, adjusted gross income, and any additional information voluntarily provided by the taxpayer for disclosure pursuant to subdivision B 3 of § 58.1-341.1, of an individual, or spouse in the case of a married taxpayer filing jointly, who has voluntarily consented to such disclosure for purposes of identifying persons who do not meet the income eligibility requirements for medical assistance and would like to newly enroll in a qualified health plan. The Tax Commissioner is further authorized to enter into written agreements with duly constituted tax officials of other states and of the United States for the inspection of tax returns, the making of audits, and the exchange of information relating to any tax administered by the Department of Taxation. Any person to whom tax information is divulged pursuant to this section shall be subject to the prohibitions and penalties prescribed herein as though he were a tax official.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A or B or any other provision of this title, the commissioner of revenue or other assessing official is authorized to (i) provide, upon written request stating the reason for such request, the chief executive officer of any county or city with information furnished to the commissioner of revenue by the Tax Commissioner relating to the name and address of any dealer located within the county or city who paid sales and use tax, for the purpose of verifying the local sales and use tax revenues payable to the county or city; (ii) provide to the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation for its confidential use the name, address, and amount of gross receipts of any person, firm or entity subject to a criminal investigation of an unlawful practice of a profession or occupation administered by the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation, only after the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation exhausts all other means of obtaining such information; and (iii) provide to any representative of a condominium unit owners' association, property owners' association or real estate cooperative association, or to the owner of property governed by any such association, the names and addresses of parties having a security interest in real property governed by any such association; however, such information shall be released only upon written request stating the reason for such request, which reason shall be limited to proposing or opposing changes to the governing documents of the association, and any information received by any person under this subsection shall be used only for the reason stated in the written request. The treasurer or other local assessing official may require any person requesting information pursuant to clause (iii) of this subsection to pay the reasonable cost of providing such information. Any person to whom tax information is divulged pursuant to this subsection shall be subject to the prohibitions and penalties prescribed herein as though he were a tax official.

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A or B or any other provisions of this title, the treasurer or other collector of taxes for a county, city or town is authorized to provide information relating to any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer obtained by such treasurer or collector in the course of performing his duties to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official for such jurisdiction for use by such commissioner or other official in performing assessments.

This section shall not be construed to prohibit a local tax official from imprinting or displaying on a motor vehicle local license decal the year, make, and model and any other legal identification information about the particular motor vehicle for which that local license decal is assigned.

E. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, state agencies and any other administrative or regulatory unit of state government shall divulge to the Tax Commissioner or his authorized agent, upon written request, the name, address, and social security number of a taxpayer, necessary for the performance of the Commissioner's official duties regarding the administration and enforcement of laws within the jurisdiction of the Department of Taxation. The receipt of information by the Tax Commissioner or his agent that may be deemed taxpayer information shall not relieve the Commissioner of the obligations under this section.

F. Additionally, it is unlawful for any person to disseminate, publish, or cause to be published any confidential tax document that he knows or has reason to know is a confidential tax document. A confidential tax document is any correspondence, document, or tax return that is prohibited from being divulged by subsection A, B, C, or D and includes any document containing information on the transactions, property, income, or business of any person, firm, or corporation that is required to be filed with any state official by § 58.1-512. This prohibition shall not apply if such confidential tax document has been divulged or disseminated pursuant to a provision of law authorizing disclosure. Any person violating the provisions of this subsection is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-46; 1972, cc. 311, 565; 1974, c. 134; 1978, c. 161; 1980, c. 49; 1983, c. 372; 1984, cc. 319, 675; 1985, c. 78; 1988, c. 544; 1989, cc. 99, 327; 1990, c. 678; 1992, c. 386; 1993, cc. 41, 519; 1994, c. 493; 1995, c. 38; 1996, cc. 614, 784, 793, 919, 988; 1997, cc. 517, 705, 787; 2000, cc. 717, 880, 901; 2001, c. 84; 2002, cc. 64, 747; 2003, cc. 757, 758, 884; 2004, cc. 166, 515, 536, 582, 594; 2005, cc. 863, 884; 2006, cc. 31, 159, 590, 780; 2008, cc. 387, 689, 785; 2010, c. 34; 2012, c. 395; 2013, cc. 29, 163, 230; 2014, cc. 194, 195, 225; 2015, cc. 38, 247, 730; 2016, cc. 227, 344, 677; 2018, c. 40; 2019, cc. 261, 786, 853; 2020, cc. 325, 916, 917, 1227, 1246; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 162, 544.

§ 58.1-3.1. Availability of information necessary to audit local tax returns and other such privileged or confidential tax information.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3, any commissioner of revenue or other such local revenue assessing or tax collecting officer of a county, city or town, upon written request by the State Auditor of Public Accounts or by a certified public accountant engaged in making an audit of the accounts of such political subdivision in conformity with authorization of its governing body or by law, or upon the initiative of such officer to seek an audit of the operations of his office, shall make available to such auditors or their representatives such information as he possesses relating to local tax returns, reports and other data on file in his office as may be deemed necessary by any such auditors for their proper verification of the assessments and collections of local taxes and other local revenues including any abatements or exonerations thereof or exclusions therefrom in accordance with law.

B. The provisions of this section shall not be construed to apply to any tax returns, reports and other data or information relating solely to state taxes and other state revenues including abatements and exonerations thereof or exclusions therefrom.

C. Any information furnished to any person in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be deemed privileged and confidential; and each lawful recipient thereof shall be subject to the penalties imposed by § 58.1-3 for any unauthorized dissemination of such information in any manner or at any time.

Code 1950, § 58-46.2; 1975, c. 19; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3.2. Attorney General's and Tax Commissioner's authority to request and share information.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3, the Attorney General and the Tax Commissioner are authorized to disclose any information collected by him, or reported or provided to him, on (i) the sales or purchases of cigarettes or other tobacco products, (ii) tax information relating to such sales or purchases, and (iii) tax information relating to sellers and purchasers of cigarettes or other tobacco products, to any federal, state, or local agency, including any agency of another state or local agency thereof, or any national or regional association of federal, state, or local agencies. Such tax information shall include any information acquired by him in the performance of his duties with respect to the transactions, property, including personal property, income, business or tax returns of any person, firm, or corporation.

Further, the Attorney General and the Tax Commissioner are authorized to disclose information collected by him, or reported or provided to him, on the sales or purchases of cigarettes or other tobacco products to any tobacco product manufacturer required to establish a qualified escrow fund under § 3.2-4201. Such information provided to any tobacco product manufacturer shall be limited to brands or products of that manufacturer only.

2002, cc. 683, 722; 2012, c. 395; 2015, c. 247.

§ 58.1-3.3. Deemed consent to disclosure.

When a credit or other tax attribute has been transferred from a transferor to a transferee pursuant to a statutory provision permitting such transfer, then:

1. The transferor shall be deemed to consent to the disclosure to the transferee of any confidential tax information relevant to the eligibility and value of the credit or other tax attribute transferred; and

2. The transferee shall be deemed to consent to the disclosure by the Department to the transferor of the amount of the transferred credit or other tax attribute used or absorbed on the transferee's tax return when such disclosure is necessary in the administration of the chapter.

2008, c. 549.

§ 58.1-3.4. Tax Commissioner's authority to request and share information regarding employer worker reclassification.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3, the Tax Commissioner is authorized to work and share information with the following agencies to identify employers who fail to properly classify individuals as employees pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 19 (§ 58.1-1900 et seq.) and to enforce the provisions of Chapters 3 (§ 58.1-300 et seq.) and 19: the Department of Labor and Industry, the Virginia Employment Commission, the Department of Small Business and Supplier Diversity, the Department of General Services, the Workers' Compensation Commission, and the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation. If any such agency has reason to believe that an employer has failed to properly classify individuals as employees in violation of Chapter 19, it shall notify the Department. Except as otherwise provided by law, such agencies shall share with the Department any information that may assist the Department in enforcing the provisions of Chapters 3 and 19.

2020, cc. 681, 682.

§ 58.1-4. Person preparing tax return for another not to disclose information without consent.

No person, firm or corporation who undertakes the preparation of (i) any tax return required pursuant to this title or (ii) a federal income or an estate tax return required pursuant to federal law, for or without compensation, shall sell, dispose of or otherwise disclose, for the purpose of solicitation by mail or otherwise, the name or address of the person for whom such return is prepared, or disclose, for the purpose of solicitation by mail or otherwise, any information given by the person in the preparation of such return, without the written consent of the person requesting the preparation of such return. Violators of this section shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor, and each such disclosure shall constitute a separate offense.

Code 1950, §§ 58-27.4, 58-428; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 195; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-5. Persons, etc., engaged in more than one business.

When any person, firm or corporation is engaged in more than one business which is made by law subject to taxation, such person, firm or corporation shall pay the tax provided by law on each branch of his, their or its business.

Code 1950, § 58-23; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-6. Priority of taxes, etc., in distributions.

In any distribution of the assets of any person or corporation assessed with taxes, levies and fees, together with penalties and interest thereon, due to the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions, whether heretofore or hereafter imposed, the claims of the Commonwealth and the political subdivisions for such taxes, levies and fees, penalties and interest thereon shall be paramount and prior to all claims of general creditors, except claims given higher dignity by federal law. Nothing in this section shall be construed in derogation of any lien of the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions now existing or hereafter created by law; nor shall anything herein be construed to affect the laws now in force with regard to the marshalling of a decedent's estate and in regard to the exemption of a poor debtor.

Code 1950, § 58-24; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-7. Same; liability of recipient of improper corporate distribution.

If any corporation assessed with a tax, including penalties and interest thereon, distributes its assets without first paying such assessment to the Commonwealth or to the proper political subdivision, as the case may be, any person with actual notice of such assessment receiving any moneys or other property from such distribution shall be held personally liable for such assessment to an amount not in excess of his participation in such distribution and any purchaser with actual notice of any such assessment shall be liable therefor to the extent of the assets of the corporation coming into his hands. Nothing in this section shall be construed so as to affect the rights of any bona fide purchaser for value.

Code 1950, § 58-25; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-8. Filing of tax returns and payment of taxes which fall due on Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday.

When the last day on which a tax return may be filed or a tax may be paid without penalty or interest falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, then any return required by this title may be filed or such payment may be made without penalty or interest on the next succeeding business day.

Code 1950, § 58-4.1; 1966, c. 690; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-9. Filing of tax returns or payment of taxes by mail or otherwise; penalty.

A. When remittance of a tax return or a tax payment is made by mail or by means of a recognized commercial delivery service, receipt of such return or payment by the person with whom such return is required to be filed or to whom such payment is required to be made, in a sealed envelope or container bearing a postmark or a confirmation of shipment on or before midnight of the day such return is required to be filed or such payment made without penalty or interest, shall constitute filing and payment as if such return had been filed or such payment made before the close of business on the last day on which such return may be filed or such tax may be paid without penalty or interest.

B. When remittance of a tax payment is made by electronic funds transfer, receipt of funds available for withdrawal, in a bank account designated to receive such payments by the person to whom such payment is required to be made, on or before midnight of the day such payment is required to be made without penalty or interest, shall constitute payment as if such payment had been made before the close of business on the last day on which such tax may be paid without penalty or interest.

C. Notwithstanding any provision of law, the Tax Commissioner may allow the electronic filing of any state tax return, statement or document. For purposes of this subsection, the Tax Commissioner may determine alternative methods for the signing, subscribing or verifying of a state tax return, statement or document that shall have the same validity and consequences as the actual signing by the taxpayer. The Tax Commissioner may prescribe methods of execution, recording, reproduction and certification of electronically filed information pursuant § 59.1-496.

The Tax Commissioner shall devise a method by which a taxpayer will only receive bulletins, publications, or other information provided by the Department electronically upon request.

D. If an income tax return preparer prepared 100 or more individual income tax returns for a taxable year that began on or after January 1, 2004, or 50 or more such returns for a taxable year that began on or after January 1, 2010, then for every taxable year thereafter, all individual income tax returns for taxable years prepared by that income tax return preparer shall be filed using electronic means. If an individual tax return shall be accompanied by attachments or schedules that cannot be accepted through electronic means, the income tax preparer shall file the return using software that produces a two dimensional barcode using 2D technology reflecting information contained in the return in a standard format as prescribed by the Tax Commissioner. This subsection shall not apply to an individual income tax return for a taxpayer who has indicated that he does not want his individual income tax return filed using electronic means or 2D technology.

The Tax Commissioner shall have the authority to waive the requirement to file by electronic means upon finding that the requirement would cause an undue hardship. The income tax return preparer otherwise required to file individual income tax returns using electronic means shall request in writing the waiver from the Tax Commissioner and clearly demonstrate the nature of the undue hardship. The Tax Commissioner shall respond to the income tax return preparer within 45 days after receiving the request for waiver.

For purposes of this subsection, "income tax return preparer" means a person who prepares, or employs one or more individuals to prepare, an income tax return for compensation. Preparation of a substantial portion of an individual income tax return shall be deemed preparation of the entire individual income tax return for purposes of this section.

For purposes of this subsection, "income tax return preparer" shall not include volunteers who prepare tax returns for the elderly or poor as part of a nonprofit organization's program.

Code 1950, § 58-4.2; 1966, c. 690; 1984, c. 675; 1996, cc. 370, 449, 635, 657; 2000, c. 995; 2004, c. 562; 2008, c. 217; 2010, cc. 36, 151, 635; 2011, c. 368.

§ 58.1-10. Collection of taxes accrued prior to repeal.

Any state or local tax heretofore or hereafter repealed shall be subject to all procedures for the collection of delinquent taxes or for the correction of erroneous assessment as may have been applicable to such tax immediately before such repeal.

Code 1950, § 58-27.3; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 10; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-11. Oaths or affirmations unnecessary on returns; misdemeanor to make false return.

No return of any state or local tax need be verified by the oath or affirmation of the person or persons who are required by law to sign the return but the signature of such person or persons to any such return shall be sufficient. Any such person who willfully subscribes any such return which he does not believe to be true and correct as to every material matter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-27; 1972, c. 316; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-12. Payment of tax by bad check.

A. If any check tendered for any tax due under this title is not paid by the bank on which it is drawn, the taxpayer for whom such check was tendered shall remain liable for the payment of the tax the same as if such check had not been tendered.

B. If such person fails to pay the amount shown on the face of the check within five days after notice of such nonpayment has been mailed to the taxpayer by the tax assessing official, a penalty of twenty-five dollars shall be added to the tax due. Such penalty shall be in addition to any and all other penalties provided by law.

Code 1950, §§ 58-26.1, 58-151.13:1, 58-441.35; 1966, c. 151; 1972, c. 351; 1979, c. 423; 1984, c. 675; 1992, c. 678.

§ 58.1-13. State taxes to be paid into the general fund.

Except when otherwise specifically provided, all state taxes, including penalties and interest, collected under the provisions of this title, shall, when paid into the state treasury, be paid into the general fund of the state treasury for the support of the government.

Code 1950, § 58-26; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-13.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2002, c. 719.

§ 58.1-14. Out-of-state tax collections.

Any state of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof, shall have the right to sue in the courts of Virginia to recover any tax which may be owing to it when the like right is accorded to the Commonwealth of Virginia and its political subdivisions by such state, whether such right is granted by statutory authority or as a matter of comity.

Code 1950, § 58-1021.1; 1952, c. 323; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-15. Rate of interest.

A. Unless otherwise specifically provided, interest on omitted taxes, assessments and refunds under this title shall be computed at the rates equal to the rates of interest established pursuant to § 6621 of the Internal Revenue Code. The rate of interest on omitted taxes and assessments under this title shall be the "Underpayment Rate" established pursuant to § 6621(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code plus two percent. The rate of interest on refunds under this title shall be the "Overpayment Rate" for noncorporate taxpayers established pursuant to § 6621(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code plus two percent. Separate computations shall be made by multiplying the deficiency or overpayment for each period by the rate of interest applicable to that period.

B. In determining the addition to tax under § 58.1-492 for failure by individuals to pay estimated tax, the "Underpayment Rate" plus two percent which applies during the third month following such taxable year shall also apply during the first fifteen days of the fourth month following such taxable year in the case of individuals filing on a basis other than a calendar year. In the case of all other individuals, the "Underpayment Rate" plus two percent which applies during the third month following such taxable year shall also be applicable through May 1.

C. In determining the addition to tax under § 58.1-504 for failure by corporations to pay estimated tax, the "Underpayment Rate" plus two percent which applies during the third month following such taxable year shall also apply during the first fifteen days of the fourth month following such taxable year.

Code 1950, § 58-1160.1; 1980, c. 663; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 484; 1991, cc. 316, 331; 1999, cc. 146, 180.

§ 58.1-16. Overcollection of tax.

Any person responsible for collecting any tax administered by the Department or the Division of Motor Vehicles who overcollects such tax and fails to account for and pay such overcollection to the appropriate state agency by the time his regular monthly or quarterly return is due shall be liable for the amount of such overcollection, and in addition a penalty of twenty-five percent of such overcollection. The Commissioner administering such tax may waive such penalty for good cause.

Code 1950, § 58-44.2; 1979, c. 133; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-17. Donations to the general fund.

Any taxpayer wanting to donate money in excess of his tax liability to the Commonwealth may do so at any time by writing a check payable to the State Treasurer and designating it as a donation to the Commonwealth's general fund. Such donations shall be used only for public purposes and shall be deductible as a charitable contribution to the extent allowed under § 170 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. Taxpayers making donations pursuant to this section may (i) include their donations when filing their Virginia income tax return, or (ii) deliver such donations, either in person or by mail, to the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall report to the State Treasurer the amount donated monthly and the State Treasurer shall credit such amount to the general fund.

2002, c. 268.